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2.
N C Med J ; 82(1): 62-67, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397760

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed socioeconomic, geographic, and medical vulnerabilities in our country. In North Carolina, inequalities resulting from centuries of structural racism exacerbate disparate impacts of infection and death. We propose three opportunities that leaders in our state can embrace to move toward equity as we weather, and emerge from, this pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Racismo , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control
3.
N C Med J ; 82(1): 68-70, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397762

RESUMEN

In a typical flu season or an atypical pandemic, much of the burden for ensuring one's health falls on individual behavior choices, and public health messaging is a tool for enabling people to make good ones. Today's complicated media environment is difficult to navigate. As trusted experts, physicians can guide patients toward evidence-based resources.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Médicos , Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública
4.
Theranostics ; 11(2): 731-753, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391502

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral disease caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that affects the respiratory system of infected individuals. COVID-19 spreads between humans through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The COVID-19 outbreak originated in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. As of 29 Sept 2020, over 235 countries, areas or territories across the globe reported a total of 33,441,919 confirmed cases, and 1,003,497 confirmed deaths due to COVID-19. Individuals of all ages are at risk for infection, but in most cases disease severity is associated with age and pre-existing diseases that compromise immunity, like cancer. Numerous reports suggest that people with cancer can be at higher risk of severe illness and related deaths from COVID-19. Therefore, managing cancer care under this pandemic is challenging and requires a collaborative multidisciplinary approach for optimal care of cancer patients in hospital settings. In this comprehensive review, we discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, their care, and treatment. Further, this review covers the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, genome characterization, COVID-19 pathophysiology, and associated signaling pathways in cancer, and the choice of anticancer agents as repurposed drugs for treating COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , /genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , /inmunología , Comorbilidad , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/genética , Transducción de Señal/inmunología
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 23, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407828

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test our hypothesis that traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, hochuekkito (Hochu-ekki-to: HET) has a preventive effect for the symptoms on COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multi-center, interventional, parallel-group, randomized (1:1 ratio), investigator sponsored, two-arm study. PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand participants will be recruited from healthy hospital workers in 7 Japanese University Hospitals. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Age from 20 to 75 years old at the time of registration 2. Asymptomatic and body temperature below 37°C at the time of registration 3. Capable of eating orally Exclusion criteria: 1. Previous upper respiratory inflammation due to viral infection (including suspected COVID-19) 2. Taking immunosuppressants 3. Allergic to the Kampo medicines used in this study 4. History of hypokalaemia, severe hypertension, severe liver dysfunction, and interstitial pneumonia 5. Regularly taking other Kampo medicines 6. Pregnant or possibly pregnant 7. Participating in other research 8. Judged to be unsuitable for this study by the doctor in charge INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Kampo group: participants receive HET in 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. CONTROL GROUP: participants receive placebo in the same dosage as the Intervention group - 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. Placebo tablets are identical in appearance and package to HET. Taste of placebo is different from that of HET. The Ohsugi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan manufactured the placebo and HET. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: Number of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive result with at least one symptom (fever, cough, sputum, malaise, shortness of breath) during the 12-week study period (including the 4-week observation period after oral administration). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: 1. Period from infection to onset 2. Period from the appearance of symptoms to the disappearance of PCR positive 3. Number of days until the appearance or improvement of symptoms 4. Severe stage: presence of hospitalization 5. Shock stage: ICU management required for mechanical ventilation, shock vitals or failure of organ(s) other than lungs Safety endpoints include numbness in the hands and/or feet, edema, skin rash or other allergic symptoms, and gastric discomfort. RANDOMISATION: Patients are randomized (1:1 ratio) to each group using minimization implemented with the Electric data capture system (DATATRAK Enterprise Cloud), with balancing of the arms with age range (under 50 years of age or not) and having a history of risk factors for COVID-19 (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, respiratory diseases). BLINDING (MASKING): Only participants will be randomized. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The main research hypothesis of this study is that Kampo medicines significantly prevent the onset of COVID-19. It is assumed that the infection rate before the administration of the drug under consideration will be 0% and that the incidence of COVID-19 thereafter will be 2- 3%, of which 70%-80% will show symptoms of COVID-19. Assuming that the pharmaceutical effect of the drug will be effective in 50% of patients and that the incidence rates in the placebo and drug groups will be 1.4%-2.4% and 0.7%-1.2%, respectively, the placebo is calculated at 2%, and the study drug at 1%. Since the frequency of verification is low and the number of cases will be large, we set a total of 10 analyses (9 interim analyses and a final analysis). Since the number of cases at the time of the final analysis will be 4,986 under the conditions of α = 0.05 and a power of 80% by the Peto method. We set at 600 cases in each interim analysis with an estimated dropout rate of 16.9%. Finally, the total number of cases is set to 6,000 with 3,000 in the placebo group and 3,000 in the HET group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3 of October 23rd , 2020. Recruitment start (expected): December 1st, 2020. Recruitment finish (expected): December 31st, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCTs031200150 ) on 14 October 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , /aislamiento & purificación , Administración Oral , Adulto , Anciano , /epidemiología , Esquema de Medicación , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e21327, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400680

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has forced the health care delivery structure to change rapidly. The pandemic has further widened the disparities in health care and exposed vulnerable populations. Health care services caring for such populations must not only continue to operate but create innovative methods of care delivery without compromising safety. We present our experience of incorporating telemedicine in our university hospital-based outpatient clinic in one of the worst-hit areas in the world. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to assess the adoption of a telemedicine service in the first month of its implementation in outpatient practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also want to assess the need for transitioning to telemedicine, the benefits and challenges in doing so, and ongoing solutions during the initial phase of the implementation of telemedicine services for our patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective review of clinic operations data from the first month of a telemedicine rollout in the outpatient adult ambulatory clinic from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. A telemedicine visit was defined as synchronous audio-video communication between the provider and patient for clinical care longer than 5 minutes or if the video visit converted to a telephone visit after 5 minutes due to technical problems. We recorded the number of telemedicine visits scheduled, visits completed, and the time for each visit. We also noted the most frequent billing codes used based on the time spent in the patient care and the number of clinical tasks (eg, activity suggested through diagnosis or procedural code) that were addressed remotely by the physicians. RESULTS: During the study period, we had 110 telemedicine visits scheduled, of which 94 (85.4%) visits were completed. The average duration of the video visit was 35 minutes, with the most prolonged visit lasting 120 minutes. Of 94 patients, 24 (25.54%) patients were recently discharged from the hospital, and 70 (74.46%) patients were seen for urgent care needs. There was a 50% increase from the baseline in the number of clinical tasks that were addressed by the physicians during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high acceptance of telemedicine services by the patients, which was evident by a high show rate during the COVID-19 pandemic in Detroit. With limited staffing, restricted outpatient work hours, a shortage of providers, and increased outpatient needs, telemedicine was successfully implemented in our practice.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/prevención & control , Telemedicina/métodos , Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , /transmisión , Humanos , Michigan , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Telemedicina/tendencias , Centros de Atención Terciaria/organización & administración , Centros de Atención Terciaria/tendencias
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440841

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has become one of the most serious health crises in human history, spreading rapidly across the globe from January 2020 to the present. With prompt and drastic measures, Vietnam is one of the few countries that has largely succeeded in controlling the outbreak. This result is derived from a harmonious combination of many factors, with the policy system playing a key role. This study assessed the policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam from the early days of the outbreak in January 2020 to 24 July 2020 (with a total of 413 cases confirmed and 99 days of no new cases infected from the local community) by synthesizing and evaluating 959 relevant policy documents in different classifications. The findings show that the Vietnamese policy system responded promptly, proactively, and effectively at multiple authority levels (33 different agencies from the national to provincial governments), using a range of policy tools and measures. Parallel to the daily occurrence of 2.24 new cases, 5.13 new policy documents were issued on average per day over the study period. The pandemic policy response over the first six months in Vietnam were divided into four periods, I (23 January-5 March), II (6-19 March), III (20 March-21 April), and IV (22 April-24 July). This paper synthesizes eight solution groups for these four anti-pandemic phases, including outbreak announcements and steering documents, medical measures, blockade of the schools, emergency responses, border and entry control measures, social isolation and nationwide social isolation measures, financial supports, and other measures. By emphasizing diversification of the policy responses, from the agencies to the tools and measures, the case study reviews and shares lessons from the successful COVID-19 prevention and control in Vietnam that could be useful for other nations.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Políticas , /prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vietnam/epidemiología
9.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244925, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400722

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious illness that spreads rapidly through human-to-human transmission. On March 5, the government of Palestine declared a state of emergency in order to curb the spread of the virus, a declaration that it extended for a fifth time on July 5th. The degree to which a population complies with corresponding safety measures is surely affected by the people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the disease. To explore this hypothesis, we gathered data from 1,731 Palestinians between April 19thand May 1st, 2020 through a KAP questionnaire. The participant pool represented a stratified sample of Palestinians living across a number of governorates in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, with 36.5% from Gaza and (63.5%) from the West Bank. Gender was almost equally distributed within the sample with (51%) men respondents and (49%) women respondent. The questionnaire included 17 questions about participants' knowledge and awareness of COVID-19, 17 questions regarding the safety measures they had taken in the wake of the outbreak and 3 questions asking them to assess the efficacy of the government's response to the pandemic. Our data shows that 79% of the respondents have good awareness about transmission of the virus, 55.6% were knowledgeable of the symptoms exhibited by an infected individual, 81% were aware of the preventative measures and 82% demonstrated awareness of the risk groups. Most participants complied with preventative measures (77%) and 62% the study participants agreed that stricter measures have to be enforced by the government to limit the spread of the virus. Our study revealed that younger participants and people with higher educational level demonstrated more awareness of the virus. Also, Women were reported to be more aware of preventative measures and to have complied more with good practices. We report that residents of the West Bank have complied more with the right practices when compared to residents of Gaza. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that health education programs aimed at improving the public's understanding of COVID-19 are important in helping the population maintain appropriate practices and should be target people with lower educational level, and that findings such as those discussed in this report may provide valuable feedback to lawmakers working to stop the spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Adulto , Árabes/educación , Árabes/psicología , /prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Educación en Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244537, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406102

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The unprecedented worldwide social distancing response to COVID-19 resulted in a quick reversal of escalating case numbers. Recently, local governments globally have begun to relax social distancing regulations. Using the situation in Manitoba, Canada as an example, we estimated the impact that social distancing relaxation may have on the pandemic. METHODS: We fit a mathematical model to empirically estimated numbers of people infected, recovered, and died from COVID-19 in Manitoba. We then explored the impact of social distancing relaxation on: (a) time until near elimination of COVID-19 (< one case per million), (b) time until peak prevalence, (c) proportion of the population infected within one year, (d) peak prevalence, and (e) deaths within one year. RESULTS: Assuming a closed population, near elimination of COVID-19 in Manitoba could have been achieved in 4-6 months (by July or August) if there were no relaxation of social distancing. Relaxing to 15% of pre-COVID effective contacts may extend the local epidemic for more than two years (median 2.1). Relaxation to 50% of pre-COVID effective contacts may result in a peak prevalence of 31-38% of the population, within 3-4 months of initial relaxation. CONCLUSION: Slight relaxation of social distancing may immensely impact the pandemic duration and expected peak prevalence. Only holding the course with respect to social distancing may have resulted in near elimination before Fall of 2020; relaxing social distancing to 15% of pre-COVID-19 contacts will flatten the epidemic curve but greatly extend the duration of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Cuarentena/métodos , Canadá/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/tendencias , Humanos , Manitoba/epidemiología , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , /patogenicidad
11.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0241190, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406134

RESUMEN

Multiple national and international trends and drivers are radically changing what biological security means for the United Kingdom (UK). New technologies present novel opportunities and challenges, and globalisation has created new pathways and increased the speed, volume and routes by which organisms can spread. The UK Biological Security Strategy (2018) acknowledges the importance of research on biological security in the UK. Given the breadth of potential research, a targeted agenda identifying the questions most critical to effective and coordinated progress in different disciplines of biological security is required. We used expert elicitation to generate 80 policy-relevant research questions considered by participants to have the greatest impact on UK biological security. Drawing on a collaboratively-developed set of 450 questions, proposed by 41 experts from academia, industry and the UK government (consulting 168 additional experts) we subdivided the final 80 questions into six categories: bioengineering; communication and behaviour; disease threats (including pandemics); governance and policy; invasive alien species; and securing biological materials and securing against misuse. Initially, the questions were ranked through a voting process and then reduced and refined to 80 during a one-day workshop with 35 participants from a variety of disciplines. Consistently emerging themes included: the nature of current and potential biological security threats, the efficacy of existing management actions, and the most appropriate future options. The resulting questions offer a research agenda for biological security in the UK that can assist the targeting of research resources and inform the implementation of the UK Biological Security Strategy. These questions include research that could aid with the mitigation of Covid-19, and preparation for the next pandemic. We hope that our structured and rigorous approach to creating a biological security research agenda will be replicated in other countries and regions. The world, not just the UK, is in need of a thoughtful approach to directing biological security research to tackle the emerging issues.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/prevención & control , Medidas de Seguridad/tendencias , Bioterrorismo/prevención & control , Gestión Clínica/tendencias , Comunicación , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Políticas , Medidas de Seguridad/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431724

RESUMEN

Search and find methods*) such as cluster tracing1)-6) or large-scale PCR testing**) of those who exhibit no symptoms or only mild symptoms of COVID-19 is shown by data analysis to be a powerful means to suppress the spread of COVID-19 instead of, or in addition to, lockdown of the entire population. Here we investigate this issue by analyzing the data from some cities and countries and we establish that search and find method is as powerful as lockdown of a city or a country. Moreover, in contrast to lockdown, it neither causes inconvenience to citizens nor does it disrupt the economy. Generally speaking, it is advisable that both social distancing and increased test numbers be employed to suppress spread of the virus. The product of the total test number with the rate of positive cases is the crucial index.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , África/epidemiología , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , /transmisión , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Inmunidad Colectiva , Japón/epidemiología , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Estadísticos , New York/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Suecia/epidemiología , Tokio/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 29, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397962

RESUMEN

Identifying and understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy within distinct populations may aid future public health messaging. Using nationally representative data from the general adult populations of Ireland (N = 1041) and the United Kingdom (UK; N = 2025), we found that vaccine hesitancy/resistance was evident for 35% and 31% of these populations respectively. Vaccine hesitant/resistant respondents in Ireland and the UK differed on a number of sociodemographic and health-related variables but were similar across a broad array of psychological constructs. In both populations, those resistant to a COVID-19 vaccine were less likely to obtain information about the pandemic from traditional and authoritative sources and had similar levels of mistrust in these sources compared to vaccine accepting respondents. Given the geographical proximity and socio-economic similarity of the populations studied, it is not possible to generalize findings to other populations, however, the methodology employed here may be useful to those wishing to understand COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy elsewhere.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Vacunación/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido , Negativa a la Vacunación/etnología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041453, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408203

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Examine compliance with personal protective measures in communities for the prevention and control of local transmission of the COVID-19, and explore indicators for such behavioural compliance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design with a self-selecting sample. Data collected in February 2020. SETTING: Community dwellers in China. PARTICIPANTS: 2956 participants aged 16 and above completed the study and were included in the analysis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Nationwide COVID-19 survey. Demographics and self-reported compliance with four personal protective measures-home quarantine, mask-wearing, temperature-taking and hand-sanitising were collected. Outbreak severity and timeliness of personal protection order were obtained from the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention website. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the association between demographic and social indicators and behavioural compliance. RESULTS: Compliance with home quarantine was only associated with gender (men, OR=0.61 (0.51-0.73), inverse association) but no other indicators. In contrast, men had higher compliance with mask-wearing (OR=1.79 (1.49-2.16)) and temperature-taking (OR=1.27 (1.05-1.53)). Compared with younger adults (≤20 years), the middle-age groups (31-40 and 41-50 years of age) were more compliant with all protective behaviours, except for home quarantine (OR=0.71 (0.54-0.93) and 0.67 (0.46-0.97), respectively). CONCLUSION: Male gender was associated with lower compliance with home quarantine yet higher compliance with mask-wearing and temperature-taking. The middle-age participants (31-50 years) had lower compliance with home quarantine but higher with other measures. These findings may be supported by the economic considerations and the long-inherited Confucian values among Chinese. In light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, public health authorities should tailor policy implementation to disparities in psychosocial indicators.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología , Equipo de Protección Personal , Adulto , /transmisión , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 3, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417016

RESUMEN

Many governments have seen digital health technologies as promising tools to tackle the current COVID-19 pandemic. A much-talked example in this context involves the recent deluge of digital contact tracing apps (DCT) aimed at detecting Covid-19 exposure. In this short contribution we look at the bio-political justification of this phenomenon and reflect on whether DCT apps constitute, as it is often argued, a serious potential breach of our right to privacy. Despite praising efforts attempting to develop legal and ethical frameworks for DCT apps' usage; we argue that such endeavours are not sufficient to tackle the more fundamental problem of mass surveillance, which will remain largely unaddressed unless we deal with the biopolitical arguments presented and resort to a technical and structural defence.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto/ética , Libertad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Filosofía , Privacidad , /prevención & control , Humanos
17.
Saudi Med J ; 42(1): 44-48, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399170

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To identify how children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were coping with their condition during the COVID-19 lockdown, by detecting differences in blood glucose control and in lifestyle, including diet, physical activity, and mood deterioration, before and during the lockdown. METHODS: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2020 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from interviews, using various forms of telecommunication. RESULTS: The total sample size was 150 patients, 48 (28%) of whom were males and 102 (72%) females. The mean age of the patients was 12.45 years. The lockdown was associated with a significant increase in patients' weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.001), and blood glucose readings (p=0.007) compared to their values before the lockdown. Conclusion: A negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was found on blood glucose values and BMI, which may correlate with a lack of physical activity, increased consumption of carbohydrates and fast food, and mood deterioration.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Adolescente , Afecto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Insulina/uso terapéutico , Pandemias/prevención & control , Arabia Saudita , Aumento de Peso
18.
Theranostics ; 11(4): 1690-1702, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408775

RESUMEN

The global outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlighted a requirement for two pronged clinical interventions such as development of effective vaccines and acute therapeutic options for medium-to-severe stages of "coronavirus disease 2019" (COVID-19). Effective vaccines, if successfully developed, have been emphasized to become the most effective strategy in the global fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Basic research advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering have already provided excellent progress and groundbreaking new discoveries in the field of the coronavirus biology and its epidemiology. In particular, for the vaccine development the advances in characterization of a capsid structure and identification of its antigens that can become targets for new vaccines. The development of the experimental vaccines requires a plethora of molecular techniques as well as strict compliance with safety procedures. The research and clinical data integrity, cross-validation of the results, and appropriated studies from the perspective of efficacy and potently side effects have recently become a hotly discussed topic. In this review, we present an update on latest advances and progress in an ongoing race to develop 52 different vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Our analysis is focused on registered clinical trials (current as of November 04, 2020) that fulfill the international safety and efficacy criteria in the vaccine development. The requirements as well as benefits and risks of diverse types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are discussed including those containing whole-virus and live-attenuated vaccines, subunit vaccines, mRNA vaccines, DNA vaccines, live vector vaccines, and also plant-based vaccine formulation containing coronavirus-like particle (VLP). The challenges associated with the vaccine development as well as its distribution, safety and long-term effectiveness have also been highlighted and discussed.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , /inmunología , Antígenos Virales/genética , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , /transmisión , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Aprobación de Drogas , Desarrollo de Medicamentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Proteínas Estructurales Virales/genética , Proteínas Estructurales Virales/inmunología
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397390

RESUMEN

Despite being the wealthiest and one of the most technologically advanced countries in the world, the United States has the greatest number of Covid-19 cases and deaths. What accounts for this failure? The dismantling of the country's public health infrastructure has crippled contact tracing and exacerbated inequality as a disproportionate number of poor people and people of color have fallen ill with Covid-19. Inadequate regulation of the private for-profit sector has adversely affected the efficiency and quality of testing for the virus, and the prescription of costly drugs whose benefit and safety in treating infected patients have not been established. More stringent regulation of the commercial sector has led to the development of efficacious vaccines in a remarkably short time. Still, questions remain about the vaccines' effectiveness in the real world, and their safety.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Trazado de Contacto , Predicción , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Administración en Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
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