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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159952, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336037

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate how surrounding greenspace density and proximity were associated with children's lung function. Between 2013 and 2015, spirometry and a parental survey were performed with children from four primary schools in two Chinese cities. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, L), forced vital capacity (FVC, L), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF, L/s), and forced expiratory flow at 25 % (FEF25, L/s) and 75 % (FEF75, L/s) of FVC were measured. Outdoor surrounding greenspace index incorporated residential, school and commuting greenness and was weighted using assumed daytime hours spent at home and school. Residential proximity to greenspace index was defined as walking distance to nearest park. A total of 913 children (48.7 % female) were included. Overall, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in outdoor surrounding greenspace was associated with decreased FVC (0.06 L, 95%CI 0.01-0.11), but increased FEV1/FVC (2.03, 1.13-3.04), PEF (0.26 L/s, 0.13-0.39), and FEF25 (0.30 L/s, 0.17-0.42). Residential proximity to greenspace was associated with increased FEV1 (0.05 L, 0.02-0.08) and FVC (0.04 L, 0.01-0.07) per IQR decrease in distance. Protective effect was significant for children whose parents were less educated and those living in higher road density areas, though interactions were not significant. Structural equation modeling showed that higher level of surrounding greenspace was associated with lower ambient air pollution and in turn with better lung function. Greenspace density and proximity could influence children's lung function differently.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Parques Recreativos , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Pulmón , Capacidad Vital , Volumen Espiratorio Forzado , China
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159663, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302415

RESUMEN

Extreme heat represents a growing threat to public health, especially across the densely populated, developed landscape of cities. Climate adaptation strategies that aim to manage urban microclimates through purposeful design can reduce the heat exposure of urban populations, however, it is unclear how the temperature impacts of urban green space and albedo vary across cities and background climate. This study quantifies the sensitivity of surface temperature to landcover characteristics tied to two widely used climate adaptation strategies, urban greening and albedo manipulation (e.g. white roofs), by combining long-term remote sensing observations of land surface temperature, albedo, and moisture with high-resolution landcover datasets in a spatial regression analysis at the census block scale across seven United States cities. We find tree cover to have an average cooling impact of -0.089 K per % cover, which is approximately four times stronger than the average grass cover cooling impact of -0.021 K per % cover. Variability in the magnitude of grass cover cooling impacts was primarily a function of vegetation moisture content, with the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) explaining 89 % of the variability in grass cover cooling impacts across cities. Variability in tree cover cooling impacts was primarily a function of sunlight and vegetation moisture content, with solar irradiance and LSWI explaining 97 % of the cooling variability across cities. Albedo cooling impacts were consistent across cities with an average cooling impact of -0.187 K per increase of 0.01. While these interventions are broadly effective across cities, there are critical regional trade-offs between vegetation cooling efficiency, irrigation requirements, and the temporal duration and evolution of the cooling benefits. In warm, arid cities, high albedo surfaces offer multifaceted benefits such as cooling and water conservation, whereas temperate, mesic cities likely benefit from a combination of strategies, with greening efforts targeting highly paved neighborhoods.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Temperatura , Humanos , Ciudades , Clima , Árboles , Estados Unidos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159715, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306846

RESUMEN

Large ecological green spaces in cities are often designated as Urban Green Hearts (GHs) to support the ecological and recreational needs of urbanites. While GHs protection and sustainable development have been a high priority for urban planning and management, ecological environment quality (EEQ) of GHs has rarely been monitored and assessed. Here, we proposed a comprehensive assessment framework for EEQ based on entropy weights and rank-sum ratios methods, and applied the framework to the world's largest GH, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration Green Heart (CZT-GH), and its 5 km and 10 km buffer zones to examine the spatial-temporal dynamics of its EEQ from 2000 to 2019. Compared with the buffer zones, the EEQ in the CZT-GH was the best, with an annual average of 44.92 % of the area being High-grades EEQ. The restoration trend of EEQ was most conspicuous in only 8.4 % of CZT-GH, a small fraction compared with 25.1 % and 66.5 % of the CZT-GH showing deterioration trend and no change, respectively. Five factors were identified that calls for management attention: land use and cover change, spatial heterogeneity in vegetation restoration, temporal fluctuation in air quality improvement, comprehensive EEQ assessment and restoration, and capacity to cope with ecological risks. The approach, issues identified, and management measures proposed in this study should be applicable to GHs in general. The generic EEQ assessment framework and approaches developed in this study are generic and objective and therefore can be easily adapted to other regions; the procedures used to quantify the spatial and temporal changes of EEQ and identify underlying management issues provide essential information for formulating adaptive management measures of EEQ in general. SYNOPSIS: Taking the largest urban Green Heart as a case study, we established and applied a new general ecological environment quality (EEQ) evaluation system to monitor EEQ changes, identify issues, and propose management options.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Planificación de Ciudades , Ciudades , Planificación de Ciudades/métodos , Parques Recreativos , Desarrollo Sostenible , China , Urbanización , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159818, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341854

RESUMEN

This work shows that biosphere reserves, national parks and other protected natural areas require in situ tools to monitor and detect local and remote air pollution sources which are a threat to flora, fauna water and soil. Industries in surrounding areas, traffic and long-range transport of air pollution, can change with time and meteorology and so each national park should also have a historical database of the air quality in the site. This study reports surface measurements of ozone, NO, NO2, CO, SO2 and PM2.5 acquired from March 2020 to July 2021 in "Las Tablas de Daimiel", a wetland Mediterranean National Park bordered by different cities and new industries in the field of the revalorization of agricultural wastes. Simultaneous data from a background station in a rural area isolated from air pollution are considered as reference. Twelve campaigns of one week duration were also performed to sample air in sorbent tubes to analyse volatile organic compounds from anthropogenic sources. Data are discussed considering meteorology, especially wind speed and direction together with the assessment of back-trajectories of air masses from distant sources. The results show that the effects of pollution from local and faraway sources on air quality in the park were weak. Thus, except for the high levels of ozone, with a mean value of 71 µg.m-3, measured mass loadings for pollutants were low and not in exceedance of the air quality standards. Saharan dust events were frequent and contributed to PM2.5 levels in the site. NOx and SO2 average concentrations (3.2 and 0.4 µg.m-3, respectively) were below the recommended critical levels for vegetation and all the quantified VOCs were found in average concentration levels below 0.5 µg.m-3.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ozono , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Parques Recreativos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
5.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114499, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208780

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Benefits of green spaces on stress reduction have been shown in previous studies. Most existing studies to date have focused on the general population. However, there is a lack of understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of green space among special populations, such as pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: To examine physiological and affective responses to green space on stress recovery among pregnant women, using simulated green space exposure through virtual reality (VR). METHODS: We recruited 63 pregnant women between 8 and 14 weeks' gestational age for a laboratory experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of three, 5-min, VR videos of an urban scene with different green space levels (i.e., non-green, moderate, and high) after a laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. Physiological stress responses were measured via changes in blood pressure, heart rate, skin conductance level, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol. Affective response was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. RESULTS: We found that visual exposure to a green space environment in VR was associated with both physiological and affective stress reduction among pregnant women, including lower systolic blood pressure [-4.6 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -8.8, -0.4], reduced salivary alpha-amylase concentration (-1.2 ng/ml, 95% CI: -2.2, -0.2), improved overall positive affect (score: 6.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 13.0) and decreased negative affect of anxiety (score: -2.6, 95% CI: -5.19, -0.04) compared to non-green space environment. Exposure to high green space environment in park-like setting had the strongest impacts on stress recovery. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that virtual green space exposure could effectively ease stress and improve mental health and well-being during pregnancy. Even a short immersion in VR-based green space environment may bring health benefits, which has significant implications for pregnant women when access to an actual nature may not be possible.


Asunto(s)
Afecto , Parques Recreativos , Mujeres Embarazadas , alfa-Amilasas Salivales , Realidad Virtual , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Hidrocortisona , Estrés Psicológico
6.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 36(1): 41-46, 2023 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194137

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mental illness is a global challenge, exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic. Research suggests access to local green spaces is associated with better mental health, yet access is not always equitable. Evaluation of how nature-based interventions protect and support mental health is therefore required. RECENT FINDINGS: Accessible local green spaces are associated with better mental health. They encourage active behaviours and social interaction, reduce loneliness and stress. Green views from the home are associated with increased self-esteem, life satisfaction and happiness and reduced depression, anxiety and loneliness. Nature-based interventions and green social prescriptions effectively target vulnerable groups, resulting in significant reductions in depression, anxiety and anger alongside positive mental health outcomes. SUMMARY: Although existing evidence is encouraging, robust, high-quality research that strengthens the evidence base and informs future clinical practice and policy decision making is needed. Evidence of the long-term effectiveness in individuals with diagnosed mental illness is also required to ascertain the potential social and wider returns on investment. Barriers to use of green social prescriptions like mental health symptoms and geographical accessibility need to be overcome to increase accessibility and uptake of green social prescriptions for the prevention and treatment of mental illness.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Soledad/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Salud Mental , Depresión/psicología
7.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116505, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270131

RESUMEN

As the most biodiversity-rich part of the protected areas system, habitats within the pilot national parks have long been threatened by drastic human-induced land use and land cover changes. The growing concern about habitat loss has spurred China's national park project to shift from pilot to construction phase with the official establishment of China's first group of national parks (CFGNPs) in October 2021. But far too little attention has been paid to the synergistic work concerning the habitat quality (HQ) dynamics of all five national parks. Here, the InVEST model, combined with a satellite-derived land use and land cover product and a hot spot analysis (HSA) method, was used to investigate the HQ dynamics at the park- and pixel-scale within the CFGNPs. Our results demonstrate that the past ecological conservation practices within national parks have been unpromising, especially in Giant Panda National Park, Northeast China Tiger and Leopard National Park (NCTL), and Wuyi Mountain National Park (WYM), where HQ as a whole showed a significant decline. Furthermore, more than half of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park (87.2%), WYM (77.4%), and NCTL (52.9%) showed significant HQ degradation from 1980 to 2019. Besides, increasing trends in the area shares of HQ degraded pixels were observed in all five national parks from 1980-1999 to 2000-2019. The HSA implied that the hot spots of high HQ degradation rates tend to occur in areas closer to urban settlements or on the edge of national parks, where human activities are intensive. Despite these disappointing findings, we highlighted from the observed local successes and the HQ plateau that the construction of CFGNPs is expected to reverse the deteriorating HQ trends. Thus, we concluded our paper by proposing an HSA-based regulatory zoning scheme that includes five subzones to guide the future construction of China's national park system.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , China
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159792, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36306842

RESUMEN

Interest in assessing the effects of exposure to greenspace on human health has been increasing due to rapid urbanization, and rising trends of physical inactivity and air pollution. However, findings on the link between greenspace and child respiratory health, especially asthma, are inconsistent. We investigated the association between greenspace surrounding residential addresses and asthma in children. A city-wide cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 16,605 children aged 3-12 years, in Shanghai, China. Data on asthma symptoms and covariates were collected from validated self-reported questionnaires. Residential greenspace was measured using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). Information on ambient temperature and particulate matter with dynamic diameter <1 µm (PM1) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was also collected from satellite data. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of greenspace exposure with childhood asthma as well as the effect modification by covariates. The prevalence of current asthma in children was 4.8 % in this study. An interquartile range increase in mean NDVI from 2016 to 2018 was associated with decreased odds of asthma in 2019 at 500 m, and 250 m resolutions (0.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.93; and 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.72 to 0.94, respectively) after adjustment for covariates. The greenspace-asthma association was modified by ambient temperature and residential area. Sensitivity analyses using various models and EVI exposure showed the robustness of the results. In conclusion, higher individual-level exposure to greenspace was associated with decreased odds of asthma in children, and the association appeared to be modified by different environmental and socio-demographic factors. These findings provide additional evidence for promoting urban greenness to protect children's health and well-being.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Asma , Humanos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Parques Recreativos , China/epidemiología , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis , Asma/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158608, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089028

RESUMEN

Urban green space (UGS) is a complex and highly dynamic interface between people and nature. The existing methods of quantifying and evaluating UGS are mainly implemented on the surface features at a landscape scale, and most of them are insufficient to thoroughly reflect the spatial-temporal relationships, especially the internal characteristics changes at a small scale and the neighborhood spatial relationship of UGS. This paper thus proposes a method to evaluate the internal dynamics and neighborhood heterogeneity of different types of UGS in Leipzig using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) index. We choose GLCM variance, contrast, and entropy to analyze five main types of UGS through a holistic description of their vegetation growth, spatial heterogeneity, and internal orderliness. The results show that different types of UGS have distinct characteristics due to the changes of surrounding buildings and the distance to the built-up area. Within a one-year period, seasonal changes in UGS far away from built-up areas are more obvious. As for the larger and dense urban forests, they have the lowest spatial heterogeneity and internal order. On the contrary, the garden areas present the highest heterogeneity. In this study, the GLCM index depicts the seasonal alternation of UGS on the temporal scale and shows the spatial form of each UGS, being in line with local urban planning contexts. The correlation analysis of indices also proves that each type of UGS has its distinct temporal and spatial characteristics. The GLCM is valid in assessing the internal characteristics and relationships of various UGS at the neighborhood scales, and using the methodology developed in our study, more studies and field experiments could be fulfilled to investigate the assessment accuracy of our GLCM index approach and to further enhance the scientific understanding on the internal features and ecological functions of UGS.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Características de la Residencia , Humanos , Planificación de Ciudades , Bosques , Ciudades
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMEN

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , Pakistán , Cabras , Animales Salvajes
11.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114760, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356662

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Residential proximity to greenspace is associated with various health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between maternal residential proximity to greenspace (based on an index of vegetation) and selected structural birth defects, including effect modification by neighborhood-level factors. METHODS: Data were from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011) and included 19,065 infants with at least one eligible birth defect (cases) and 8925 without birth defects (controls) from eight Centers throughout the United States. Maternal participants reported their addresses throughout pregnancy. Each address was systematically geocoded and residences around conception were linked to greenspace, US Census, and US Department of Agriculture data. Greenspace was estimated using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); average maximum NDVI was estimated within 100 m and 500 m concentric buffers surrounding geocoded addresses to estimate residential NDVI. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals comparing those in the highest and lowest quartiles of residential NDVI and stratifying by rural/urban residence and neighborhood median income. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, for the 500 m buffer, inverse associations were observed for tetralogy of Fallot, secundum atrial septal defects, anencephaly, anotia/microtia, cleft lip ± cleft palate, transverse limb deficiency, and omphalocele, (aORs: 0.54-0.86). Results were similar for 100 m buffer analyses and similar patterns were observed for other defects, though results were not significant. Significant heterogeneity was observed after stratification by rural/urban for hypoplastic left heart, coarctation of the aorta, and cleft palate, with inverse associations only among participants residing in rural areas. Stratification by median income showed heterogeneity for atrioventricular and secundum atrial septal defects, anencephaly, and anorectal atresia, with inverse associations only among participants residing in a high-income neighborhood (aORs: 0.45-0.81). DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that perinatal residential proximity to more greenspace may contribute to a reduced risk of certain birth defects, especially among those living in rural or high-income neighborhoods.


Asunto(s)
Anencefalia , Fisura del Paladar , Defectos del Tabique Interatrial , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Parques Recreativos , Oportunidad Relativa
12.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114517, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Exposure to green spaces is associated with improved mental health and may reduce risk of suicide. Here, we investigate the association between long-term exposure to residential surrounding greenness and suicide mortality. METHODS: We used data from the 2001 Belgian census linked to mortality register data (2001-2011). We included all registered individuals aged 18 years or older at baseline (2001) residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 3,549,514). Suicide mortality was defined using the tenth revision of the World Health Organisation International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes X60-X84, Y10-Y34, and Y870. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within a 300 m and 1,000 m buffer around the residential address at baseline. To assess the association between residential surrounding greenness and suicide mortality, we applied Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale. Models were adjusted for age, sex, living arrangement, migrant background, educational attainment, neighbourhood socio-economic position. We additionally explored potential mediation by residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. Finally, we assessed potential effect modification by various socio-demographic characteristics of the population (sex, age, educational attainment, migrant background, and neighbourhood socio-economic position). Associations are expressed as hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential surrounding greenness. RESULTS: We observed a 7% (95%CI 0.89-0.97) and 6% (95%CI 0.90-0.98) risk reduction of suicide mortality for an IQR increase in residential surrounding greenness for buffers of 300 m and 1,000 m, respectively. Furthermore, this association was independent of exposure to NO2. After stratification, the inverse association was only apparent among women, and residents of Belgian origin, and that it was stronger among residents aged 36 or older, those with high level of education, and residents of most deprived neighbourhoods. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that urban green spaces may protect against suicide mortality, but this beneficial effect may not be equally distributed across all strata of the population.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Suicidio , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Longitudinales , Bélgica/epidemiología , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Censos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt B): 116631, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347186

RESUMEN

Rapid urbanization changes landscape patterns and results in frequent urban waterlogging issues, which affect citizens' daily lives and cause economic loss. Understanding the spatial patterns and impact factors associated with urban waterlogging under different rainfall intensities has significant implications for mitigating this hazard. In this study, the runoff depth calculated according to the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) simulation results was used to investigate the spatial characteristics of urban waterlogging. Multiple scenario-based designs, a correlation analysis, and a stepwise regression model were employed to detect the relationship between surface runoff depth and landscape patterns under different rainfall intensities. The results show that when the rainfall intensity reached 12.5 mm/12 h, the conversion rate of rainfall to runoff increased significantly, indicating an increased waterlogging risk. Areas with impervious surface proportions of 25-50% and 75-100% were shown to require more attention due to the strong sensitivity of the surface runoff depth to an increase in the impervious surface. It is most cost-effective to maintain the original high-density vegetation or increase the vegetation density from 0-25% to 25-50% for urban green space. Additionally, the landscape configuration also affects the surface runoff depth. The fragmented, scattered, or regular shape of impervious surface patches can reduce surface runoff effectively; larger and less fragmented green space was also shown to have a surface runoff controlling. The adjusted R2 values were greater than 0.6 for all stepwise regression models, indicating that the landscape variables selected in the study can effectively predict the surface runoff depth. These models also showed that the landscape composition had a more profound contribution than the landscape configuration on runoff depth. These findings provide meaningful insights and perspectives for urban waterlogging hazard mitigation, quantitative landscape planning, and risk management. The method proposed by this study provides a referable framework for future studies on urban waterlogging and its response to the landscape in the context of global climate change.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia , Movimientos del Agua , Urbanización , Agua , Parques Recreativos , China , Ciudades
14.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 43: 100538, 2022 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460456

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Modifying the environment is considered an effective population-level approach for increasing healthy behaviours, but associations remain ambiguous. This exploratory study aims to compare researcher-defined buffers and self-drawn neighbourhoods (SDN) to objectively measured availability of physical activity (PA) facilities and greenspaces in adolescents. METHODS: Seven consecutive days of GPS data were collected in an adolescent sample of 14-18 year olds (n = 69). Using Points of Interest and greenspace data, availability of PA opportunities within activity spaces were determined. We compared 30 different definitions of researcher-defined neighbourhoods and SDNs to objectively measured availability. RESULTS: Findings showed low agreement for all researcher-defined buffers in measuring the availability of PA facilities in activity spaces. However, results were less clear for greenspace. SDNs also demonstrate low agreement for capturing availability to the PA environment. CONCLUSION: This exploratory study highlights the inadequacy of researcher-defined buffers and SDNs to define availability to environmental features.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Adolescente , Ambiente , Estado de Salud
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1026648, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466446

RESUMEN

Background: Smoking has been widely reported to have a significant relationship with hypertension, but the past description of this relationship has not been uniform. In addition, there has been a lack of research to discuss the impact of environmental exposure on the relationship between smoking and hypertension. Therefore, this study estimates the association between smoking and hypertension in middle aged and elderly people in China under different PM2.5 (fine particulate matter) concentrations and the green space exposure conditions. Methods: Individual sample data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2018 and the long-term average exposure concentration of fine particles and green space exposure for all participants were used with a multilevel binary logistic mixed effects model. Adjustments were made for sociodemographic characteristics and other health behaviors including drinking, physical activity, and social activity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and PM2.5 concentration stratification were assigned with the median of the population exposure concentration as the dividing line, and the dual environmental factor stratification was assigned in combination with the two types of environmental exposure. The analysis was also stratified using age groups. Results: A total of 10,600 participants over the age of 45 were included in the study. The effects of smoking on hypertension were diverse under different environmental exposure conditions. There was a significant relationship between smoking behavior and hypertension in the Low-NDVI group, and the effect value of this relationship was significantly different from that in the High-NDVI group. Furthermore, for respondents exposed to low green spaces and high PM2.5 environments at the same time (Low-NDVI/High-PM2.5 group), their smoking behavior may lead to an increase in the risk of hypertension. In addition, the risk of hypertension caused by smoking in the middle-aged (45-64) was significant under low green space exposure, but the effect difference between the different age groups was not significant. Conclusions: The relationship between smoking and hypertension was different under different environmental exposure conditions. Exposure to low green spaces may strengthen the association between smoking and hypertension risk. When participants were exposed to both low green spaces and high PM2.5 concentrations, the risk of hypertension caused by smoking was significantly higher than that of those who were exposed to high green spaces and low PM2.5 concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Fumar , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Humanos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Parques Recreativos , Estudios Longitudinales , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/etiología , Material Particulado/efectos adversos
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0256618, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449452

RESUMEN

Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) are territorial, group living carnivores that live in packs typically consisting of a dominant breeding pair and their offspring. Breeding tenures are relatively short and competitive, with vacancies usually occurring following a breeder's death, and are often filled by unrelated immigrants or by relatives of the previous breeder. The frequency and conditions of active breeder displacements are poorly understood. Position changes in the dominance hierarchy are common yet rarely documented in detail. We describe a male breeding position turnover in a wolf pack by males from a neighboring pack in mid-summer 2016 in Yellowstone National Park. Over the course of two months, three males from the Mollie's pack displaced the breeding male of the neighboring Wapiti Lake pack, joined the pack's two adult females, and subsequently raised the previous male's four approximately three-month old pups. In the five years following the displacement (2017 to 2021), at least one of the intruding males has successfully bred with the dominant female and most years with a subordinate female (who was one of the pups at the time of displacement). The pack reared pups to adulthood each year. Male breeding displacements are likely influenced by male-male competition and female mate choice. These changes are the result of individuals competing to improve breeding position and may lead to increased pack stability and greater reproductive success. We report in detail on the behavior of a closely observed breeding displacement and we discuss the adaptive benefits of the change.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Lobos , Femenino , Masculino , Animales , Parques Recreativos , Territorialidad , Reproducción
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20695, 2022 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450827

RESUMEN

There is an established consensus among researchers that contact with nature improves mental health, wellbeing, and quality of life in urbanised environments. Studies tend to examine the health impacts of nature without identifying specific physical and spatial landscape features that could guide health-promoting design of urban green spaces. A growing body of evidence suggests that landscape features described in the Contemplative Landscape Model (CLM) can be used to measure therapeutic value of urban landscapes. CLM assesses urban landscapes across seven sub-scales: Layers of the Landscape, Landform, Vegetation, Color and Light, Compatibility, Archetypal Elements and Character of Peace and Silence. We exposed 74 healthy adults to six urban landscapes in laboratory (video representations) and naturalistic outdoor settings. We explored the associations between the visual quality of urban landscapes annotated with CLM, with self-reported positive emotions and brain activity consistent with mindfulness (Theta waves), relaxation (Alpha waves) and attention restoration (Beta waves), and differences between laboratory and naturalistic setting. CLM scores predicted self-reported Valence and Arousal, and low frequency power bands: Alpha and Theta in the naturalistic setting. Landscape features showing the strongest associations were Character of Peace and Silence, Layers of the Landscape and Archetypal Elements. Alpha, Theta brain reactivity and Arousal scores, were significantly different between laboratory and naturalistic settings (p < 0.05), while Valence scores between those settings were statistically identical (p = 0.22). Self-reported Valence and Arousal, but not brain activity, were significantly associated with the majority of landscape features in the laboratory setting. The results of the study provide guidelines on the urban landscape features most beneficial for human health, to inform urban green space design.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Atención Plena , Adulto , Animales , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Calidad de Vida , Relajación , Emociones
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1029551, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339177

RESUMEN

The reasonable distribution of urban green space (UGS) is a topic that urban researchers have been exploring for a long time. Solving the imbalance between the supply and demand of UGS plays an important role in improving the health level of a city. This study examines the central urban area of Hefei as an example. We developed a modified Gaussian two-step floating catchment area method and used the path planning model of Gaode Map to evaluate the accessibility of UGS under different transportation modes and different time thresholds while integrating mobile phone signaling data. Additionally, a fine-scale analysis of the actual supply and demand relationship of UGS was conducted by integrating the accessibility evaluation results with the recreational situation of UGS to analyze the deviation of supply and demand to further discuss the spatial distribution equilibrium of UGS. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) The spatial distribution of UGSs in the central urban area of Hefei is uneven. Different time thresholds and different transportation modes have a significant impact on the UGS accessibility evaluation results. (2) With the increase in the time threshold or travel distance, the number of grids above the moderate accessibility level generally increases. The spatial distribution of the grids with moderate, high and highest accessibility level present different patterns of contiguous, clusters, and spots distribution. (3) After combining these results with the actual recreational situation of UGS, we found that the overall demand in the central urban area exceeds the supply at the 15-min threshold, while the overall supply exceeds the demand at the 30-min threshold. The grids with balanced supply and demand or more supply than demand have comprehensive parks with a moderate population density and strong road connectivity in the neighborhood. This study strengthens the data granularity and improves the accuracy of accessibility evaluation by integrating mobile phone signaling data with the path planning model of Gaode Map. Also, we evaluate the accessibility with multi-transport modes and different time thresholds, which can bring more practical guidance for optimizing the distribution of UGS.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Parques Recreativos , Ciudades , Viaje , Características de la Residencia
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429960

RESUMEN

Residents' satisfaction of urban green space has been widely detected in living environments around the world. Most previous reports were performed with objective indicators to reflect the characteristics of vegetation and landscapes of residential green space. However, subjective senses as impact factors in the evaluation of residents' satisfaction based on landsenses ecology are scarce. To address this, in this study, physical perception, aesthetic cognition, and psychological cognition as latent variables in a structural equation model were investigated to determine the residents' satisfaction in Xiamen, in southeast China, a famously high green space coverage region. The results indicate that physical perception is the fundamental condition to improve residents' satisfaction, while aesthetic cognition and psychological cognition are the direct factors that influenced residents' satisfaction. Residents exhibit a preference for the residential green space which contains more biodiversity and landscape diversity, a higher biomass, and greater openness. In addition, the residents' perception significantly related to greenspace characteristics. The results provide a scientific basis for urban green space planning and optimization of ecological resources' allocation.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Satisfacción Personal , Planificación de Ciudades/métodos , China , Biodiversidad
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