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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149728, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454139

RESUMEN

Sampling design in soil science is critical because the lack of reliable methods and collecting samples requires tremendous work and resources. The aims were to obtain an optimal sampling design for assessing potentially toxic elements pollution using pilot Pb soil samples from the urban green space area of Shanghai, China. Two general steps have been used. The first step is to determine the optimum sample size against improving the prediction accuracy and monitoring costs using the spatial simulated annealing (SSA) algorithm. Secondly, we evaluated their likely placement of new extra sampling points by integrated SSA with k-means (SSA+ k-means) and expert-based (SSA+ expert-based) sampling methods. The improvement of sampling design by the integrated sampling approaches was evaluated using mean kriging variance (MKV), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The findings indicated that adding and placing 350 new monitoring points upon the existing sampling design by SSA increased the prediction accuracy by 64.35%. The MKV for the optimized SSA+ k-means sample was lower than by 4.12 mg/kg, 9.46 mg/kg compared with locations optimized by SSA and SSA+ expert-based method, respectively. Optimizing new sampling locations by SSA+ k-means sampling method was reduced MAPE by 9.26% and RMSE by 7.13 mg/kg compared to optimizing by SSA alone. However, there was no improvement in placing the new sampling points in SSA+ expert-based sampling method; instead, it increased the error by 8.11%. This paper shows integrating optimization approaches to evaluate the existing sampling design and optimize a new optimal sampling design.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Suelo , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149869, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461470

RESUMEN

The ratio of the perceived extent of natural sounds to the perceived extent of traffic noise in the environment has been demonstrated to be important for soundscapes, whereas research on the influence of human sounds has been limited. To examine this influence, this study proposes a human sound-based index named the red soundscape index (RSI), which is defined as the ratio of the perceived extent of human sounds to the perceived extent of other sounds. Sound pressure levels and crowd density were collected at 41 sites in 9 urban parks, and pedestrian streets in Harbin, China, and the perceived extent of various sounds was investigated by a questionnaire survey. The results confirmed a significant positive correlation between crowd density and RSI, and the A-weighted sound pressure level increased linearly with increasing RSIn (the ratio of human sounds to natural sounds) and decreased with increasing RSIt (the ratio of human sounds to traffic noises). Interestingly, the overall soundscape assessment linearly decreases with the increase in RSIn in the range of (0.8-1.5). The relationship with RSIt first shows an increase and then a decrease in a parabolic form, in which the axis of symmetry is RSIt = 2. Correspondingly, urban open spaces can be divided into three categories based on the variation trend, and different types have significant differences in overall soundscape assessment, pleasantness, and calmness. Among these, pleasantness is the highest in the sites of natural sound predominance perception. At the same time, this factor becomes the lowest in the sites of human sound predominance perception and middle in the site of balanced perception. Consequently, RSI is expected to be useful in soundscape prediction in urban open spaces.


Asunto(s)
Ruido , Sonido , China , Aglomeración , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113930, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731949

RESUMEN

Urban life is associated with a range of health risks. However, urban green spaces have been found to promote health recovery and reduce mental stress. This study sought to assess the influence of the spatial and environmental characteristics of urban green space on environmental restoration. We measured physiological and psychological changes among 60 participants to evaluate the restorative benefits of 12 green spaces in Shenyang. The Perceived Restorativeness Scale and two physiological measures (heart rate variation and skin conductance response) were used to analyze the effects of spatial characteristics on restorative benefits. In addition, eye-tracking was used to explore the influence of environmental components on restorative benefits. The results revealed that, although there were slight differences between physiological and psychological findings, both confirmed that urban green space had a restorative benefit. Partially-open green spaces with a high degree of naturalness had more positive effects than open green spaces with a high degree of hard paved spaces. Eye movement analysis results revealed that trees and shrubs, as well as water, had a positive effect on the environmental restoration benefits, whereas buildings and paving had a negative effect. Among environmental features, trees and shrubs, water, and buildings exerted the strongest effects on environment restoration. In the future, combining spatial characteristics and environmental components will aid improvement of the restorative qualities of urban green space.


Asunto(s)
Movimientos Oculares , Parques Recreativos , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 416, 2021 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794504

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease globally. A multifaceted combination of risk factors is associated with hypertension. Scientific literature has shown the association among individual and environmental factors with hypertension, however, a comprehensive database including demographic, environmental, individual attributes and nutritional status has been rarely studied. Moreover, an integrated spatial-epidemiological approach has been scarcely researched. Therefore, this study aims to provide and describe a geodatabase including individual-based and socio-environmental data related to people living in the city of Mashhad, Iran in 2018. DATA DESCRIPTION: The database has been extracted from the PERSIAN Organizational Cohort study in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The data note includes three shapefiles and a help file. The shapefile format is a digital vector storage format for storing geometric location and associated attribute information. The first shapefile includes the data of population, air pollutants and amount of available green space for each census block of the city. The second shapefile consists of aggregated blood pressure data to the census blocks of the city. The third shapefile comprises the individual characteristics data (i.e., demographic, clinical, and lifestyle). Finally, the fourth file is a guide to the previous data files for users.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Parques Recreativos , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Presión Sanguínea , Estudios de Cohortes , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769914

RESUMEN

Previous studies have shown that natural environments and leisure activities can reduce depression and increase well-being. Urban parks are important for the psychological well-being of middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether the relationship between environmental perceptions, leisure activity, and well-being is affected by the quality of park environments. This study uses a cross-level framework to examine the effects of urban park quality on middle-aged and older adults' environmental perceptions, leisure activity, and well-being. The Neighborhood Green Space Tool was used to assess the environmental quality of 19 parks, and 380 individuals aged 55 years and older were interviewed in each park using an on-site questionnaire. The results reveal that the associations between environmental perception and well-being were moderated by the quality of park accessibility, amenities, and incivilities; the effect of environmental perception on depression was moderated by the quality of incivilities in parks; and the effect of frequency of leisure activities on depression was moderated by the quality of park accessibility.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas , Parques Recreativos , Anciano , Ambiente , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Características de la Residencia , Población Urbana
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769917

RESUMEN

The spatial morphology of waterfront green spaces helps generate cooling effects to mitigate the urban heat island effect (UHI) in metropolis cities. To explore the contribution and influence of multi-dimensional spatial indices on the mitigation of UHIs, the green space of the riparian buffer along 18 river channels in Shanghai was considered as a case study. The spatial distribution data of the land surface temperature (LST) in the study area were obtained by using remote sensing images. By selecting the related spatial structure morphological factors of the waterfront green space as the quantitative description index, the growth regression tree model (BRT) was adapted to analyze the contribution of various indexes of the waterfront green space on the distribution of the LST and the marginal effect of blue-green synergistic cooling. In addition, mathematical statistical analysis and spatial analysis methods were used to study the influence of the morphological group (MG) types of riparian green spaces with different morphological characteristics on the LST. The results showed that in terms of the spatial structure variables between blue and green spaces, the contribution of river widths larger than 30 m was more notable in decreasing the LST. In the case of a larger river width, the marginal effect of synergistic cooling could be observed in farther regions. The green space that had the highest connectivity degree and was located in the leeward direction of the river exhibited the lowest LST. In terms of the spatial morphology, the fractional cover values of the vegetation (Fv) and area (A) of the green space were the main factors affecting the cooling effect of the green space. For all MG types, a large green patch that had a high green coverage and connectivity degree, as well as was distributed in the leeward direction of the river, corresponded to the lowest LST. The research presented herein can provide methods and development suggestions for optimizing spatial thermal comfort in climate adaptive cities.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Ríos , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Calor
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769549

RESUMEN

(1) Background: As cities densify, researcher and policy focus is intensifying on which green space types and qualities are important for health. We conducted a systematic review to examine whether particular green space types and qualities have been shown to provide health benefits and if so, which specific types and qualities, and which health outcomes. (2) Methods: We searched five databases from inception up to June 30, 2021. We included all studies examining a wide range of green space characteristics on various health outcomes. (3) Results: 68 articles from 59 studies were found, with a high degree of heterogeneity in study designs, definitions of quality and outcomes. Most studies were cross-sectional, ecological or cohort studies. Environment types, vegetation types, and the size and connectivity of green spaces were associated with improved health outcomes, though with contingencies by age and gender. Health benefits were more consistently observed in areas with greater tree canopy, but not grassland. The main outcomes with evidence of health benefits included allergic respiratory conditions, cardiovascular conditions and psychological wellbeing. Both objectively and subjectively measured qualities demonstrated associations with health outcomes. (4) Conclusion: Experimental studies and longitudinal cohort studies will strengthen current evidence. Evidence was lacking for needs-specific or culturally-appropriate amenities and soundscape characteristics. Qualities that need more in-depth investigation include indices that account for forms, patterns, and networks of objectively and subjectively measured green space qualities.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Ciudades , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 759444, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778190

RESUMEN

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alienated people from urban green spaces (UGSs) that have various health outcomes for humans. However, little is known about the influential factors of perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to explore the key factors that influence perceived health benefits and use behaviors in UGSs and to assess the mediating role of place attachment in relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chinese megacities. Methods: We conducted an online questionnaire survey from December 2020 to March 2021 in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China. Six multiple regression models were constructed to investigate the main factors by which UGSs influence citizens' perceived health benefits and use behaviors. Four mediation models were established using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method to explore the mediating effect of place attachment. Results: A total of 628 questionnaires were included in the analysis. The results revealed that some UGS components (green space access, maintenance, and soundscape) significantly affected perceived health benefits for citizens (physical, mental, and social health) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Conversely, use behaviors (frequency of visits, duration of visits, and activity intensity) were mainly affected by the sociodemographic context but less affected by UGS components. In addition, UGS components were found to significantly predict place attachment, which in turn influenced the perceived health benefits, frequency, and duration of visits. Conclusions: This study distinguished the key factors that affect perceived health benefits and use behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic: green space access, maintenance, soundscape, and sociodemographic characteristics. Place attachment still needs to be considered when discussing how to encourage citizens to visit UGSs during the pandemic. These findings provide implications for policymakers and landscape planners regarding design and management measures for UGSs that are conducive to coping with pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770001

RESUMEN

Assessing the health of the ecosystem based on the landscape pattern of national parks can facilitate policy makers in formulating more targeted conservation policies to better manage national park ecosystems. To analyze the landscape patterns and characteristics of the national park, the ecosystem health evaluation index system of the national park was constructed using the vigor-organization-resilience (VOR) model to evaluate the health status. In this study, the Shennongjia National Park in China was selected as a case study area to be assessed using the index system. The results revealed that the patches of construction land and farmland are the largest in number and the most complex in shape, reflecting the obvious fragmentation of construction land and farmland patches. All patch types in this national park were evenly distributed. The results of the analysis showed that the comprehensive index of national park heath, according to the VOR model, is 0.74, indicating that the ecosystems in this study area were in a good state of health. Ecosystems in strictly protected areas of this park had the highest ecosystem health index levels, while the traditional utilization areas had the lowest. Ecosystem health levels were characterized by significant spatial agglomeration characteristics, with high-high aggregation distribution areas, mainly clustered in strictly protected areas, and low-low aggregation distribution, mainly clustered in traditional utilization areas and marginal areas. This study provided a set of ecosystem health assessment systems and their practical use in China's newly established national parks.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Granjas
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(10): 3548-3556, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676716

RESUMEN

Using the principles and methods of dendrochronology, we measured tree-ring width of four dominant coniferous species, i.e., Larix potaninii var. macrocarpa, Picea brachytyla, Pinus densata, and Abies georgei, in the Potatso National Park, and established the tree-ring width resi-dual chronologies. We analyzed the correlation of tree-ring width residual chronologies with daily and monthly climate data from the Shangrila meteorological station to analyze the response of radial growth to climate factors. The results showed that L. potaninii var. macrocarpa had the highest annual growth rate, and A. georgei had the lowest. Radial growth showed species-specific responses to climate changes, with the highest sensitivity of L. potaninii var. macrocarpa and the lowest sensitivity of P. brachytyla. Ring-width chronology of A. georgei correlated positively with mean temperature during previous winter (November and December) and current summer (July). Ring-width chronology of L. potaninii var. macrocarpa correlated positively with temperature during the early-growing season (June), but negatively with precipitation and relative humidity. Ring-width chronology of P. densata correlated positively with precipitation and humidity but negatively with maximum temperature during the early-growing season (May), indicating that its radial growth was primarily influenced by water availability during the early-growing season.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Tracheophyta , China , Parques Recreativos , Árboles
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 133, 2021 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627280

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Parks are a key setting for physical activity for children. However, little is known about which park features children prefer and which features are most likely to encourage them to be active in parks. This study examined the relative importance of park features among children for influencing their choice of park for engaging in park-based physical activity. METHODS: Children (n = 252; 8-12 years, 42% male) attending three primary schools in Melbourne, Australia completed a survey at school. They were required to complete a series of Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint analysis tasks, with responses used to identify the part-worth utilities and relative importance scores of selected park features using Hierarchical Bayes analyses within Sawtooth Software. RESULTS: For the overall sample and both boys and girls, the most important driver of choice for a park that would encourage them to be active was presence of a flying fox (overall conjoint analysis relative importance score: 15.8%; 95%CI = 14.5, 17.1), followed by a playground (13.5%; 95%CI = 11.9, 15.2). For the overall sample, trees for climbing had the third highest importance score (10.2%; 95%CI = 8.9, 11.6); however, swings had 3rd highest importance for girls (11.1, 95%CI = 9.3, 12.9) and an obstacle course/parkour area had the 3rd highest importance score for boys (10.7, 95%CI = 9.0, 12.4). For features with two levels, part-worth utility scores showed that the presence of a feature was always preferred over the absence of a feature. For features with multiple levels, long flying foxes, large adventure playgrounds, lots of trees for climbing, large round swings, large climbing equipment, and large grassy open space were the preferred levels. CONCLUSION: To ensure parks appeal as a setting that encourages children to engage in physical activity, park planners and local authorities and organisations involved in park design should prioritise the inclusion of a long flying fox, large adventure playgrounds, lots of trees for climbing, large round swings and obstacle courses/parkour areas.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Características de la Residencia , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Planificación Ambiental , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Recreación
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639338

RESUMEN

Outdoor adventure parks are highly important for contemporary society, having positive social, economic, and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, to fulfill their positive role in society, and to be economically sustainable, such parks need to nurture visitor loyalty. Drawing on previous fundamental research results that ascertain that customer satisfaction has a positive influence on customer loyalty, the objective of the current research is to explore the specific elements of outdoor adventure park visitors' satisfaction, within an applied research framework, in order to emphasize those attributes that have a significant impact on visitors' loyalty. For that, an online survey was conducted among the visitors of Arsenal Park, Romania, one of the largest adventure parks in south-eastern Europe. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Our results show that visitors' satisfaction with respect to the safety and equipment involved in amusement services, the ambience of the park's food and beverage facilities, and the quality of the food are the most important satisfaction constituents for enhancing visitor loyalty in the context of outdoor adventure parks. By formatively specifying the exogeneous variables of our model (in contrast with the omnipresent reflective measurements used in previous studies), and by employing the importance-performance map analysis (IPMA), we clearly emphasize those particular aspects that are under the control of outdoor adventure parks' managers, which significantly impact their visitors' loyalty, as well as the way in which managers can clearly identify those attributes that need improvements.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Recreación , Parques Recreativos , Satisfacción Personal , Rumanía , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639451

RESUMEN

A growing number of policies and programmes in cities aim to increase the time people spend in nature for the health and wellbeing benefits delivered by such interactions. Yet, there is little research investigating the extent to which, and for whom, nature experiences deliver such benefits outside Europe, North America, and Australia. Here, we assessed the relationships between nature dose (frequency, duration, and intensity) and three mental wellbeing (depression, stress, and anxiety) and two physical health (high blood pressure, diabetes) outcomes in Singapore, an intensely urbanised tropical city. Our analyses accounted for individual factors, including socio-economic status, nature connection (nature relatedness), and whether people with poor health are prevented by their condition from visiting green spaces. Our results show that the association between nature dose (specifically duration) and mental wellbeing is moderated by a nature connection. Specifically, people with a stronger nature connection were less likely to be depressed, stressed, and anxious, regardless of the duration of their nature dose. For those with a weaker connection to nature, spending longer in nature was associated with being more depressed, stressed, and anxious. We did not find a relationship between nature dose and high blood pressure or diabetes. Our results highlight that the relationship between nature dose and wellbeing might vary substantially among cities.


Asunto(s)
Familia , Parques Recreativos , Australia , Ciudades , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639480

RESUMEN

Urban green spaces (UGSs) provide numerous irreplaceable environmental and social benefits to humankind, but the lack of baseline information makes it difficult to propose a reasonable greening strategy so as to achieve an equitable allocation of community green spaces. This paper divides UGSs into three classes using the spatial design network analysis (sDNA) and quantifies the UGS accessibility of communities in central Wuhan. Based on these results and the Gini coefficient, we analyze the UGS equity of the spatial distribution at the community level, then propose future greening strategies both at the city and community levels. The results show that the railway station and old Wuhan city are the core areas of traffic network strength (TNS). UGSs are evenly distributed in the core areas of TNS, but the number of UGSs in non-core areas is small, and their distribution is relatively uneven, and the number of communities with medium UGS accessibility is the largest, carrying the densest residential population. Most communities perform well in terms of UGS equity, but the UGS equity of 163 communities, covering a population of more than one million, remains to be improved. The method and conclusions of this study will contribute to the future greening policy making of 965 communities in central Wuhan, thus promoting the orderly planning and high-quality construction of community living circles.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , China , Ciudades
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682599

RESUMEN

In the context of increasing urbanization and associated economic, social and environmental challenges, cities have increasingly acknowledged the importance of urban parks in delivering social, economic and environmental benefits to the population. The importance has been demonstrated also during the COVID-19 pandemic that generated lockdowns and reduced the capacity of urban inhabitants in accessing such benefits. The present study aims to determine how the presence in urban parks was reflected on social media during the pandemic period of 2020. We examined Instagram posts associated with a sample of eight urban parks in Bucharest, Romania and also the entire history of Google reviews between January and August 2020. The selection of parks was made according to their size, location in Bucharest, previous reported number of visitors and profile of attractiveness. Results revealed that the peak period of the COVID-19 pandemic and the first initiation of the lockdowns strongly affected the recreation and leisure activities that people performed almost daily in the parks of Bucharest. Reviews and comments of the population were not that focused on the pandemic even after the restrictions were lifted, but they evidenced the positive and negative aspects of each park. Our results can represent a useful instrument for local administrations in determining both the flow of visitors but also their perceptions towards the endowments, landscape and most important management of urban parks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Pandemias , Parques Recreativos , Recreación , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682688

RESUMEN

Recent research has demonstrated that landscape design intensity impacts individuals' landscape preferences, which may influence their eye movement. Due to the close relationship between restorativeness and landscape preference, we further explore the relationships between design intensity, preference, restorativeness and eye movements. Specifically, using manipulated images as stimuli for 200 students as participants, the effect of urban green space (UGS) design intensity on landscapes' preference, restorativeness, and eye movement was examined. The results demonstrate that landscape design intensity could contribute to preference and restorativeness and that there is a significant positive relationship between design intensity and eye-tracking metrics, including dwell time percent, fixation percent, fixation count, and visited ranking. Additionally, preference was positively related to restorativeness, dwell time percent, fixation percent, and fixation count, and there is a significant positive relationship between restorativeness and fixation percent. We obtained the most feasible regression equations between design intensity and preference, restorativeness, and eye movement. These results provide a set of guidelines for improving UGS design to achieve its greatest restorative potential and shed new light on the use of eye-tracking technology in landscape perception studies.


Asunto(s)
Movimientos Oculares , Parques Recreativos , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682747

RESUMEN

Objective measurement of the supply-demand of ecosystem services (ESs) has received increasing attention from recent studies. It reflects the relationship between green spaces and human society. However, these studies rarely assess the mountainous cities. To fill this gap, this study takes a typical mountainous city as a research case to reveal the supply-demand relationship of ecosystem services, then development and management strategies are proposed for different districts according to their spatial differentiation characteristics. Results shows that: (1) there are differences of ESs supply between each district, and supply from Banan District is significantly higher than others. (2) The demands for ES also vary widely, which are higher in the core urban areas. (3) There are different degrees of imbalance between supply and demand in each district. We classified green spaces into four types based on their supply-demand characteristics, and optimization strategies are proposed. We found that most of the districts are lack of ES supply while there is a relatively high demand for ES in Chongqing, and the balance of supply and demand between different districts varies greatly. Our study indicates that targeted urban green spaces strategies for different districts must be considered to adequately optimize ES in mountainous cities.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2866-2874, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664460

RESUMEN

Higher and more precise requirements are critically needed for the protection, regulation, and restoration of ecological environment in the Qilian Mountain National Park after it is classified as a national park system pilot in China. Based on remote sensing data in 1980-2018, the spatial pattern map of mountain-water-forest-farmland-lake-grass system was constructed to analyze its spatial-temporal variations in the general control area and core conservation area in Qinghai area of the Qilian Mountain National Park. The results showed that grasslands, with an area of 8174.93 km2, were the main landscape in the park, and that grassland area in the core conservation area was 1.2 times as that of the general control area. The bare exposed rocks, a major type of unused land, accounted for 86.7% and 79.4% of the unused land in the core conservation area and the general control area, respectively. Forest area in the general control area was larger than that in the core conservation area. Water area in the core conservation area was 4.9 times as large as that in the general control area, with 90.4% of which being dominated by permanent glaciers and snowfields. The drylands were mainly concentrated in the general control area. From 1980 to 2018, the water area was decreasing and had been reduced by 186.75 km2. The area of permanent glaciers and snowfields decreased the most, with a drop of 12.05 and 175.88 km2 in the general control area and the core conservation area, respectively. The area of forests and grasslands were enlarged constantly. The changes of high-, medium-, and low-coverage grasslands in the core conservation area were greater than that in the general control area, which were the most significant during 1990-2000. Moreover, the degradation of high- and medium-coverage grasslands in the general control area as well as high- and low-coverage grasslands in the core conservation area was observed from 1980 to 2018. The area of bare exposed rocks was on the rise, while the permanent glaciers and snowfields displayed a decreasing trend. The permanent glaciers and snowfields and the bare exposed rocks exhibited the most obvious changes in the park. The glaciers in the core conservation area retreated remarkably faster than those in the general control area, which were transformed into the bare exposed rocks mainly in 1980-1990 and 2000-2010.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Poaceae , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Granjas , Bosques , Parques Recreativos , Agua
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740102, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631651

RESUMEN

Background: School-based green space activities have been found to be beneficial to the physical activity level and lifestyle habits of adolescent students. However, their effects on green space use and satisfaction, mental health, and dietary behaviors required further investigation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of school-based hydroponic planting integrated with health promotion activities in improving green space use, competence and satisfaction, healthy lifestyle, mental health, and health-related quality of life (QoL) among early adolescent students in secondary schools. Methods: This study adopted a three-group comparison design (one control and two intervention groups). Secondary school students (N = 553) of grades 7-9 participated in either (1) hydroponic planting (two times per week for 8 months) integrated with health promotion activities; (2) only health promotion activities (one time per week for 6 weeks); or (3) control group. Outcomes assessed by questionnaire included green space use and satisfaction, life happiness, lifestyle, depressive symptoms, and health-related QoL. Results: After adjusting for sex and school grade, the scores in "green space distance and use" and "green space activity and competence" were significantly better in the intervention groups than in the control group. Hydroponic planting integrated with health promotion activities was also associated with better scores in dietary habits and resistance to substance use. Intervention groups had a higher score in "Green space sense and satisfaction" and life happiness when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Our study shows that the school-based hydroponic planting integrated with health promotion activities were feasible and, to a certain extent, useful to improve green space use and competence, dietary habits, and resistance to substance use among early adolescent students in secondary schools in urban areas. Future studies should address the limitations identified, for example, designing a randomized controlled trial that could fit school schedules to generate new evidence for physical and mental health in adolescent communities.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Calidad de Vida , Adolescente , Estudios de Factibilidad , Conducta Alimentaria , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Hidroponia , Parques Recreativos , Satisfacción Personal , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639545

RESUMEN

With the continuous expansion of urban construction land, the green belts aiming for ecological protection have ensured a sustainable and effective function of regional ecosystem services. At the same time, these ecological green belts are expected to develop their compound service potentials with the development of cities. In order to meet the increasing demand of urban residents for the recreational utilization of urban green space, the primary function of the ecological green belts has transformed from being purely ecological to a combination of being ecological and recreational. Based on social media data, which has the characteristics of a large amount of accessible geographic information, this study used multiple regression models to analyze the recreational utilization intensity of ecological protection green belts with a case study in the green belt of Shanghai, China. The research results showed that the internal elements (total external area, water area, etc.) of the Shanghai green belt have positive correlations with its recreational utilization. The impact of external factors was inconclusive on the recreational utilization of the outer forest belt (the number of subway stations in accessibility factors was negatively correlated; the number of cultural facilities and the number of restaurants in the surrounding service facilities were positively related). Combined with the "Shanghai City Master Plan (2017-2035)", this study suggests potential zones for the recreational transformation of the Shanghai green belt, provides a theoretical and practical basis for improving the recreational utilization of an urban ecological protection green belt and contributes to the sustainable development of ecological protection green belts in high-density cities.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Remodelación Urbana , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
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