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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20181253, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267307

RESUMEN

Some researchers point out the decline in contemporary cities of the use of public spaces, whether free or restricted access. In this sense, the present essay proposes a reflection on a "public sphere of organized presence", according to Habermas classification, as a rescue of the importance of this space for the exercise of citizenship and social-environmental responsibility. The reflection was based on the results obtained from a study in the district of Riacho Grande, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil, in which the environmental perception of the participants of the meetings about the region was known by documentary analysis, direct observation and interviews with questionnaires. It was possible to verify that this public space can facilitate a greater integration between the public administrators and citizens, helping even in the defense to the environment.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Parques Recreativos , Conducta Social , Responsabilidad Social , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana
2.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 109948, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250882

RESUMEN

There is growing interest in understanding the benefits of parks and green space in financial terms, particularly from policymakers and decision-makers. Applying a financial value is an increasingly popular practice designed to communicate urban green space benefits to budget holders. This is pertinent for local governments who routinely struggle to secure funding for parks, given their non-statutory status around the world. To address this, it is perhaps inevitable that the application of a wide range of funding models to parks is being explored. However, there is little empirical evidence that users and residents share this sentiment. This paper aims to address this gap in knowledge by exploring how feasible and acceptable such income generation practices are for stakeholders directly involved in using and managing parks. We asked local residents, parks managers, community groups and academics in one northern English city how feasible and acceptable they considered different income generation practices if applied to their local parks. The findings show that overall, income generated by cafés and organised events were considered acceptable by residents but to a lesser extent by community groups and professionals. Voluntary donations, car parking and increased taxation were considered unacceptable by all stakeholders, while using the planning system to secure funding was considered acceptable. The findings suggest a variety of acceptable, context-specific income-generating practices which may help stakeholders to address pragmatically the current challenges of managing urban parks.


Asunto(s)
Renta , Parques Recreativos , Ciudades , Gobierno Local , Impuestos
3.
Zootaxa ; 4743(1): zootaxa.4743.1.3, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230350

RESUMEN

An inventory of Lepidoptera in the Theniet El Had National Park (PNTEH), Algeria, revealed 86 taxa, both butterflies and moths. The specimens were collected in 68 localities distributed over ten cantons within the park in the period 2015-2017. A preliminary faunistic list is compiled as a base-line contribution to the study of adult Lepidoptera in this park. In total, 3139 specimens were collected. The moths are clearly well diversified, with 14 families and 49 species obtained from a total of 1485 adult specimens. The butterflies are represented by 5 families with 37 species and 1654 specimens. A total of 8 families are reported for the first time from this park, in order of abundance: Zygaenidae, Hesperiidae, Crambidae, Alucitidae, Heterogynidae, Sesiidae, Oecophoridae, and Cossidae. Also 61 species are recorded here for the first time for the park. The most diverse family is Nymphalidae with 15 taxa (23% of the total species). On the other hand, the Erebidae are represented by 894 specimens (28.5% of the total number of specimens. Within the Erebidae, the genus Catocala contains the highest number of individuals (794 specimens). The canton of Pré-Ben Chouhra is quantitatively the best represented with 625 specimens (19.9% of the total number of specimens collected) and the Nursery canton as the richest in lepidopteran species with 72 species observed. The diversity indices (H' and Hmax.) and the equitability index (E), calculated for the 10 cantons indicate that lepidopteran species are diverse in each station.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Diurnas , Lepidópteros , Mariposas Nocturnas , Argelia , Animales , Parques Recreativos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4743(1): zootaxa.4743.1.10, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230357

RESUMEN

A new species of the genus Anaptygus Mistshenko, 1951, Anaptygus shishodiai Kumar Chandra sp. nov., from Valley of Flowers National Park, India is described in this paper. The new species is similar to A. qinghaiensis Yin, 1984, but differs from latter by length of fastigial foveolae 5.5 times its width in male and 3.2 times in female; apex of elytra reaching posterior margin of third abdominal tergite in male and reaching posterior margin of first abdominal tergite in female. A key to all the known species of Anaptygus Mistshenko, 1951 is also provided.


Asunto(s)
Saltamontes , Ortópteros , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Ambiente , Femenino , India , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Parques Recreativos
5.
Zootaxa ; 4750(4): zootaxa.4750.4.3, 2020 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230445

RESUMEN

We describe two new species of the genus Pristimantis from the western margin of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. The species have a sympatric distribution and are found in the humid tropical forests of the lower part of the Tamá National Natural Park (PNN Tamá) and its buffer zone. The new species were described from morphological comparisons and phylogenetic reconstruction from the sequencing of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. With these two new species, the number of Pristimantis species known in the department of Norte de Santander has increased to 10. In addition, we included new sequences for the species P. anolirex, P. nicefori, P. mondolfii, and P. yukpa. Our explorations in the last decade indicate that there are probably between five and 10 species that have not been described in the northeastern part of Colombia, especially in areas where the armed conflict has predominated in the last five decades.


Asunto(s)
Anuros , Bosques , Animales , Colombia , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 220, 2020 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146535

RESUMEN

Services provided by protected areas (PAs) are based on their natural heritage, as stated in the conservation objectives, and many depend on their landscape, the spatial pattern of land cover patches. We study changes in the service provision of a PA based on its landscape changes. As services are defined according to the conservation objectives of the PA, this can be used in monitoring the PA conservation status. Using easily accessible historical land cover maps, landscape changes over time are identified and assessed according to changes in services provision, based on the PA conservation objectives. The PA under study is one of the oldest in Europe. Almost 80 years after its initial declaration, it was increased by incorporating surrounding areas. This helps to understand to what extent the oldest PA has conserved its environmental heritage, compared with what happened in the area most recently protected and not subjected to previous conservation regime. As expected in an area managed for conservation, changes in services in the older PA are small. But changes in the recently included area are also small and very similar to those ones. As change in ecosystem services are based on landscape changes, they do not relate only to the increase or decrease in the spatial distribution of single land covers but also on their joint spatial arrangement. This allows us to assess trade-offs among services provided by different land covers implied in landscape changes.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , España
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137570, 2020 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135287

RESUMEN

A large number of urban wetland parks have been established, but knowledge about the effects of tourism development on the microbial diversity and ecosystem functioning remains limited. This study aimed to clarify the responses of bacterial communities to tourism development targeted the Xixi National Wetland Park, China. By analyzing the diversity, composition, assembly pattern, and environmental drivers of bacterial communities, we found that tourism development considerably affected the water quality, which further decreased the α-diversity but increased the ß-diversity in open areas for landscaping and recreation. Specifically, there was higher Simpson dissimilarity across functional wetland areas, indicating that species replacement mainly explained ß-diversity patterns of bacterial communities. RDA analysis and ecological processes quantification further suggested that TOC and TC were the major factors in the open areas driving bacterial communities in water and sediment, respectively. Also, typical anti-disturbance taxa (Gammaproteobacteria) and potential pathogens (Bacillus) were enriched in the wetlands under more anthropogenic disturbances. Findings of the present study highlighted the effects of tourism development on bacterial communities resulted in obvious spatial variation in the Xixi National Wetland Park. This study gives us useful information for ecological assessments of urban wetlands, and further can provide references in making appropriate strategies to manage wetland ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Humedales , Bacterias , China , Microbiota , Parques Recreativos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110238, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148308

RESUMEN

Big data have the potential to improve nonmarket valuation, but their application has been scarce. To test this potential, we apply mobile phone data to the zonal travel cost method and measure recreational ecosystem services from Bukit Timah (representing an urban protected area) and Jurong Lake Gardens (an urban recreational park) in Singapore. The study results show that the annual recreational benefits of the recreational park (S$54,698,761 to S$66,805,454) outweighed the benefits of the protected area (S$6,947,974 to S$9,068,027). The count data structure reduced the flexibility of the mobile phone data application. Compared to survey data, however, mobile phone data could prevent random errors and visitor memory biases; monitor impacts of site quality changes over time; count visitors from multiple entrances; and be cost-efficient. Overall, these results highlight the potential of mobile phone data application to improve travel cost analysis.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , Recreación , Singapur , Viaje
9.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 6, 2020 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013942

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Assessing wildlife movements and habitat use is important for species conservation and management and can be informative for understanding population dynamics. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania has been declining, and little was known about the movement, habitat selection, and space use of the population, which is important for understanding possible reasons behind the decline. A total of 12 African buffalo cows from four different herds were collared with satellite transmitters. Movements were assessed over 2 years from 11 animals. RESULTS: The space use of the individual collared buffaloes as an approximation of the 95% home range size estimated using Brownian bridge models, ranged from 73 to 601 km2. The estimated home ranges were larger in the wet season than in the dry season. With the exception of one buffalo all collared animals completed a wet season migration of varying distances. A consistent pattern of seasonal movement was observed with one herd, whereas the other herds did not behave the same way in the two wet seasons that they were tracked. Herd splitting and herd switching occurred on multiple occasions. Buffaloes strongly associated with habitats near the Great Ruaha River in the dry season and had little association to permanent water sources in the wet season. Daily movements averaged 4.6 km (standard deviation, SD = 2.6 km), with the longest distances traveled during November (mean 6.9 km, SD = 3.6 km) at the end of the dry season and beginning of the wet season. The shortest daily distances traveled occurred in the wet season in April-June (mean 3.6 km, SD = 1.6-1.8 km). CONCLUSION: The Great Ruaha River has experienced significant drying in the last decades due to water diversions upstream, which likely has reduced the suitable range for buffaloes. The loss of dry season habitat due to water scarcity has likely contributed to the population decline of the Ruaha buffaloes.


Asunto(s)
Búfalos , Parques Recreativos , Animales , Bovinos , Ecosistema , Femenino , Estaciones del Año , Tanzanía
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 717: 137240, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062245

RESUMEN

Air pollution and its resulting health risks in Beijing City have been widely investigated by scientists and administrators. However, the health risks caused by willow and poplar catkins in April and May (known as "spring snow") have been rarely reported. Poplar and willow are the two common trees in Beijing City that generate many whirling catkins in the air. The chemical composition of catkins remains unknown. In this study, catkins and dust samples were collected in several parks in Beijing. The total concentrations of metals/metalloids in catkins measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were generally lower than those of the corresponding dust samples, and they were lower than the risk control standard for soil contamination of development land. The simulated rain and lung fluid extraction rates of catkin samples were significantly higher than those of the dust samples. The concentration of extracted Pb and Zn using simulated rainwater exceeded the environmental quality standards for surface water (0.1 and 2.0 mg/L for Pb and Zn, respectively), indicating the possibility of runoff pollution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that fine particles (<10 µm) are attached to the surface of catkins. Therefore, the metals/metalloids in fine particles adsorbed by the catkin samples possess higher bioaccessibility than that in the dust samples based on different sizes of particles. A significant correlation is found between Pb in catkin and Pb in dust. Therefore, attention should be paid to the possible increase in metal/metalloid concentrations in catkins planted in contaminated areas.


Asunto(s)
Salix , Beijing , Polvo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metaloides , Metales , Parques Recreativos , Medición de Riesgo
12.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110068, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090812

RESUMEN

1. Primary objectives of national parks usually include both, the protection of natural processes and species conservation. When these objectives conflict, as occurs because of the cascading effects of large mammals (i.e., ungulates and large carnivores) on lower trophic levels, park managers have to decide upon the appropriate management while considering various local circumstances. 2. To analyse if ungulate management strategies are in accordance with the objectives defined for protected areas, we assessed the current status of ungulate management across European national parks using the naturalness concept and identified the variables that influence the management. 3. We collected data on ungulate management from 209 European national parks in 29 countries by means of a large-scale questionnaire survey. Ungulate management in the parks was compared by creating two naturalness scores. The first score reflects ungulate and large carnivore species compositions, and the second evaluates human intervention on ungulate populations. We then tested whether the two naturalness score categories are influenced by the management objectives, park size, years since establishment, percentage of government-owned land, and human impact on the environment (human influence index) using two generalized additive mixed models. 4. In 67.9% of the national parks, wildlife is regulated by culling (40.2%) or hunting (10.5%) or both (17.2%). Artificial feeding occurred in 81.3% of the national parks and only 28.5% of the national parks had a non-intervention zone covering at least 75% of the area. Furthermore, ungulate management differed greatly among the different countries, likely because of differences in hunting traditions and cultural and political backgrounds. Ungulate management was also influenced by park size, human impact on the landscape, and national park objectives, but after removing these variables from the full model the reduced models only showed a small change in the deviance explained. In areas with higher anthropogenic pressure, wildlife diversity tended to be lower and a higher number of domesticated species tended to be present. Human intervention (culling and artificial feeding) was lower in smaller national parks and when park objectives followed those set by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). 5. Our study shows that many European national parks do not fulfil the aims of protected area management as set by IUCN guidelines. In contrast to the USA and Canada, Europe currently has no common ungulate management policy within national parks. This lack of a common policy together with differences in species composition, hunting traditions, and cultural or political context has led to differences in ungulate management among European countries. To fulfil the aims and objectives of national parks and to develop ungulate management strategies further, we highlight the importance of creating a more integrated European ungulate management policy to meet the aims of national parks.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Parques Recreativos , Animales , Canadá , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Mamíferos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110122, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090823

RESUMEN

Adequate number of parks and amount of land allocated to those parks, to provide equal access for all city residences, are important factors in achieving cities to spatial equity. The purpose of this study was to analyze availability, distribution and accessibility of urban parks in the city of Ilam, Iran. In this research, descriptive statistics and buffering techniques in GIS were used. Our findings show that in Ilam, the indexes of park coverage and per capita park area are 2.13% and 1.91 m2 respectively, that are much lower than those of Iranian standards. Only slightly over a third of Ilam residents live within 200 m of a park. Parks are disproportionately agglomerated in the northern half of the city. Whilst 30.4% of the city's surface area, where 27.3% of the city's population reside, is not covered by park service areas, some other parts benefit from 13 park service areas. The index of per capita access to parks for 34.8% of Ilam population that reside in 32.7% of Ilam surface area, is less than 1.5 m2. The city in general suffers from a shortage of parks, but this, in particular, is severe in the city center and in the southern parts, highlighting the need for allocation of more lands for park provision.


Asunto(s)
Parques Recreativos , Ciudades , Irán , Población Urbana
14.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228491, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032390

RESUMEN

Latin Americans engage in physical activity (PA) in unique ways and use a wider range of places for PA than those commonly studied in high-income settings. We examined the contribution of a variety of places and domains of PA to meeting PA recommendations among a sample of adults (18-65 y) from all over Mexico. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 (n = 3 686). Overall and domain-specific PA was measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Use of places for PA was self-reported. Places were classified as private or public. In 2018, associations between specific places and meeting PA recommendations (≥150 mins/week) were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. In total 72.1% met PA recommendations. The proportion meeting recommendations through domain-specific PA was highest for leisure-time PA (50.0%), followed by travel-related (39.1%) and work-related (24.9%) PA. The most commonly reported places for PA were home (43%), parks (40.7%) and streets (39.4%) (public). Use of most public places was positively associated with meeting PA recommendations, mainly through travel-related PA (Streets OR 2.05 [95% CI 1.71-2.45]; Cycling paths OR 1.91 [1.37-2.68]). Using private places was more strongly associated with PA, mainly leisure-time PA (Gyms OR 9.66 [7.34-12.70]); Sports facilities OR 5.03 [3.27-7.74]). In conclusion, public and private places were important contributors to PA. While public places may be a powerful setting for PA promotion, increasing the equitable access for all to private places may also represent an effective strategy to increase PA among Mexican adults.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Ambiental , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Actividades Recreativas , Características de la Residencia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ciclismo/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Parques Recreativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Instalaciones Privadas/estadística & datos numéricos , Instalaciones Públicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110157, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954218

RESUMEN

Urban parks and schools sever as the mainly activity areas for children, but risk assessment posed by heavy metals (HMs) from soil and dust in these area has rarely been investigated. In this study, six urban parks and seven schools in Jiaozuo, China, were taken as research objects to understand the contamination level and bioaccessibility of HMs from soil and dust in urban parks and schools. The results indicated that Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, Ni and Co from soil and dust were above the background values, especially Zn and Cd in dust, and As and Cd in soil. Serious Cd pollution was discovered, and respective Cd concentrations in soil and dust were 17.83 and 7.52 times the background value. Additionally, the average concentration and bioaccessibility of Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni and Co in dust were both higher than in soil. High concentration and high bioaccessibility of HMs in dust suggested that HMs contamination were serious and universal in Jiaozuo. The concentrations of most HMs were higher in the gastric phase, except for Cu and Cd which remained higher in the intestinal phase. Both in the gastric phase and intestinal phase, Mn, As and Cd in soil and dust both have high bioaccessibility which all exceed 10%. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks base on the total HMs for children (soil: 7.93, 1.96E-05; dust: 6.44, 3.58E-05) were greater than those for adults (soil: 6.35E-01, 1.32E-05; dust: 5.06E-01, 2.42E-05), and urban parks and schools posed high potential risk for children. Therefore, assessment the risk posed by HMs contamination of soil and dust in urban parks and schools is vital and urgent for children.


Asunto(s)
Polvo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Adulto , Disponibilidad Biológica , Carcinógenos/análisis , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Niño , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Parques Recreativos , Medición de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 259-265, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957403

RESUMEN

Wood-decaying fungi are important components of forest ecosystem, mainly growing on the dead wood and decomposing lignin, cellulose, and hemi-cellulose. Understanding the ecological distribution of wood-decaying fungi are necessary to reveal their ecological function. In this study, we investigated wood-decaying fungi at three sites with different altitudes in Laojunshan National Park. Fruit bodies of fungi were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analy-sis. In total 68 species were recorded, belonging to 40 genera, 21 families and 8 orders. Polyporaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, and Hymenochaetaceae were dominant families. The floral composition showed a distinct north temperate character, which was the most important element among all the bio-geographical elements with the highest percentage of 38.2%. These wood-decaying fungi can be divided into two ecological types: saprophytic (63 species) and ectomycohizal (5 species). Among these saprophytic fungi, 51 species could cause white rot and 12 species cause brown rot. The amounts of fungal species in deciduous broad-leaf forest (DBF), coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest (CBMF) and dark coniferous forest (DCF) were 34, 26 and 22, respectively. Postia fragilis and Stereum hirsutum, distributed in all the three types of forests, were dominant species of Laojunshan National Park.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Madera , China , Hongos , Parques Recreativos
18.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 5, 2020 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The availability of preferred habitats determines the spatial and temporal distribution of herbivores in savanna ecosystems. Understanding habitat preference of a targeted wildlife species is crucial for developing effective conservation strategies. Habitat preference of large grazers in connection to grass height and post-fire effect has been debated for the last century. Here, we examined the effects of season, grass height and burning on the habitat preference on Swayne's hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Maze National Park. Data for seasonal habitat selection were collected using both direct observation along established transect lines and pellet counting using permanently established plots. Every month, we measured grass height commonly preferred by Swayne's hartebeest in grassland habitat. Starting from the first week of burning, we recorded the abundance of Swayne's hartebeest in both burned and unburned grassland patches. RESULTS: From detected pellets, 94.3% were recorded in the grassland habitat indicating that other habitat types are less used despite their extensive cover > 50% of the Park. During wet and early dry seasons, Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat. We found that 85.2% (n = 1079) and 85.3% (n = 593) of individuals observed in areas with a grass height below 30 cm during wet and early-dry seasons, respectively; while 70.9% (n = 2288) preferred grass height below 30 cm during the dry season. The density of Swayne's hartebeest in burned grassland area was higher than unburned grassland areas up to 150 days since burning. However, in unburned grassland areas, the density was initially low but showed increasing trend for consecutive days, reaching similar density with burned areas after 150 days since burning. CONCLUSION: Swayne's hartebeest exclusively preferred grassland habitat, particularly during wet and early-dry seasons, shortest available grass height in all seasons and were attracted to burned grassland areas. Our results suggested that fire played an important role in maintaining habitat quality in grassland, and that management should continue using controlled burning as a tool for the conservation of Swayne's hartebeest. However, we remain cautious of our findings given the paucity of information regarding other confounding factors and the absence of long-term data on fire disturbance.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes , Ecosistema , Animales , Etiopía , Pradera , Parques Recreativos , Estaciones del Año
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135431, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896231

RESUMEN

Globally, protected areas offer refugia for a broad range of taxa including threatened and endangered species. In the United States (US), the National Park Service (NPS) manages public lands to preserve biodiversity, but increasing park visitation and development of surrounding landscapes increase exposure to and effects from bioactive contaminants. The risk (exposure and hazard) to NPS protected-stream ecosystems within the highly urbanized southeast region (SER) from bioactive contaminants was assessed in five systems based on 334 pesticide and pharmaceutical analytes in water and 119 pesticides in sediment. Contaminant mixtures were common across all sampled systems, with approximately 24% of the unique analytes (80/334) detected at least once and 15% (49/334) detected in half of the surface-water samples. Pharmaceuticals were observed more frequently than pesticides, consistent with riparian buffers and concomitant spatial separation from non-point pesticide sources in four of the systems. To extrapolate exposure data to biological effects space, site-specific cumulative exposure-activity ratios (ΣEAR) were calculated for detected surface-water contaminants with available ToxCast data; common exceedances of a 0.001 ΣEAR effects-screening threshold raise concerns for molecular toxicity and possible, sub-lethal effects to non-target, aquatic vertebrates. The results illustrate the need for continued management of protected resources to reduce contaminant exposure and preserve habitat quality, including prioritization of conservation practices (riparian buffers) near stream corridors and increased engagement with upstream/up-gradient property owners and municipal wastewater facilities.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas/análisis , Animales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Parques Recreativos , Estados Unidos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua
20.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227759, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935265

RESUMEN

We investigated the species diversity of Mycobacteriaceae in surface water samples from six environments at the zoological park in São Paulo, Brazil. Three hundred and eighty isolates were cultivated and identified by phenotypic characteristics (growth rate and pigmentation) and sequencing of hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA genes. The results revealed that almost 48% of the isolates could be identified at the species level; about 50% were classified at the genus level, and only less than 2% of the isolates showed an inconclusive identification. The isolates classified at the genus level and not identified were then evaluated by phylogenetic analyses using the same three concatenated target genes. The results allowed us to identify at the genus level some isolates that previously had inconclusive identification, and they also suggested the presence of putative candidate species within the sample, demonstrating that this zoological park is an important source of diversity.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacteriaceae/genética , Microbiología del Agua , Brasil , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Genómica , Mycobacteriaceae/clasificación , Mycobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
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