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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 26-30, dic.2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117896

RESUMEN

Este estudio se sustentó en el paradigma cuantitativo orientado bajo una investigación de tipo descriptivo cuyo propósito fue describir el conocimiento sobre saberes populares del personal sanitario que labora en el Servicio de Atención Médica Inmediata del Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga. La muestra estuvo conformada por 10 médicos y 8 enfermeras a quienes se les aplicó una encuesta a través de un cuestionario con escala tipo Likert el cual fue validado por la técnica de juicio de expertos. Los resultados indican que los encuestados manifiestan una tendencia positiva en cuanto a que a la consulta llegan pacientes cuyas madres usan las creencias y costumbres de sus ancestros para tratar las enfermedades que padecen, respetando y reconociendo el saber popular que poseen las madres de los pacientes. Existe una tendencia negativa en la utilización de los saberes populares en la práctica médica, así como en la combinación del saber popular y el saber científico para tratar la enfermedad y en la posibilidad de integrar de manera pedagógica los saberes populares en la educación para la salud. Por otra parte expresan una marcada tendencia positiva en cuanto a que las madres utilizan los saberes populares por sus condiciones socioeconómicas y en el hecho de que la educación o valores recibidos por ellas influyen en el uso de dichas creencias; de igual forma, la mayoría expresa una tendencia positiva en que las creencias y costumbres maternales puedan generar intoxicaciones en los pacientes y una tendencia negativa en su habilidad para curar la enfermedad(AU)


This study was based on a quantitative paradigm oriented under descriptive field research. The purpose of this study was to describe knowledge on popular beliefs of patient's parents of the medical staff who work in the Servicio de Atención Médica Inmediata of the Servicio Desconcentrado Hospital Universitario Pediátrico Dr. Agustín Zubillaga. The sample consisted of 10 doctors and 8 nurses who were given a Likert-scale questionnaire which was validated by the expert judgment technique. The results demonstrate that respondents show a positive view in regards to the fact that patients mothers with beliefs and customs of their ancestors attend the consult, respecting and recognizing their popular belief system; there is a negative view in the use of popular beliefs in medical practice, combination of popular and scientific knowledge and the possibility of integration of popular beliefs into health education. On the other hand, they express a marked positive view in regards to the use of popular belief based on socioeconomic conditions and that the education or values received by them influence the use of these beliefs; similarly, most respondents express a positive view in relation to beliefs and customs leading to poisoning in patients and a negative view in the possibility that these beliefs cure disease(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Educación , Capacitación Profesional , Cultura Popular , Cambio Social , Participación de la Comunidad
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180250, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059129

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the health promotion practices developed by nurses in the care of people with non-transmittable chronic disease in primary health care, in scientific publications, between 2007 and 2017. Method: an integrative literature review of a qualitative approach, conducted in five databases, in which was read and critical analysis of the studies in order to know the practices of health promotion. Results: 40 articles were selected and organized according to the fields of the Ottawa Charter: public policies, reorientation of health services, creation of personal skills, reinforcement of community action and favorable environments. Thus, most of the experiments were mainly related to two fields of action: development of personal skills and reorientation of the health system. There is a movement towards the development of a health promotion in which the collective, the social determinants of health and multidisciplinarity are advocated. Conclusion: some limits were identified that need to be overcome, among which stands out the inter-sectoral work that needs to grow beyond the health sector.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las prácticas de promoción de la salud llevadas a cabo por los enfermeros al cuidar d personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisible en la atención primaria de la salud, en publicaciones científicas de 2007 a 2017. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura con enfoque cualitativo realizada en cinco bases de datos, en las que se efectuó una lectura y un análisis crítico de los estudios de modo de conocer las prácticas de promoción de la salud. Resultados: se seleccionaron 40 artículos y se los organizó de acuerdo con los campos de la Carta de Ottawa: políticas públicas, reorientación de los servicios de salud, desarrollo de habilidades personales, refuerzo de la acción comunitaria y ambientes favorables. De esta manera, la mayor parte de las experiencias se relacionó principalmente con dos campos de acción: desarrollo de habilidades personales y reorientación del sistema de salud. Se nota un desplazamiento en dirección al desarrollo de un enfoque de promoción de salud en el que se promueve lo colectivo, los determinantes sociales de la salud y de la multidisciplinariedad. Conclusión: se identificaron algunos límites que deben superarse, dentro de los cuales se destaca el trabajo intersectorial que debe extenderse más allá dl sector de la salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as práticas de promoção da saúde desenvolvidas pelos enfermeiros no cuidado às pessoas com doença crônica não transmissível na atenção primária à saúde, em publicações científicas entre de 2007 e 2017. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em cinco bases de dados, nos quais se fez uma leitura e análise crítica dos estudos de modo a conhecer as práticas de promoção da saúde. Resultados: foram selecionados 40 artigos, sendo organizados de acordo com os campos da Carta de Ottawa: políticas públicas, reorientação dos serviços de saúde, criação de habilidades pessoais, reforço da ação comunitária e ambientes favoráveis. Dessa forma, a maior parte das experiências estava relacionada principalmente a dois campos de ação: desenvolvimento de habilidades pessoais e reorientação do sistema de saúde. Observou-se um movimento em direção ao desenvolvimento de uma promoção da saúde em que se preconiza o coletivo, os determinantes sociais da saúde e a multidisciplinaridade. Conclusão: identificaram-se alguns limites que precisam ser transpostos, dentre os quais se destaca o trabalho intersetorial que precisa crescer para além do setor saúde.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Enfermedad Crónica , Enfermería , Política Pública , Participación de la Comunidad , Promoción de la Salud , Literatura , Atención de Enfermería
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 146, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193961

RESUMEN

Prevention of exposure to the COVID-19 virus in the general population is an essential strategy to slow community transmission. This paper shares the experiences and challenges of community engagement in COVID-19 prevention in the Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania implemented by our team from the Institute of Public Health (IPH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) in collaboration with the COVID-19 response team in the Moshi Municipality. We conducted an education session with the COVID-19 response team and together brainstormed transmission hotspots and which interventions would be most feasible in their settings. The first hotspot identified was crowded local market spaces. Suggested interventions included targeted and mass public health education through the engagement of market opinion leaders, public announcements, and radio shows. We conducted participatory rural appraisal techniques to enable market vendors and clients to visualize two-meter distances and provided a prototype hand-washing facility that was foot operated. We found mass public health educational campaigns essential to inform and update the public about COVID-19 pandemic and to address rumors and misinformation, which hampers compliance with public health interventions. Coordinated efforts among stakeholders in the country are necessary to develop context-specific prevention and case management strategies following the national and international guidelines. Local ownership of recommended interventions is necessary to ensure compliance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Desinfección de las Manos/instrumentación , Educación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Colaboración Intersectorial , Liderazgo , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Aplicaciones Móviles , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Instalaciones Privadas , Salud Pública , Población Rural , Participación de los Interesados , Tanzanía/epidemiología
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051285

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Community engagement has been considered a fundamental component of past outbreaks, such as Ebola. However, there is concern over the lack of involvement of communities and 'bottom-up' approaches used within COVID-19 responses thus far. Identifying how community engagement approaches have been used in past epidemics may support more robust implementation within the COVID-19 response. METHODOLOGY: A rapid evidence review was conducted to identify how community engagement is used for infectious disease prevention and control during epidemics. Three databases were searched in addition to extensive snowballing for grey literature. Previous epidemics were limited to Ebola, Zika, SARS, Middle East respiratory syndromeand H1N1 since 2000. No restrictions were applied to study design or language. RESULTS: From 1112 references identified, 32 articles met our inclusion criteria, which detail 37 initiatives. Six main community engagement actors were identified: local leaders, community and faith-based organisations, community groups, health facility committees, individuals and key stakeholders. These worked on different functions: designing and planning, community entry and trust building, social and behaviour change communication, risk communication, surveillance and tracing, and logistics and administration. CONCLUSION: COVID-19's global presence and social transmission pathways require social and community responses. This may be particularly important to reach marginalised populations and to support equity-informed responses. Aligning previous community engagement experience with current COVID-19 community-based strategy recommendations highlights how communities can play important and active roles in prevention and control. Countries worldwide are encouraged to assess existing community engagement structures and use community engagement approaches to support contextually specific, acceptable and appropriate COVID-19 prevention and control measures.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238776, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035242

RESUMEN

Globally, increasing efforts have been made to hold duty-bearers to account for their commitments to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (RMNCAH) over the past two decades, including via social accountability approaches: citizen-led, collective processes for holding duty-bearers to account. There have been many individual studies and several reviews of social accountability approaches but the implications of their findings to inform future accountability efforts are not clear. We addressed this gap by conducting a review of reviews in order to summarise the current evidence on social accountability for RMNCAH, identify factors contributing to intermediary outcomes and health impacts, and identify future research and implementation priorities. The review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO CRD42019134340). We searched eight databases and systematic review repositories and sought expert recommendations for published and unpublished reviews, with no date or language restrictions. Six reviews were analysed using narrative synthesis: four on accountability or social accountability approaches for RMNCAH, and two specifically examining perinatal mortality audits, from which we extracted information relating to community involvement in audits. Our findings confirmed that there is extensive and growing evidence for social accountability approaches, particularly community monitoring interventions. Few documented social accountability approaches to RMNCAH achieve transformational change by going beyond information-gathering and awareness-raising, and attention to marginalised and vulnerable groups, including adolescents, has not been well documented. Drawing generalisable conclusions about results was difficult, due to inconsistent nomenclature and gaps in reporting, particularly regarding objectives, contexts, and health impacts. Promising approaches for successful social accountability initiatives include careful tailoring to the social and political context, strategic planning, and multi-sectoral/multi-stakeholder approaches. Future primary research could advance the evidence by describing interventions and their results in detail and in their contexts, focusing on factors and processes affecting acceptability, adoption, and effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Salud , Responsabilidad Social , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Niño , Salud del Niño , Participación de la Comunidad , Femenino , Humanos , Salud del Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Salud Materna , Evaluación de Necesidades , Mortalidad Perinatal , Embarazo , Salud Reproductiva
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237319, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119604

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Routine immunization coverage has stagnated over the past decade and fallen short of WHO targets in Ethiopia. Community engagement strategies that reach beyond traditional health systems may reduce dropout and increase coverage. This evaluation assesses changes in immunization, postpartum family planning, and antenatal care coverage after implementation of an enhanced community engagement and defaulter tracing strategy, entitled "Fifth Child" project, across two districts in Benishangul-Gumuz Regional State (BGRS), Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A formative evaluation was conducted to examine the contribution of the strategy on immunization, postpartum family planning and antenatal care utilization in Assosa and Bambasi districts of BGRS. The quantitative findings are presented here. Routine and project-specific data were analyzed to assess changes in uptake of childhood vaccinations, postpartum family planning and antenatal care. Between January 2013 and December 2016, pentavalent-3 coverage increased from 63% to 84% in Assosa, and from 78% to 93% in Bambasi. Similarly, measles vaccine coverage increased from 77% to 81% in Assosa, and from 59% to 86% in Bambasi. Approximately 54% of all eligible infants across both woredas defaulted on scheduled vaccinations at least once during the period. Among defaulting children, 84% were identified and subsequently caught up on the vaccinations missed. Secondary outcomes of postpartum family planning and antenatal care also increased in both woredas. CONCLUSION: The "Fifth Child" project likely contributed to enhanced immunization performance and increased utilization of immunization and select perinatal health services in two woredas of BGRS. Further research is required in order to determine the impact of this community engagement strategy.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Programas de Inmunización , Atención Perinatal , Niño , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Participación de la Comunidad , Etiopía , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes del Tratamiento , Atención Posnatal , Embarazo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241330, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: According to current reporting, the number of active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections is not evenly distributed, both spatially and temporally. Reported COVID-19 infections may not have properly conveyed the full extent of attention to the pandemic. Furthermore, infection metrics are unlikely to illustrate the full scope of negative consequences of the pandemic and its associated risk to communities. METHODS: In an effort to better understand the impacts of COVID-19, we concurrently assessed the geospatial and longitudinal distributions of Twitter messages about COVID-19 which were posted between March 3rd and April 13th and compared these results with the number of confirmed cases reported for sub-national levels of the United States. Geospatial hot spot analysis was also conducted to detect geographic areas that might be at elevated risk of spread based on both volume of tweets and number of reported cases. RESULTS: Statistically significant aberrations of high numbers of tweets were detected in approximately one-third of US states, most of which had relatively high proportions of rural inhabitants. Geospatial trends toward becoming hotspots for tweets related to COVID-19 were observed for specific rural states in the United States. DISCUSSION: Population-adjusted results indicate that rural areas in the U.S. may not have engaged with the COVID-19 topic until later stages of an outbreak. Future studies should explore how this dynamic can inform future outbreak communication and health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Geografía Médica , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Salud Pública , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
12.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192934

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: ¿cómo seguir trabajando la orientación y participación comunitaria en Atención Primaria durante la pandemia por COVID-19?. OBJETIVOS Y MÉTODOS: observar, describir, reflexionar y documentar aspectos relativos a la atención comunitaria en el momento actual de pandemia por COVID-19 en los equipos de Atención Primaria (EAP) de Aragón. Estudio exploratorio-descriptivo observacional transversal con enfoque cualitativo, con dos fases. 1ª: recopilación de experiencias comunitarias y localización de informantes clave. 2ª: descripción de acciones comunitarias. Análisis descriptivo y tipo DAFO. RESULTADOS: se detectaron 47 iniciativas. Participaron 11 expertas y 54 informantes clave. El 66,6% consideró el rol de los EAP como consultores/colaboradores. El 64,9% de las iniciativas contempló la diversidad. El 49,1% no sabía si valoraron diferencias por género. Destacaron la importancia de lo comunitario para superar la crisis y la cooperación y coordinación con la comunidad e instituciones locales. DISCUSIÓN: protocolos con orientación biomédica, miedo e incertidumbre por la COVID-19 dificultaron el desarrollo de iniciativas comunitarias; frente a esto, fue clave la trayectoria comunitaria previa de los EAP, el trabajo en equipo, con especial relevancia el de las trabajadoras sociales, y su motivación. La participación del EAP como colaborador refuerza la importancia del liderazgo compartido. Son necesarios espacios colaborativos, apoyo institucional y coordinación intersectorial. CONCLUSIÓN: durante la pandemia, las comunidades deben ser parte de la respuesta; la orientación comunitaria de los EAP es clave. Es preciso visibilizar, acompañar y reforzar el trabajo comunitario y estimular la coordinación con Salud Pública


INTRODUCTION: How to continue working on community guidance and participation in Primary Care during the COVID-19 pandemic?. OJECTIVES AND METHODS: To observe, report, reflect and document autonomous community experiences of Aragonese Primary Care Teams (PCT) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A two-phase exploratory-descriptive observational, cross-sectional study with a qualitative approach. Phase 1: compilation of experiences in community health and location of key informants. Phase 2: description of community actions. Descriptive and SWOT analysis. RESULTS: A total of 47 initiatives were detected; 11 experts and 54 key informants took part. A total of 66.6% considered the role of the PCT as consultants or collaborators; 64.9% of initiatives considered diversity. A total of 49.1% did not know whether they evaluated differences by sex. They highlighted the importance of the community to overcome the crisis, and cooperation and coordination with community and local institutions. DISCUSSION: Protocols with biomedical guidance, fear and uncertainty due to COVID-19 hindered development of community initiatives. In light of this, the previous community trajectory of PCTs, teamwork with special relevance of social workers and their motivation were fundamental. PCT involvement as a partner strengthens the importance of shared leadership. Collaborative spaces, institutional support and intersectoral coordination are all necessary. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, communities must be part of the response; PCT community guidance is essential. Visibility, working alongside and strengthening community work and stimulating public health coordination are all necessary requirements


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Servicio Social/organización & administración , Atención al Paciente/tendencias , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad/tendencias , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud/tendencias
13.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193593

RESUMEN

OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la efectividad de una intervención comunitaria de formación profesional para jóvenes en riesgo de exclusión social, en la salud autopercibida, la autoestima y el consumo de sustancias (alcohol, tabaco y cannabis). Evaluar la satisfacción de los participantes. MÉTODOS: Diseño: estudio de intervención pre-post. Emplazamiento: tres barrios de renta baja de Barcelona durante 2013-2017. Participantes: 185 participantes, de 21 años de media y predominio masculino (65,5%). Intervención: programa de 4 meses de formación profesional de diferentes disciplinas e itinerarios orientados a la inserción laboral. Mediciones principales: análisis bivariado (McNemar) para datos apareados, comparando la salud autopercibida, autoestima y consumos pre-post intervención. Modelos de regresión de Poisson para las variables resultado, ajustando por variables explicativas. Además, se evaluó la satisfacción con el programa a través de un cuestionario y una discusión grupal. RESULTADOS: la salud autopercibida era elevada antes de la intervención (87,7% hombres y 82,1% mujeres) y se mantuvo tras ella (90,6% y 83,9% respectivamente). Los niveles elevados de autoestima previos a la intervención (92,8% en hombres y 92,9% mujeres) aumentaron tras ella (95,5% y 100% respectivamente), de forma significativa en las mujeres (p < 0,05). El consumo de sustancias no varió tras la intervención. La satisfacción con el programa fue elevada. CONCLUSIÓN: la intervención parece haber mejorado la autoestima en las mujeres, un colectivo con elevado desempleo y normalmente infrarrepresentado en los programas formativos. Esta intervención no incidió en el consumo de sustancias. Los programas de inserción laboral para jóvenes pueden promover factores beneficiosos para la salud mental


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community occupational training intervention for young people at risk of social exclusion on self-perceived health, self-esteem and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis). To assess participant's satisfaction. METHODS: Design: Quasi-experimental before-after study. Setting: Three low-income neighbourhoods in Barcelona during 2013-2017. Participants: 185 participants with an average age of 21 years and mainly males (65.5%). Intervention: Four-month programme on specific occupational skills and itineraries oriented towards occupational integration. Most important measurements: Bivariate analysis (McNemar test) for paired data to compare self-rated health and self-esteem pre-intervention and post-intervention. Poisson regression models for result variables, adjusting for explanatory variables. In addition, satisfaction with the programme was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and group discussion. RESULTS: Pre-intervention self-rating was good (87.7% men and 82.1% women) and remained good post-intervention (90.6% and 83.9% respectively). Pre-intervention self-esteem was good (92.8% in men and 92.9% in women) and increased after the intervention (95.5% and 100% respectively). This was statistically significant in women (P<0.05). Substance use was unaltered after the intervention. Satisfaction with the programme was high. CONCLUSION: The intervention appears to have improved self-esteem among young women, who are an important group among the unemployed, as they are usually underrepresented in training and professional programmes. Programmes that foster young people moving into working life may also promote factors beneficial to mental health


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Participación de la Comunidad , Capacitación Profesional , Poblaciones Vulnerables/psicología , Autoimagen , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología
14.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193596

RESUMEN

La soledad y el apoyo social deficiente están reconocidos como predictores de morbimortalidad. Cuando una persona mayor vive sola y no recibe soporte familiar ni social para corregir desviaciones en su autocuidado, se produce una sobreutilización de servicios sanitarios y, posiblemente, un aumento de los ingresos hospitalarios. En 2018, el Consell de Salut del Centro de Salud (CS) República Argentina de Valencia realizó un estudio piloto de detección y abordaje de soledad no deseada en las personas del barrio en el que se estableció que un 45% de las personas que vivían solas y eran mayores de 75 años tendrían un posible diagnóstico de aislamiento social. OBJETIVOS: implementar una red comunitaria de voluntariado de acompañamiento-vigilancia en autocuidados para personas mayores con aislamiento social en el área del CS República Argentina, con el soporte del «Programa de acompañamiento en salud constante» (PASC) de la Cruz Roja, en colaboración con el centro de salud, y estudiar la relación entre soledad y salud. MÉTODOS: mediante un diseño escalado de detección y diagnóstico de aislamiento social, con la participación de técnicos de la Cruz Roja, profesionales del centro de salud y la colaboración de voluntariado de acompañamiento a personas mayores participantes. RESULTADOS: en 7 meses 1.200 personas fueron sensibilizadas de forma directa sobre la soledad y 49 voluntarios del barrio desarrollaron labores de acompañamiento y asistencia a talleres formativos y lúdicos. Los profesionales sanitarios analizaron 216 casos: 149 (69%) no se sintieron solos y 67 (31%) fueron diagnosticados de aislamiento social (código correspondiente a V64.01 según CIE-9). Participaron en el proyecto 54 personas (25%). Existe asociación entre la escala de detección de la soledad existencial (EDSOL) y la participación en el proyecto. La sensación de soledad no deseada presenta correlación positiva con problemas de movilidad, cronicidad y una tendencia de asociación con otras variables de salud (consumo elevado de fármacos, percepción negativa de calidad de vida, etc.). CONCLUSIONES: las intervenciones comunitarias promovidas desde el centro de salud sobre personas que viven solas contribuyen al abordaje del aislamiento no deseado y a su vez generan un barrio más solidario


Loneliness and poor social support are widely recognized as predictors of morbidity and mortality. When an elderly person lives alone and does not receive family or social support to correct minor deviations in basic self-care processes, this leads to overuse of health services and possibly, increased hospital admissions. In 2018, the Consell de Salut of the República Argentina Primary Health Centre in Valencia, began a pilot study to detect and tackle unwanted loneliness in people from the neighbourhood, in which it was established that 45% of people aged over 75 years old who lived alone may be diagnosed with social isolation. OBJECTIVES: To establish a community network of accompanying-surveillance volunteers in self-care for socially isolated elderly people in the area of the República Argentina Primary Care Centre with the support of the Red Cross Constant Health Accompaniment Programme. The specific objective is to study the relationship between loneliness and health. METHODS: Using a scaled design for the detection and diagnosis of social isolation, with the participation of the Red Cross technicians, professionals from the health center, and the collaboration of volunteer support for elderly participants. RESULTS: Over seven months a total of 1200 people have been directly made aware about loneliness and 49 volunteers from the neighbourhood performed accompaniment work and attended training and recreational workshops. Health professionals analyzed 216 cases, of which 149 (69%) did not feel alone and the remaining 67 (31%) were diagnosed with social isolation (code V64.01 according to ICD-9). A total of 54 (25%) agreed to take part in the project. An association was observed between the scale for detection of existential loneliness (EDSOL) and participation in the project. The feeling of unwanted loneliness correlates positively with mobility problems, chronicity and a tendency of association with other health variables such as high consumption of drugs and negative perception of quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Community interventions promoted by the Primary Health Centre on people who live alone contribute to tackling unwanted isolation, which at the same time generates a more supportive neighbourhood


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Anciano , Participación de la Comunidad/métodos , Redes Comunitarias , Anciano Frágil/psicología , Programas Voluntarios , Agencias Voluntarias , Soledad , Argentina , Calidad de Vida
15.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193597

RESUMEN

En 2006 nace una ONG en Boulembou (A 500 km de Dakar), fundada por cooperantes e inmigrantes del pueblo en nuestro país, donde se hicieron estudios para definir el entorno y asambleas y comités para priorizar intervenciones. OBJETIVOS: conocer el funcionamiento de un proyecto comunitario y formar parte de una ONG de codesarrollo, así como obtener y valorar los resultados de sus acciones a medio y largo plazo sobre la población. MÉTODOS: codesarrollo (las personas inmigrantes ayudan en realizar intervenciones en sus países de origen) y salud comunitaria (acciones para mejorar la salud de una comunidad más allá de la individual). RESULTADOS: el pueblo tiene agua potable, huertos, centro de salud (enfermero, comadrona y agentes de salud) y mejoras en la escuela. DISCUSIÓN: el enfoque y las líneas de trabajo realizadas desde un punto de vista comunitario y de codesarrollo han permitido que los proyectos se autogestionen y autofinancien para poder seguir evolucionando y progresando


An NGO was founded in 2006 in Boulembou (located 500 km from Dakar). It was founded by aid workers and immigrants from this town to our country. Studies were performed there to define the setting and to start meetings and committees to prioritize interventions. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the operation of a community project and be part of a co-development NGO in addition to obtaining and evaluating the impact of its actions on the population in the medium and long term. METHODS: Co-development (immigrants assist with development in countries of origin) and community health (actions targeted at improving community health). RESULTS: The town now has drinking water from fountains, orchards and a healthcare centre (with a nurse, midwife and healthcare agents) in addition to school improvements. DISCUSSION: Projects were implemented from a community and co-development point of view and have facilitated self-management and self-financing to continue evolving and progressing by themselves


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Participación de la Comunidad , Organizaciones , Atención Primaria de Salud/métodos , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Cooperación Internacional , Senegal , Salud Pública , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124619

RESUMEN

This paper aims to share the reflections related to the community actions in which the Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona has been involved during the emergency of COVID-19. The tasks carried out can be arranged in three stages, frequently overlapping: detection of needs and problems; contact with key stakeholders to assess what to do and how to do it; adaptation of the interventions to the "new normal" and generation of new responses. The emerging problems included: not being able to do the confinement (due to homelessness, material conditions, living in a situation of violence); digital gap (lack of knowledge, devices, access to Wifi); greater exposure to COVID-19 in the essential but precarious, feminized and racialized jobs (care, cleaning, food shops) that are the most frequent in the neighborhoods in where we work; language and cultural barriers that preclude to follow recommendations; to lose employment; insufficient income to cover basic needs; social isolation; and the deterioration of emotional health caused by the situation. During the process, some interventions were adapted to be delivered on-line. Solidarity networks and local resources were key to meet basic needs, but also other needs related to lack of digital knowledge or device. Community action in health, from a critical, intersectional and local perspective, and with intersectoral work and community participation, can contribute to: facilitate a contextualized response in the event of a health crisis; mitigate the effects derived from its economic and social crisis.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Participación de la Comunidad , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , España
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238349, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898181

RESUMEN

Nowadays, citizen science has become increasingly popular, especially in Western countries. In Hong Kong, citizen science projects are mostly used for public education, while utilizing citizen scientists in published scientific research is very rare. On the other hand, with the increasing threats to global water security, Hong Kong requires new adaptation and strategy in facing the impairment of local freshwater systems. However, unfortunately, the number of full-scale urban river research appears to be declining. In this regard, citizen science can offer an alternative option as one of the new integrated water management strategies in Hong Kong. In this study, the water quality of seven rivers and streams in Hong Kong was studied monthly for two years by a group of citizen scientists. The main goal is to examine the reliability of data collected by citizen scientists by comparing it with the official data from the Environmental Protection Department of Hong Kong (EPD). Results show that the water temperature and conductivity data acquired by the citizen scientists were highly comparable to the official data. Also, moderate to strong correlations in water pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen levels were found between citizen scientists and official data. Since the citizen science data remained as high as 70% of relevance to the official data, we believe that this may serve as a supplement to the lacking official or professional water quality monitoring data in Hong Kong. Even though the use of volunteer data in water quality monitoring unavoidably exists with errors and bias, this study demonstrates a successful outcome of utilizing citizen science programme in urban river monitoring in Hong Kong.


Asunto(s)
Ciencia Ciudadana/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Ríos/química , Calidad del Agua/normas , Participación de la Comunidad , Hong Kong , Humanos
20.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 231-236, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879187

RESUMEN

To reach the target of ending the dengue epidemic by 2030, all effort shall be made to minimize the dengue transmission across the country through effective, efficient, low-cost and sustainable programs. In Indonesia, the evidence of community empowerment on dengue prevention is insufficient. The objective of this study is to explore the opinion of community and larva monitoring workers (Jumantik cadre) on dengue prevention. A structured free listing interview was conducted in April-May 2019 by targeting two groups: the community and larva workers in one village of Sleman, Yogyakarta. Door to door interviews were done until the quota and saturation were reached. Each group was asked four free listing questions. The analysis was performed in these stages: transcribing, coding, combining by the question, and calculating the salience score. The most salient score about vector control in the larva cadre was not hanging up dirty clothes; in the community it was cleaning the bathtub. Both groups cited themself as the salient motivator in joining the vector control. Protecting the environment and keeping healthy were the reasons for participating in the vector control. The larva cadre stated community refusal as the main challenge. The community cited the importance of larva cadre: to monitor the presence of larva. Community empowerment on dengue vector control has not been effortlessly executed at the bottom level.


Asunto(s)
Participación de la Comunidad , Dengue/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adulto , Dengue/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Indonesia/epidemiología , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
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