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6.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 72(1): 1-10, 2020 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099979

RESUMEN

The maintenance of human pregnancy and the initiation of parturition are closely related with the dynamic balance of the maternal-fetal immune microenvironment. Implantation of the blastocyst into the maternal decidua is the first step in pregnancy establishment, which is favored by the abundant blood flow and the immunotolerant microenvironment maintained by the balance of immune cells. The parturition resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal-fetal interface, which promotes the delivery of fetus from maternal organism. Therefore, the immune microenvironment in maternal-fetal interface regulates the critical steps of pregnancy and parturition. When the maternal-fetal immune microenvironment is imbalanced or impaired, miscarriage or preterm labor would happen. This article reviews the roles and mechanisms of several important immune cells in the maternal-fetal interface during the parturition and preterm labor.


Asunto(s)
Trabajo de Parto , Intercambio Materno-Fetal/inmunología , Trabajo de Parto Prematuro , Parto/inmunología , Citocinas/inmunología , Decidua , Femenino , Feto , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo
7.
; UNICEF.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46938

RESUMEN

O UNICEF estima que 392.078 bebês vão nascer em todo o mundo no Dia de Ano Novo.


Asunto(s)
Recién Nacido , Parto , Personal de Salud
10.
Indian Pediatr ; 57(1): 23-24, 2020 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937693
12.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1048327

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever ações executadas pelo acompanhante junto à parturiente, conforme informações recebidas no pré-natal. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo, exploratório, com 21 acompanhantes, com o uso de um questionário semiestruturado. No processamento de análise dos dados, foi utilizado o software Iramuteq. Resultados: emergiram duas classes: 1. A informação no pré-natal sobre o direito do acompanhante e 2. A participação do acompanhante junto à parturiente e as ações executadas. Conclusão: a informação referente ao direito do acompanhante e ações a serem desenvolvidas por eles no processo de parto foram poucas ou nenhuma durante o pré-natal e as ações realizadas por eles foram provenientes de conhecimento adquirido por meio de busca individual ou recebido no momento da internação


Objective: to describe actions taken by the companion of the parturient, according the information received in prenatal care. Method: qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study with 21 companions, with the use of a semi-structured questionnaire. In the data analysis processing, Iramuteq software was used. Results: the two categories that emerged: 1. The information in the prenatal about your rights to the parturient companion 2. The participation of the parturient companion and the actions taken. Conclusion: observed that the information concerning the right of the companion and actions to be undertaken by them on labor process, were little or no during prenatal care, and the actions performed by them came from knowledge acquired through individual search or received at the time of hospitalization


Objetivo: describir acciones ejecutadas por el acompañante junto a la parturienta, conforme informaciones recibidas en el prenatal. Método: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio, con 21 acompañantes, con el uso de un cuestionario semiestructurado. En el procesamiento de análisis de los datos, se utilizó el software Iramuteq. Resultados: emergieron dos clases: 1. La información en el prenatal sobre el derecho del acompañante y 2. La participación del acompañante junto a la parturienta y las acciones ejecutadas. Conclusión: la información referente al derecho del acompañante y acciones a ser desarrolladas por ellos en el proceso de parto y parto fueron pocas o ninguna durante el prenatal y las acciones realizadas por ellos, fueron provenientes de conocimiento adquiridos por medio de búsqueda individual o recibidas en el momento de la internación


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Prenatal , Parto Humanizado , Chaperones Médicos/tendencias , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Trabajo de Parto , Parto , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanización de la Atención , Acogimiento
13.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 107-113, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1048279

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a assistência ao parto das mulheres assistidas em um hospital público da baixada litorânea do Rio de Janeiro. Método: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quantitativa, de delineamento transversal, que utilizou a técnica documental retrospectiva. Os dados da pesquisa são relativos aos partos que ocorrem na instituição durante o período de janeiro a junho de 2015. Resultados: dos 796 partos, 352 (44,22%) ocorreram por via vaginal e 444 (55,77%) por via abdominal. Constatou-se que as primíparas e as mulheres com mais de 35 anos foram submetidas com maior frequência a cesárea. Das 352 parturientes que tiveram parto vaginal, 164 (46,59%) tiveram a episiotomia realizada. Conclusão: a instituição apresenta alto índice de partos cirúrgicos e realização de intervenções obstétricas, tais como a episiotomia, sendo realizada de forma rotineira e sem indicação adequada. A assistência encontra-se desumanizada e em desacordo com as atuais recomendações e evidências científicas


Objective: the study's purpose has been to analyze the childbirth care of women assisted at a public hospital in the coastal lowland of Rio de Janeiro State. Method: this is a descriptive and cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach that applied the retrospective documentary technique. The research data are related to the births that occured in the institution during the period from January to June 2015. Results: a total of 796 births were recorded, 352 (44.22%) occurred by the vaginal route and 444 (55.77%) via abdominal. It was found that primiparous and women over 35 years old were more frequently submitted to cesarean section. Among 352 parturients who had a vaginal delivery, 164 (46.59%) had the episiotomy performed. Conclusion: the institution has a high rate of surgical deliveries and obstetric interventions, such as episiotomy, performed routinely and without adequate indication. The assistance is dehumanized and in disagreement with current recommendations and scientific evidence


Objetivo: analizar la asistencia de parto de las mujeres assistidas en un hospital público de la baixada litorânea del Rio de Janeiro. Método: trata de um estúdio descriptivo, de naturaleza cuantitativa, de delineamento transversal, que utiliza la técnica documental retrospectiva. Dado los resultados de la investigación los partos ocurren en instituciones en Enero a Junio de 2015. Resultados: de los 796 partos, 352 (44,22%) ocurren por via vaginal, el 444 (55,77%) por via abdominal. Constantemente las mujeres primerisas con más de 35 anos son sometidas con mayor frecuencia a cesárea. Dadas las 352 pacientes que tuvierón parto vaginal, 164 (46,59%) tuvieron una epiosotomía. Conclusión: la institución representa un alto índice de partos cirúrgicos y realización de intervenciones obstétricas, tales como una episiotomia, siendo realizada de forma rutinaria y sin indicación adecuada. La asistencia se encuentra desumanizada en desacuerdo con las actuales recomendaciones y evidencias científicas


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Salud de la Mujer , Parto , Episiotomía , Brasil
16.
BJOG ; 127(1): 123, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654609
17.
Clin Ter ; 170(1): e78-e86, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850489

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childbirth education classes are antenatal support services offered to pregnant women or to the couple, aimed at increasing their knowledge regarding pregnancy, labour, delivery, breastfeeding, parenthood and newborn care. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of Birthing Classes through the analysis of the occurrence of C-section, epidural analgesia, behavior during labor and delivery of the women who participated to the course as compared to those who did not attend it. Moreover, the level of satisfaction of pregnant women who attended the course was measured with a questionnaire of 20 items handed out after the delivery. METHODS: To measure the satisfaction level of pregnant women, in the period from February 2017 to October 2017, a questionnaire of 20 items was used. In order to analyze the results of the births the medical records were consulted. RESULTS: In the period of time going from February 2017 to October 2017 there were 147 women who have delivered and who have filled in the questionnaire. According to the multivariable analysis, there were no differences in the frequency of C-sections between the two groups (OR=0.8, 95%CI=0.3-1.7, p=0.503), whereas the frequency of epidural analgesia was lower in women who attended the Birthing Class (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.1-0.9, p=0.036). We also observed that women who attended the Birthing Class: 1) had a higher likelihood of using breathing techniques during the labor (OR=5.5, 95%CI=1.5-20.0, p=0.009); 2) had a higher likelihood of taking advantage of the visualization exercises during the labor (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.1-6.0, p=0.039). There was no other relevant difference between the two groups. DISCUSSION: The benefits of perinatal education are difficult to evaluate systematically, and further research would be required to determine real effects and agree upon reliable indicators of effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several positive factors that confirm the results of other studies indicating that antenatal classes are effective for women giving birth for the first time/nulliparous women, based on an analysis of childbirth outcomes, in order to improve maternal and neonatal health.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia Epidural , Cesárea/educación , Trabajo de Parto , Parto , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Mujeres Embarazadas/educación , Educación Prenatal/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Adulto Joven
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 714-722, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629521

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to objectively assess, using an automated behavioral monitoring system, any behavioral differences between primiparous and multiparous cows before calving, and to quantify any behavioral differences between assisted (dystocic) and unassisted (eutocic) calvings. Data were collected from 32 multiparous and 12 primiparous Holstein dairy cattle to describe normal calving behavior and parity differences. To quantify behavior related to calving difficulty, the data from 14 animals that had dystocia at calving were matched to cows that had an eutocic calving based on parity, locomotion score, calf breed, calf sex, month, and year of calving. An IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) was fitted to the right hind leg of cows 4 wk before their expected calving date. Data for lying time, standing time, number of steps, motion index (total motion), and the total number of standing and lying bouts (postural transitions) were automatically collected and summed into 15-min blocks. Behavioral variables were summarized into 2-h periods and 24-h periods before analyses. Mixed-effect models were used to analyze cow behavior in the last 4 d before calving (d -4 to -1), and on the day of calving. In the 4 d before calving, compared with multiparous cows, primiparous cows lay down an average 2.8 h/d less, had 9.1 more postural transitions/d (37.7 ± 1.2 vs. 27.6 ± 0.7), walked 172 more steps/d, and had a higher motion index (2,673.2 vs. 1,981.5 units/d). There was an effect of 2-h period on all behavioral variables on the day of calving. No indicator of calving difficulty was found on the day of calving, nor the days leading up to calving. These findings suggest that parity should be considered when predicting the day of calving, and changes in cow behavior on the day of calving could be used to identify calving cows, and to predict the time of calving.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/fisiopatología , Distocia/veterinaria , Paridad , Animales , Bovinos , Distocia/fisiopatología , Femenino , Lactancia , Locomoción , Parto , Embarazo
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 965-971, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668447

RESUMEN

First colostrum yield and constituents as well as milk yield during established lactation vary considerably among mammary quarters in dairy cows. However, data on the development of milk yield, IgG concentration, and their distribution per quarter within cows during the first milkings after calving are scarce. We analyzed milk production and IgG concentration at the individual quarter level in 29 multiparous Holstein cows during the first 5 milkings after calving. Cow- and calf-related factors (time interval between calving and first milking, parity number, previous lactation yield, gestation length, dry period length, sex, and birth weight of the calf) potentially affecting first colostrum quality and quantity were assessed. Milking of first colostrum was carried out between 30 and 180 min after parturition. Further milkings were performed twice daily. Quarter milk yield varied between 0.1 and 5.5 kg at the first milking and between 1.4 and 5.1 kg at the fifth milking relative to parturition. Quarter IgG concentration ranged between 18.8 and 106.0 mg/mL at the first milking and between 0.8 and 46.1 mg/mL at the fifth milking. Distribution of milk yield and IgG concentration among quarters was not entirely repeatable during the first 5 successive milkings after parturition; that is, the ranking of quarters changed (intraclass correlation coefficients for quarter milk yield and IgG concentration: 0.64 and 0.79, respectively). The average hourly milk production increased in all quarters, ranging from 0.02 to 0.26 kg/h between the first 2 milkings up to 0.11 to 0.45 kg/h between the fourth and fifth milkings. First colostrum yield was not affected by any of the evaluated cow- and calf-related factors. Quarter colostrum IgG concentration was higher in cows with a higher previous lactation yield, whereas a lower colostrum IgG content was observed in cows with a longer gestation period and consequently heavier calves. In conclusion, milk yield and IgG concentration of individual quarters varied considerably, and their distribution among quarters within cows was moderately repeatable in consecutive milkings and changed partially over time. The decline of IgG concentration was independent of the concomitant increase in milk secretion, with changes occurring at different rates in individual quarters. Our results confirm the independence of the single mammary quarters at the onset of lactation despite an identical exposure to endocrine stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Calostro/fisiología , Inmunoglobulina G/química , Leche/fisiología , Parto/fisiología , Animales , Calostro/química , Femenino , Lactancia , Paridad , Embarazo
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