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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 493, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599403

RESUMEN

Proper health management is essential for productivity in duck farming. However, there is limited information on the effect of management conditions on rates of metabolic problems and parasitic infections in anatids. We evaluated the rates of metabolic syndromes and gastrointestinal parasite involvement in Muscovy ducks up to 12 weeks of age, under 3 management conditions: backyard, organized, and organized with probiotics. Individuals under organized management developed 2 metabolic problems: ascites, which was rare (3.5%), fatal, and affected both males and females, and angel wing syndrome, which was more frequent (10.6%), has low impact on general health, and only affected males. The treatments do not have a significant effect on the development of ascites, but only individuals in controlled conditions presented this syndrome, and due to its low prevalence, further studies with a larger sample size are required. The risk of angel wing syndrome increased significantly with probiotic supplementation. Regarding to parasitic infection, the improvement of sanitary management and the use of probiotics supplementation reduced the occurrence of coccidiosis. Similarly organized management with probiotic supplementation showed a protective effect on helminthiasis by reducing the frequency of Heterakis gallinarum and greatly reducing the helminth egg load. Coccidiosis and helminthiasis infections were not significantly correlated with the final weight of the ducks. Therefore, organized management and the use of probiotics seems to reduce the impact of parasitic infection, although it increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Coccidiosis , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Síndrome Metabólico , Enfermedades Parasitarias , Animales , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades Transmisibles/veterinaria , Patos , Femenino , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/veterinaria
2.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4678-4690, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519371

RESUMEN

The annual output of salted duck egg white (SDEW) is estimated to be over 1.5 million tons in China, most of which is discarded due to high salt content. This has led to serious waste and environmental impact. Therefore, we developed an eco-friendly biocoagulation separation technology by combining chitosan and sodium alginate in order to produce a novel iron-binding peptide (DPs-Fe2+) from SDEW. The structure of DPs-Fe2+ was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, followed by measuring DPs-Fe2+ response in a simulated digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Results showed that chitosan and sodium alginate complex could remove 91.21% of salt from SDEW, and the protein recovery rate reached 95.50%. Characterization results indicated that DPs bonded with Fe2+ to form a soluble chelate. Moreover, Caco-2 cell monolayer model indicated that the transport rate of Fe2+ was as high as 10.02% at 0.1 mg/ml concentration of digested chelates. The results demonstrate the potential application of DPs as a novel carrier for enhancing iron absorption. This research contributes to the development of an effective industrial desalination method and highlights an opportunity for recycling an otherwise discarded processing byproduct. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Salted duck egg whites (SDEW) are the primary byproduct of salted egg yolk production, most of which is discarded due to high salt content. Hence, efficient utilization of the high-value proteins in SDEW is an urgent problem that must be resolved. Herein, we developed an effective industrial desalination method by combining chitosan and sodium alginate, which achieved excellent SDEW desalination and protein recovery. Furthermore, we produced a novel iron-binding peptide (DPs-Fe2+), which enhanced the transportation and absorption of Fe2+ in Caco-2 cell model, suggesting its potential as an iron supplement.


Asunto(s)
Patos , Clara de Huevo , Residuos Industriales , Hierro , Péptidos , Animales , Células CACO-2 , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/tendencias , Clara de Huevo/química , Humanos , Residuos Industriales/prevención & control , Hierro/química , Péptidos/química
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101404, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478911

RESUMEN

Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) was firstly identified in 2010 in China; since then, it has caused enormous economic loss to breeding industry. Great efforts have been made to develop drugs and vaccines against DTMUV. However, current available vaccines or anti-DTMUV drugs are consistently inefficient. Hence, various more broadly effective drugs have become important for the treatment of DTMUV infection; among these, lycorine, one of the important sources of active alkaloids, is a promising example. Nevertheless, it is not known whether lycorine has any antiviral activities against DTMUV. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-DTMUV abilities of lycorine. The cytotoxicity of lycorine was evaluated on BHK-21 cells by CCK-8 assay, and its antiviral effect against DTMUV was examined by real-time PCR assays, virus titer determination, Western blot and immunofluorescence (IFA) assays, respectively. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-DTMUV effects of lycorine were also investigated. The results indicated that the highest nontoxicity concentration of lycorine on BHK-21 cells was 5 µM. Lycorine possessed the antiviral ability against DTMUV on BHK-21 cells, as demonstrated by the reduction of virus titers and copy numbers in vitro. Western blot and IFA analysis showed the inhibitory effect of lycorine on DTMUV envelope (E) protein expression. Moreover, using time-of-addition assays, we found that lycorine displays its antivirus and virucidal activities through blocking viral internalization and entry in vitro. Taken together, our findings firstly demonstrate the antiviral activities of lycorine against DTMUV, suggesting that lycorine can be a potential drug for the treatment of DTMUV infection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Internalización del Virus , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae , Animales , Antivirales/farmacología , Pollos , Patos , Flavivirus , Fenantridinas
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126138, 2021 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492927

RESUMEN

Pyroptosis and autophagy are two different biological processes that determine cell fates. Our previous studies revealed that pyroptosis and autophagy were involved in cytotoxicity co-induced by molybdenum (Mo) and cadmium (Cd) in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, but crosstalk between them is unclear. Hence, the cells were treated with 500.0 µM Mo, 4.0 µM Cd, 10.0 µM Z-YVAD-fluoromethylketone (YVAD), 2.5 µM 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and 10.0 µM chloroquine (CQ) alone or in combination for 12 h (CQ for the last 4 h). Under Mo and Cd co-stress, data evidenced that YVAD addition decreased the number of autophagosomes, LC3 puncta, and AMPKα-1, Atg5, Beclin-1, LC3A, LC3B mRNA levels and LC3-II/LC3-I, Beclin-1 protein levels, and increased p62 expression levels. Besides, both 3-MA and CQ addition increased NLRP3, Caspase-1, NEK7, ASC, GSDMA, GSDME, IL-1ß, IL-18 mRNA levels, NLRP3, Caspase-1 p20, ASC, GSDMD protein and ROS levels, and NO, LDH, IL-1ß, IL-18 releases. Collectively, our results revealed that pyroptosis and autophagy co-induced by Mo and Cd were interrelated in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, and inhibiting pyroptosis might attenuate Mo and Cd co-induced autophagy, but inhibiting autophagy might promote Mo and Cd co-induced pyroptosis.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Piroptosis , Animales , Autofagia , Cadmio/toxicidad , Patos , Células Epiteliales , Molibdeno
5.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110491, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399487

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan edible coating containing 0.15% oregano essential oil (OEO) or 0.60% cinnamon essential oil (CEO) on the quality characteristics and dynamic changes in the bacterial community of roast duck slices under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 30% CO2/70% N2) during 21 days of storage at 2 ± 2 °C. The results showed that the application of chitosan coating (CH) alone inhibited the growth of microorganisms and prevented lipid oxidation throughout storage. Moreover, the storage stability was further improved by including OEO or CEO, which lowered (P < 0.05) values for total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N). Based on the microbiological results, the shelf-life of CH-OEO and CH-CEO treated roast duck slices was prolonged by at least 7 days compared to that of the control. In addition, packaging types applied in this study played a major role in the bacterial community development. Notably, Vibrio spp. were the most predominant bacteria in all samples, when TVC values approached the shelf-life threshold, suggesting that this bacterium may be the main contributor to the spoilage of roast duck. The growth inhibition of Vibrio spp. in the CH-OEO and CH-CEO treatments during the early period of chilled storage might be the reason for the extension of the shelf life. Taken together, CH incorporated with OEO or CEO could be developed as prospective edible packaging materials to preserve roast duck meat.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Aceites Volátiles , Origanum , Animales , Atmósfera , Bacterias , Quitosano/farmacología , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Patos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Embalaje de Alimentos , Conservación de Alimentos , Carne , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Estudios Prospectivos
6.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452362

RESUMEN

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes/virología , Biodiversidad , Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Gammacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Animales Salvajes/clasificación , Anseriformes/virología , Charadriiformes/virología , Columbiformes/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Patos/virología , Galliformes/virología , Gammacoronavirus/clasificación , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Polonia
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101407, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438326

RESUMEN

A highly acute disease characterized as visceral gout broke out in Muscovy ducklings in Henan province (China) in June 2020, with a mortality rate of up to 61%. In this study, common pathogenic agents were screened using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction or polymerase chain reaction. The results found the novel goose astrovirus (GoAstV) to be the pathogenic agent. We isolated the GoAstV, which has been designated as HNNY0620, using the Leghorn male chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cell line and sequenced the complete genome. The phylogenetic tree showed that the amino acid (aa) sequences of ORF1a and ORF2 and the completed nucleotide sequences of the HNNY0620 strain were clustered in the GoAstV-I clade. ORF1a aa and whole-genome sequences were genetically close to TAstV-2 and DHV-3, whereas the ORF2 aa sequences were clustered with TAstV-2 and DHV2. Both the duck-origin GoAstVs and HNNY0620 harbored some special mutations, but ORF1a in 700 (I/T), ORF1b in 288 (F/L), and ORF2 in 306 (A/T) were only found in HNNY0620. These results suggest that the host range of GoAstV is diffusing, which can potentially affect other waterfowl.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Astroviridae , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Infecciones por Astroviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Astroviridae/veterinaria , Pollos , China/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Patos , Gansos , Masculino , Filogenia , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101342, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438327

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary riboflavin deficiency (RD) on the lipid metabolism of duck breeders and duck embryos. A total of 40 female 40-wk-old white Pekin duck breeders were randomly divided into 2 groups, received either RD diet (1.48 mg riboflavin/kg) or control diet (16.48 mg riboflavin/kg, CON) for 14 wk. Each group consisted of 20 duck breeders (10 replicates per group, 2 birds per replicate), and all experiment birds were single-caged. At the end of the experiment, reproductive performance, hepatic riboflavin, hepatic flavin mononucleotide (FMN), hepatic flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), hepatic morphology, hepatic lipid contents, and hepatic protein expression of duck breeders and duck embryos were measured. The results showed that the RD had no effect on egg production and egg fertility but reduced egg hatchability, duck embryo weight, hepatic riboflavin, FMN, and FAD status compared to results obtained in the CON group (all P < 0.05). Livers from RD ducks presented enlarged lipid droplets, excessive accumulation of total lipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (all P < 0.05). In addition to excessive lipids accumulation, medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase expression was downregulated (P < 0.05), and short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase expression was upregulated in maternal and embryonic livers (P < 0.05). RD did not affect maternal hepatic acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member 9 (ACAD9) expression, but duck embryonic hepatic ACAD9 expression was reduced in the RD group (P < 0.05). Collectively, dietary RD conditioned lower egg hatchability and inhibited the development of duck embryos. Increased accumulation of lipids, both maternal and embryo, was impaired due to the reduced flavin protein expression, which caused inhibition of hepatic lipids utilization. These findings suggest that abnormal duck embryonic growth and low hatchability caused by RD might be associated with disorders of lipid metabolism in maternal as well as embryos.


Asunto(s)
Patos , Deficiencia de Riboflavina , Animales , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Deficiencia de Riboflavina/veterinaria
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101378, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391174

RESUMEN

Rapid detection of antibiotic residues in duck meat is of great significance for strengthening food safety and quality supervision of duck meat and fighting against inferior products in the duck meat market. The objective of the current paper was to evaluate the potential of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) coupled with chemometric methods for the rapid detection of sulfamethazine (SM2) and ofloxacin (OFL) residues in duck meat.The SFS spectral data from duck meat containing different concentrations of SM2 and OFL were preprocessed by baseline offset. The detection conditions, including the adding amounts of ß-mercaptoethanol solution and o-phthalaldehyde solution, as well as the reaction time, were optimized by a single factor experiment for obtaining a better detection effect, and their optimal values were 400 µL , 25 µL , and 40 min, respectively. By comparing 2 chemometric models based on peak-height algorithm and peak-area algorithm, the prediction model based on peak-height algorithm was a better quantitative model with correlation coefficient for the prediction set (Rp) of 0.9031 and 0.9981, the root mean error for the prediction set (RMSEP) of 7.9509 and 0.5267 mg/kg, recovery of 81.7 to 155.1% and 96.4 to 111.2%, and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.1 to 6.7% and 2.9 to 6.8% to predict SM2 and OFL residues in duck meat, respectively. Overall, the results of this investigation showed that SFS technique was an effective and rapid tool for the detection of SM2 and OFL residues in duck meat.


Asunto(s)
Ofloxacino , Sulfametazina , Animales , Pollos , Patos , Carne/análisis , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/veterinaria
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(10): 101376, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391963

RESUMEN

We investigated the effect of photoperiod on eggshell quality, bone quality characteristics and bone metabolism related enzymes and factors in laying ducks. After adaption, 300 Jinding laying ducks (252-day-old) were randomly divided into 5 treatments, receiving 12L (hours of light):12D (hours of darkness), 14L:10D, 16L:8D, 18L:6D or 20L:4D, respectively. Each group had 6 replicates of 10 birds each. The feeding experiment lasted 8 wk. Compared with 12L:12D, the higher values of eggshell breaking strength occurred in ≥18 h photoperiods at the end of 6 wk, and in ≥16 h photoperiods at the end of 4 wk, with the common highest values in 18 h photoperiod (P ˂ 0.05). Besides, 18L:6D had higher values of ultimate load Fu and cortical cross-sectional area A in tibia, femur, and ulna (P ˂ 0.05), compared with 12L:12D. The higher values of proximal bone mineral content (BMC; tibia), distal BMC (ulna), total Ca (tibia), and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMC; tibia and ulna) were observed in 16L:8D and 18L:6D treatments (P ˂ 0.05). Meanwhile, 18 h photoperiod group had the higher proximal BMC (femur) and total Ca in ulna (P ˂ 0.05). In serum, compared with 12L:12D group, the higher ALP activity occurred in ≥16 h photoperiods (0:00 and 18:00), with the highest values in 18L:6D treatment (P ˂ 0.05); the higher values of TGF-ß (6:00) and OC (6:00 and 18:00) were simultaneously observed in 18 h photoperiod (P ˂ 0.05). Moreover, values of trACP activity, TNF-α and IL-6 contents decreased in ≥18 h photoperiods at 0:00 (P ˂ 0.05), compared with 12L:12D group. To sum up, an appropriate photoperiod could improve eggshell quality, bone strength and mineral content through increasing osteogenesis during the light time and decreasing resorption activity during the dark, and 18 h is an adequate photoperiod for the eggshell and bone quality of laying ducks.


Asunto(s)
Patos , Fotoperiodo , Animales , Pollos , Cáscara de Huevo , Fémur , Óvulo , Tibia , Cúbito
11.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 1-9, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339115

RESUMEN

Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) causes acute hepatitis and mortality, resulting in high economic losses in the duck farm industry. The current study describes the outbreak of DHAV in vaccinated duck farms in North Egypt during 2019 and molecular characterization of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and viral protein VP1 genes. The 30 samples were collected from 7- to 28-day-old commercial Pekin ducks that showed a history of nervous signs and sudden deaths and were on farms in 6 governorates. DHAV was typed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 3' UTR and VP1 genes and revealed 20 positive farms, with the first detection of DHAV genotype 3 (DHAV-3) in 18 samples and the classic DHAV-1 in 2 samples. The phylogenetic analysis of VP1 and 3' UTR genes of the nine selected strains representative of six governorates revealed that seven strains were clustered with DHAV-3 Chinese and Korean-Vietnamese strains within different subgroups with 92.4%-93.7% amino acid identity; such strains were distinguishable from the vaccine strain of DHAV-1 used in Egypt with 74.4% amino acid identity. The other strains were closely related to the DHAV-1 Asian strain and the vaccine strain used in Egypt with 98.7%-99.6% amino acid identity for the VP1 gene with different clustering than that of recently isolated DHAV-1 Egyptian strains. The VP1 gene of DHAV-3 had 1 hypervariable region (HVR) with 10 amino acid mutations compared with DHAV3/DN2/Vietnam/2011, but DHAV-1 had 3 HVRs with 1 amino acid mutation in HVRII compared with the DHAV-1 vaccine strain. In conclusion, a new introduction of DHAV-3 with the classical DHAV-1 was recorded in Pekin duck farms in North Egypt that is genetically distant from the vaccinal strain.


Asunto(s)
Patos , Virus de la Hepatitis del Pato/genética , Hepatitis Viral Animal/epidemiología , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Egipto/epidemiología , Genotipo , Hepatitis Viral Animal/virología , Filogenia , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/epidemiología , Infecciones por Picornaviridae/virología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/virología , Prevalencia , Alineación de Secuencia/veterinaria
12.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 171-176, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339137

RESUMEN

Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic Gram-positive bacterium that induces purulent lesions and abscesses in cattle, small ruminants, and swine. In birds, T. pyogenes infections have been linked to lameness and osteomyelitis in turkeys (Phasianidae) and hepatic fibriscess in turkeys and pigeons (Columbidae). An 18-mo-old backyard rooster with a history of progressive emaciation was submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) laboratory system. At necropsy, unusual numerous miliary granulomas were identified, primarily in the spleen, but granulomas were also observed in air sacs and lungs. Microscopically, few to moderate numbers of granulomas with giant cells were observed in the spleen, lung, air sacs, and crop composed of necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell inflammation including multinucleated giant cells, fibrin deposition, and fibrosis. Trueperella pyogenes was isolated from the air sacs and trachea. Avibacterium paragallinarum PCR was positive from the tracheal swab. A retrospective analysis of CAHFS data on T. pyogenes between 2000 and 2020 identified 24 cases in avian species: chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus; 16/24), turkeys (5/24), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus; 1/24), parrot (Psittaciformes; 1/24), and pheasant (Phasianidae; 1/24). Although T. pyogenes infection in birds is rare, the clinical signs and gross lesions might be indistinguishable from avian mycobacteriosis in some cases and should be considered in the differential diagnosis.


Asunto(s)
Actinomycetaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Actinomycetales/veterinaria , Pollos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/diagnóstico , Actinomycetaceae/fisiología , Infecciones por Actinomycetales/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Actinomycetales/microbiología , Animales , California , Patos , Galliformes , Masculino , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología , Psittaciformes , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pavos
13.
J Food Sci ; 86(9): 4087-4099, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337755

RESUMEN

High salt content is one of the major problems for stewed products. To help address this issue, the effect of salt reduction on water migration in stewed ducks was investigated through diverse approaches, including water activity (Aw) and water-holding capacity (WHC) assay, as well as low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Our results showed that Aw value remained stable, while centrifugal loss decreased, and cooking loss increased significantly (p < 0.05). The analysis of NMR indicated that, during the marinating stage, the proportion of immobilized water increased from 86.86%-89.66% (sodium chloride group) and 90.51% (salt-reduced group), respectively. After 2 h, the free water content became 0, and then became stable until the end of marinating. In the stewing stage, at the beginning 20 min, relaxation time of immobilized water decreased to about 35 ms and the ratio of immobilized water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by 5.38% (sodium chloride group) and 5.95% (salt-reduced group), respectively. Free water peak was detected upon stewing of 10 min, and 20 min later, there was no significant difference in the proportion of free water (p > 0.05). In general, no significance was observed in water behavior and microstructure of stewed duck meat between the salt reduction group and sodium chloride group. In addition, SEM analysis revealed that marinating could expand the muscle fiber gap to accommodate more immobilized water. However, the fiber was looser at the initial stage of stewing and then became more compact. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This work demonstrates potentially feasible to produce salt-reduced duck products.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria , Patos , Carne , Agua , Animales , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Carne/análisis , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Agua/química
14.
Gene ; 804: 145884, 2021 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364913

RESUMEN

Skeletal muscle is one of the most important economic traits in the poultry industry whose development goes through several processes influenced by several candidate genes. This study explored the regulatory role of DCN on MSTN and the influence of these genes on the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic myoblasts in Leizhou black ducks. Embryonic myoblasts were transfected with over-expressing DCN, Si-DCN, and empty vector and cultured for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of proliferation and the comparative expression of DCN and MSTN were measured. The results showed that cells transfected with the over-expression DCN had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher expression of DCN mRNA than the normal group and the expression of MSTN mRNA showed a downward trend during the proliferation of myoblasts. DCN mRNA expression was lower in cells transfected with Si-DCN than the normal group in all stages of proliferation. While the expression of MSTN in the Si-DCN transfected group was higher than the normal group with a significant (P < 0.05) difference at the 72 h stage. DCN mRNA increased at the early stage of differentiation but decreased (P > 0.05) from the 6th day to the 8th day of differentiation. The level of MSTN increased gradually during the differentiation process of myoblasts until it decreased significantly on the 8th day. These results show that DCN enhances the proliferation and differentiation of Leizhou black duck myoblasts and suppresses MSTN activity.


Asunto(s)
Decorina/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Miostatina/metabolismo , Animales , Proteínas Aviares/genética , Diferenciación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Decorina/fisiología , Patos/embriología , Patos/genética , Músculo Esquelético/embriología , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Aves de Corral/genética , Aves de Corral/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética
15.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13617, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405917

RESUMEN

Granulosa cells (GCs) play an important role in the development of follicles. In this study, we investigate the impact of heat stress at 41°C and 43°C on duck GCs' proliferation and steroids secretion. And, the transcriptomic responses to heat treatment were examined using RNA-sequencing analysis. Digital gene expression profiling was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (fold change ≥ 2 and Q value < 0.05). Further, the differential expression genes (DEGs) were classified into GO categories and KEGG pathways. The results show that duck GCs blocked in the G1 phase were increased on exposure to heat stress. Meanwhile, the expression of proliferative genes, which were essential for the transition from G1 to S phase, was inhibited. At the same time, heat stress inhibited the estradiol synthesis of GCs by decreasing CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 gene expression. A total of 241 DEGs including 181 upregulated and 60 downregulated ones were identified. Transcriptome result shows that heat shock protein and CXC chemokines gene were significantly activated during heat stress. While collagenases (MMP1 and MMP13) and strome lysins (MMP3) were downregulated. And, the hedgehog signaling pathway may be a prosurvival adaptive response under heat stress. These results offer a basis for better understanding the molecular mechanism underlying lay-eggs-less in ducks under heat stress.


Asunto(s)
Proliferación Celular/genética , Patos/fisiología , Estradiol/metabolismo , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica/genética , Expresión Génica , Células de la Granulosa/fisiología , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/genética , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/fisiología , Ovulación/fisiología , Animales , Aromatasa/genética , Aromatasa/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Quimiocinas CXC/metabolismo , Enzima de Desdoblamiento de la Cadena Lateral del Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Desdoblamiento de la Cadena Lateral del Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Abajo , Femenino , Células de la Granulosa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Metaloproteinasa 1 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinasa 3 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/genética , Transducción de Señal/fisiología
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101373, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343905

RESUMEN

Though nutritional, the remaining separated duck egg white in duck egg processing plants presents challenges for its transportation and use, as it spoils easily and has a strong odor. Uses for the excess egg white are of paramount concern for agricultural resource reuse. The purpose of this study was to increase its value and use efficiency. Duck egg white was mixed with sodium hydroxide to produce translucent alkali-induced egg white jelly similar to that in preserved egg whites. To develop a heatable translucent egg white jelly, their physiochemical properties and thermal stabilities were investigated. A gel prepared with 150 mM sodium hydroxide at 25°C had optimal bloom strength and the densest microstructure. Storing the jelly at 5°C helped maintain its disulfide bonds and delayed liquefaction. Although heating decreased its bloom strength and total disulfide bond content as temperature increased (P < 0.05), scanning electron microscopy of the heated jelly revealed that the protein network structure was denser than that of unheated jelly. Heating caused parts of the structure to shrink and even dehydrate, leading to a wrinkled surface. However, no signs of liquefaction or collapse were observed, and the free alkali released during heating was lower than that from the white of existing preserved eggs. These results confirmed the thermal stability of the jelly and its potential to be served hot or used in food processing. Furthermore, in addition to disguising the odor and special flavor attributable to the alkaline treatment, adding ginger juice or turmeric to the preparation yielded higher bloom strength, resulted in lower free alkalinity, and delayed liquefaction, thus improving the jelly's thermal stability. Like preserved eggs on the market that can be served in hot congee, the proposed egg white jelly is rich in proteins and suitable for hot or instant serving. These findings may help address the problem of excessive remaining duck egg white created during food processing by diversifying duck egg processing and boosting its value.


Asunto(s)
Patos , Clara de Huevo , Animales , Pollos , Clara de Huevo/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Óvulo
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101262, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273645

RESUMEN

CD4 protein is a single chain transmembrane glycoprotein and has a broad functionality beyond cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of duck CD4 (duCD4) and analyzed its sequence and structure, and expression levels in several tissues. It consists of 1,449 nucleotides and encodes a 482 amino acid protein. The putative protein of duCD4 consisted of an N-terminal signal peptide, three immunoglobulins and one immunoglobulins-like domain in its central, one terminal transmembrane region, and a C-terminal domain of the CD4 T cell receptor. The duCD4 also has the typical signature "CXC" of CD4s. The multiple sequence alignment suggests duCD4 has four potential N-glycosylation sites and the phylogenetic analysis suggests duCD4 shares greater similarity with avian than other vertebrates. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that duCD4 mRNA transcripts are widely distributed in the healthy Cherry Valley duck, and the highest level in the thymus. During the virus infection, the obvious change of duCD4 expression was observed in the spleen, lung and brain, which suggesting that duCD4 could be involved in the host's immune response to multiple types of viruses. Our research studied the characterization, tissue distribution, and antiviral immune responses of duCD4.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Patos , Animales , Pollos , Clonación Molecular , Patos/genética , Inmunidad , Filogenia
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101303, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280644

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of partially defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens, HI) larva meal on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata domestica). A total of 192 female ducks aged 3 d were divided between 4 dietary treatments (6 pens/treatment; 8 birds/pen), characterized by increasing levels of substitution of corn gluten meal with HI meal (0%, 3%, 6%, and 9%; HI0, HI3, HI6, and HI9, respectively), and reared until 50 days of age. Twelve birds/treatment (2 birds/pen) were slaughtered on d 51 to evaluate the slaughter traits (i.e., carcass, breast, thigh, and organs weights), carcass yield and meat quality. The slaughter weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, and abdominal fat weight showed a quadratic response to HI meal (minimum for the HI6 group, P < 0.05). Dietary HI meal inclusion did not influence the ultimate pH, the color, the proximate composition or the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in either the breast or thigh meat. The mineral profile of the meat was slightly affected by the dietary treatment, with a linear increase in the Cu content of the thigh meat (P < 0.05), whereas no differences were observed for Zn, Mn, or Fe. Dietary HI meal inclusion increased the saturated fatty acid rate in the thigh meat (maximum for the HI9 group, P < 0.05), and the monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast meat (maximum for the HI0 and HI9 groups, respectively, P < 0.05). The ∑n-6/∑n-3 ratio decreased linearly in both the breast and thigh meat, with the HI9 group showing the lowest values (P < 0.05). Finally, the heavy metal concentrations were below the EU limits for poultry meat. To conclude, the inclusion up to 9% of partially defatted HI larva meal in the diet of Muscovy ducks did not affect the slaughter traits or the meat quality, although it did affect the meat fatty acid profile.


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Patos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Ácidos Grasos , Femenino , Larva , Carne/análisis
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101318, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284181

RESUMEN

Since its first appearance in 1996, H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) of the Y439 lineage persisted in Korean live bird markets (LBMs) until the last documented occurrence in 2018. However, in June 2020, the avian influenza surveillance program detected a novel H9N2 AIV belonging to the Y280 lineage, which has zoonotic potential, in a Korean native chicken (KNC) from a LBM. In this study, we infected KNCs and ducks (the 2 major species held at LBMs), as well as SPF chickens, with Y280-lineage H9N2 AIV LBM261/20 and Y439-equivalent LBM294/18 to compare pathogenicity and transmissibility. In SPF chickens, LBM261/20 replicated mostly in the respiratory tract and spread rapidly among birds. By contrast, LBM294/18 replicated preferentially in the gastrointestinal tract and transmitted more slowly than LBM261/20. LBM261/20 replicated for a longer time in KNCs than in SPF chickens, and only in the respiratory tract; by contrast, LBM294/18 was detected in the oropharynx and cloaca. Ducks did not shed either virus or seroconvert. Taken together, the data suggest that the scheme used to monitor the newly introduced H9N2 AIV of the Y280 lineage needs to be modified to place emphasis on oropharyngeal sampling. Such changes will facilitate better disease control and protect public health.


Asunto(s)
Subtipo H9N2 del Virus de la Influenza A , Gripe Aviar , Animales , Pollos , Patos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Virulencia
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101310, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298381

RESUMEN

In China, the low egg production rate is a major challenge to Muscovy duck farmers. Hypothalamus and ovary play essential role in egg production of birds. However, there are little or no reports from these tissues to identify potential candidate genes responsible for egg production in White Muscovy ducks. A total of 1,537 laying ducks were raised; the egg production traits which include age at first egg (days), number of eggs at 300 d, and number of eggs at 59 wk were recorded. Moreover, 4 lowest (LP) and 4 highest producing (HP) were selected at 59 wk of age, respectively. To understand the mechanism of egg laying regulation, we sequenced the hypothalamus and ovary transcriptome profiles in LP and HP using RNA-Seq. The results showed that the number of eggs at 300 d and number of eggs at 59 wk in the HP were significantly more (P < 0.001) than the LP ducks. In total, 106.98G clean bases were generated from 16 libraries with an average of 6.68G clean bases for each library. Further analysis showed 569 and 2,259 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the hypothalamus and ovary between LP and HP, respectively. The KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed 114 and 139 pathways in the hypothalamus and ovary, respectively which includes Calcium signaling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction, Focal adhesion, MAPK signaling pathway, Apoptosis and Apelin signaling pathways that are involved in egg production. Based on the GO terms and KEGG pathways results, 10 potential candidate genes (P2RX1, LPAR2, ADORA1, FN1, AKT3, ADCY5, ADCY8, MAP3K8, PXN, and PTTG1) were identified to be responsible for egg production. Further, protein-protein interaction was analyzed to show the relationship between these candidate genes. Therefore, this study provides useful information on transcriptome of hypothalamus and ovary of LP and HP Muscovy ducks.


Asunto(s)
Patos , Ovario , Animales , Pollos , Patos/genética , Femenino , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/veterinaria , Hipotálamo , Óvulo , Transcriptoma
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