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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

RESUMEN

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Peces , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Pakistán , Composición Corporal , Estanques , Dieta
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254816, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355894

RESUMEN

Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país agrícola, onde a pesca desempenha um papel muito importante para o desenvolvimento econômico. Diferentes doenças são prevalentes em peixes do Paquistão, mas as informações relacionadas aos agentes causadores não são bem conhecidas. Tendo em vista a importância dos patógenos bacterianos como agentes causadores de múltiplas doenças em peixes, o presente estudo foi conduzido para identificação, caracterização e análise de genes de virulência de isolados de Aeromonas spp. de peixes doentes. Foram coletadas 50 amostras de peixes com múltiplas indicações clínicas em diferentes fazendas do distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Para isolar Aeromonas spp., as amostras foram enriquecidas e inoculadas em meio de isolamento. Os isolados foram identificados e caracterizados por diferentes testes bioquímicos, kit Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E, e ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Todos os isolados foram selecionados para três genes de virulência putativos, incluindo aerolisina (aer), hemolisina (hyl) e enterotoxina citotônica termolábil (alt). Sete isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila foram recuperados e identificados com base no API 20E. Esses isolados foram posteriormente confirmados como A. hydrophila de acordo com ensaios de PCR. Três isolados indicaram a presença de genes de virulência (alt e hyl), enquanto o gene aerolisina (aer) não esteve presente em nenhum dos isolados de A. hydrophila. O presente estudo confirmou A. hydrophila como o agente causador da síndrome ulcerativa epizoótica e septicemia móvel por Aeromonas em fazendas de peixes, no distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Além disso, a detecção de dois genes de virulência (alt e hyl) em isolados de A. hydrophila é uma ameaça para os consumidores de peixes da área de estudo.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/veterinaria , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/epidemiología , Aeromonas/genética , Pakistán , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Peces
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMEN

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ríos , Characiformes , Estaciones del Año , Lagos , Ecosistema , Cadena Alimentaria , Peces , Contenido Digestivo
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMEN

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Agua , Biodiversidad , Agua de Mar , Ecosistema , Peces
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339404

RESUMEN

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Composición Corporal , Peces
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278539

RESUMEN

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Urbanización , Ríos , Suelo , Brasil , Ecosistema , Peces
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113565, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314394

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution has become a threat to the global marine environment. Many studies have shown that marine organisms are at risk of plastic ingestion, but there is still a lack of relevant research in the artificial reef area and adjacent waters of Haizhou Bay, located in the western Yellow Sea. The study of MPs will provide useful information for MPs pollution in the artificial reef food webs, as well as the understanding of MPs trophic transfer by reef fish. In this study, we quantified plastic ingestion by marine fish in artificial reef areas and adjacent waters (Natural area, NA; Aquaculture area, AA; Estuary area, EA; Artificial reefs area, AR and Comprehensive effective area, CEA) and analysed the related possible influencing factors. Of the 146 fish samples examined, 100% of fish ingested plastics, and 98.9% of these particles were microplastics (MPs) (<5 mm), with 3.00 ± 2.63 pieces/fish. The main types and colours of MPs were fibre (95.9%) and blue (84%). The MP quantity of AR and AA were significantly higher than that of CEA (P < 0.05) and there is no significant difference among other habitats. The MP ingestion by pelagic fishes was significantly lower than that of demersal fishes (P < 0.05). MP ingestion by omnivores was significantly higher than that by carnivores and planktivores (P < 0.05). The body length (body weight) of four species (Larimichthys polyactis: 17.7-16.7 cm (16.01-59.41 g); Collichthys lucidus: 8.1-14.3 cm (19.65-56.92 g); Tridentiger barbatus: 5.9-9.2 cm (3.37-19.1 g); Cynoglossus joyneri: 10.1-18.7 cm (5-45 g)) had no significant correlation with MP ingestion (P > 0.05). Our results showed that MPs in this region are ubiquitous (i.e., the MP ingestion rate was as high as 100%). We infer that there is a transfer mechanism in MPs from pelagic to benthic fish in this area, and there is weak biomagnification with the trophic transfer of the food chain (TMF = 1.62). However, more practical studies still need to verify whether MPs are actually transferred to humans through trophic transfer from the marine food web.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bahías , Ingestión de Alimentos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Peces , Plásticos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(3): 821-828, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524537

RESUMEN

Conservation of fish resources is the key to ecological protection and high-quality development of Yellow River basin. From 1960 to 2019, Yellow River basin distributed 201 fish species, belonging to 16 orders, 35 families. The species number of Cypriniformes was the largest (accounting for 60.7%), followed by Perciformes (accounting for 10.0%). From 1960 to 1980, there were 182 fish species belonging to 15 orders, 28 families. During 1980-2019, there were 112 species, belonging to 10 orders, 23 families. The total number of fish species in source area, midstream and downstream decreased significantly, while that in the upper reaches increased slightly. Jaccard's similarity index of source area, upstream, midstream and downstream between two periods were 34.2%, 46.0%, 42.4% and 35.7%, respectively. Based on feeding preference characteristic, fish species could be divided into eight feeding guilds: phytobenthivores, herbivores, phytoplanktivores, zooplanktivores, omnivorous, insectivores, zoobenthivores, and piscivores. Compared with the period from 1960 to 1980, the proportion of insectivores decreased significantly in the Yellow River basin during 1980-2019, while that of phytobenthivores, herbivores, phytoplanktivores, omnivorous and piscivores increased significantly. From 1960 to 1980, the proportion of insectivores was higher than other reaches at source area and upstream, then began to decrease along the river continuum from reaches with elevation of 2000-3000 m; while the proportion of piscivores was lower than other reaches at source area and upstream, then began to increase along the river continuum from reaches with elevation of 2000-3000 m. From 1980 to 2019, the proportion of insectivores decreased along river continuum from source area, and that of piscivores increased from source area to midstream but decreased in downstream. Development of cascade hydropower, water pollution, insufficient water flow, overfishing and invasion of alien fish were important factors causing the spatiotemporal variations of fish feeding guilds in Yellow River basin.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , China , Peces , Humanos , Ríos
11.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 5859132, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528633

RESUMEN

Chamo Lake is the third largest rift valley lake and one of the major economic sources for the communities in the Southern region, Ethiopia. The lake's quality is deteriorating due to the untreated wastewater, and sediment inflow resulting in the death of fish was observed during the dry season. The research aims to determine the water quality status using water quality indices, in addition to identifying the reason for the death of fish in the dry season in Chamo Lake. The water samples were drawn from 5 sampling points by composite sampling method during the dry and wet seasons of the year, and we analyzed 22 water quality parameters. Ammonia (14-23.6 mg/l), phosphates (0.30-1.10 mg/l), BOD (25.32-60 mg/l), COD (40-160 mg/l), and chlorophyll (19.64-31.87 µg/L) concentrations were above the permissible limits, and DO (5.20-6.70 mg/l) was below the acceptable limit in the lake as per EPA standards concerning temperature. The values of both the water quality indices of CCMEWQI (13.90-18.40) and NSFWQI (38.59-49.63) indicated that the water quality was "poor" and "bad," respectively. The death of fish might be due to high concentrations of ammonia and nutrients in the dry season.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Amoníaco , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Etiopía , Peces , Estaciones del Año , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 60(2): 79-96, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500890

RESUMEN

The infection nature of Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae (CsMc) in freshwater fish hosts is closely related to the transmission of human clonorchiasis. This article reviewed the infection characteristics of CsMc in freshwater fish in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The status of CsMc infection was examined in a total of 17,792 cyprinid fish of 49 species in 9 water systems, which included Hantan-/Imjin-gang, Han-gang, Geum-gang, Mangyeong-gang, Yeongsan-gang, Tamjin-gang, Seomjin-gang, Nakdong-gang, and streams in the east coastal areas from 2010 to 2020. The infection status of CsMc was examined according to cyprinid fish species and water systems, after which analyzed by endemicity and susceptibility index. The high endemicity was shown in the cyprinid fish from 3 regions (6.1%) in the upper reaches of Nakdong-gang, such as Banbyeon-cheon (stream), Yongjeon-cheon, and Wi-cheon. The moderate levels were observed in fishes from 8 regions (16.3%), and low endemicity was shown in fishes from 20 regions (40.8%). No CsMc were detected in fish from 18 regions (36.7%). The susceptibility of CsMc in index fish, Puntungia herzi, was found to be a reliable index without examination of other fish species. CsMc infection rates were closely related to subfamily groups in the cyprinid fish hosts in a highly endemic area. In Korea, a total of 58 fish species in 10 families has been listed as the second intermediate hosts for C. sinensis. This review provides several novel features of CsMc infection and clarifies the species of second intermediate freshwater fish host in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Clonorquiasis , Clonorchis sinensis , Enfermedades de los Peces , Animales , Clonorquiasis/epidemiología , Clonorquiasis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Peces , Humanos , Metacercarias , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Agua
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1974): 20220188, 2022 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506228

RESUMEN

Predators can strongly influence prey populations through both consumptive and non-consumptive effects. Nevertheless, most studies have focused on the consumptive effects in driving evolutionary changes. By integrating experimental evolution and resurrection ecology, we tested the roles of non-consumptive and consumptive effects in driving evolution in a Daphnia magna population that experienced strong changes in fish predation pressure. All resurrected genotypes were pooled, inoculated in outdoor mesocosms, and exposed to free-fish or caged-fish treatments. Non-consumptive effects induced rapid, repeatable changes in the clonal composition and associated genotypic trait changes that were similar in magnitude and direction to those imposed by killing. Both non-consumptive and consumptive effects caused a shift towards a dominance of the high-fish period clones that can perform better under fish predation, and this may be explained by the higher intrinsic growth rate of the high-fish period clones under predation risk. The genotypic trait changes (e.g. reduced body sizes, earlier maturation, more and smaller offspring) of the Daphnia in the mesocosm experiments were in the same direction as the adaptive trait shifts observed in situ through resurrection ecology. Our results demonstrate that non-consumptive effects can induce rapid adaptive evolution and may represent an overlooked driver of eco-evolutionary dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Cadena Alimentaria , Conducta Predatoria , Animales , Daphnia , Ecología , Peces
14.
J Exp Biol ; 225(9)2022 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511083

RESUMEN

Shallow or near-shore environments, such as ponds, estuaries and intertidal zones, are among the most physiologically challenging of all aquatic settings. Animals inhabiting these environments experience conditions that fluctuate markedly over relatively short temporal and spatial scales. Living in these habitats requires the ability to tolerate the physiological disturbances incurred by these environmental fluctuations. This tolerance is achieved through a suite of physiological and behavioural responses that allow animals to maintain homeostasis, including the ability to dynamically modulate their physiology through reversible phenotypic plasticity. However, maintaining the plasticity to adjust to some stresses in a dynamic environment may trade off with the capacity to deal with other stressors. This paper will explore studies on select fishes and invertebrates exposed to fluctuations in dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH. We assess the physiological mechanisms these species employ to achieve homeostasis, with a focus on the plasticity of their responses, and consider the resulting physiological trade-offs in function. Finally, we discuss additional factors that may influence organismal responses to fluctuating environments, such as the presence of multiple stressors, including parasites. We echo recent calls from experimental biologists to consider physiological responses to life in naturally fluctuating environments, not only because they are interesting in their own right but also because they can reveal mechanisms that may be crucial for living with increasing environmental instability as a consequence of climate change.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica , Salinidad , Animales , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Peces
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 884417, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529860

RESUMEN

Viviparity has originated independently more than 150 times in vertebrates, while the male pregnancy only emerged in Syngnathidae fishes, such as seahorses. The typical male pregnancy seahorses have closed sophisticated brood pouch that act as both uterus and placenta, representing an excellent model system for studying the evolutionary process of paternal immune protection. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the hampII gene family has multiple tandem duplicated genes and shows independent lineage-specific expansion in seahorses, and they had the highest ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) in the seahorse phylogenetic branch. The expression levels of hampIIs in the brood pouch placenta were significantly higher during pregnancy than non-pregnancy. Both LPS stimulation test in vivo and cytotoxicity test in vitro proved the immunological protection function of hampIIs against pathogen infection in seahorse. Besides, seahorse hampII peptides exhibit weaker antibacterial function, but stronger agglutination and free endotoxin inhibition. We assumed that the modified immunological function seemed to be a trade-off between the resistance to microbial attack and offspring protection. In brief, this study suggests that the rapid co-option of hampIIs contributes to the evolutionary adaption to paternal immune care during male pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Hepcidinas , Smegmamorpha , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Femenino , Peces/genética , Hepcidinas/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Embarazo , Smegmamorpha/genética
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7455, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523835

RESUMEN

The taphonomic mechanisms of a mono- to pauci-specific ammonoid fauna comprising 3565 specimens from the lower Carnian Polzberg Konservat-Lagerstätte near Lunz am See (Northern Calcareous Alps, Lower Austria) is described. The fossiliferous layers were deposited during the Julian 2 Ib (Austrotrachyceras austriacum Zone, Austrotrachyceras minor biohorizon). The deposits comprise abundant nektic ammonoids of the trachyceratid genus Austrotrachyceras. The bivalve Halobia, dominant among the invertebrates, is followed in abundance by the ammonoids Austrotrachyceras and Paratrachyceras, the coleoid Phragmoteuthis and frequent vertebrate actinopterygian fish. The monotonous ammonoid assemblage comprises abundant Austrotrachyceras, frequent Paratrachyceras, rare Carnites and Simonyceras. Recently collected ammonoids were sampled bed-by-bed and compared to extensive historical collections from the same localities. Bromalites (coprolites and regurgitalites) produced by large durophagous fish comprise ammonoid and fish masses and accompany the ammonoid-dominated Polzberg palaeobiota. The ammonoid fauna here presents a window into the nektic cephalopod world of the Upper Triassic assemblage and palaeoenvironment during the deposition of the fossiliferous layers. The frequent occurrence of the vertically oriented (external side horizontal to bedding plane) ammonoid shell fragments hint at a deposition after lethal fish or coleoid attacks. The Polzberg ammonoids were deposited under calm and dysoxic conditions in fine-laminated marlstones and shales of the lower Carnian Polzberg Sub-Basin within the Polzberg Konservat-Lagerstätte.


Asunto(s)
Cefalópodos , Fósiles , Animales , Peces , Manejo de Especímenes , Vertebrados
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(6): 302, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524014

RESUMEN

Our aim was to explore the microbial community composition (bacteria and fungi) of fermented fish (pla-ra) from Northeast Thailand. We also made functional predictions concerning these microbial communities. The association between the microbiota and odor intensity was also analyzed. Fourteen samples of 1-year fermented fish samples derived from seven local markets in Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand were used. The microbial community composition of each was investigated by sequencing the V1-V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene (bacteria) and the ITS gene (fungi) using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Functional prediction analysis was conducted through Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) based on the use of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bacterial communities were rich, comprising 402 genera from 28 phyla, including such genera as Tetragenococcus, Staphylococcus, Virgibacillus, Lactobacillus and Lentibacillus. The fungal communities comprised 7 phyla and 60 genera, such as Heterobasidion, Densospora, Exophiala and Monascus. The bacterial community functional analysis revealed an association with six biological metabolic pathway categories (e.g., metabolism, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, cellular processes, organismal systems and human diseases) with 17 subfunctions, showing the richness of bacterial community functions. Odor-association analysis revealed that Brevibacterium, Brachybacterium and Chromohalobacter were more abundant in the weak-odor group, while Noviherbaspirillum was more abundant in the strong-odor group. This study provides a preliminary analysis of pla-ra microbial community structure and function in popular traditional Thai foods. Functional prediction analysis might be helpful to improve our knowledge of the microbiota in fermented fish.


Asunto(s)
Micobioma , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Fermentación , Peces/microbiología , Hongos/genética , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Tailandia
19.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 33(4): 259-271, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503031

RESUMEN

The assessment of bioaccumulation is an important step to describe the environmental behaviour and the potential risk due to exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals. In the last two decades, several in silico tools have been made available to predict bioconcentration, which is commonly used to assess bioaccumulation in risk assessment frameworks all over the world. However, only a few QSAR studies address the prediction of the biomagnification factor (BMF), which describes the accumulation of chemicals into organisms due to exposure through the diet. No classification models are currently available to this end. In this work, we developed classification QSARs to predict classes based on dietary biomagnification, using three different classifiers (i.e. LDA, ANN and RF). We started from a recently published dataset that includes more than 300 curated dietary BMF values measured in fish. The new models have high-quality performances (accuracy in fitting: from 94 to 96%; accuracy in prediction from 84 to 86%). The good performances of the here proposed QSARs confirm the quality of the original input data and highlight the importance of data curation and data sharing to support the development of new in silico approaches to assist risk assessment and chemicals screening.


Asunto(s)
Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Bioacumulación , Dieta , Peces
20.
J Exp Biol ; 225(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502693

RESUMEN

Amphibiousness in fishes spans the actinopterygian tree from the earliest to the most recently derived species. The land environment requires locomotor force production different from that in water, and a diversity of locomotor modes have evolved across the actinopterygian tree. To compare locomotor mode between species, we mapped biomechanical traits on an established amphibious fish phylogeny. Although the diversity of fish that can move over land is large, we noted several patterns, including the rarity of morphological and locomotor specialization, correlations between body shape and locomotor mode, and an overall tendency for amphibious fish to be small. We suggest two idealized empirical metrics to consider when gauging terrestrial 'success' in fishes and discuss patterns of terrestriality in fishes considering biomechanical scaling, physical consequences of shape, and tissue plasticity. Finally, we suggest four ways in which neural control could change in response to a novel environment, highlighting the importance and challenges of deciphering when these control mechanisms are used. We aim to provide an overview of the diversity of successful amphibious locomotion strategies and suggest several frameworks that can guide the study of amphibious fish and their locomotion.


Asunto(s)
Peces , Locomoción , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Peces/fisiología , Locomoción/fisiología , Fenotipo , Filogenia
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