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1.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609440

RESUMEN

Efforts to increase patient comfort by minimizing pain and anxiety have been shown to improve clinical outcomes, reduce pain thresholds, decrease analgesic requirements and complication risk, strengthen the physician-patient relationship, and increase overall patient satisfaction. Patients also have a strong preference for patient-centered communication and educational discussion with physicians. In recent years, the increasing emphasis on patient experience scores as a metric for quality care has had significant implications for physician practice and has reinforced attempts to provide more patient-centered care. Though different pharmacologic agents and techniques have been extensively reviewed in the dermatologic literature, there have been few studies of non-pharmacologic strategies for improving patient-centered care. This evidence-based review describes alternative techniques that have been suggested for use in dermatologic surgery. Mechanoanesthesia, cold therapy, verbal and audiovisual distraction, music, optimal needle insertion methods, hypnosis and guided-imagery, perioperative communication, and educational strategies have been reported to improve the patient experience in dermatologic surgery. These interventions are often cost-effective and easy to implement, avoid medication side effects, and serve as adjunct approaches to enhance patient comfort. This review examines the corresponding evidence for these nonpharmacologic strategies to provide a clinical resource for the dermatologic surgeon seeking to optimize the patient experience.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/prevención & control , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Dermatologicos/psicología , Humanos , Hipnosis , Imágenes en Psicoterapia , Terapias Mente-Cuerpo , Películas Cinematográficas , Música , Dolor/prevención & control , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Satisfacción del Paciente
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1235: 131-143, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488640

RESUMEN

Storyboards are a series of thumbnail images that act as a planning document for your overall animation project. Each thumbnail image is part of what is known as a shot, and shots are strung together to create scenes, which in turn create a whole animation. Medical animations, compared to film or animated movies, have rigid and specific requirements; however, by utilizing storyboards as a planning document we can infuse our medical animations with emotion, life, and beauty. This chapter will review common storyboarding fundamentals, like camera moves and editing techniques, and how they may be applied to the medical world. Camera moves are important to string shots together and can help add emphasis to specific sections. Zooms and pans are used extensively within medical animation and it is important to note which circumstance might call for either one. Zooms are great for moving to a drastically different microscopic magnification. Pans create visual interest for a stepwise reaction. Techniques such as lighting, depth, and insets and labels create a more balanced composition and save time in the production phase. Storyboards are ultimately about problem solving early to save time and money during the production phase. [M1].


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/métodos , Medicina , Películas Cinematográficas , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230050, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469942

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and fast-food use in films is associated with initiation of these behaviours. India is the world's largest film producer, but the extent of such imagery in Bollywood (Hindi cinema) films is unclear. We therefore aimed to describe the extent of and trends in tobacco, alcohol and fast-food imagery in Bollywood films, between 1994-2013. METHODS: For the 15 top-grossing films each year between 1994-2013, the number of five-minute intervals containing product images were determined separately for tobacco, alcohol and fast-food. Both the proportion of films containing at least one image occurrence, and occurrences per film, were described overall and by year. Negative binomial regression described associations between film rating and occurrences/film, and estimated time-trends in occurrences/film, adjusted for rating. RESULTS: We analysed 93 U-rated (unrestricted), 150 U/A-rated (parental guidance for children aged <12 years) and 55 A-rated (restricted to adult audience) films, containing 9,226 five-minute intervals (mean intervals/film 30.8, SD 4.0). 70% (n = 210), 93% (n = 278) and 21% (n = 62) of films contained at least one tobacco, alcohol and fast-food occurrence, respectively. Corresponding total mean occurrences/film were 4.0 (SD 4.9), 7.0 (4.7) and 0.4 (0.9). Tobacco occurrences were more common in U/A films (incidence rate ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.09) and A films (2.95; 1.95-4.48) than U-rated films. Alcohol occurrences were also more common in A-rated films than U-rated films (1.48; 1.15-1.85). Tobacco occurrences/film became less common over the observed period (adjusted trend -4% per annum; -2 to -7%; p <0.001), while alcohol (+2%; 0-3%; p = 0.02), and fast food (+8%; 2-14%; p = 0.01) occurrences/film became more common. CONCLUSIONS: Although the extent of tobacco imagery in Bollywood films fell over 1994-2013, it is still frequently observed. Alcohol imagery is widespread, even in U-rated films, and trends in both alcohol and fast-food imagery are upwards.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Películas Cinematográficas/ética , Fumar/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Comida Rápida , Femenino , Humanos , Imágenes en Psicoterapia , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Violencia/psicología
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236126

RESUMEN

Female representation has been slowly but steadily increasing in many sectors of society. One sector where one would expect to see gender parity is the movie industry, yet the representation of females in most functions within the U.S. movie industry remain surprisingly low. Here, we study the historical patterns of female representation among actors, directors, and producers in an attempt to gain insights into the possible causes of the lack of gender parity in the industry. Our analyses reveals a remarkable temporal coincidence between the collapse in female representation across all functions and the advent of the Studio System, a period when the major Hollywood studios controlled all aspects of the industry. Female representation among actors, directors, producers and writers dropped to extraordinarily low values during the emergence and consolidation of the Studio System that in some cases have not yet recovered to pre-Studio System levels. In order to explore some possible mechanisms behind these patterns, we investigate the association between the gender balance of actors, writers, directors, and producers and a number of economic indicators, movie industry indicators, and movie characteristics. We find robust, strong, and significant associations which are consistent with an important role for the gender of decision makers on the gender balance of other industry functions. While in no way demonstrating causality, our findings add new perspectives to the discussions of the reasons for female under-representation in fields such as computer science and medicine, that have also experienced dramatic changes in female representation.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Industrias/estadística & datos numéricos , Películas Cinematográficas/estadística & datos numéricos , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
8.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(2): 275-291, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122560

RESUMEN

For decades, pediatricians have been concerned about the impact of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Robust research has found an association between exposure to media violence and real-life aggression in children and teens. Other effects include desensitization, fear, and attitudes that violence is a means of resolving conflict. Ongoing research finds similar associations between exposure to video game violence and real-life attitude and behavior. Cyberbullying is an emerging threat to youth. Parents, pediatricians, schools, and government all have roles to play to mitigate the potential harmful effects of violent media on children and teens.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Ciberacoso , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Juegos de Video , Violencia , Agresión , Niño , Discriminación en Psicología , Humanos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Películas Cinematográficas , Factores de Riesgo , Televisión
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229436, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106266

RESUMEN

In collaboration-based creative industries, such as film production, creators in the network core enjoy prestige and legitimacy that are key for creative success. However, core creators are challenged to maintain diverse access to new ideas or alternative views that often emerge from the network periphery. In this paper, we demonstrate that creators in the network core can increase the probability of their creative success by brokering peripheral collaborators to the core. The argument is tested on a dynamic collaboration network of movie creators constructed from a unique dataset of Hungarian feature films for the 1990-2009 period. We propose a new way to capture brokers' role in core/periphery networks and provide evidence that being in the core and at the same time bridging between the core and the periphery of the network significantly increases the likelihood of award winning.


Asunto(s)
Logro , Conducta Cooperativa , Industrias/normas , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Películas Cinematográficas/normas , Red Social , Humanos , Conducta Social
10.
Nature ; 578(7793): 41-42, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025005
12.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228579, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045438

RESUMEN

Humans are entertained and emotionally captivated by a good story. Artworks, such as operas, theatre plays, movies, TV series, cartoons, etc., contain implicit stories, which are conveyed visually (e.g., through scenes) and audially (e.g., via music and speech). Story theorists have explored the structure of various artworks and identified forms and paradigms that are common to most well-written stories. Further, typical story structures have been formalized in different ways and used by professional screenwriters as guidelines. Currently, computers cannot yet identify such a latent narrative structure of a movie story. Therefore, in this work, we raise the novel challenge of understanding and formulating the movie story structure and introduce the first ever story-based labeled dataset-the Flintstones Scene Dataset (FSD). The dataset consists of 1, 569 scenes taken from a manual annotation of 60 episodes of a famous cartoon series, The Flintstones, by 105 distinct annotators. The various labels assigned to each scene by different annotators are summarized by a probability vector over 10 possible story elements representing the function of each scene in the advancement of the story, such as the Climax of Act One or the Midpoint. These elements are learned from guidelines for professional script-writing. The annotated dataset is used to investigate the effectiveness of various story-related features and multi-label classification algorithms for the task of predicting the probability distribution of scene labels. We use cosine similarity and KL divergence to measure the quality of predicted distributions. The best approaches demonstrated 0.81 average similarity and 0.67 KL divergence between the predicted label vectors and the ground truth vectors based on the manual annotations. These results demonstrate the ability of machine learning approaches to detect the narrative structure in movies, which could lead to the development of story-related video analytics tools, such as automatic video summarization and recommendation systems.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Modelos Psicológicos , Películas Cinematográficas/clasificación , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135352, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896229

RESUMEN

Raising public interest in and conservation activity for threatened species is critically important for successful biodiversity conservation. However, our understanding of what influences the public interest in threatened animals and how the interest induces conservation activities is quite limited. Here, we examined the role of zoos and a television program featuring animated animals in shaping public interest in and support for animals including threatened species from 2011 to 2018 in Japan. Public interest was measured by Internet search volumes and support by donation activity in zoos. Results showed that both zoos and the animated program made a significant contribution to increasing public interest in animals. The spatial distribution of the Google search volume for 92 animals was correlated with that of animals exhibited in zoos. In tandem with this, the broadcast of a Japanese animated TV program featuring animals (Kemono Friends) increased the Google search volume and Wikipedia pageviews for animal species featured in the program. The total increases of search volume and Wikipedia pageviews were estimated to be approximately 4.66 million for 37 species and 1.06 million for 63 species, respectively. Furthermore, after the original broadcasts of the program, we found that animals featured in the animated program had more financial supporters through donations than animals that were not featured. These results are striking because they indicate the increase in public interest led to actual conservation activity by citizens. Overall, our results demonstrate that both zoos and the animated TV program played important roles in promoting public interest in and support for threatened animals. Enhanced collaborations between people in the entertainment industry and conservation entities could contribute greatly to global biodiversity conservation.


Asunto(s)
Animales de Zoológico , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales , Biodiversidad , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Japón , Películas Cinematográficas
14.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 48, 2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996763

RESUMEN

Extensive study of typically developing individuals and those on the autism spectrum has identified a large number of brain regions associated with our ability to navigate the social world. Although it is widely appreciated that this so-called "social brain" is composed of distinct, interacting systems, these component parts have yet to be clearly elucidated. Here we used measures of eye movement and neural typicality-based on the degree to which subjects deviated from the norm-while typically developing (N = 62) and individuals with autism (N = 36) watched a large battery of movies depicting social interactions. Our findings provide clear evidence for distinct, but overlapping, neural systems underpinning two major components of the "social brain," social orienting, and inferring the mental state of others.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Mapeo Encefálico/métodos , Neurociencia Cognitiva/métodos , Señales (Psicología) , Medidas del Movimiento Ocular , Mentalización/fisiología , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Atención , Estudios de Cohortes , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Películas Cinematográficas , Red Nerviosa/fisiología , Adulto Joven
15.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(2): 134-135, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601271

RESUMEN

Narrative pedagogy successfully transformed a previously discordant mental health clinical rotation into a reflective and engaged learning process. Use of the film "Wit" early in the clinical semester was popular with subsequent cohorts of students and helped better engage them in practicing therapeutic communication techniques. This article is an exemplar of the application of narrative pedagogy as a means of embracing the phenomenon of therapeutic communication in health care.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Educación en Enfermería/métodos , Películas Cinematográficas , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Narración , Investigación en Educación de Enfermería , Investigación en Evaluación de Enfermería , Investigación Metodológica en Enfermería
16.
Ambio ; 49(4): 903-911, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410777

RESUMEN

Representations of wildlife in television and films have long been hypothesized to shape human-wildlife interactions. A recent example is Pixar's film Finding Dory, which featured a blue tang fish (Paracanthurus hepatus) as the main character and was widely reported in the popular press to have increased the number of such fish in the pet trade. We use Bayesian posterior predictive counterfactual models to evaluate the movie's effect on three metrics of societal behaviour. Although there was an increase in global online searches for the blue tang 2-3 weeks after the movie, we find no substantial evidence for an increase in imports of blue tang fish into the US, or in number of visitors to US aquaria compared to counterfactual expectations. It is vital that an evidence-based discourse is used when communicating potential impacts of popular culture on human-wildlife relationships to avoid loss of credibility and misdirection of conservation resources.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Películas Cinematográficas , Animales , Animales Salvajes , Teorema de Bayes , Peces , Humanos
17.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 174-188, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346908

RESUMEN

The film ratings system employed by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) has been criticized by LGBTQ critics who claim the system discriminates by holding queer content to a higher ratings standard than content in other films. The MPAA argues the constituency for its ratings system is parents in traditional families who may find queer themes inappropriate for their children. Paradoxically, a number of organizations serving adolescents identifying as LGBTQ or as questioning their sexualities have created lists of recommended films, many of whose MPAA ratings make them virtually off-limits to teens unless their parents approve. Cyberspace is also populated with lists of films recommended for teens regardless of their sexuality and gender identity. This article compares ratings distributions for lists of films recommended for queer teens and those recommended for mainstream teens and finds evidence of negative impact on access by queer teens to potentially helpful film content.


Asunto(s)
Películas Cinematográficas/normas , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Control Social Formal , Estados Unidos
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 202: 102957, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841879

RESUMEN

We present a set of 423 animated action movie clips of 3 s, that we expect to be useful for a variety of experimental paradigms in which sentences are elicited. The clips either depict an action involving only an agent (intransitive action, e.g., a policeman that is sleeping), an action involving an agent and a patient (transitive action, e.g., a policeman shooting a pirate), or an action involving an agent, an object, and a beneficiary (ditransitive action, e.g., a policeman showing a hat to a pirate). In order to verify that the movie clips (when presented with a verb) indeed elicit intransitive, transitive, or ditransitive sentences, we conducted a written norming study with native speakers of American English. We asked 203 participants to describe the clips with a sentence using a given verb. The movie clips elicited valid responses in 90% of the cases. Moreover, there was an active response bias for the transitives, and a prepositional object dative (PO-dative) response bias for the ditransitives. This bias differed between verbs in the ditransitives. A list is provided with all clips and the proportion of each response type for each clip. The clips are stored as MP4-files and can be freely downloaded.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Películas Cinematográficas , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Aleatoria , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225709, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790461

RESUMEN

Heart rate can be used as a measure of cognitive engagement. We measured average student heart rates during medical school lecture classes using wristwatch-style monitors. Analysis of 42 classes showed a steady decline in heart rate from the beginning to end of a lecture class. Active learning sessions (peer-discussion based problem solving) resulted in a significant uptick in heart rate, but this returned to the average level immediately following the active learning period. This is the first statistically robust assessment of changes in heart rate during the course of college lecture classes and indicates that personal heart rate monitors may be useful tools for assessment of different teaching modalities. The key findings suggest that the value of active learning within the classroom resides in the activity itself and not in an increase in engagement or reset in attention during the didactic period following an active learning session.


Asunto(s)
Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto , Atención , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Educacionales , Películas Cinematográficas , Adulto Joven
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