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2.
Malar J ; 20(1): 88, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579285

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a serious health threat in the Amazonas Region of Peru and approximately 95% of the cases, mainly Plasmodium vivax, are found in native communities of The Rio Santiago District, Condorcanqui Province. In 2019, more than one thousand malaria cases were reported, with an unusual number of Plasmodium falciparum autochthonous cases. The present study aims to report this P. falciparum outbreak while describing the epidemiology of malaria and the risk factors associated in the native communities of Amazonas, Peru. METHODS: The DIRESA-Amazonas in collaboration with the Condorcanqui Health Network and the Institute of Tropical Diseases of the UNTRM carried out a malaria Active Case Detection (ACD III) between January 31st and February 10th of 2020. A total of 2718 (47.4%) individuals from 21 native communities grouped in eight sanitary districts, were screened for malaria infections. Each participant was screened for malaria using microscopy. Follow-up surveys were conducted for all malaria positive individuals to collect socio-demographic data. Spatial clustering of infection risk was calculated using a generalized linear model (GLM). Analysis of risk considered factors such as gender, age, type of infection, symptomatology, and parasitaemia. RESULTS: The study suggests that the P. falciparum index case was imported from Loreto and later spread to other communities of Rio Santiago during 2019. The ACD III reported 220 (8.1%) malaria cases, 46 P. falciparum, 168 P. vivax and 6 mixed infections. SaTScan analysis detected a cluster of high infection risk in Middle Rio Santiago and a particular high P. falciparum infection risk cluster in Upper Rio Santiago. Interestingly, the evaluation of different risk factors showed significant associations between low parasitaemia and P. falciparum asymptomatic cases. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a P. falciparum outbreak in native communities of Condorcanqui, Amazonas. Timely identification and treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic cases are critical to achieve malaria control and possible elimination in this area. However, the current malaria situation in Condorcanqui is uncertain, given that malaria ACD activities have been postponed due to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Malaria Falciparum/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Población Rural , Adulto Joven
3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 143: 129-138, 2021 Feb 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570046

RESUMEN

Ichthyophonus infection was first detected in Peruvian Oncorhynchus mykiss in 1986, but the occurrence of ichthyophonosis disease in the region is unknown. This study investigated the presence and distribution of Ichthyophonus sp. in Peruvian rainbow trout using traditional and DNA sequencing tools. Between 2007 and 2008, 205 rainbow trout from 13 hatcheries in the Mantaro river basin were examined for the presence of Ichthyophonus, and at that time only 3 farms were positive. This early study confirmed the presence of Ichthyophonus sp. in the Tranca Grande lagoon for the first time, at a prevalence of 50%. In 2012, examination of 240 trout from 24 fish farms in 2 Peruvian Departments found 9 infected farms. More recently, in 2018, Ichthyophonus sp. was found in Lake Titicaca, infecting a trout in the Ichu area (in the Department of Puno). Our molecular analysis of the infected trout showed that ichthyophonosis disease in the Peruvian trout was caused by Ichthyophonus sp. Clade C. The finding of this pathogen in Lake Titicaca should be an alert for nearby farms and entities dealing with fish of economic importance in the rivers of Peru.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces , Mesomycetozoea , Oncorhynchus mykiss , Animales , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Mesomycetozoea/genética , Perú/epidemiología , Ríos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244920, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417613

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 virus impacts human health and the world economy, causing in Peru, more than 800 thousand infected and a strong recession expressed in a drop of -12% in its economic growth rate for 2020. In this context, the objective of the study is to analyze the dynamics of the short-term behavior of economic activity, as well as to explain the causal relationships in a Pandemic context based on the basic number of spread (Re) of COVID-19 per day. METHODS: An Autoregressive Distributed Lags (ARDL) model was used. RESULTS: A negative and statistically significant impact of the COVID-19 shock was found on the level of economic activity and a long-term Cointegration relationship with an error correction model (CEM), with the expected sign and statistically significant at 1%. CONCLUSION: The Pandemic has behaved as a systemic shock of supply and aggregate demand at the macroeconomic level, which together have an impact on the recession or level of economic activity. The authors propose changing public health policy from an indiscriminate suppression strategy to a targeted, effective and intelligent mitigation strategy that minimizes the risk of human life costs and socioeconomic costs, in a context of uncertainty about the end of the Pandemic and complemented by economic, fiscal and monetary policies that mitigate the economic recession, considering the underlying structural characteristics of the Peruvian economy.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Desarrollo Económico , Recesión Económica , Modelos Económicos , Costo de Enfermedad , Humanos , Pandemias , Perú
8.
Codas ; 32(6): e20190235, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503211

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: to evaluate the lingual frenulum and breastfeeding in infants from a maternal-perinatal referral center, as well as to monitor infants with ankyloglossia up to six months of age. METHODS: a cohort study conducted at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal - Maternidad de Lima in Lima, Peru. The consecutive intentional sample consisted of 304 newborns and their respective mothers, evaluated during December 2017 and January 2018, which were the baseline of the study. A clinical evaluation of the lingual frenulum adapted and the Clinical Evaluation of Breastfeeding Efficacy (CEBE) scale, was performed. RESULTS: of the 304 newborns, 15 (4.9%) were considered with altered frenulum, and only 4 (26.7%) presented a low score in CEBE. The mean of the CEBE score was 9.3. (DP=1.35, Min=3, Max=10). Of the follow-up infants, only 2 (13.3%) persisted with breastfeeding difficulties for which frenotomy was indicated. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the low prevalence of ankyloglossia in infants, as it does not indicate a trend of difficulty or negative interference in breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Anquiloglosia , Lactancia Materna , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Perú/epidemiología , Embarazo
11.
Lima; Organismo Andino de Salud Convenio Hipólito Unanue; 44; 20210000. 40 p. (Situación Actual de la Pandemia Covid-19 a Nivel Mundial y en los Países Andinos, 44, 44).
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1145910

RESUMEN

Consolidado de la situación epidemiológica de la COVID-19 en los países de la Región Andina (Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela) y a nivel mundial al 11 de enero de 2021.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Perú , Venezuela , Bolivia , Chile , Colombia , Ecuador
12.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 2): 111543, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157467

RESUMEN

Protected areas (PAs) are dedicated and managed to achieve long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. However, few studies have assessed contamination/pollution, one of the top five biodiversity threats, within these areas. In fact, more than 100,000 molecules used in consumer goods are potentially affecting over 250,000 protected areas distributed worldwide. As a result, chemical appraisal within PAs require specific approaches to be feasible. Herein, an approach for assessment of contamination in marine protected areas (MPAs) spread over large continental and/or global areas was proposed and tested using, as a case study, the impact of tributyltin (TBT) within Latin America. This approach included area delimitation, bibliographic survey, construction of attribute tables, data insertion in a Geographic Information System, overlapping with worldwide shapefiles of PAs, identification of affected PAs and evaluation of impacts using the outcomes against specific environmental quality guidelines/directives. A total of 259 records of TBT occurrence and/or its biological effect within 53 marine protected areas (including biosphere reserves, Ramsar sites and National parks) were gathered. Among affected species, were recorded 18 gastropods exhibiting imposex. In addition, 6 bivalves, 1 crustacean, and 3 fish species presenting TBT residues in tissues were seen in MPAs from Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Peru, Chile and Venezuela. Since levels of TBT recorded in several studied MPAs were enough do induce deleterious biological responses over marine biota, it was clear that conservancy goals of some "protected" areas are under threat. Considering that only TBT exposure was appraised, and these areas are likely to be concomitantly exposed to other classes of contaminants, the actual scenario can be even more frightening. Although initially applied as a TBT case study, the present approach enables an overview for other chemicals within protected areas worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Argentina , Brasil , Chile , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , América Latina , Perú , Compuestos de Trialquiltina , Venezuela , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
Rev. odontopediatr. latinoam ; 11(1): 219152, 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147625

RESUMEN

Antecedentes: Existen pocas investigaciones que muestren cómo la caries de aparición temprana (CAT) afecta a la mayoría de los niños peruanos. Sin embargo, es aún menor la cantidad de estudios que muestran cómo la CAT y la necesidad de tratamiento (NTx) afectan la calidad de vida de los menores. Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de la salud bucal sobre la calidad de vida según CAT y NTx en preescolares del Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-transversal conformado por una muestra de 360 niños de 3 a 5 años de una institución educativa pública del distrito de Independencia, en Lima. Los niños fueron examinados con el índice CEOD, NTx y el cuestionario de Escala de impacto de la salud oral en infancia temprana (ECOHIS). Los datos fueron analizados con estadística descriptiva y para relacionar se usó ANOVA y Kruskal Wallis (p<0,05). Resultados: La prevalencia de CAT fue de 73,6% y la NTx más requerida fue la "obturación superficial". Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas tanto para CAT como para NTx en relación con todos los dominios de calidad de vida. Conclusiones: La CAT y la NTx tienen impacto negativo en la calidad de vida de los preescolares.


Contexto: Existem poucas pesquisas que demonstrem como a cárie precoce na infância (CPI) afeta a maioria das crianças peruanas. No entanto, é ainda menor o número de estudos que mostram como a CPI e a necessidade de tratamento (NTx) afetam a qualidade de vida das crianças. Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto da saúde bucal na qualidade de vida segundo a CPI e a NTx em pré-escolares do Peru. Material e métodos: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-transversal, com uma amostra de 360 crianças de 3 a 5 anos de uma instituição de ensino público do distrito de Independência, em Lima. As crianças foram examinadas com o índice CEOD, NTx e o questionário de a escala de impacto na saúde bucal na primeira infancia (ECOHIS). Os dados foram analisados com estatística descritiva e para relacioná-los foram usados ANOVA e Kruskal Wallis (p <0,05). Resultados: A prevalência de CPI foi de 73,6% e a NTx mais requerida foi a "obturação superficial". Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas tanto para a CPI, quanto para a NTx em relação a todos os domínios da qualidade de vida. Conclusões: A CPI e a NTx tem impacto negativo na qualidade de vida dos pré-escolares.


Background: Few studies have investigated the effect of early childhood caries (ECC) on Peruvian children; there are even fewer studies of how ECC and treatment needs (TNs) affect the quality of life of these children. Objective: To assess the impact of oral health on the quality of life, according to ECC and TNs, of Peruvian preschool children. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted, consisting of a sample of 360 children aged 3 to 5 years from a public educational institution in the district of Independencia, Lima. The children were examined using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index, the TNs index, and the early childhood oral health impact scale (ECOHIS) questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test to establish relationships (p <0.05). Results: The prevalence of ECC was 73.6%, and the most required TN was "surface filling." Statistically significant differences were found for both ECC and TNs in relation to all quality of life domains. Conclusions: ECC and TNs have a negative impact on the quality of life of preschool children.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Calidad de Vida , Perú , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Caries Dental , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044197, 2020 12 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376182

RESUMEN

AIM: To explore indigenous communities' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences for maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Mamás del Río is a community-based, MNH programme with comprehensive supervision covering monthly meetings with community health workers (CHW), community leaders and health facilities. With the onset of the lockdown, supervisors made telephone calls to discuss measures against COVID-19, governmental support, CHW activities in communities and provision of MNH care and COVID-19 preparedness at facilities. As part of the programme's ongoing mixed methods evaluation, we analysed written summaries of supervisor calls collected during the first 2 months of Peru's lockdown. RESULTS: Between March and May 2020, supervisors held two rounds of calls with CHWs and leaders of 68 communities and staff from 17 facilities. Most communities banned entry of foreigners, but about half tolerated residents travelling to regional towns for trade and social support. While social events were forbidden, strict home isolation was only practised in a third of communities as conflicting with daily routine. By the end of April, first clusters of suspected cases were reported in communities. COVID-19 test kits, training and medical face masks were not available in most rural facilities. Six out of seven facilities suspended routine antenatal and postnatal consultations while two-thirds of CHWs resumed home visits to pregnant women and newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation was hardly feasible in the rural Amazon context and community isolation was undermined by lack of external supplies and social support. With sustained community transmission, promotion of basic hygiene and mask use becomes essential. To avoid devastating effects on MNH, routine services at facilities need to be urgently re-established alongside COVID-19 preparedness plans. Community-based MNH programmes could offset detrimental indirect effects of the pandemic and provide an opportunity for local COVID-19 prevention and containment.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Salud del Lactante , Salud Materna , Adulto , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/normas , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/tendencias , Humanos , Salud del Lactante/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Lactante/tendencias , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/tendencias , Perú/epidemiología , Embarazo , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/métodos
15.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(4): 240-248, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351396

RESUMEN

Aim: To determine the presence and the factors associated with psychosocial risk factors in physicians of a tertiary level hospital in Lima-Peru. Methods: Cross-sectional study in a tertiary level hospital that included physicians from the emergency department and the systemic diseases department (dermatology, endocrinology, immunology and rheumatology). Physchosocial risk factors were evaluated using the SUSESO/ISTAS 21 questionnaire; and, as possible associated factors, demographic and family characteristics, sleep hours, recreational and work activity were included. The psychosocial risk factors were analyzed as five global dimensions and their respective sub-dimensions. Results: Sixty-two physicians were included; the most affected factors were Psychological Demands (69.4% at high risk) and Social Support in the Company and Leadership Quality (48.4% at high risk). A low risk in the dimension of Social Support and Leadership Quality was associated with more hours of work per month outside the institution (195.0 vs. 78.7, p = 0.024). A low risk in the dimension Active Labor and Skills Development was associated with a greater number of hours of recreational activities (24.9 vs. 11.1; p = 0.041) and more than 75 minutes of severe physical activity (35.3% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.037). And, a low risk in the dimension Compensation was associated with an older age (47.2 vs. 44.3, p = 0.043). Conclusions: Older age, the greater number of hours dedicated to recreational activities, as well as for intense exercise, and a greater possibility of working outside the institution is associated with a lower psychosocial risk.


Asunto(s)
Médicos , Estudios Transversales , Hospitales , Humanos , Perú , Factores de Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; 31(2): 121-173, 2020.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319940

RESUMEN

From the 1960s to the present, most States in the world have enacted legislation aimed at reducing the impacts of environmental degradation. However, the affirmation of the right of every person to a healthy and adequate environment for life as a Human Right constituted an important milestone for its incorporation in the constitutional frameworks and legal systems of countries; in the policies, norms and programs of international organizations; as well as in the regulation of economic activities, promoting the development of Environmental Law. In a complementary manner, the prosecution of cases of violation of the fundamental right to a healthy and adequate environment for life not only provides an important source of constitutional jurisprudence at the national and international level; it also contributes to broaden the theoretical and conceptual scope of this right, as well as to clarify its interdependence and articulation with other principles.In Peru, the right to a balanced and adequate environment is first incorporated in the 1979 Political Constitution, and later reformulated in the 1993 Constitution. The present text offers a brief overview of the development of the right to a healthy and adequate environment for life as a fundamental right in the legislation and jurisprudence of the Peruvian State.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Derechos Humanos , Jurisprudencia , Legislación como Asunto , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Perú , Política
17.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53155

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Describe the implementation of the Continuity of Care and Rehabilitation Program (PCC-R) in community mental health centers (CSMCs, Spanish acronym) in Peru. Methods. Qualitative study of the implementation of the PCC-R in four CSMCs in Lima and La Libertad, Peru. Forty-two individual semi-structured interviews were conducted, as well as a focus group with five participants, for a total of 47 informants, including users, family members, and professionals involved in the design, implementation, and monitoring of the program. Results. The PCC-R is a key program for community mental health services in Peru and it enjoys broad acceptability. Providers and users report satisfaction with its results; however, the program lacks a policy document specifying its objectives, organization, and activities. This would explain the variability in its implementation. The PCC-R has limitations in terms of management of financial and human resources, and it is necessary to improve training and supervision. There is consensus on the need, usefulness, and viability of developing a system to monitor the PCC-R. Good practices and suggestions are presented with a view to addressing these challenges. Conclusions. The PCC-R is a flagship program for the CSMCs and for mental health reform in Peru. It has achieved broad acceptability among providers and users. Its implementation combines successes and difficulties, with pending tasks that include developing a policy document, improving resource management, strengthening training and supervision, and implementing a monitoring system for continuous improvement of the program.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir la implementación del Programa de continuidad de cuidados y rehabilitación (PCC-R) en centros de salud mental comunitaria (CSMC) del Perú. Métodos. Estudio cualitativo sobre la implementación del PCC-R en cuatro CSMC de Lima y La Libertad, Perú. Se realizaron 42 entrevistas semiestructuradas individuales y un grupo focal con cinco participantes, para un total de 47 informantes entre usuarios, familiares y profesionales vinculados al diseño, la implementación y el monitoreo del PCC-R. Resultados. El PCC-R es un programa central de los servicios de salud mental comunitaria en Perú, goza de amplia aceptación y los prestadores y usuarios refieren estar satisfechos con sus resultados. Sin embargo, el programa carece de un documento normativo que detalle sus objetivos, organización y actividades, lo que explicaría la variabilidad en su aplicación. Existen limitaciones en la gestión de recursos financieros y humanos del PCC-R y necesidades de capacitación y supervisión, que deben ser mejoradas. Existe consenso sobre la necesidad, la utilidad y la viabilidad de desarrollar un sistema de monitoreo del PCC-R. Se recogen buenas prácticas y sugerencias para enfrentar estos retos. Conclusiones. El PCC-R es un programa insignia de los CSMC y de la reforma de la salud mental en Perú, y ha logrado amplia aceptación entre los prestadores y usuarios. Su implementación combina aciertos y dificultades, y revela tareas pendientes como desarrollar un documento normativo, mejorar la gestión de recursos, fortalecer la capacitación y acompañamiento, y aplicar un sistema de monitoreo para favorecer la mejora continua del programa.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a implementação do Programa de Continuidade de Cuidados e Reabilitação (PCC-R) em centros de saúde mental comunitária (CSMCs) do Peru. Métodos. Estudo qualitativo sobre a implementação do PCC-R em quatro CSMCs em Lima e La Libertad, no Peru. Realizamos 42 entrevistas semiestruturadas individuais e um grupo focal com cinco participantes, com um total de 47 participantes, entre usuários, familiares e profissionais envolvidos na elaboração, implementação e monitoramento do PCC-R. Resultados. O PCC-R é um programa central dos serviços de saúde mental comunitária no Peru, conta com ampla aceitabilidade e os prestadores e usuários dizem estar satisfeitos com seus resultados. No entanto, o programa não possui um documento normativo que detalhe os seus objetivos, organização e atividades, o que pode explicar a variabilidade em sua aplicação. Existem limitações na gestão dos recursos financeiros e humanos do PCC-R e necessidades de capacitação e supervisão, que devem ser melhoradas. Há consenso sobre a necessidade, utilidade e viabilidade de se desenvolver um sistema de monitoramento do PCC-R. Apresentamos aqui um conjunto de boas práticas e sugestões para enfrentar esses desafios. Conclusões. O PCC-R é um programa emblemático dos CSMCs e da reforma da saúde mental no Peru, tendo obtido ampla aceitação entre prestadores e usuários. A sua implementação combina acertos e dificuldades e revela tarefas pendentes, tais como o desenvolvimento de um documento normativo, uma melhor gestão de recursos, o reforço da capacitação e supervisão e a aplicação de um sistema de monitoramento para fomentar a melhoria contínua do programa.


Asunto(s)
Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Salud Mental , Centros Comunitarios de Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa , Perú , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Salud Mental , Centros Comunitarios de Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa , Perú , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Salud Mental , Centros Comunitarios de Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa
18.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e3400, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144453

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: Las actividades investigativas en el pregrado permiten desarrollar competencias investigativas en los estudiantes que servirán para su futuro desempeño profesional; el interés hacia estas actividades parte de la motivación de los estudiantes. Objetivo: Describir el interés por la investigación científica por parte de los estudiantes de una facultad de Odontología. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal. El universo incluyó 395 estudiantes, de los cuales la muestra estuvo conformada por 187 estudiantes obtenida de forma aleatoria a partir de la lista de matriculados de la facultad. Se encuestó el interés hacia la investigación, así como las características de sexo, año académico, colegio de procedencia, participación en proyectos de investigación, pertenencia a una sociedad científica estudiantil y la experiencia en la publicación de artículos científicos. Se compararon las puntuaciones a través de pruebas no paramétricas U de Mann-Whitney y Kruskall Wallis. Se aceptó un nivel de significancia de 0,05. Resultados: El 68,4 por ciento manifestó interesarse por la investigación científica. No se encontraron diferencias en las puntuaciones de hombres (48,11 ± 9,2) y mujeres (48,07 ± 5,85) (p = 0,251). Los estudiantes que pertenecen a una sociedad científica estudiantil presentan mayores puntuaciones (55,41 ± 4,94) a diferencia de los que no pertenecen (48,25 ± 7,22) (p = 0,001). Los estudiantes de quinto año presentaron mayores puntuaciones (50,88 ± 5,36) sobre el interés por la investigación científica (p = 0,450). Conclusiones: La mayoría de estudiantes de la Facultad de Odontología presentan elevado interés por la investigación científica. No se encontraron diferencias entre hombres y mujeres, tampoco según el tipo de colegio de procedencia. Aquellos estudiantes que participaban en proyectos de investigación y eran parte de una sociedad científica estudiantil fueron los que más interés presentaron por la investigación(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Through undergraduate research activities students develop research competences useful for their future professional performance. Interest in these activities stems from the students' motivation. Objective: Describe the interest in scientific research among students from a dental school. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. The study universe was 395 students, of whom a sample of 187 was randomly selected from the list of students enrolled at the institution. The items surveyed were interest in research, sex, academic year, previous school, participation in research projects, membership in a students' scientific society and experience in the publication of scientific papers. Scores were compared using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. A 0.05 significance level was accepted. Results: Of the total respondents, 68.4 percent reported interest in scientific research. Differences were not found between the scores obtained by men (48.11 ± 9.2) and women (48.07 ± 5.85) (p = 0.251). Students who belong to scientific societies had higher scores (55.41 ± 4.94) than those who do not (48.25 ± 7.22) (p = 0.001). Fifth-year students had higher scores (50.88 ± 5.36) in interest in scientific research (p = 0.450). Conclusions: Most students from the dental school showed great interest in scientific research. No differences were found between men and women or according to the type of previous school. Students who participated in research projects and were members of a scientific society expressed the greatest interest in research(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias , Facultades de Odontología , Sociedades Científicas , Estudiantes de Odontología , Publicaciones de Divulgación Científica , Perú , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales
19.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e2905, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144447

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: Existen diversos indicadores y controversias en la prevalencia de caries en niños con y sin discapacidad. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de lesiones de caries cavitadas y no cavitadas mediante el índice CPO-D/ceo-d y el registro de lesión de mancha blanca o lesión no cavitada activa en niños con y sin discapacidad de 0-12 años atendidos en el Centro Odontológico de la Universidad de San Martín de Porres entre los años 2010-2017, Lima, Perú. Métodos: Diseño observacional, transversal y retrospectivo. Población conformada por niños atendidos en la Especialidad de Odontopediatría del durante los años 2010-2017. Se identificaron 71 pacientes: 31 sin discapacidad y 40 con discapacidad. Se revisó el odontograma de la historia clínica, índice CPO-D/ceo-d y lesiones no cavitadas activas para determinar la presencia de caries dental. Resultados: En dentición decidua en niños sin discapacidad, el promedio del total de piezas afectadas (ceo-d + lesiones no cavitadas activas) fue de 15,83 y en los niños con discapacidad fue 11,64; en dientes deciduos de la dentición mixta en niños sin discapacidad se encontró un total de ceo-d de 7,86 y en niños con discapacidad presentaron un ceo-d de 8,20; en dientes permanentes de la dentición mixta en niños sin discapacidad se evidenció un CPO-D de 3,29 y en niños con discapacidad presentaron un CPO-D de 2,27. Solo se halló diferencia estadísticamente significativa del total de piezas afectadas, en dentición decidua de niños con y sin discapacidad (p = 0,013). Conclusiones: Los niños con discapacidad presentaron solo una mayor prevalencia de lesiones de caries cavitadas y no cavitadas en dientes deciduos de la dentición mixta, en contraste con los niños sin discapacidad (sin diferencia estadísticamente significativa). En el resto de las denticiones (decidua y permanente de la mixta) la prevalencia de lesiones de caries en pacientes con discapacidad fue menor, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: There are various indicators of and controversies about the prevalence of dental caries in children with and without disabilities. Objective: Determine the prevalence of cavitated and uncavitated carious lesions based on the CPO-D/ceo-d index and the white spot lesion or active uncavitated lesion registry in children with and without disabilities aged 0-12 years attending the Dental Care Center at San Martín de Porres University in the period 2010-2017. Methods: A cross-sectional observational retrospective study was conducted of a population composed of the children attending the pediatric dental care service in the period 2010-2017. Seventy-one patients were identified: 31 without disabilities and 40 with disabilities. A review was done of the dental chart in the medical record, the CPO-D/ceo-d index and active uncavitated lesions to determine the presence of dental caries. Results: Average total affected deciduous teeth (ceo-d + active uncavitated lesions) was 15.83 in children without disabilities and 11.64 in children with disabilities; in mixed dentition deciduous teeth total ceo-d was 7.86 in children without disabilities and 8.20 in children with disabilities; in mixed dentition permanent teeth CPO-D was 3.29 in children without disabilities and 2.27 in children with disabilities. A statistically significant difference in the total affected teeth was only found in deciduous dentition of children with and without disabilities (p = 0.013). Conclusions: Children with disabilities only showed a greater prevalence of cavitated and uncavitated carious lesions in mixed dentition deciduous teeth, in contrast with children without disabilities (not a statistically significant difference). In the remaining dentitions (mixed deciduous and permanent) prevalence of carious lesions was lower in patients with disabilities, with statistically significant differences(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Odontología Pediátrica , Atención Dental para Personas con Discapacidades/métodos , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Perú , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto
20.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(4): e3094, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144444

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Introduction: The oral health of students from rural areas is a priority public health problem in Peru. Objective: To determine socioeconomic factors in relation to oral health in students from a rural Peruvian area. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional observational study. The sample consisted of 604 students from a rural Peruvian area selected for convenience, meeting criteria of inclusion and exclusion, following ethical standards in scientific research. Socioeconomic factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire and the oral health using an epidemiological record with the indicators: DMFT index, Significant Caries Index (SiC), Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), Index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA). The evaluation was performed with natural light by calibrated observers. The data was analyzed in the program STATA 14 through frequency distribution tables and graphics. The relationship of each of the socioeconomic factors with the experience of dental caries was evaluated by the simple binary logistic regression tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 85, 26 percent (DMFT = 6, 60 SiC=7, 23). The most frequent oral hygiene condition was regular, the prevalence of untreated tooth decay was 61.75 percent. Conclusions: The level of illiterate instruction, family responsibility and independent parental occupation showed a statistically significant association with their children's dental caries experience in a rural Peruvian area. (p < 0.001)(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: La salud bucal de los estudiantes de zonas rurales es un problema prioritario de salud pública en el Perú. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre factores socioeconómicos y salud bucal en estudiantes de una zona rural peruana. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal. La muestra estuvo conformada por 604 estudiantes de una zona rural peruana, los que fueron seleccionados por conveniencia. Se evaluaron los factores socioeconómicos mediante un cuestionario estructurado y la salud bucal a través de una ficha epidemiológica con los indicadores: Índice CPOD, índice de significancia de caries dental (SIC), índice de higiene oral simplificado (IHO-S), índice de consecuencias clínicas de caries no tratadas (PUFA), la evaluación fue realizada con luz natural por observadores calibrados. Los datos se analizaron en el programa STATA v.14 mediante tablas de distribución de frecuencias y figuras. La relación de cada uno de los factores socioeconómicos con la experiencia de la caries dental se evaluó mediante pruebas de regresión logística binarias simples. Resultados: La prevalencia de caries dental fue de 85,26 por ciento (CPOD = 6,60, SIC = 7,23) y la prevalencia de caries dental no tratada fue 61,75 por ciento . La condición de higiene oral más frecuente fue regular. Conclusiones: El nivel de instrucción analfabeto, la responsabilidad familiar y la ocupación independiente de los padres mostraron asociación estadísticamente significativa con la experiencia de caries dental de sus hijos en un área rural peruana (p < 0,001)(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Higiene Bucal/métodos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estudiantes , Salud Bucal , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Perú , Medio Rural , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Observacionales como Asunto
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