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BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045529, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514584


INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for populational adherence to measures for the prevention and control of respiratory infectious diseases. However, their effectiveness depends on the population's preventive behaviour, which may be divergent from public policies. Therefore, this study aims to summarise and evaluate the evidence on barriers and facilitators to populational adherence to prevention and control measures in COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search on MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO for studies focusing on adults receiving protective behaviour recommendations to combat COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases. The searches will be carried out from database's inception to the present. We will include studies that use qualitative methods in their data collection and analysis and studies that use mixed methods if they include any qualitative methods of analysis. Studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish will be included. Two review authors will independently screen the studies for inclusion and extract data. We will assess the quality of the included studies using the Critical Skills Appraisal Programme tool. For the assessment of the confidence in the synthesised findings, we will use the GRADE-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research. Data analysis will be conducted using the best-fit framework approach based on adapted dimensions from the Health Belief Model and the Behaviour Change Wheel. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted on published evidence, and thus, no ethical approval is required. The findings of this rapid qualitative evidence synthesis will be disseminated to academic audiences, health policy-makers and the general population. We will publish the results in peer-reviewed journals, present our findings in conferences, and disseminate results via social media. We also aim to present the research findings in plain language and disseminate the knowledge to the general population to increase public interest. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020205750.

Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Barreras de Comunicación , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , /epidemiología , /psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Proyectos de Investigación , Percepción Social
Vaccine ; 39(5): 825-829, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390295


The global spread of COVID-19 has created an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. However, in the United States, the politicization of the vaccine approval process, including which public figures are endorsing it, could undermine beliefs about its safety and efficacy and willingness to receive it. Using a pair of randomized survey experiments, we show that announcing approval of a COVID-19 vaccine one week before the presidential election compared to one week after considerably reduces both beliefs about its safety and efficacy and intended uptake. However, endorsement by Dr. Anthony Fauci increases confidence and uptake among all partisan subgroups. Further, an endorsement by Dr. Fauci increased uptake and confidence in safety even if a vaccine receives pre-election approval. The results here suggest that perceptions of political influence in COVID-19 vaccine approval could significantly undermine the viability of a vaccine as a strategy to end the pandemic.

/prevención & control , Aprobación de Drogas , Política , Vacunación/psicología , Personajes , Humanos , Salud Pública/normas , Percepción Social , Estados Unidos
J Psychiatr Res ; 133: 113-118, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338733


Firearm sales have surged during COVID-19, raising concerns about a coming wave of suicide deaths. Little is known, however, about the individuals considering acquiring firearms during the pandemic. Recent research has highlighted that individuals considering acquiring firearms may be motivated by exaggerated threat expectancies. In a sample of 3,500 Americans matched to 2010 United States Census data, we compared individuals intending to buy firearms in the coming 12 months (assessed in late June and early July 2020) to those undecided or not planning to acquire firearms on a range of demographic, anxiety, and firearm ownership variables. Our results indicated that those intending to acquire a firearm in the next twelve months are less tolerant of uncertainty, endorse exaggerated threat expectancies, and are experiencing more severe COVID-19 specific fears. Individuals intending to purchase firearms were also more likely to have experienced suicidal ideation in the past year, to have worked in law enforcement, and to have been considered essential workers during COVID-19. Furthermore, such individuals were more likely to already own firearms and to have purchased firearms during the opening months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Those intending to purchase firearms did not endorse lower perceived neighborhood safety, however, indicating that their intent to purchase firearms is unlikely to be driven by tangible threats in their immediate environment. These findings highlight that exaggerated fears may be motivating individuals to purchase firearms to diminish anxiety and that this trend may be particularly common among individuals who already own firearms.

/psicología , Cultura , Miedo , Armas de Fuego , Intención , Propiedad , Pandemias , Percepción Social/psicología , Problemas Sociales , Suicidio/prevención & control , Suicidio/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Seguridad
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 212: 103223, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321406


In the present study, we examine how person categorization conveyed by the combination of multiple cues modulates joint attention. In three experiments, we tested the combinatory effect of age, sex, and social status on gaze-following behaviour and pro-social attitudes. In Experiments 1 and 2, young adults were required to perform an instructed saccade towards left or right targets while viewing a to-be-ignored distracting face (female or male) gazing left or right, that could belong to a young, middle-aged, or elderly adult of high or low social status. Social status was manipulated by semantic knowledge (Experiment 1) or through visual appearance (Experiment 2). Results showed a clear combinatory effect of person perception cues on joint attention (JA). Specifically, our results showed that age and sex cues interacted with social status information depending on the modality through which it was conveyed. In Experiment 3, we further investigated our results by testing whether the identities used in Experiments 1 and 2 triggered different pro-social behaviour. The results of Experiment 3 showed that the identities resulting as more distracting in Experiments 1 and 2 were also perceived as more in need and prompt helping behaviour. Taken together, our evidence shows a combinatorial effect of age, sex, and social status in modulating the gaze following behaviour, highlighting a complex and dynamic interplay between person categorization and joint attention.

Atención , Percepción Social , Anciano , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Fijación Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estimulación Luminosa , Tiempo de Reacción , Adulto Joven
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 409-416, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377841


BACKGROUND: Insight into the causes of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients is limited. Without definitive information, patients often shape their own beliefs on the cause of their illness, developing causal attributions. This study aims to examine the causal attributions of CRC in AYA patients, compare these with middle-aged and older adults CRC patient groups and explore the association between causal attributions and psychological distress. METHODS: Two cross-sectional questionnaire studies were conducted among CRC survivors diagnosed between 1998 and 2007 using the population-based PROFILES registry. Three groups were defined by age at diagnosis: AYA (18-39 years; n = 67), middle-aged (40-70 years; n = 1993) and older adult survivors (70+ years; n = 1922). Causal attributions were assessed in a single free-text item from the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and psychological distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: AYA survivors most often attributed their CRC to heredity (36.4%), lifestyle (14.5%) and chance (10.9%). AYA survivors attributed their CRC to these causes more frequently than middle-aged and older adult CRC survivors. AYA survivors who attributed their CRC to causes out of their control (chance, heredity) showed significantly lower mean scores on anxiety (4.3 vs. 5.6; p < 0.01) compared to AYAs who reported causes within their control (lifestyle, stress). No significant difference was found for depression. CONCLUSION: AYA patients with CRC may benefit from in-depth discussion about the lack of known (biological) causes and how this does not directly imply a lifestyle or stress cause.

Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Neoplasias del Colon/psicología , Neoplasias del Colon/terapia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/psicología , Neoplasias del Colon/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1147525


Objetivo: Identificar as Representações Sociais sobre o processo saúde-doença no Espiritismo. Método: Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa. Utilizados na pesquisa conceitos das Representações Sociais de acordo com Serge Moscovici. A coleta dos dados ocorreu através de entrevista semi-estruturada e aplicação da técnica livre associação de palavras e observação Livre. Resultados: O espiritismo crê que conquistamos a saúde quando estamos harmonizados conosco e com as leis divinas. Qualquer descumprimento dessas leis divinas gera um desequilíbrio no ser humano. Conclusão: A Enfermagem necessita reconhecer essas Representações Sociais, visto que elas irão esclarecer aos profissionais as experiências de pacientes religiosos, o modo como assimilam seu estado patológico e isto é um desafio para articulação de estratégias de aproximação

Objective: To identify as Social Representatives about the health-disease process in Spiritism. Method: Descriptive study with qualitative approach. Users in the magazine concepts of the Social Representations according to Serge Moscovici. The data collection was performed through a semistructured interview and the application of free set of free words and observations. Results: Spiritualism believes that it has gained health when we are harmonized with the divine laws. Any breach of divine law creates an imbalance in the human being. Conclusion: The Disease Associated with Social Representations, with the aim of being more exposed to professionals such as patient experiences, the way they assimilate their pathological condition and is a challenge for the articulation of strategies of approximation

Objetivo: identificar como Representantes Sociales sobre el proceso saludenfermedad en el Espiritismo. Método: estudio descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo. Usuarios en la revista conceptos de las Representaciones Sociales de acuerdo con Serge Moscovici. La recolección de los datos fue realizada por medio de entrevista semiestructurada y la aplicación del conjunto libre de palabras y observaciones libres. Resultados: el espiritismo cree que ha conquistado la salud cuando estamos armonizados con las leyes divinas. Cualquier incumplimiento de leyes divinas genera un desequilibrio en el ser humano. Conclusión: la Enfermedad asociada a las Representaciones Sociales, con el objetivo de estar más expuestas a los profesionales como las experiencias de enfermos, el modo como asimilan su estado patológico y es un desafío para la articulación de estrategias de aproximación

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Religión , Espiritualismo , Proceso Salud-Enfermedad , Percepción Social , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Enfermería Holística , Investigación Cualitativa
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241783, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382683


BACKGROUND: Biomedical research is overseen by numerous Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) in Singapore but there has been no research that examines how the research review process is perceived by the local research community nor is there any systematic data on perceptions regarding the review process or other research ethics processes and IRB characteristics. The aim of this study was to ascertain general views regarding the overall perceived value of ethics review processes; to measure perceptions about local IRB functions and characteristics; to identify IRB functions and characteristics viewed as important; and to compare these views with those of other international studies. METHODS: An online survey was used with the main component being the IRB-Researcher Assessment Tool (IRB-RAT), a validated tool, to evaluate perceptions of ideal and actual IRB functions and characteristics held by Singaporean researchers and research support staff. Data were analysed descriptively first, with mean and SD of each item of IRB-RAT questionnaire reported, excluding the respondents whose answers were unknown or not applicable. The Wilcoxon Sign Rank test was used to compare the ideal and actual ratings of each IRB-RAT item, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the ratings of each IRB-RAT item between respondents with different characteristics. The Z-test was used to compare the mean ratings of our cohort with the mean ratings reported in the literature. The correlation between our mean ideal scores and those of two international studies also employing the IRB-RAT was examined. RESULTS: Seventy-one respondents completed the survey. This cohort generally held positive views of the impact of the ethics review process on: the quality of research; establishing and maintaining public trust in research; the protection of research participants; and on the scientific validity of research. The most important ideal IRB characteristics were timeliness, upholding participants' rights while also facilitating research, working with investigators to find solutions when there are disagreements, and not allowing biases to affect reviews. For almost all 45 IRB-RAT statements, the rating of the importance of the characteristic was higher than the rating of how much that characteristic was descriptive of IRBs the respondents were familiar with. There was a significant strong correlation between our study's scores on the ideal IRB characteristics and those of the first and largest published study that employed the IRB-RAT, the US National Validation (USNV) sample in Keith-Spiegel et al. [19]. CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of the perceptions held by Singaporean researchers and research support staff on the value that the ethics review process adds, their perceptions of actual IRB functions and characteristics as well as what they view as central to high functioning IRBs is the first step to considering the aspects of the review process that might benefit from improvements. This study provides insight into how our cohort compares to others internationally and highlights strengths and areas for improvement of Singapore IRBs as perceived by a small sample of the local research community. Such insights provide a springboard for additional research and may assist in further enhancing good relations so that both are working towards the same end.

Investigación Biomédica/ética , Comités de Ética en Investigación/ética , Investigadores/psicología , Percepción Social/psicología , Adulto , Ética en Investigación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Singapur , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243637, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326456


The huge power for social influence of digital media may come with the risk of intensifying common societal biases, such as gender and age stereotypes. Speaker's gender and age also behaviorally manifest in language use, and language may be a powerful tool to shape impact. The present study took the example of TED, a highly successful knowledge dissemination platform, to study online influence. Our goal was to investigate how gender- and age-linked language styles-beyond chronological age and identified gender-link to talk impact and whether this reflects gender and age stereotypes. In a pre-registered study, we collected transcripts of TED Talks along with their impact measures, i.e., views and ratios of positive and negative talk ratings, from the TED website. We scored TED Speakers' (N = 1,095) language with gender- and age-morphed language metrics to obtain measures of female versus male, and younger versus more senior language styles. Contrary to our expectations and to the literature on gender stereotypes, more female language was linked to higher impact in terms of quantity, i.e., more talk views, and this was particularly the case among talks with a lot of views. Regarding quality of impact, language signatures of gender and age predicted different types of positive and negative ratings above and beyond main effects of speaker's gender and age. The differences in ratings seem to reflect common stereotype contents of warmth (e.g., "beautiful" for female, "courageous" for female and senior language) versus competence (e.g., "ingenious", "informative" for male language). The results shed light on how verbal behavior may contribute to stereotypical evaluations. They also illuminate how, within new digital social contexts, female language might be uniquely rewarded and, thereby, an underappreciated but highly effective tool for social influence. WC = 286 (max. 300 words).

Percepción Social , Estereotipo , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Lenguaje , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243821, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351832


We test common sense psychology of intragroup relations whereby people assume that intragroup respect and ingroup prototypicality are positively related. In Study 1a, participants rated a group member as more prototypical if they learned that group member was highly respected rather than disrespected. In Study 1b, participants rated a group member as more respected by other group members if they learned that group member was prototypical rather than unprototypical. As a commonsense psychology of groups, we reasoned that the perceived relationship between prototypicality and intragroup respect would be stronger for cohesive groups compared to incohesive groups. The effect of intragroup respect on perceptions of prototypicality (Study 2a & 2c) and the effect of prototypicality on perceptions of intragroup respect (Study 2b) were generally stronger for participants considering cohesive groups relative to incohesive groups. However, the interaction effect of prototypicality and group cohesion on intragroup respect did fail to replicate in Study 2d. In Studies 3, 4a, and 4b we manipulated the relationship between prototypicality and intragroup respect and found that when these variables were in perceptual harmony participants perceived groups as more cohesive. The results of eight out of nine studies conducted are consistent with the prediction that people make inferences about intragroup respect, prototypicality, and group cohesion in a manner that maintains perceptual harmony.

Conducta Cooperativa , Juicio , Percepción Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Respeto , Adulto Joven
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029571, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351084


Importance: Despite broad public support for gun safety policies, minimal policy implementation has occurred. Objective: To investigate factors that encourage greater private support for and public action on gun safety policy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three studies were conducted: a public opinion survey (Study 1) was conducted from January 8 to 22, 2019, and 2 experiments (Studies 2 and 3) were conducted from August 27 to October 17, 2019, and April 15 to 21, 2020, respectively. Adults living in the US were eligible to participate in Studies 1 and 3. Students 18 years and older participating in a research experience program were eligible to participate in Study 2. Study 1 was administered online by Ipsos, a market research company. A nationally representative sample of 1000 US adults was obtained from Ipsos' online KnowledgePanel, of whom 508 completed the public opinion survey. For Study 2, which was conducted in a university laboratory, 354 participants were recruited from a university research pool, all of whom completed the study. Study 3 was administered online by the market research company YouGov, which identified 727 US gun owners from its opt-in panel, from which it constructed a census-matched sample of 400 participants. Exposures: Participants read a statement about the 2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. Content was manipulated as a 2 (corrective information vs no corrective information) × 2 (system changeable vs system not changeable) between-subjects factorial design with random assignment. The corrective information included polling data highlighting widespread support among gun owners for several gun safety policies. System changeable described gun safety policies passed by Florida's legislature. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were support for gun safety policies and public disclosure of support. Results: The 3 studies included a total of 1262 participants (Study 1: 508 participants; weighted mean [SD] age, 47.7 [17.5] years; 261.9 women [51.6%]; 82.5 Hispanic [16.2%] and 60.3 Black [11.9%]; Study 2: 354 participants; mean [SD] age, 20.0 [2.3] years; 232 women [65.9%]; 100 Asian [28.3%] and 37 Black [10.5%]; Study 3: 400 participants; weighted mean [SD] age, 52.1 [16.4] years; 187.3 women [46.8%]; 295.5 White [73.9%], 44.5 Hispanic [11.1%], and 32.4 Black [8.1%]). Study 1 found that 63% to 91% of gun owners and 83% to 93% of non-gun owners supported key gun safety policies, yet both groups significantly underestimated gun owners' support for these policies by between 12% and 31%. Studies 2 and 3 found that exposure to corrective information was associated with a small increase in support for 2 gun safety policies of between 4% and 15%, both in terms of participants' privately held beliefs and the beliefs they would be willing to share publicly. Conclusions and Relevance: This survey study found that many US adults failed to recognize that most gun owners support key gun safety policies. Correcting this misperception was associated with greater private and public support for gun safety policy.

Armas de Fuego/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública , Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Percepción Social/etnología , Censos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Propiedad , Opinión Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44289, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1104374


Objetivo: discutir as vivências dos motoristas de ônibus através de suas percepções acerca do trânsito e os impactos à saúde sofridos por eles. Método: estudo qualitativo fenomenológico realizado em uma garagem de ônibus situada no Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas fenomenológicas foram realizadas com 24 motoristas que responderam perguntas semiestruturadas e foram gravadas em dispositivo mp3, posteriormente, transcritas para obtenção das unidades de significado, a coleta de dados ocorreu entre 2017 e 2018. O projeto foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados: da análise fenomenológica das unidades de significados dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias: o trânsito é instável e estressante e a falta de educação das pessoas afeta os aspectos psíquicos. O ambiente de trabalho determina, expressivamente, o bem-estar dos trabalhadores que nele atuam. Conclusão: diante de tantos limites impostos pela sociedade contemporânea e pelo sofrimento no trabalho, necessário é motiva-los, e também dar-lhes condições de realizar seu trabalho de forma plena.

Objective: to discuss the experience of bus drivers through their perceptions regarding traffic and the health impacts they suffer. Method: in this qualitative phenomenological study conducted at a bus garage in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected in 2017 and 2018 by way of phenomenological interviews of 24 drivers, who answered semi-structured questions. The resulting mp3 recordings were later transcribed to obtain the units of meaning. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: from phenomenological analysis of the units of meaning in the responses, two categories emerged: traffic is unstable and stressful, and people's lack of education has adverse psychological effects. The work environment substantially determines the well-being of those working in it. Conclusion: given all the many constraints imposed by contemporary society and by their suffering at work, it is necessary to motivate them and also assure them the conditions necessary to carry out their work fully.

Objetivo: discutir la experiencia de los conductores de autobuses a través de sus percepciones sobre el tráfico y los impactos en la salud que sufren. Método: en este estudio fenomenológico cualitativo realizado en un garaje de autobuses en Río de Janeiro, se recopilaron datos en 2017 y 2018 a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas a 24 conductores, que respondieron preguntas semiestructuradas. Las grabaciones mp3 resultantes se transcribieron posteriormente para obtener las unidades de significado. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: del análisis fenomenológico de las unidades de significado en las respuestas, surgieron dos categorías: el tráfico es inestable y estresante, y la falta de educación de las personas tiene efectos psicológicos adversos. El ambiente de trabajo determina sustancialmente el bienestar de quienes trabajan en él. Conclusión: dadas las muchas restricciones impuestas por la sociedad contemporánea y por su sufrimiento en el trabajo, es necesario motivarlos y también asegurarles las condiciones necesarias para llevar a cabo su trabajo plenamente.

Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción de Automóvil , Condiciones de Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral , Percepción Social , Población Urbana , Brasil , Investigación Cualitativa
Clin Lab ; 66(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073937


BACKGROUND: Public measures to confine the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection involves partial or full lockdown by some countries including Saudi Arabia. Social isolation, and financial insecurity are potential risk factors for mental changes. This study aimed to address public concerns, and assess mental health changes, and the factors associated with mental health burden in response to the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia after the full lockdown is widely employed. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 30th of April, and 10th of May, 2020 by posting an online survey on social media platforms (WhatsApp, and Twitter) to collect data on participants' demographics, concerns and worries related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and mental health changes using a validated Arabic version of the self-rated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: A total of 1,921 responded to the questionnaire. Of them, 1,429 (74.5%) were ≤ 45 years old, and 967 (50.3%) were males. Reported public concerns included disturbed lifestyle, getting self or family member infected, loss job or part of income, difficult access to routine health care, and 55.8% reported negative impact on their mental health. Hospital anxiety and depression scale revealed high rates of depression [717 (37.3%)], and anxiety [508 (26.4%)]. Binary logistic regression revealed that female gender, working for the private sector, smokers, and people with chronic diseases were at increased risk of mental illnesses (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study addressed serious public concerns, and substantially high rates of depression and anxiety related to the COVID-19 pandemic, and lockdown.

Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Salud Mental/tendencias , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Opinión Pública , Percepción Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041886, 2020 10 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122327


OBJECTIVES: (1) Understanding the characteristics of online learning experiences of Chinese undergraduate medical students; (2) Investigating students' perceptions of ongoing online education developed in response to COVID-19 and (3) Exploring how prior online learning experiences are associated with students' perceptions. DESIGN: Students' familiarity with online learning modes and corresponding perceived usefulness (PU) according to their previous experiences were investigated using an online survey. The survey also collected data on students' perceptions through their evaluation of and satisfaction with current online learning. SETTING: In response to the educational challenges created by COVID-19, medical schools in China have adopted formal online courses for students. PARTICIPANTS: The questionnaire was sent to 225 329 students, of whom 52.38% (118 080/225 329) replied, with valid data available for 44.18% (99 559/225 329). METHODS: Pearson correlations and t-tests were used to examine the relationship between familiarity and PU. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the impact of prior learning experiences and its interactions with gender, area, learning phase and academic performance on students' perceptions. RESULTS: Students' PU had a significant positive correlation with their familiarity with online learning modes (p<0.01). Students' evaluation of and satisfaction with their current online education were positively associated with their familiarity (ß=0.46, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.48, p<0.01; OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.14, p<0.01) with and PU (ß=3.11, 95% CI 2.92 to 3.30, p<0.01; OR 2.55, 95% CI 2.37 to 2.75, p<0.01) of online learning. Moreover, the higher the students' learning phases, the lower the associations between PU and students' evaluation of and satisfaction with ongoing online education. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students in China have experiences with various online learning modes. Prior learning experiences are positively associated with students' evaluation of and satisfaction with current online education. Higher learning phases, in which clinical practices are crucial, and high academic performance led to lower evaluation and satisfaction scores.

Infecciones por Coronavirus , Educación a Distancia/métodos , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Modelos Educacionales , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/organización & administración , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Organizacionales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Investigación Cualitativa , Percepción Social , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto Joven
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237


BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.

Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Percepción Social , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido/epidemiología
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-193595


OBJETIVOS: describir conocimientos y percepciones de profesionales de Atención Primaria sobre el acceso al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante, así como analizar diferencias entre categorías profesionales. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta a 352 profesionales sanitarios y no sanitarios en centros de salud de la Comunidad de Madrid, y residentes de Medicina y Enfermería de la Unidad Docente Multiprofesional de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria Sur de Madrid (UDMAFyC Sur) entre febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: respondieron 179 profesionales (50,9%). El 50,3% opinó que los inmigrantes tienen frecuentes dificultades de acceso y el 65,9% que el estatus migratorio condiciona su salud, señalando el idioma como barrera relevante el 80,4%. El 72,7% de los sanitarios afirmó que no consumen más recursos. Expresaron nulo/escaso conocimiento del Real Decreto-Ley (RDL) 16/2012 el 72%, y del RDL 7/2018, un 66,7%. Un 30,7% consideró que el RDL 16/2012 tuvo efectos negativos en salud, y el 28,5%, que el RDL 7/2018 recuperó la universalidad. Un 54,9% de sanitarios apoyó la universalidad del SNS, contrastando con el 19,1% de personal no sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: la mitad de profesionales percibe frecuentes dificultades de la población inmigrante en su acceso al SNS, aunque el conocimiento de las normativas es limitado. Una ajustada mayoría respalda la universalidad, existiendo posicionamientos restrictivos con relativa frecuencia, especialmente entre el personal no sanitario. Se reproducen ciertos mitos sobre la atención a población inmigrante, no así acerca del consumo de recursos sanitarios

OBJECTIVES: To report the knowledge and perceptions of Primary Care professionals regarding access to the Spanish National Healthcare System and healthcare assistance provided to the immigrant population, as well as to analyse differences by professional categories. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 352 professionals: healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) from primary health care centres in the southern region of the Community of Madrid and resident doctors and nurses assigned to this primary healthcare area, from February to March 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 179 professionals (50.9%) replied. Of these, 50.3% thought that migrants face frequent difficulties in access, whereas 65.9% considered that migrants' health is conditioned by their migratory status. Moreover, 80.4% identified language as a relevant barrier and 72.7% of HCWs believed that migrants do not consume more resources. Regarding the Spanish Royal Decree-laws (RDL), 72% admitted having no or little knowledge of Spanish RDL 16/2012, and 66.7% of Spanish RDL 7/2018. However, 30.7% considered that Spanish RDL 16/2012 had negative effects on health, 28.5% agreed that Spanish RDL 7/2018 recovered universal healthcare coverage (UHC). Overall, 54.9% of HCWs support UHC in comparison to 19.1% of non-HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Half the professionals perceive that immigrants encounter frequent difficulties when accessing the Spanish Healthcare System, although their knowledge of legislation is limited. A slight majority supports UHC and finds a large number of restrictive stances, especially among non-HCWs. Certain misconceptions regarding care provided to immigrants persist, but not those related to health resources consumption

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Personal de Salud , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Sistemas Nacionales de Salud , Percepción Social , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
An. psicol ; 36(3): 483-491, oct. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195665


El objetivo de la investigación es identificar las características del alumnado que no participa en episodios de bullying en función de estereotipos de género, crianza; actitudes y estrategias cognitivas sociales y sobre-ingesta alimentaria. En el estudio participaron 1190 alumnos de educación básica de once escuelas públicas del Estado de México, México. Investigación cuantitativa, con estudio descriptivo y diseño transversal. Se recogieron datos a partir de cinco instrumentos que miden las variables de estudio: bullying, estereotipos de género, crianza, estrategias cognitivas sociales, sobre-ingesta alimentaria. Los resultados permitieron identificar cinco tipos de alumnos (víctimas de violencia escolar; víctimas de bullying; bully; doble rol y no involucrados), los contrastes de medias a través del ANOVA de un factor, identificó diferencias significativas en los grupos con respecto a cada una de las variables estudiadas. Se concluye que el alumnado que no se involucran en episodios de bullying, tienen más hábitos de salud, más habilidades sociales que facilitan adaptación al contexto social, sin identificarse con estereotipos tradicionales como el femenino y el machismo. Con respecto a la crianza de sus padres, se identifica que no son educados a través de prácticas de crianza inefectivas como el maltrato. Los resultados describen características definitorios del alumnado que no se involucra en episodios de bullying, lo que será de gran utilidad para la elaboración de programas de prevención e intervención

The objective of the research is to identify the characteristics of students who do not participate in bullying episodes (called "not involved"), in function of gender stereotypes, parenting styles; attitudes and social cognitive strategies and food intake. The study involved 1190 elementary school students, from eleven public schools in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Quantitative research, with descriptive study and cross-sectional design. Data were collected from five instruments that measure the study variables: bullying, gender stereotypes, parenting styles, social cognitive strategies, food intake. The results identified five types of students (victims of school violence; victims of bullying; bully; double role and not involved), the contrasts for one-way ANOVA of a factor, identified significant differences in the groups with respect to each of the variables studied. It is concluded that students who do not engage in bullying episodes (not involved), have more health habits, more social skills that facilitate adaptation to the social context, without identifying with traditional stereotypes such as traditional feminine and machismo. With regard to parenting, it is identified that they are not educated through ineffective parenting practices such as abuse. The results of this study describe defining characteristics of students who do not engage in bullying episodes, which will be very useful for the development of prevention and intervention programs

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Estudiantes/psicología , Estereotipo de Género , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Percepción Social , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Varianza , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Habilidades Sociales
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873719


OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has fueled xenophobia against Chinese Americans. We examined the rates of 6 types of COVID-19 racism and racial discrimination experienced by Chinese American parents and youth and the associations with their mental health. METHODS: We recruited a population-based sample of Chinese American families to participate in this self-reported survey study conducted from March 14, 2020, to May 31, 2020. Eligible parent participants identified as ethnically/racially Chinese, lived in the United States, and had a 4- to 18-year-old child; their eligible children were 10 to 18 years old. RESULTS: The sample included 543 Chinese American parents (mean [SD] age, 43.44 [6.47] years; 425 mothers [78.3%]), and their children (N = 230; mean [SD] age, 13.83 [2.53] years; 111 girls [48.3%]). Nearly half of parents and youth reported being directly targeted by COVID-19 racial discrimination online (parents: 172 [31.7%]; youth: 105 [45.7%]) and/or in person (parents: 276 [50.9%]; youth: 115 [50.2%]). A total of 417 (76.8%) parents and 176 (76.5%) youth reported at least 1 incident of COVID-19 vicarious racial discrimination online and/or in person (parents: 481 [88.5%]; youth: 211 [91.9%]). A total of 267 (49.1%) parents and 164 (71.1%) youth perceived health-related Sinophobia in America, and 274 (50.4%) parents and 129 (56.0%) youth perceived media-perpetuated Sinophobia. Higher levels of parent- and youth-perceived racism and racial discrimination were associated with their poorer mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Health care professionals must attend to the racism-related experiences and mental health needs of Chinese Americans parents and their children throughout the COVID-19 pandemic via education and making appropriate mental health referrals.

Americanos Asiáticos/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Racismo/psicología , Xenofobia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , China/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Racismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Percepción Social , Estados Unidos , Xenofobia/estadística & datos numéricos
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 843-849, 2020 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893867


Despite early warnings and calls for action, COVID-19 infection rates continue to climb in many areas of the United States. The current study examined participants' reported likelihood of engaging in eight behaviors designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as critical for the prevention of COVID-19 at the outset of the epidemic. Self-efficacy, perceived threat, and internal and external health locus of control were explored as potential predictors of those behaviors. In addition, demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not participants were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for analysis. Overall, participants reported high engagement with the prevention behaviors. Higher levels of self-efficacy, perceived severity of the illness, and external locus of control in regard to medical professionals were all positively associated with plans to take the recommended precautions. Based on the results, it appears that messaging regarding COVID-19 prevention may be particularly effective when it focuses on the high risk of the illness, the ease with which the prevention behaviors can be taken, and a reassurance that the medical establishment has individuals' best health in mind when it makes its specific recommendations. While numerous countries have succeeded in reducing the spread of COVID-19, the number of new cases in the United States remains high, even relative to other populations also heavily impacted by the disease [1]. Although it would be difficult to pinpoint a single cause or explanation for the epidemic's course in the USA, at the heart of its spread, like the spread of all infectious diseases, is noncompliance with preventative measures. The current research served as a preliminary exploration of the prevalence and predictors of eight COVID-19 prevention behaviors. A brief survey was sent out at the end of March 2020 to 350 U.S. residents in order to assess the likelihood of their engaging in various prevention behaviors recommended at that time and several related psychosocial factors. The psychological factors assessed included health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, self-efficacy, and perceived threat. In addition, a handful of demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not they were working outside the home or were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for examination.

Conducta Cooperativa , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Autoeficacia , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Percepción Social , Adulto , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Prevalencia , Psicología , Control Social Formal/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Precauciones Universales/métodos , Precauciones Universales/estadística & datos numéricos
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4728, 2020 09 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963237


Social trust is linked to a host of positive societal outcomes, including improved economic performance, lower crime rates and more inclusive institutions. Yet, the origins of trust remain elusive, partly because social trust is difficult to document in time. Building on recent advances in social cognition, we design an algorithm to automatically generate trustworthiness evaluations for the facial action units (smile, eye brows, etc.) of European portraits in large historical databases. Our results show that trustworthiness in portraits increased over the period 1500-2000 paralleling the decline of interpersonal violence and the rise of democratic values observed in Western Europe. Further analyses suggest that this rise of trustworthiness displays is associated with increased living standards.

Señales (Psicología) , Cara/anatomía & histología , Expresión Facial , Aprendizaje Automático , Algoritmos , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pinturas , Percepción Social , Confianza