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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(3): 95-102, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928062

RESUMEN

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a health burden for the patient and the society. We have sought to find the optimal education content to alleviate this burden. Aim: (1) To create patient education content based on the pulmonologists' opinion; (2) to understand the pulmonologists' attitudes and perceptions; (3) to evaluate the options to improve patient adherence. Method: We have performed 20 interviews with pulmonologists working in inpatient, outpatient and rehabilitation settings. The structure of the interviews has been designed to determine the key elements of a patient education programme and to discover perception and therapeutic attitudes. Results: The average COPD patient is a smoker, male, under-socialized, coughs, has dyspnoea and is older than 40 years. He does not take his illness seriously, and seeks medical attention only in case of worsening of the disease, and improvement in adherence is only present in such cases. The latter phenomenon is frequently transient, and limited to worse periods. Three adherence groups can be defined: marginal good adherence (approx. 10%), the average is around 30-40%, and minimal adherence (60%). Correct inhaler use should be taught in maximum three steps, which should be easily reproduced and explained. Conclusion: The aspects defining the framework of the education programme are the adequate patient profile (tailor-making), on-the-spot education in the pulmonology centre, the relationship between the patient and the doctors, patient attitudes and lifestyle changes (smoking cessation), and choosing the adequate inhaler. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(3): 95-102.


Asunto(s)
Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/terapia , Neumólogos/psicología , Actitud , Disnea , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Percepción , Neumología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar
2.
Codas ; 32(2): e20190093, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939494

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The attitude of mothers of children who stutter is believed to be crucial in the management of therapy process. Therefore, this study aimed at the description of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of children with stuttering, as well as at the exploration of the relationship between them. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 33 mothers of children with stuttering aged 6-12 years. The data were gathered using the following instruments: Mother Resilience Scale, Revised Parental Social Support Scale, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Stuttering Severity Instrument-4, and a personal information form. RESULTS: Resilience of mothers of children who stutter was high, whereas perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of the participants were lower. Mother's increased level of perceived social support resulted in increased resilience level and decreased trait anxiety level. The trait anxiety levels of mothers with a college degree were significantly lower than those of mothers with other education levels. No statistically significant correlation was observed between stuttering severity and the levels of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety. CONCLUSION: Although mothers of stuttering children present the required skills to cope with the situation, it is believed that they need more social support. Consequently, offering professional support to mothers in the course of stuttering management and referring them to appropriate intervention programs are emphasized.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Madres/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Apoyo Social , Tartamudeo/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Percepción , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Valores de Referencia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 121-129, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661663

RESUMEN

A common barrier to exercise is "lack of time". Accordingly, interest in low-volume, high-intensity training has grown exponentially since this activity is considered time-efficient. However, the high-intensity nature of this exercise may frequently result in feelings of displeasure creating another barrier for many people. The purpose of this study was to compare affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses to three low-volume, high-intensity exercise conditions, including a novel shortened-sprint protocol. Using a within-subjects, randomised crossover experiment, healthy participants (N = 36) undertook a single bout of: 1) traditional reduced-exertion, high-intensity interval training (TREHIT), 2) a novel, shortened-sprint REHIT (SSREHIT) protocol, and 3) sprint continuous training (SCT). Affect and perceived efforts were recorded throughout exercise using the Feeling Scale (FS) and the 15-point Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale, respectively. Enjoyment was recorded 5 min post-exercise using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). Differences were found for FS (condition by time interaction: P = 0.01GG, η2 = 0.26), RPE (P = 0.01GG, η2 = 0.23), and enjoyment (P < 0.01) with all outcomes favouring SSREHIT. Shortened-sprint protocols may diminish feelings of displeasure and might be a time-efficient yet tolerable exercise choice to help motivate some people to increase their physical activity and fitness.


Asunto(s)
Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad/métodos , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad/psicología , Placer , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Adulto Joven
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 140-149, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680636

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a half-time (HT) re-warm up (RWU) strategy on measures of performance and the physical and perceptual response to soccer-specific activity. Ten male soccer players completed a control (CON) and RWU trial, in which participants completed 60 min (4 x 15-min periods with a 15-min HT interspersing the third and fourth periods) of a soccer-specific exercise protocol. The CON trial comprised a passive 15-min HT, whilst the RWU trial comprised a passive 12-min period, followed by a 3-min RWU. The RWU elicited an improvement in 20 m sprint times (d= 0.6; CON: 3.42 ± 0.20 s; RWU: 3.32 ± 0.12 s), and both squat (d= 0.6; CON: 26.96 ± 5.00 cm; RWU: 30.17 ± 5.13 cm) and countermovement jump height (d= 0.7; CON: 28.15 ± 4.72 cm; RWU: 31.53 ± 5.43 cm) following the RWU and during the initial stages of the second half. No significant changes were identified for 5 m or 10 m sprint performance, perceived muscle soreness, or PlayerLoadTM. Ratings of perceived exertion were however higher (~2 a.u) following the RWU. These data support the use of a HT RWU intervention to elicit acute changes in performance.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Fútbol/fisiología , Ejercicio de Calentamiento/fisiología , Adulto , Estudios Cruzados , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/psicología , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Proyectos Piloto , Ejercicio Pliométrico/psicología , Adulto Joven
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 206-213, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722621

RESUMEN

A novel 3D motion capture analysis assessed the efficacy of insoles in maintaining the foot position on the midsole platform inside the shoe during rapid change of direction manoeuvres used in team sports. An insole (TI) with increased static (35%) and dynamic (49%) coefficient of friction compared to a regular insole (SI) was tested. Change of direction performance was faster (p < .001) and perceived to be faster (p < .001) in TI compared to SI. Participants utilised greater coefficient of friction in TI compared to SI during a complete turn, but not during a 20 degree side-cut. In-shoe foot sliding reduced across the forefoot and midfoot during the braking phase of the turn and in the rearfoot during the side-cut in TI. Greater in-shoe foot sliding occurred in the turn than the side-cut across all foot regions. Results provide guidance for athletic footwear design to help limit in-shoe foot sliding and improve change of direction performance.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Diseño de Equipo , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Zapatos , Adulto , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Fricción , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción , Estudios de Tiempo y Movimiento , Adulto Joven
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575324

RESUMEN

Previous research has shown enhanced performance and altered pacing behaviour in the presence of a virtual opponent during middle-distance cycling time trials with a duration of 2 min and longer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects are also present in cycling time trials of shorter duration. Twelve physically active men completed three 1-km time trials. After a familiarisation trial (FAM), participants performed two experimental conditions: one without opponent (NO) and one with a virtual opponent (OP). Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess differences in pacing and performance using power output and duration (p<0.05). No differences in mean finishing times (FAM: 91.5 ± 7.7 s; NO: 91.6 ± 6.4 s; OP: 90.9 ± 4.9 s; p=0.907) or power output (FAM: 382 ± 111 W; NO: 363 ± 80 W; OP: 367 ± 67; p=0.564) were found between experimental conditions. Furthermore, no differences in pacing profiles between experimental conditions were found (p=0.199). Similarly, rate of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental conditions at any moment (p=0.831). In conclusion, unlike events of a more prolonged duration (>2 min), the presence of an opponent did not affect participants' pacing behaviour in short duration 1-km time trials.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Ciclismo/fisiología , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Adulto , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Ciclismo/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 214-230, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795815

RESUMEN

Injuries and lack of motivation are common reasons for discontinuation of running. Real-time feedback from wearables can reduce discontinuation by reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. There are however several limitations and challenges with current real-time feedback approaches. We discuss these limitations and challenges and provide a framework to optimise real-time feedback for reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. We first discuss the reasons why individuals run and propose that feedback targeted to these reasons can improve motivation and compliance. Secondly, we review the association of running technique and running workload with injuries and performance and we elaborate how real-time feedback on running technique and workload can be applied to reduce injury risk and improve performance and motivation. We also review different feedback modalities and motor learning feedback strategies and their application to real-time feedback. Briefly, the most effective feedback modality and frequency differ between variables and individuals, but a combination of modalities and mixture of real-time and delayed feedback is most effective. Moreover, feedback promoting perceived competence, autonomy and an external focus can improve motivation, learning and performance. Although the focus is on wearables, the challenges and practical applications are also relevant for laboratory-based gait retraining.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Retroalimentación , Monitores de Ejercicio , Motivación , Carrera/fisiología , Carrera/psicología , Traumatismos en Atletas/prevención & control , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Marcha/fisiología , Humanos , Percepción , Carrera/lesiones
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1509-1515, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719272

RESUMEN

Background: Blood is the most donated tissue in medical practice and a veritable tool in many life-saving situations if used appropriately and judiciously. Despite the increased demand for blood, the supply of safe blood has been inadequate. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the perception and attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation among medical students in Abakaliki. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, between October 2017 and March 2018. Stratified and simple random sampling technique was used to recruit participants from among medical students using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 158 medical students who participated in the study were made up of 90 (57%) males and 68 (43%) females. The most prevalent age group was 20-25 years. Most of the participants, 151 (95.6%), were single. The proportion of the participants who had good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was 72.8%, while the attitudes of the respondents were positive to most aspects of blood donation considered. However, participants were found to have poor practice of voluntary blood donation as only 56 of 158 (35.4%) had ever donated blood. Conclusion: The majority of the participants have good knowledge and positive attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. However, their practice of voluntary blood donation was poor. Sustained awareness creation and enlightenment is relevant to influence the masses to have better knowledge and positive attitudes toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation with improved blood donation practices.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/estadística & datos numéricos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Altruismo , Concienciación , Donantes de Sangre/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria , Percepción , Estudiantes de Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Voluntarios
9.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(11): 1291-1297, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739374

RESUMEN

Recently, research in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has become increasingly focused on fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) due to increasing evidence of its possible benefits. Still, there are doubts about this method, because there is contradicting evidence regarding its effectiveness and the possible side effects are not well known. Furthermore, the majority of patients are not open to this procedure. We performed a questionnaire-based survey amongst 302 patients with an inflammatory bowel disease that received treatment in our specialized outpatient clinic to determine the factors relevant for acceptance or rejection of fecal microbiota transfer as a possible treatment for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Our data supports the hypothesis that a lack of information about FMT is a key factor for hypothetical acceptance of this method (68 % of pre-informed participants vs. 30 % of not pre-informed participants would accept FMT as treatment, p < 0.001), and, therefore, it highlights patient education as a possible intervention to improve acceptance. The main concern regarding FMT was possible transmission of infections (ranked first by 98 participants). The most accepted method to perform FMT was application via oral capsule (44 % of participants).


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal/efectos adversos , Heces , Humanos , Microbiota , Percepción , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1458, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694587

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The overweight/obesity epidemic is a public health issue in the United States (US), that disproportionately affect certain racial/ethnic minority groups. Perceived discrimination has been implicated as a health risk factor. However, research on race/ethnicity, perceived discrimination, and obesity has been mixed. Researchers suggest that perceptions of discrimination may be dependent upon nativity status. This study evaluated the role that nativity status and race/ethnicity play in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. METHODS: We used Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005) [N = 33,319]). Multinomial logistic regression assessed a three-way interaction (perceived discrimination × race/ethnicity × nativity) on overweight and obesity, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The three-way interaction was significant for overweight [F (17, 49) = 3.35; p < 0.001] and obesity [F (17, 49) = 5.05; p < 0.001]. Among US-born individuals, US-born non-Hispanic Blacks had a decreased risk of being obese compared to US-born non-Hispanic Whites at mean levels of perceived discrimination [aRRR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.51-0.98); p = 0.04). Among foreign-born individuals, foreign-born South Americans had an increased risk of being overweight at mean levels of perceived discrimination compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 8.07; 95% CI (1.68-38.77); p = 0.01], whereas foreign-born Dominicans had a decreased risk of being obese compared to foreign-born non-Hispanic Whites [aRRR = 0.05; 95% CI (0.01-0.20); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for overweight/obesity for certain groups. Race/ethnicity and nativity may play important roles in the relationship between perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity. Future research is needed to identify the behavioral and psychological pathways that link perceived discrimination and overweight/obesity.


Asunto(s)
Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Obesidad/psicología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Discriminación Social/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/etnología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/etnología , Percepción , Factores de Riesgo , Discriminación Social/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 301, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694617

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among infertile women is popular in many countries, including Korea. Previous research has repeatedly found more than half of infertile women surveyed use CAM therapies for fertility enhancement and overall well-being. However, there is currently little evidence to support this practice, and this raises the question of infertile women's experiences in the uptake of those modalities and sociodemographic and psychological factors associated with CAM use. Thus, this study aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of infertile women with regard to their use of CAM in Korea. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 263 infertile women attending infertility specialty clinics in Seoul, Korea, in June 2012. The survey instrument included 47 questions on the use of CAM, demographic characteristics, health status, and infertility related factors such as duration and type of infertility, experience and satisfaction of conventional treatment, and self-perceived severity of infertility condition. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Among 286 respondents (response rate, 95.3%), a total of 263 women were included in the final analysis. 63.5% of respondents used one or more types of CAM modalities during infertility treatment. The utilization of CAM was associated with employment status, duration of infertility treatment, and self-perceived severity of the disease. The most commonly used CAM modalities were multivitamin and herbal medicine, and differences in types of CAM modalities used were found between the group with a higher rating of self-perceived disease severity and the lower perceived severity group. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of CAM use among infertile women was observed in Korea. Our findings support that infertile women's own understanding of their illness and physical condition influences self-care behavior such as CAM use. This calls for an urgent need for further in-depth study of the clinical effects of popular CAM modalities among infertile women when used in conjunction with conventional treatment.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias/psicología , Infertilidad Femenina/terapia , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Infertilidad Femenina/psicología , Pacientes/psicología , Percepción , República de Corea , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 697, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615523

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The reason for doctor visits associated with bad working conditions (and workplace bullying) remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived working conditions as well as workplace bullying and the number of doctor visits as well as the reason for seeing a doctor. METHODS: Data were derived from the German General Social Survey, a representative cross-section of the population in the year 2014. Self-reported doctor visits in the last 3 months were used as outcome measure. Self-rated working conditions (noise, bad air; time/performance pressure; bad working atmosphere; overtime; shifts/night work; hard physical labour) and workplace bullying were assessed. The reason for seeing a doctor was also recorded (acute illness; chronic illness; feeling unwell; requesting advice; visit to the doctor's office without consulting the doctor (e.g., need to get a prescription); preventive medical check-up/vaccination). Regression analysis stratified by sex was conducted. RESULTS: Adjusting for various potential confounders, Poisson regressions showed that workplace bullying was associated with increased doctor visits in men, but not in women. Contrarily, time/performance pressure at work was only associated with increased doctor visits in women, but not in men. Furthermore, the probability of visiting the doctor for reasons of acute illness or feeling unwell increased with workplace bullying in men. The probability of visiting the doctor because of feeling unwell increased with time/performance pressure in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings stress the association between adverse working conditions (workplace bullying as well as time/performance pressure at work) and doctor visits, with remarkable gender differences. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the present findings and to obtain further insights into this relationship.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Enfermedad Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Acoso Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Visita a Consultorio Médico/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción , Distribución por Sexo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(3): 211-229, 2019.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645063

RESUMEN

Emergency Department (ED) waiting times are a relevant concern both to health care professionals and consumers, because ED crowding may affect the quality of and access to health care. This has prompted a large amount of studies in the scientific literature, addressing the problem of waiting times as an "international crisis". The causes of long waiting times are complex and multifaceted and feasible solutions must consider this and other aspects such as limitation of resources and unpredicted surges in demand. In the present article, we address the issue of modeling ED flow of patients with a low score at the triage evaluation. This study aimed to develop a model to predict expected waiting times for patients with a "green" or "white" code at triage, by analyzing the patient flow in a regional referral hospital in an Italian district. The simulation model was developed through flow analysis; moreover, input analysis was performed by using registration data collected in the ED during daily activities. The simulation results were compared to data collected through direct observation at the hospital ED and to data extracted from the existing hospital information system, which represents an online transaction system tailored for routine care and patient services in the ED as well as in other hospital departments. The applied model was shown to be able to emulate patient flow in the ED and to find key critical points of the health care process, for patients who received a low category score at the triage. To face the problem of ED waiting times, adoption of patient flow analysis and improvement strategies are recommended, together with improvement of triage evaluation procedures. Simulation models can help to manage this complex issue.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Listas de Espera , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Humanos , Italia , Percepción , Factores de Tiempo , Triaje
14.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1849-1857, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656467

RESUMEN

Background: Emergency nurses' understanding and interpretation of intimate partner violence influence the care they provide to women exposed to intimate partner violence. Objectives: The aim of this study was to uncover discourses that may help understand emergency nurses' responses towards women exposed to intimate partner violence. Materials and methods: This study used a qualitative design to explore emergency nurses' discourses. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 participants working at an emergency unit in a public hospital in South Africa. Data were collected through three focus group discussions comprised of five emergency nurses each. Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. Results: Four themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) strong women subject themselves to societal expectations and endure intimate partner violence, (2) women are vulnerable and powerless against intimate partner violence, (3) intimate partner violence is a private and secret phenomenon, and (4) emergency nurses have limited scope to intervene when they encounter women exposed to intimate partner violence. Conclusion: Emergency nurses are in a position to intervene in intimate partner violence through portraying a non-judgmental approach that lay the foundation for disclosure, supporting women to change their intimate partner violence (IPV) situations, documentation, referral and safety planning.


Asunto(s)
Enfermería de Urgencia , Violencia de Pareja , Rol de la Enfermera/psicología , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Atención de Enfermería/psicología , Personal de Enfermería/psicología , Adulto , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa , Sudáfrica
15.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1747-1751, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622259

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Previous research shows that the role of perceived social support, defined as individuals' confidence of the availability of adequate support when needed, is considered as a protective external resource to promote better adaptation in psychiatric patients. The aim of our study was to reveal the features of patients with endogenous mental disorders regarding their ability to perceive social support. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A total of 168 patients with schizophrenia (F.20) and 75 patients with affective disorders (F30.F.33) were involved into this study under informed consent conditions. Control group included 55 mentally healthy respondents. Perceived social support was measured using Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) by Zimet (1998). RESULTS: Results: Family, friends and significant others become main donors of social support for patients with endogenous mental disorders. Meanwhile, perceived social support in patients with schizophrenia is mostly coming from family. In patients with affective disorders, indicators of perceived social support from friends and significant others are significantly higher compared to patients with schizophrenia (P <0.001). Revealed features can be used while developing appropriate psychoeducational programs for patients with endogenous mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: On the basis of revealed data, the key features of ability to perceive social support in patients with endogenous mental disorders, depending on the duration of the disease, were determined. It has been revealed that ability to perceive social support in patients with endogenous mental disorders decreases with prolongation of duration of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Apoyo Social , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Humanos , Trastornos del Humor , Percepción , Esquizofrenia
16.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(4): 485-492, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582120

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any influence on the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypersons, with regard to different vertical positions of the maxillary central incisors. METHODS: Frontal smile photographs digitally altered at full-face view and close-up view of 2 adult men aged between 20 and 30 years were used. Six vertical positions of the central incisors were created, with changes of 0.5 mm. The images were randomly assembled in an album that was presented to 53 orthodontists and 53 laypersons, who evaluated the attractiveness of the images by using visual analog scales. Comparison among the images was performed using 1-way analysis of variance, with Tukey post-hoc test. To compare the distribution of the mean scores between the full-face and close-up smile views, and between orthodontists and laypersons, the Student t test was used. The level of significance was established at 5%. RESULTS: The best evaluations presented the following: (a) the gingival margins of the central incisors corresponded to, or were up to, 1 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins, and (b) the incisal step between the central and lateral incisors was from 1.0 to 2.0 mm. The smiles considered least attractive showed (a) the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins, and (b) no step, or a step of 2.5 mm, between the central and lateral incisors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggested that, in men, slightly extruded central incisors were esthetically more attractive than intruded incisors.


Asunto(s)
Estética Dental/psicología , Encía/anatomía & histología , Incisivo/anatomía & histología , Maxilar/anatomía & histología , Ortodoncistas/psicología , Sonrisa/psicología , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción , Fotograbar , Escala Visual Analógica
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17287, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574848

RESUMEN

Evidence suggests that mental health is associated with multiple factors such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults. The present study used latent profile analysis to identify classes of older adults based on their health profile among a representative sample of Korean older adults with hypertension. Differences in mental health between these classes were also examined.Seven hundred and sixty seven participants (mean age = 70.23, SD = 6.08; men 45.6%) were included in the analysis.There were 3 latent classes (class 1: a physically inactive lifestyle with low physical function and body perception; class 2: a physically moderate lifestyle with moderate physical function and low body perception; class 3: a physically active lifestyle with high physical function and body perception). According to class comparisons, older adults in class 3 had significantly lower anxiety/depression levels than classes 1 and 2. Older adults in class 3 had significantly lower stress levels than class 1.It is possible that among older adults, having a positive attitude of one's body shape may also be important for improving anxiety/depression along with having a physically active lifestyle and maintaining physical function.


Asunto(s)
Imagen Corporal/psicología , Fuerza de la Mano , Hipertensión/psicología , Sedestación , Caminata , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Ejercicio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Percepción , República de Corea , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
18.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(14): 886-896, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648353

RESUMEN

Exercise physiological responses can be markedly affected by acute hypoxia. We investigated cardiac autonomic and physiological responses to different hypoxic training protocols. Thirteen men performed three exercise sessions (5×5-min; 1-min passive recovery): normoxic exercise at 80% of the power output (PO) at the first ventilatory threshold (N), hypoxic exercise (FiO2=14.2%) with the same PO as N (HPO) and hypoxic exercise at the same heart rate (HR) as N (HHR). PO was lower in HHR (21.1±9.3%) compared to N and HPO. Mean HR was higher in HPO (154±11 bpm, p<0.01) than N and HHR (139±10 vs. 138±9 bpm; p=0.80). SpO2 was reduced (p<0.01) to a similar extent (p>0.05) in HPO and HHR compared to N. HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability indices were similar in N and HHR (p>0.05) but reduced in HPO (p<0.05), mirroring a delayed parasympathetic reactivation. Blood lactate and ventilation were similar in N and HHR (p>0.05) and increased in HPO (p<0.001). During recovery oxygen consumption and ventilation were similar in N and HHR (p>0.05) and increased in HPO (p<0.01). Moderate HR-matched hypoxic exercise triggers similar cardiac autonomic and physiological responses to normoxic exercise with a reduced mechanical load. On the contrary, the same absolute intensity exercise in hypoxia is associated with increased exercise-induced metabolic stress and delayed cardiac autonomic recovery.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Nervioso Autónomo/fisiología , Ejercicio/fisiología , Corazón/inervación , Hipoxia/fisiopatología , Adulto , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangre , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Frecuencia Respiratoria , Adulto Joven
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3200, 2019 Oct 14.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618393

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to describe the level of uncertainty in illness in family caregivers of palliative care patients and detect associations between the profile of the caregiver and the levels of uncertainty. METHOD: descriptive correlational study conducted with 300 family caregivers of hospitalized patients. The sociodemographic characterization of caregiver and patient was used to assess the caregiver profile, as well as the Uncertainty in Illness scale for family caregivers. Spearman's Rho correlation test was applied to detect associations. RESULTS: the average score of illness uncertainty was 91.7 points. The analysis showed significant correlations between the level of uncertainty and patient dependence (r=0.18, p=0.001), symptom assessment (r=0.312, p<0.001), length of service as a caregiver (r=0.131, p=0.023), perception of support from health professionals (r=-0.16, p=0.048), family (r=-0.145, p=0.012) and religious support (r=-0.131, p=0.050). CONCLUSIONS: there were high levels of uncertainty in caregivers about their patient's illness. These levels are associated with the health condition and symptoms of the patient who is cared for, the length of service as a caregiver and the perceived support from health professionals, family and religion.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores/psicología , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Incertidumbre , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cuidadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Paliativos/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción , Factores Socioeconómicos , Espiritualidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(14): 879-885, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574544

RESUMEN

The potential anti-fatigue and performance benefits of hydrogen rich water (HRW) have resulted in increased research interest over the past 5 years. The aim of this study was to assess physiological and perceptual responses to an incremental exercise protocol after administration of 600 ml HRW within 30 min before exercise. This randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled cross over study included twelve healthy males aged 27.1±4.9 years. The exercise protocol consisted of a 10 min warm-up at 1.0 W.kg-1, followed by 8 min at 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 W.kg-1, respectively. Cardio-respiratory variables, lactate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed in the last minute of each step. A significantly lower blood lactate was found with HRW (4.0±1.6 and 8.9±2.2 mmol.l-1) compared to Placebo (5.1±1.9 and 10.6±3.0 mmol.l-1) at 3.0, and 4.0 W.kg-1, respectively. Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen and RPE exhibited significantly lower values with HRW (32.3±7.2, and 17.8±1.2 points, respectively) compared to Placebo (35.0±8.4, and 18.5±0.8 points, respectively) at 4 W.kg-1. To conclude, acute pre-exercise supplementation with HRW reduced blood lactate at higher exercise intensities, improved exercise-induced perception of effort, and ventilatory efficiency.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Líquidos , Ejercicio/fisiología , Hidrógeno , Ácido Láctico/sangre , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Respiración , Agua/química , Adulto , Método Doble Ciego , Ejercicio/psicología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Fatiga Muscular/fisiología , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Adulto Joven
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