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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49912, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1122747

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar as práticas sexuais de jovens universitários em seus relacionamentos afetivos e analisar a percepção dos estudantes em relação à vulnerabilidade às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Método: estudo descritivo, qualitativo, realizado em 2016, no Rio de Janeiro, com 30 universitários, ambos os sexos, faixa etária 18 - 29 anos, que participaram de grupos focais. Dados discursivos foram analisados com auxílio do software NVivo 9 e técnica de análise de conteúdo. Respeitaram-se os procedimentos éticos de pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos. Resultados: na análise, emergiram duas categorias: As práticas sexuais dos universitários nos tempos atuais; Os jovens e a percepção de vulnerabilidade às IST. Os jovens vivenciam a sexualidade com liberdade no tocante à identidade de gênero, expressão de gênero e orientação sexual, estabelecendo uma pluralidade de relacionamentos e parceiros. Os estudantes se reconhecem como um grupo vulnerável. Conclusão: as condutas sexuais dos universitários os deixam vulneráveis aos agravos de saúde, como as infecções sexualmente transmissíveis.


Objective: to identify the sexual practices of young university students in their affective relationships and to analyze how they perceive their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections. Method: this qualitative, descriptive study was carried out in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, with 30 university students of both sexes, aged 18-29 years, who participated in focal groups. Discourse data were analyzed using the NVivo 9 software and content analysis technique. The ethics of research procedures involving human beings were respected. Results: two categories emerged in the analysis: present-day sexual practices of university students; young people and perception of vulnerability to STIs. Young people experience sexuality freely as regards gender identity, gender expression and sexual orientation, and establish a plurality of relationships and partners. Students recognize themselves to be a vulnerable group. Conclusion: university students' sexual conduct leaves them vulnerable to health problems, such as sexually transmitted infections.


Objetivo: identificar las prácticas sexuales de jóvenes universitarios en sus relaciones afectivas y analizar cómo perciben su vulnerabilidad a las infecciones de transmisión sexual. Método: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, realizado en 2016 en Río de Janeiro, con 30 estudiantes universitarios de ambos sexos, de 18 a 29 años, que participaron en grupos focales. Los datos del discurso se analizaron utilizando el software NVivo 9 y la técnica de análisis de contenido. Se respetó la ética de los procedimientos de investigación con seres humanos. Resultados: en el análisis surgieron dos categorías: prácticas sexuales actuales de estudiantes universitarios; jóvenes y percepción de vulnerabilidad a las ITS. Los jóvenes experimentan libremente la sexualidad en cuanto a identidad de género, expresión de género y orientación sexual, y establecen una pluralidad de relaciones y parejas. Los estudiantes se reconocen a sí mismos como un grupo vulnerable. Conclusión: la conducta sexual de los estudiantes universitarios los deja vulnerables a problemas de salud, como infecciones de transmisión sexual.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes , Universidades , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Percepción , Brasil , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Sexualidad , Investigación Cualitativa , Sexo Inseguro , Identidad de Género
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185989

RESUMEN

Objective: India is combating a large-scale migrant crisis in many states during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The objective of this study was to identify migrant workers needs and perceptions regarding lockdown while staying in a shelter home during the COVID-19 crisis. Methods: This exploratory study was conducted with 54 migrants staying in a makeshift shelter home in Chandigarh, India. Three discussions were conducted with groups consisting of 15-20 participants to maintain social distancing. Five discussion questions were designed to facilitate group discussions. Results: One important theme among migrants was their eagerness to return to their native homes. Participants were also concerned about pending agriculture-related work, their families back home, and job insecurity. Most of the migrants supported the government-mandated lockdown and agreed that they would follow all instructions. Conclusions: Physiologic requirements, safety, and security were the predominant needs of the migrant workers while staying in the shelter home during lockdown. The participants feared contracting COVID-19 and were uncertain about when and how they would return to their native homes.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Refugio de Emergencia , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Agua Potable , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , India , Masculino , Salud Mental , Percepción , Investigación Cualitativa , Seguridad , Incertidumbre , Adulto Joven
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143145

RESUMEN

In the context of global fighting against the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic, how to promote the public implementation of preventive behavior is the top priority of pandemic prevention and control. This study aimed at probing how the media would affect the public's preventive behavior and excessive preventive intention accordingly. Data were collected from 653 respondents in the Chinese mainland through online questionnaires and further analyzed by using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Taking risk perception, negative emotions, and subjective norms as mediators, this study explored the impact of mass media exposure and social networking services involvement on preventive behavior and excessive preventive intention. Based on differences in the severity of the pandemic, the samples were divided into the Wuhan group and other regions group for multi-group comparison. The results showed that mass media exposure had a significant positive impact on subjective norms; moreover, mass media exposure could significantly enhance preventive behavior through subjective norms, and social networking services involvement had a significant positive impact on negative emotions; meanwhile, social networking services involvement promoted excessive preventive intention through negative emotions.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Red Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Intención , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240776, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085719

RESUMEN

Conflicting information surrounding COVID-19 abounds, from disagreement over the effectiveness of face masks in preventing viral transmission to competing claims about the promise of certain treatments. Despite the potential for conflicting information about COVID-19 to produce adverse public health effects, little is known about whether the U.S. public notices this information, and whether certain population subgroups are particularly likely to do so. To address these questions, we fielded a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults in late April 2020 (N = 1,007). Results showed substantial self-reported exposure to conflicting information about COVID-19, with nearly 75% of participants reporting having recently heard such information from health experts, politicians, and/or others. Participants perceived disagreement across a range of COVID-19-related issues, though from politicians more than health experts. Factors including political affiliation, information source use, and personal experience with COVID-19 were associated with perceptions of disagreement. Future research should consider potential cognitive and behavioral consequences of such perceptions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Difusión de la Información , Percepción , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Opinión Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Política , Autoinforme , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
6.
BMC Emerg Med ; 20(1): 82, 2020 10 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059583

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emergency department personnel routinely bear witness to traumatic experiences and critical incidents that can affect their own well-being. Peer support through debriefing has demonstrated positive impacts on clinicians' well-being following critical incidents. This study explored community hospital emergency department staff's perceptions of critical incidents, assessed openness to debriefing and measured baseline well-being. Our analysis provides a baseline of provider well-being immediately prior to the local onset of COVID-19. The potential need for additional resources to support frontline providers during the pandemic can be evaluated. METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional study for 4-weeks prior to the first COVID-19 case in Connecticut using a survey offered to an interprofessional group of emergency department clinical staff. The main outcome measures were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale. Pearson's chi-square test was used to identify significant differences in perceptions of critical incidents and debriefings between professional categories. One-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to analyze significant differences in well-being between professional categories. RESULTS: Thirty-nine clinical personnel from St. Vincent's Emergency Department responded to the survey. Events frequently selected as critical incidents were caring for critically ill children (89.7%), mass casualty events (84.6%), and death of a patient (69.2%). Critical incidents were commonly reported (81.6%) as occurring once per week. Additionally, 76.2% of participants reported wanting to discuss a critical incident with their team. Across all respondents, 45.7% scored borderline or abnormal for anxiety, 55.9% scored moderate for burnout, and 55.8% scored moderate to high for secondary traumatic stress. CONCLUSIONS: At baseline, providers reported caring for critically ill children, mass casualty events, and death of a patient as critical incidents, which typically occurred once per week. Death of a patient occurs at increased frequency during the protracted mass casualty experience of COVID-19 and threatens provider well-being. Receptiveness to post-event debriefing is high but the method is still underutilized. With nearly half of staff scoring borderline or abnormal for anxiety, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress at baseline, peer support measures should be implemented to protect frontline providers' well-being during and after the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Retroalimentación , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Profesional/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hospitales Comunitarios/organización & administración , Humanos , Masculino , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Percepción , Calidad de Vida , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5004, 2020 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020473

RESUMEN

Adaptive brain function requires that sensory impressions of the social and natural milieu are dynamically incorporated into intrinsic brain activity. While dynamic switches between brain states have been well characterised in resting state acquisitions, the remodelling of these state transitions by engagement in naturalistic stimuli remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of brain states, as measured in fMRI, are reshaped from predominantly bistable transitions between two relatively indistinct states at rest, toward a sequence of well-defined functional states during movie viewing whose transitions are temporally aligned to specific features of the movie. The expression of these brain states covaries with different physiological states and reflects subjectively rated engagement in the movie. In sum, a data-driven decoding of brain states reveals the distinct reshaping of functional network expression and reliable state transitions that accompany the switch from resting state to perceptual immersion in an ecologically valid sensory experience.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Películas Cinematográficas , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Películas Cinematográficas/clasificación , Películas Cinematográficas/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción/fisiología , Pupila/fisiología , Descanso/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e172, 2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028455

RESUMEN

AIMS: To test the impact of using different idioms in epidemiological interviews on the prevalence and correlates of poor mental health and mental health service use. METHODS: We conducted a randomised methodological experiment in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population, comparing a lay idiom, which asked about 'problems with your emotions or nerves' with a more medical idiom, which asked about 'problems with your mental health'. Differences across study arms in the associations of endorsement of problems with the Kessler-6 (a validated assessment of psychological distress), demographic characteristics, self-rated health and mental health service use were examined. RESULTS: Respondents were about half as likely to endorse a problem when asked with the more medical idiom (18.1%) than when asked with the lay idiom (35.1%). The medical idiom had a significantly larger area under the ROC curve when compared against a validated measure of psychological distress than the lay idiom (0.91 v. 0.87, p = 0.012). The proportion of the population who endorsed a problem but did not receive treatment in the past year was less than half as large for the medical idiom (7.90%) than for the lay idiom (20.94%). Endorsement of problems differed in its associations with age, sex, race/ethnicity and self-rated health depending on the question idiom. For instance, the odds of endorsing problems were threefold higher in the youngest than the oldest age group when the medical idiom was used (OR = 3.07; 95% CI 1.47-6.41) but did not differ across age groups when the lay idiom was used (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.43-1.36). CONCLUSION: Choice of idiom in epidemiological questionnaires can affect the apparent correlates of poor mental health and service use. Cultural change within populations over time may require changes in instrument wording to maintain consistency in epidemiological measurement of psychiatric conditions.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Mental/provisión & distribución , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Percepción , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 17-23, 21/10/2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123561

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de vida en un grupo de pacientes con linfedema por cáncer de seno en la ciudad de Medellín. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo de tipo descriptivo correlacional, en el que se analizó la relación de la calidad de vida con la sintomatología, tratamientos médicos recibidos y perímetros del brazo en 11 mujeres con linfedema. Se valoró el dolor, perímetros de ambos brazos y se utilizó el cuestionario de calidad de vida FACT B+4. Resultados: A partir de las correlaciones de Spearman se identificó que, para la calidad de vida y los perímetros del brazo afectado, hubo una correlación inversa y no significativa, lo que indica que no existe una percepción negativa frente a la calidad de vida pese al linfedema. Hubo una correlación inversa y significativa entre el número de tratamientos y la calidad de vida (a más número de tratamientos recibidos, menor calidad de vida según la percepción de las participantes). Así mismo, la percepción de calidad de vida se correlacionó de modo inverso con el dolor. Conclusión: La calidad de vida se ve influenciada por la cantidad de tratamientos oncológicos recibidos, dichos tratamientos tienen efectos colaterales e impactan el bienestar. El dolor es una complicación que influye negativamente en la calidad de vida, más aún si se trata no se trata oportunamente.


Objective: This study intends to evaluate the quality of life of a group of patients with lymphedema due to breast cancer in the city of Medellin. Methodology: A descriptive correlational study was carried out with a quantitative approach, with the purpose of evaluating the quality of life in patients with lymphedema due to breast cancer, analyzing its relationship with symptoms; treatments received; and arm circumferences. The analyzed population consisted of 11 women. In which pain, perimeters of both arms were evaluated, and the FACT B + 4 Quality of life questionnaire was also implemented. Results: From Spearman's correlations, it was found that, for the variables of quality of life and perimeters of the affected arm, the correlation was inverse and not significant, indicating that there is no negative perception of quality of life despite the presence of lymphedema, while, for the number of treatments received by the patients and their quality of life, the correlation was inverse and significant, indicating that an increase in the number of treatments received, affects the perception of quality of life. The same analysis was developed for the variables of quality of life and pain, finding a significant and inverse correlation; therefore, as pain increases, the perception of quality of life decreases. Conclusion: The quality of life is an element that is influenced by the amount of cancer treatments received, which increases the side effects, and impacts the well-being of patients including lymphedema, also, pain is a complication that greatly influences the quality of life, even more if it is not timely treated.


Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade de vida num grupo de pacientes com linfedema por câncer de mama na cidade de Medellín. Metodologia: Se realizou um estudo quantitativo de tipo descritivo de correlação, no qual se analisou a relação da qualidade de vida com a sintomatologia, tratamentos médicos recebidos e perímetros do braço em 11 mulheres com linfedema. Se valorou a dor, perímetros de ambos braços e se utilizou o questionário de qualidade de vida FACT B+4. Resultados: A partir das correlações de Spearman se identificou que, para a qualidade de vida e os perímetros do braço afetado, houve uma correlação inversa e não significativa, o que indica que não existe uma percepção negativa frente à qualidade de vida apesar do linfedema. Houve uma correlação inversa e significativa entre o número de tratamentos e a qualidade de vida (a mais número de tratamentos recebidos, menor qualidade de vida segundo a percepção das participantes). Assim mesmo, a percepção de qualidade de vida se correlacionou de modo inverso com a dor. Conclusão: A qualidade de vida se vê influenciada pela quantidade de tratamentos oncológicos recebidos, ditos tratamentos têm efeitos colaterais e impactam no bem-estar. A dor é uma complicação que influi negativamente na qualidade de vida, mais ainda se não se trata oportunamente.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Neoplasias de la Mama , Dolor , Percepción , Calidad de Vida , Mujeres , Linfedema
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5150, 2020 10 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051452

RESUMEN

It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals' values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people's values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find that person-country and person-region value congruence predict six well-being measures (e.g., emotional well-being, relationship support; N = 54,673). Crucially, however, value type moderates whether person-country fit is positively or negatively associated with well-being. People who value self-direction, stimulation, and hedonism more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values report lower well-being. In contrast, people who value achievement, power, and security more and live in countries and regions where people on average share these values, report higher well-being. Additionally, we find that people who moderately value stimulation report the highest well-being.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Valor de la Vida , Emociones , Humanos , Percepción , Filosofía , Seguridad Social
11.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 214-226, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020333

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: autoimmune patients can be more susceptible to infection. Proper knowledge, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 are essential for these patients during pandemic. This study aimed to know their knowledge, perception, and practices regarding COVID-19. METHODS: cross sectional study using online survey was conducted from April to May 2020. Patients with autoimmune disease were asked about demographic characteristics, diagnosis, history of treatment, knowledge, perception, and practice regarding COVID-19. RESULTS: there were 685 respondents. Most of them were female and had systemic lupus erythematosus with median age of 37 years old. Almost all respondents had good knowledge regarding transmission of COVID-19 and did proper prevention practices. Adequacy of information and steroid or mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid (MMF/MPA) use were related to perception of the effect of pandemic to their own health. Visiting private clinic and receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or sulfasalazine were related to perception that autoimmune conditions would make them more prone to COVID-19. Work from home was related to perception that when contracting COVID-19, the symptoms would be more severe. Living in Sumatra region and getting hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or MMF/MPA were related to perception that autoimmune medications could reduce risk of getting COVID-19. Adequate information, university education, private clinic visit, and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate use were related to perception that COVID-19 pandemic would cause difficulties in getting medications. CONCLUSION: almost all respondents had good knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19. Adequacy of information, autoimmune treatment, work from home, educational background, area of living, and health care facilities contributed to perception regarding COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias , Percepción , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Indonesia/epidemiología , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238109, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870929

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The global refugee population has reached a staggering 25.9 million. Approximately 16% of global refugees resettle in high-income countries which are often culturally very different from their home countries. This can create cross-cultural challenges when accessing health services, leading to inappropriate assessments, diagnoses and treatments if cultural background is not factored in. The impact of culture on the conceptualization and experience of postpartum depression (PPD) amongst migrant women has received growing attention in recent years, however, a specific focus on refugee and asylum-seeking women is lacking. Given the unique mental health challenges refugee women face, it is hypothesized that the interplay between culture and postpartum depression amongst refugee women may differ from other migrant women. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to characterize what is known about the impact of culture on the conceptualization and experience of PPD in refugee women resettled in high-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study was conducted as a scoping review in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute's Methodology for Scoping Reviews. A systematic search of studies addressing the relationship between culture and postpartum depression amongst refugee women (including asylum-seeking women) resettled in high-income countries was conducted across 6 databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO and SOCINDEX between June 2018 and August 2019. A total of 637 articles were found. Studies were eligible if they focused on refugee women who had a pregnancy during forced migration or upon resettlement in a high-income country and focused on the impact of culture on women's conceptualization and/or experience of PPD. Eight studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis, the majority of which were qualitatively driven. Four key themes emerged: 1) there are diverse conceptualizations and experiences of postpartum depression amongst refugee women; 2) mental health stigma has a significant impact on women's conceptualizations and experiences of postpartum depression and help-seeking behaviors; 3) cultural traditions and social support play protective roles in postpartum mental wellbeing; and, 4) host culture has a significant influence on the pregnancy and postpartum experience of refugee women. The overall themes align with those seen in the literature on migrant women in general, however significant research gaps remain. CONCLUSION: The studies identified through this scoping review provide a rich description of the significant impact culture has on the conceptualization and experience of postpartum depression among refugee women resettled in high-income countries. Though overall themes align with those seen in the literature on migrant women in general, further research is needed to better characterize how culture impacts refugee women's experiences of PPD as a distinct sub-group of migrant women.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Depresión Posparto/psicología , Países Desarrollados , Refugiados/psicología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Percepción
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238187, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898193

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: For persons who are at risk for, or living with, dementia exercise is recommended, yet many become or remain inactive. Exercise providers play a vital role in promoting and facilitating exercise in these groups by recognizing and being responsive to the needs of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia in exercise programming. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences, perceptions, and needs of community exercise providers regarding dementia. MATERIALS & METHODS: Five focus groups were held with community exercise providers (n = 30) who deliver exercise to older adults (≥55 years) in municipal, non-profit, for profit, or academic settings. RESULTS: Three themes were developed: (1) Unique experiences and diverse perceptions: suggests unique personal experiences with MCI and dementia inform distinct perceptions of dementia; (2) Dementia-Inclusive Practices: learning as you go and adapting for the individual: reflects exercise providers' approaches to recognizing and accommodating individuals' unique abilities and preferences; (3) Training and Best Practices, with Flexibility: identifies exercise providers' desires for MCI- and dementia-specific knowledge and training strategies, which need to recognize dementia heterogeneity between and within persons over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight a willingness of exercise providers to support dementia-inclusive exercise, but recognize they have minimal training and lack educational resources to do so. Formal training resources may enhance exercise accessibility and participation for persons with MCI or dementia.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Demencia/fisiopatología , Demencia/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867329

RESUMEN

Improving the quality of teaching and learning, as well as school coexistence are international priorities for the new educational challenges of the 21st century (UNESCO 37 C/4 resolution). Physical Education (PE) has become a key subject for education on school coexistence by enabling significant motor experiences to promote interpersonal relationships and transform motor conflicts (MC). The objective of this research was to develop and validate two questionnaires (CONFLICT1-AGE and CONFLICT1-RES) to study secondary school students' perception about MC in PE. Study 1 searched for evidence related to their content validity and response process validity, and Study 2 examined internal structure, reliability, and concurrent validity. As a result, a seven-item single-factor model was selected for CONFLICT1-AGE, and a five-item single-factor structure was chosen for CONFLICT1-RES. Both models exhibited an excellent fit to the data, where CONFLICT1-AGE: χ2 (df) = 18.621 (14), p = 0.180, RMSEA (90% CI) = 0.033 0(0.000-0.069), CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.991; CONFLICT1-RES: χ2 (df) = 13.350 (5), p = 0.020, RMSEA (90% CI) = 0.075 (0.027-0.125), CFI = 0.986, TLI = 0.972. Furthermore, both questionnaires presented satisfactory internal consistency (αCONFLICT1-AGE = 0.745, αCONFLICT1-RES = 0.737). Their combination will provide a wide view of secondary school students' perception about MC.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Percepción , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239314, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966324

RESUMEN

How could we explain the mechanism driving the effects of Urban Green Space (UGS) on human health? This mechanism is a complex one suggesting, on one hand, an indirect effect of UGS Provision (measured as quantity, quality or accessibility of UGS) on health through UGS Exposure (measured as visit frequency to UGS, duration of visit or intensity of activities taking place during the visit). On the other hand, UGS Provision may have an indirect effect on Exposure, mediated by people's perception of UGS. The mechanism further suggests that UGS Exposure may influence indirectly human Health but mediated by human motivation to use UGS. We tested these different expectations by fitting 12 alternative structural equation models (SEMs) corresponding to four different scenarios, depending on how UGS Provision was approximated. We show that SEMs where i) Provision is approximated as UGS quantity, and Exposure as duration (SEMi), ii) Provision is approximated as quantity, and Exposure as intensity (SEMii) and iii) Provision is approximated as distance of the closest UGS from people's house, and Exposure as intensity (SEMiii) are equally the best of all 12 SEMs tested. However, apart from the SEMi that has no significant path, SEMii and SEMiii have the same significant path (motivation ~ intensity; ß = 7.86±2.03, p = 0.0002), suggesting that visits to UGS may be motivated by opportunities of physical activities offered by UGS. In all our scenarios, the best SEM is always the one where Exposure is measured as intensity, irrespective of how Provision is approximated. This suggests that it is not only UGS provision that matters the most in the mechanism linking UGS to human health improvement, but rather intensity, i.e. the type of activities people engage in when they visit UGSs. Overall, our findings support the theoretical model tested in this study.


Asunto(s)
Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Salud , Percepción , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1305-1311, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913172

RESUMEN

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the cardiology patients' illness perception on their medication adherence will guide in the development of training and consultancy strategies. Material and Method: The study was conducted with 110 patients who were followed up in the cardiology clinics of a university hospital. The study included patients over the age of 18 years, who agreed to participate in the study and were diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease at least six months before. The data were collected using a patient information form questioning the subjects such as the patients' age, gender, marital status and economic condition, the Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results: The results showed that 72.7% (n=80) of the group had forgotten to take their medicine, 38.2% (n=42) had a trouble remembering to take their medicine, 29.1% (n=32) stopped taking their medicine when they felt good and 32.7% (n=36) stopped taking their medicine because they sometimes felt bad after taking their medicine. It was determined that there was no statistically significant correlation between Morisky Medication Adherence Scale scores and Illness Perception Questionnaire subscale scores (P >0.05). It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference between the educational backgrounds, in terms of the personal control subscale mean scores (P=0.003; P<0.01). Conclusion: Patients try to explain their disease in the light of their personal experiences, knowledge, values, beliefs, and needs. Illness perception which is among the most important factors providing treatment adherence is an important factor affecting many areas from the person's psychological adaptation to the course of disease. Illness perception and treatment adherence are affected by educational level.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Percepción , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cumplimiento y Adherencia al Tratamiento/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e2891, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126518

RESUMEN

RESUMO Introdução: Diversas situações no consultório odontológico podem gerar quadros de emergência. A administração de anestésicos locais, o atendimento odontológico aos pacientes com comprometimento sistêmico, ansiedade e medo são muitas vezes as causas mais comuns. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o nível de percepção dos alunos de Odontologia frente às principais emergências odontológicas. Métodos: Tratou-se de um estudo transversal e descritivo com abordagem quantitativa dos dados por meio dos questionários. Foram entrevistados 138 alunos cursando do 5º ao 10º período de odontologia da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, na cidade de Patos, Paraíba. Resultados: Foi observado que 86,2 porcento do total de entrevistados responderam saber a diferença entre urgência e emergência; 52,2 porcento dos alunos confirmaram receber ou terem recebido instruções extracurriculares sobre o assunto; 59,4 porcento responderam que o aprendizado fornecido na graduação sobre este tema não está sendo suficiente. Cerca de 17,4 porcento destes alunos responderam saber realizar as manobras de Reanimação Cardiopulmonar, 11,6 porcento dos entrevistados relataram que se sentiam preparados para lidar com uma situação de emergência e 81,9 porcento dos alunos pretendem buscar uma formação complementar durante ou após a graduação. Conclusão: Verificou-se que os alunos de graduação em odontologia apresentaram um baixo nível de percepção sobre as emergências médicas no consultório odontológico(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: Varias situaciones en el consultorio dental pueden generar casos de emergencia. La administración de anestésicos locales, el cuidado dental a pacientes con deterioro sistémico, ansiedad y miedo, son a menudo las causas más comunes. Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de percepción de los alumnos de odontología frente a las principales emergencias odontológicas. Métodos: Se trató de un estudio transversal y descriptivo de los datos por medio de los cuestionarios. Se entrevistaron 138 alumnos del 5.º al 10.º periodo de odontología de la Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, en la ciudad de Patos, Paraíba. Resultados: Se observó que el 86,2 por ciento del total de alumnos entrevistados sabían la diferencia entre urgencia y emergencia; 52,2 por ciento de los alumnos confirmaron recibir o haber recibido instrucciones extracurriculares sobre el asunto. El 59,4 por ciento respondió que el aprendizaje proporcionado en la graduación sobre este tema no está siendo suficiente. Alrededor del 17,4 por ciento de estos alumnos respondieron a saber realizar las maniobras de resucitación cardiopulmonar, 11,6 por ciento de los entrevistados se sentían preparados para lidiar con una situación de emergencia y el 81,9 por ciento de los alumnos entrevistados pretenden buscar una formación complementaria durante o después de la graduación. Conclusión: Se descubrió que los estudiantes de odontología tenían un bajo nivel de percepción sobre emergencias médicas en el consultorio odontológico(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Several situations in the dental office may cause emergency cases. Administration of local anesthetics, dental care to patients with systemic deterioration, anxiety and fear are often the most common causes. Objective: To evaluate the dental level of perception of dental students facing the main dental emergencies. Methods: This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study of the data through questionnaires. We interviewed 138 students from the 5th to the 10th period of Dental Medicine at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in the city of Patos, Paraíba. Results: We observed that 86.2 percent of the interviewed students knew the difference between urgency and emergency; 52.2 percent of the students confirmed receiving or having received extracurricular instructions about the topic; 59.4 percent answered that the learning provided about this topic after graduation is not being sufficient. About 17.4 percent of these students responded positively to knowing how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation maneuvers; 11.6 percent of those interviewed felt themselves prepared to deal with an emergency situation, while 81.9 percent of the students interviewed intended to seek complementary training during or after graduation. Conclusion: Dental students were found to have a low level of perception about medical emergencies in the dental office(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Percepción , Estudiantes de Odontología , Identificación de la Emergencia , Urgencias Médicas/epidemiología , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Atención Odontológica/métodos , Consultorios Odontológicos
18.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(3): e3445, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126517

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: La COVID-19 se propaga por vías respiratorias y aerosoles. La pandemia originada por esta enfermedad causa pánico, miedo y estrés en todos los estratos de la sociedad. Al igual que todas las demás profesiones médicas, los dentistas, particularmente los endodoncistas, que están muy expuestos a los aerosoles, pueden mostrar estrés. Objetivo: Encuestar a los endodoncistas indios para comprender mejor sus niveles de estrés psicológico durante el confinamiento de la India durante la pandemia de la COVID-19. Métodos: Del 8 de abril al 16 de abril de 2020 se realizó una encuesta cerrada en las redes sociales de endodoncia. Se utilizó la técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve. Asimismo, se recolectaron datos demográficos básicos, entorno de práctica y otras informaciones relevantes. El estrés psicológico y la angustia percibida se calcularon a través del índice de angustia peritraumática COVID-19 y la escala de estrés percibido. El análisis de regresión multinomial se realizó para estimar la tasa de riesgo relativo y p ≤ 0,05 se consideró significativo. Resultados: Este estudio tuvo 586 endodoncistas indios que completaron esta encuesta. De estos, 311 (53,07 por ciento) eran hombres, 325 (55 por ciento) en el grupo de edad de 25-35 años, 64 por ciento en áreas urbanas, 13,14 por ciento en prácticas individuales y un cuarto de ellos eran residentes. Las mujeres endodoncistas tenían un alto estrés percibido (RRR = 2,46, p = 0,01) en comparación con los hombres, medido por PSS. Los endodoncistas más jóvenes < 25 años (RRR = 9,75; p = 0,002) y 25-35 años (RRR = 4.60; p = 0,004) en comparación con el grupo de edad > 45 años tenían más angustia. Los consultores exclusivos tuvieron RRR = 2,90, p = 0,02, para la angustia leve a moderada en comparación con la normal. Se consideran los factores que impulsan este fenómeno. Conclusiones: Durante el cierre debido a la COVID-19, los endodoncistas indios 1-en-2 tuvieron angustia, según lo medido por CPDI y 4 de cada 5 percibieron estrés, según lo indicado por PSS. Nuestro modelo identificó ciertos factores que impulsan el (des)estrés, lo que ayudaría a los formuladores de políticas a iniciar una respuesta adecuada(AU)


ABSTRACT Background: The novel 2019 COVID-19 spreads by respiratory and aerosols. COVID-19 driven pandemic causes panic, fear and stress among all strata of society. Like all other medical professions, dentists, particularly endodontists, who are highly exposed to aerosols would be exposed to stress. Objective: To survey the Indian endodontists to better understand their levels of psychological stress during the Indian lockdown COVID-19 Pandemic. Methods: From 8th April to 16th April 2020, we conducted an online survey in closed endodontic social media using snowball sampling technique, collecting basic demographic data, practice setting and relevant data. Psychological stress and perceived distress were collected through COVID-19 Peri-traumatic Distress Index and Perceived stress scale. Multinomial regression analysis was performed to estimate relative risk rate and p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: This study had 586 Indian endodontists completing this survey across India. Of these, 311(53.07 percent) were males, 325(55 percent) in the age group of 25-35 years, 64 percent in urban areas, 13.14 percent in solo-practice and a fourth of them were residents. Female endodontists had high perceived stress (RRR = 2.46, p = 0.01) as compared to males, as measured by PSS. Younger endodontists < 25 years (RRR = 9.75; p = 0.002) and 25-35years (RRR = 4.60; p = 0.004) as compared with > 45 years age-group had more distress. Exclusive consultants had RRR = 2.90, p = 0.02, for mild-to-moderate distress as compared to normal. Factors driving this phenomenon are considered. Conclusions: During the lock down due to COVID-19, 1-in-2 Indian endodontists had distress, as measured by CPDI and 4-in-5 of them had perceived stress, as indicated by PSS. Our model identified certain factors driving the (dis)stress, which would help policy framers to initiate appropriate response(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Personal de Odontología , Internamiento Involuntario , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , India
19.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 348-360, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-192072

RESUMEN

The purpose of this research was to empirically test the hypothesis that the organizational psychological safety climate and the perception of organizational politics predict the extent to which employees feel engaged in their work. Using hierarchical linear modeling and data collected from 1,244 employees in 64 organizations, organizational level psychological safety climate and employee-level perception of organizational politics predicted employee work engagement. There was also significant cross-level interaction, so that the negative effect of the perception of organizational politics was amplified in organizations with a positive psychological safety climate. In other words, organizational psychological safety benefits the work engagement of individuals more when they perceive the existence of low organizational politics. The results offer insight into the mechanisms by which the perceived organizational context may influence employees' work engagement and highlight the importance for the perceived organizational consistency in the promotion of work engagement within their organization. Human Resource professionals and managers should promote frequent meetings with the workers and apply other practices that can boost a safe climate for the employees


El propósito de esta investigación fue probar empíricamente la hipótesis de que el clima de seguridad psicológica de la organización y la percepción de las políticas de la organización predicen hasta qué punto los empleados se sienten comprometidos con su trabajo. El uso de modelos jerárquicos lineales y los datos recopilados de 1,244 empleados en 64 organizaciones mostraron que el clima de seguridad psicológica a nivel organizativo y la percepción de la política organizacional a nivel de los empleados predijo el compromiso con el trabajo de los empleados. También hubo una inesperada interacción significativa entre los niveles, de modo que el efecto negativo de la percepción de las políticas organizacionales se amplificó en organizaciones con un clima de seguridad psicológica positivo. En otras palabras, la seguridad psicológica organizacional beneficia más el compromiso de los individuos cuando ellos perciben la existencia de políticas organizacionales bajas. Los resultados ofrecen información sobre los mecanismos por los cuales el contexto organizativo percibido puede influir en el compromiso laboral de los empleados y resaltar la importancia de la coherencia organizativa percibida en la promoción del compromiso laboral dentro de su organización


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Percepción , Política Organizacional , Compromiso Laboral , Administración de la Seguridad , Análisis Multinivel , Empleo/psicología , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238377, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870924

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Given JUUL e-cigarettes' potential for smoking cessation and its drastically increased sales in the U.S., more evidence is needed to understand the antecedents of JUUL use among adult cigarette smokers. This study assessed the relationships between awareness sources, perceptions about using JUUL, and JUUL use behavior. METHODS: In an online study with adult smokers who were aware of JUUL e-cigarettes (n = 341), respondents reported their sources for learning about JUUL, perceptions of using JUUL versus Vuse (a competitor brand), and ever and past-30-day (current) JUUL use. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between awareness sources, perceptions, and JUUL use, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: Learning about JUUL through internet ads was associated with positive perceptions about JUUL compared to Vuse, including JUUL was more fun to use (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.42) and tastier (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.19, 3.22). Perceiving JUUL as being tastier (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.23, 3.49), more helpful for quitting smoking (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.53), and cooler (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.56) than Vuse was associated with ever using JUUL. Only perceiving JUUL as being tastier (AOR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.59) than Vuse was associated with current use of JUUL. DISCUSSION: Adult smokers may be more likely to focus on the sensory and social experience of using JUUL rather than JUUL's smoking cessation benefits. These positive perceptions are likely to be influenced by internet ads in general instead of JUUL's official marketing outlets. They are also more likely to sustain JUUL use than JUUL's perceived smoking cessation benefits.


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Percepción , Fumadores/psicología , Vapeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Adulto Joven
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