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1.
World Neurosurg ; 130: e908-e914, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299311

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Textual analysis of obituaries provides insight into the shared values of a profession or community. Neurosurgeon obituaries are frequently published in both the medical literature and the lay press, but the content of these works has never been analyzed. METHODS: Using obituary pieces from Neurosurgery, Journal of Neurosurgery, and the New York Times, frequent terms were quantified through preliminary text analysis to derive the relative importance of concepts such as innovation, research, training and family. The sentiment of these obituaries was qualitatively reviewed to approximate perceptions of neurosurgical legacy within the profession and the general public. RESULTS: Thirty relevant obituaries with full text available were identified in the Journal of Neurosurgery, 14 were identified in Neurosurgery, and 23 were identified in the New York Times. Both neurosurgical journals and lay press articles relied on linear narratives, with greater emphasis on professional leadership and residency training in neurosurgical journals and proportionally greater mention of family in the lay press. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary text analysis of neurosurgeon obituaries suggest what values are shared among the professional community and general public regarding the legacy of a neurosurgeon.


Asunto(s)
Biografías como Asunto , Neurocirujanos/normas , Neurocirujanos/tendencias , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/tendencias , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e020369, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048417

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine how Canadian newspapers portrayed physicians' role and medical assistance in dying (MAiD). DESIGN: Qualitative textual analysis. SETTING: Online and print articles from Canadian French and English newspapers. PARTICIPANTS: 813 newspaper articles published from 1972 to 2016. RESULTS: Key Canadian events defined five eras. From 1972 to 1990, newspapers portrayed physician's MAiD role as a social issue by reporting supportive public opinion polls and revealing it was already occurring in secret. From 1991 to 1995, newspapers discussed legal aspects of physicians' MAiD role including Rodriguez' Supreme Court of Canada appeal and Federal government Bills. From 1996 to 2004, journalists discussed professional aspects of physicians' MAiD role and the growing split between palliative care and physicians who supported MAiD. They also reported on court cases against Canadian physicians, Dr Kevorkian and suffering patients who could not receive MAiD. From 2005 to 2013, newspapers described political aspects including the tabling of MAiD legislation to change physicians' role. Lastly, from 2014 to 2016, newspapers again portrayed legal aspects of physicians' role as the Supreme Court of Canada was anticipated to legalise MAiD and the Québec government passed its own legislation. Remarkably, newspapers kept attention to MAiD over 44 years before it became legal. Articles generally reflected Canadians' acceptance of MAiD and physicians were typically portrayed as opposing it, but not all did. CONCLUSIONS: Newspaper portrayals of physicians' MAiD role discussed public opinion, politicians' activities and professional and legal aspects. Portrayals followed the issue-attention cycle through three of five stages: 1) preproblem, 2) alarmed discovery and euphoric enthusiasm and 3) realising the cost of significant progress.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Cuidados Paliativos/psicología , Rol del Médico , Suicidio Asistido/legislación & jurisprudencia , Canadá , Humanos , Lenguaje , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Política , Investigación Cualitativa
3.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025646, 2019 04 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948586

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Media can influence public and policy-makers' perceptions of causes of, and solutions to, public health issues through selective presentation and framing. Childhood obesity is a health issue with both individual-level and societal-level drivers and solutions, but public opinion and mass media representations of obesity have typically focused on individual-level framings, at the cost of acknowledgement of a need for regulatory action. OBJECTIVE AND SETTING: To understand the salience and framing of childhood obesity across 19 years of UK national newspaper content. DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantitative content analysis of 757 articles about childhood obesity obtained from six daily and five Sunday newspapers. Articles were coded manually for definitions, drivers and potential solutions. Data were analysed statistically, including analysis of time trends and variations by political alignment of source. RESULTS: The frequency of articles grew from a low of two in 1996 to a peak of 82 in 2008, before declining to 40 in 2010. Individual-level drivers (59.8%) and solutions (36.5%) were mentioned more frequently than societal-level drivers (28.3%) and solutions (28.3%) across the sample, but societal solutions were mentioned more frequently during the final 8 years, coinciding with a marked decline in yearly frequency of articles. CONCLUSIONS: Increased focus on societal solutions aligns with public health goals, but coincided with a reduction in the issue's salience in the media. Those advocating public policy solutions to childhood obesity may benefit from seeking to raise the issue's media profile while continuing to promote structural conceptualisations of childhood obesity.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Obesidad Pediátrica , Humanos , Reino Unido
4.
Sociol Health Illn ; 41(5): 831-851, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793332

RESUMEN

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has developed into a complex and formidable commercial, sociocultural and political force in Australia, and given its influence, it is a relevant subject for scholars, health practitioners, health communicators, journalists, policy-makers, and consumers of healthcare products and services. This research will consider a relative newcomer to the claims-making space about CAM in the Australian health media-scape; the Friends of Science in Medicine (FSM), an activist group of medical practitioners, researchers, and scientists, founded in late 2011. Using content analysis supported by NVivo, I searched for articles specifically referring to FSM and measured the patterns and frequencies of media frames, intonation and sources that are featured in Australian mainstream news reports between December 2011 and April 2017. The negative headlining and intonation of reports predominated, along with framing CAM as part of a lucrative, undisciplined and unethical industry as well as an illegitimate healthcare approach, more broadly. The findings offer insight into how journalists respond, replicate or reconstruct the framings that are provided by an influential and elite group of medical practitioners and scientists, and readdresses issues surrounding the need for more critical health reporting in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias/tendencias , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Médicos , Ciencia , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Australia , Terapias Complementarias/efectos adversos , Humanos , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Política , Opinión Pública
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e9, 2018 Dec 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511612

RESUMEN

AIMS: Since 2008 England's anti-stigma programme Time to Change has lobbied media outlets about stigmatising coverage and worked with them to promote accurate and non-stigmatising coverage. While this may have an impact on coverage and hence attitudes, it is also possible that coverage can change in response to improving attitudes, through the creation of a market demand for less stigmatising coverage. This study evaluates English newspaper coverage of mental health topics between 2008 and 2016. METHOD: Articles covering mental health in 27 newspapers were retrieved using keyword searches on two randomly chosen days each month in 2008-2016, excluding 2012 and 2015 due to restricted resources. Content analysis used a structured coding framework. Univariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of each hypothesised element occurring in 2016 compared with 2008 and Wald tests to assess the overall statistical significance of the year variable as the predictor. RESULTS: The sample retrieved almost doubled between 2008 (n = 882) and 2016 (n = 1738). We found a significant increase in the proportion of anti-stigmatising articles (odds ratio (OR) 2.26 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86-2.74)) and a significant decrease in stigmatising articles (OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.51-0.75)). Reports on all diagnoses except for schizophrenia were more often anti-stigmatising than stigmatising. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clear evidence of improvement in coverage since the start of Time to Change. However, coverage of schizophrenia may be less affected by this positive shift than that of other diagnoses. The increase in the level of coverage identified in 2016 requires further investigation, as it may also influence public conceptualisation of what constitutes mental illness, attitudes to mental illness in general and/or specific diagnoses. While most anti-stigma programmes are not diagnosis specific, we suggest their evaluation would benefit from a diagnosis specific approach to allow fuller interpretation of their effects. This could include media analysis driven by hypotheses based on diagnoses to ascertain whether variations by diagnosis over time occur both in the nature and in the proportion of coverage.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Estigma Social , Estereotipo , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 270: 792-800, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551327

RESUMEN

The study aims to report the number of newspaper articles including the word "schizo" in the period 2001 - 2015 and to identify possible predictors reinforcing negative stereotypes about people with schizophrenia. The electronic archives of the Italian newspaper "La Stampa" have been searched for the term "schizo". Selected articles were grouped in articles related to mental health (rMH) or article not related to mental health (nrMH). 946 articles were identified. Schizophrenia-related terms were used in 356 (36.03%) article rMH, which mainly reinforce negative stereotypes regarding mental illness both in rMH and nrMH groups. Over time, only in the rMH group a significant reduction of articles reinforcing negative stereotypes was found. Several factors have been identified as predictors of article reinforcing negative stereotypes: unnecessarily dramatic or sensational headline or content; inaccurate or not in the correct context use of medical terminology; emphasis to the illness rather than to the person; mental disorders are the same; disclosure of particular individual has a mental illness. Although there has been a significant reduction in stigmatizing articles, in the rMH group one article out of three reinforces negative stereotypes.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/tendencias , Salud Mental/educación , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Esquizofrenia , Estereotipo , Femenino , Predicción , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Salud Mental/tendencias , Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Privacidad , Derivación y Consulta/tendencias , Esquizofrenia/terapia
7.
Int J Drug Policy ; 57: 79-85, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2015, Scott County, Indiana was the center of an HIV outbreak related to injection drug use. Critiques of the government response exist; however, none examine the response through policymaking theories. This paper examines policy changes affecting people who use drugs (PWID) in Indiana through two theories: the social construction of target populations and punctuated equilibrium. METHODS: A media analysis was performed to examine the prevailing image of PWID in Indiana ten years prior to the outbreak and two years after the crisis emerged. Article tone was assessed to examine the social construction of PWID, and how this construction related to incremental, then punctuated policy making. RESULTS: A total of 372 news articles were examined. Media tone towards PWID was significantly more negative in the 10 years before the outbreak. Most articles regarding PWID pre-outbreak were crime-related, while during crisis, articles types varied and reframed PWID. CONCLUSION: News article tone changed significantly, allowing new approaches to health related to PWID to be considered. This paper demonstrates the utility of these policy frameworks and analysis of target populations through media depictions. Implications for public health practitioners are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Hepatitis C/psicología , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Formulación de Políticas , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa/psicología , Humanos , Indiana , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias
8.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 47, 2017 07 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738890

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a Class-1 carcinogen but public awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer is low. The news media is a popular, readily-accessible source of health information and plays a key role in shaping public opinion and influencing policy-makers. Examination of how the link between alcohol and cancer is presented in Australian print media could inform public health advocacy efforts to raise awareness of this modifiable cancer risk factor. METHOD: This study provides a summative qualitative content analysis of 1502 articles that included information about a link between alcohol and cancer, as reported within Australian newspaper media (2005-2013). We use descriptive statistics to examine the prominence of reports, the nature and content of claims regarding the link between alcohol and cancer, and the source of information noted in each article. RESULTS: Articles were distributed throughout newspapers, most appearing within the main (first) section. The link between alcohol and cancer tended not to appear early in articles, and rarely featured in headlines. 95% of articles included a claim that alcohol causes cancer, 5% that alcohol prevented or did not cause cancer, 1% included both. Generally, the amount of alcohol that would cause or prevent cancer was unspecified or open to subjective interpretation. Coverage increased over time, primarily within community/free papers. The claim that alcohol causes cancer often named a specific cancer, did not name a specific alcohol, was infrequently the focus of articles (typically subsumed within an article on general health issues), and cited various health-promoting (including advocacy) organisations as information sources. Articles that included the converse also tended not to focus on that point, often named a specific type of alcohol, and most cited research institutions or generic 'research' as sources. Half of all articles involved repetition of materials, and most confirmed that alcohol caused cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Information about a link between alcohol and cancer is available in the Australian newsprint media, but may be hidden within and thus overshadowed by other health-related stories. Strategic collaboration between health promoting organisations, and exploitation of 'churnalism' and journalists' preferences for ready-made 'copy' may facilitate increased presence and accuracy of the alcohol-cancer message.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Defensa del Consumidor/tendencias , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Neoplasias/etiología , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Opinión Pública , Australia , Defensa del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 180: 152-159, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347940

RESUMEN

Despite the widespread acknowledgement by public health organizations that media reporting matters to suicide, this link has been much debated and the mechanisms undergirding it poorly understood. With this study, I combine a media analysis with ethnographic data collected during 2014-2016 (N = 91) to examine the social dynamics surrounding media reporting on suicide in a community (that I call Poplar Grove, USA) with an enduring adolescent suicide problem. I illustrate how the media crafted a particular story about why youth die by suicide that emphasized academic pressure over other plausible causes. In so doing, the media may have broadened ideas about when suicide is seen as an option. However, I also provide evidence that cautions against attributing too much causal power to the media. The media coverage in Poplar Grove reflected conditions that were already present in the community; it was already a high-pressure place for youth to live with widespread mental health stigma. These factors likely shaped media reporting, while also contributing independently to the suicide problem. Finally, I found that the suicide deaths that received media coverage were those that triggered significant cognitive dissonance and thus were much discussed among youth, independent of the media reporting. This generated ample opportunities for peer role modeling of suicide. Thus, while the media may have helped solidify a certain view of suicide in the community, it was not the only social force contributing to suicide in Poplar Grove. While the findings from this study do not negate the importance of responsible reporting on suicide, they do contextualize the role of the media in suicide and suggest that researchers must take a broader view of how suicide suggestion operates in the media and in social contexts.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/normas , Suicidio/tendencias , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Proyectos de Investigación/tendencias , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
10.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 18(1): 84-91, 2017 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27745557

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Health and Social Care Bill (2011) changed the role of GPs to include commissioning of health services. Aim This study aimed to identify any differences in the media portrayal of GPs before and after the introduction of the Bill. METHODS: We retrospectively searched four British newspapers over the period 2009-2013 using the media database Nexis. In order to directly compare the findings of the study with the work of Tanner et al., articles relating to GP pay were analysed using thematic analysis. Themes were identified and each article was scored to determine whether it portrayed GPs positively or negatively. RESULTS: GPs were portrayed slightly less negatively after the introduction of the Bill. The theme of 'high salaries' persisted despite reference to 'pay freezes'. References to decreased trust in the patient-doctor relationship appeared after the introduction of the Bill. CONCLUSION: Negative portrayal of GP pay has continued and a lack of trust in GPs has started to be portrayed. This trend may exacerbate the low morale amongst the profession and difficulties in recruiting and retaining GPs.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Médicos de Familia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Atención Primaria de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicina Estatal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bibliometría , Inglaterra , Humanos , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Médicos de Familia/economía , Médicos de Familia/organización & administración , Atención Primaria de Salud/economía , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Salarios y Beneficios/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salarios y Beneficios/tendencias , Medicina Estatal/economía , Medicina Estatal/organización & administración , Confianza
11.
Violence Against Women ; 23(1): 114-139, 2017 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27059899

RESUMEN

News media are in a position to project certain perspectives on domestic violence while marginalizing others, which has implications for public understanding and policy development. This study applies discourse analysis to articles on domestic violence in two U.K. national daily newspapers published in 2001-2002 and 2011-2012 to evaluate evidence of change over a 10-year time span. The research examines how discourses of domestic violence are constructed through newspaper representations of victims, predominantly women, and perpetrators, predominantly men. Although one of the newspapers adopts a respectful position toward women, the textual and visual techniques adopted by the other reveal a tendency for blaming the victim and sexualizing violence related to perceptions of "deserving" or "undeserving" women victims.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Periódicos como Asunto/normas , Sexismo , Adulto , Femenino , Homicidio , Humanos , Masculino , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Reino Unido
12.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 11(4): 342-345, 2017 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26593744

RESUMEN

AIM: In Hong Kong, 'si-jue-shi-tiao' () was officially adopted as the Chinese translation of psychosis in 2001. The new term covered a broader aspect of psychosis, compared with the original term, 'jing-shen-fen-lie' (), which gave a negative stereotype as a 'mental split-mind disorder'. The current study compared the usage of the two terms, and added evidence to the name changing as anti-stigma strategy. METHODS: The usage and themes of the new Chinese name of psychosis 'si-jue-shi-tiao' was examined in 1217 local newspaper articles in comparison with the traditional Chinese name of schizophrenia 'jing-shen-fen-lie'. RESULTS: Results show that an increase use of 'si-jue-shi-tiao' was found equally across themes, whereas 'jing-shen-fen-lie' was decreasingly used in positive/neutral themes over time. The association of 'jing-shen-fen-lie' with dangerous wordings increased over time, but no change was found with the new name. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding adds to literature on effects of changing new name on public stigma.


Asunto(s)
Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Trastornos Psicóticos , Estigma Social , Terminología como Asunto , Hong Kong , Humanos
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 174: 43-52, 2017 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011365

RESUMEN

In 2012 the UK media reported the results of a paper in the British Medical Journal Open, including the finding that hypnotics increase the risk of 'premature death'. Taking this media coverage as a case study, the paper explores UK people's responses and assesses the implications for the debate about the (de)pharmaceuticalisation of sleep. Two hundred and fifty one posts to the websites of 6 UK newspapers were analysed thematically, along with 12 focus group discussions (n = 51) of newspaper coverage from one UK newspaper. Four thematic responses were identified: bad science/journalism, Hobson's choice, risk assessment and challenging pharmaceuticalisation. We found that most people claimed that the story did not worry them, even if they stated that they were using sleeping pills, and that focus group members generally appeared to respond in terms of their pre-existing views of hypnotics. The way in which lay expertise was drawn on in responding to the coverage was one of the most striking findings of the study. People referred to their own or others' experience of taking hypnotics to recognise the legitimacy of taking them or to weigh up the risks and benefits, as reflexive users. Overall, our case study cautions against making strong claims about the power of the media to legitimate de-pharmaceuticalisation. While the media may have such a role, this is in the main only for those who are receptive to such a message already.


Asunto(s)
Hipnóticos y Sedantes/uso terapéutico , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/uso terapéutico , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Hipnóticos y Sedantes/efectos adversos , Medicamentos bajo Prescripción/efectos adversos , Investigación Cualitativa , Trastornos del Sueño del Ritmo Circadiano/tratamiento farmacológico , Reino Unido
14.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 134 Suppl 446: 45-52, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27426645

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates English newspaper coverage of mental health topics between 2008 and 2014 to provide context for the concomitant improvement in public attitudes and seek evidence for changes in coverage. METHOD: Articles in 27 newspapers were retrieved using keyword searches on two randomly chosen days each month in 2008-2014, excluding 2012 due to restricted resources. Content analysis used a structured coding framework. Univariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of each hypothesised element occurring each year compared to 2008. RESULTS: There was a substantial increase in the number of articles covering mental health between 2008 and 2014. We found an increase in the proportion of antistigmatising articles which approached significance at P < 0.05 (OR = 1.21, P = 0.056). The decrease in stigmatising articles was not statistically significant (OR = 0.90, P = 0.312). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of articles featuring the stigmatising elements 'danger to others' and 'personal responsibility', and an increase in 'hopeless victim'. There was a significant proportionate increase in articles featuring the antistigmatising elements 'injustice' and 'stigma', but a decrease in 'sympathetic portrayal of people with mental illness'. CONCLUSION: We found a decrease in articles promoting ideas about dangerousness or mental illness being self-inflicted, but an increase in articles portraying people as incapable. Yet, these findings were not consistent over time.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Estigma Social , Estereotipo
15.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 86(6): 632-638, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27182842

RESUMEN

Public awareness about traumatic stress is needed to address trauma as a public health issue. News media influence public awareness, but little is known about how traumatic-related disorders are portrayed in the news. A content analysis was conducted of all articles that mentioned posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in The New York Times between 1980-2015. There were 871 articles analyzed. The number of PTSD articles published annually increased dramatically, from 2 in 1980 to 70 in 2014. Overall, 50.6% of articles were focused on military populations. Combat was identified as the trauma exposure in 38.0% of articles, while sexual assault was identified in 8.7%. Negative themes such as crimes perpetrated by people with possible PTSD (18.0%) and substance abuse (11.5%) were prominent, substance abuse being more prevalent in articles focused on military populations (16.4% vs. 6.3%, p = <.001). Only 9.1% of articles mentioned PTSD treatment options and this theme became less prevalent over time-ranging from 19.4% of articles published between 1980-1995 to just 5.7% of articles published between 2005-2015 (p = <.001). Results suggest that public awareness of PTSD has increased, but may be incomplete, inaccurate, and perpetuate PTSD stigma at individual- and institutional-levels. These findings can inform advocacy strategies that enhance public awareness about PTSD and traumatic stress. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Humanos , Personal Militar/psicología , New York , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
16.
Schizophr Res ; 175(1-3): 193-197, 2016 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27177807

RESUMEN

In Japan, schizophrenia was renamed in 2002 to reduce the stigma that people with schizophrenia are dangerous. However there has been little research on the potential anti-stigma effect of renaming. The present study aimed to examine whether portrayals of schizophrenia in newspapers as dangerous have been varied across renaming of the disease. To achieve this goal, newspaper articles containing the previous and new Japanese names for schizophrenia, published in the decades before and after the renaming, were identified through the database of the three largest Japanese national broadsheets. Identified articles were divided into two categories: a negative category, including a subcategory "danger"; and a positive category. Articles containing bipolar disorder were adopted as a control. The ratio of the number of articles on schizophrenia and danger to that of bipolar disorder was analysed as a variable of interest. The trend of this ratio was investigated to examine whether portrayals of schizophrenia changed after renaming. The search identified 4677 articles on schizophrenia, 53.0% of which were categorised as negative and 38.9% as danger. The search identified 525 articles on bipolar disorder, 24.6% of which were categorised as negative and 11.2% as danger. There was an increase of the ratio before schizophrenia was renamed (r=0.54, p=0.104), and a significant decrease after renaming (r=-0.69, p=0.028). Fisher's r-to-z transformation demonstrated a significant change in the trend of the ratio across renaming (Z=2.72, p=0.007). Renaming schizophrenia might be associated with mitigation in potentially stigmatised depiction of schizophrenia associated with violence in newspaper reports.


Asunto(s)
Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Esquizofrenia , Trastorno Bipolar , Humanos , Japón , Variaciones Dependientes del Observador , Estudios Retrospectivos , Percepción Social , Estigma Social , Terminología como Asunto
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 86: 137-45, 2016 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26551734

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Successfully increasing cycling across a broad range of the population would confer important health benefits, but many potential cyclists are deterred by fears about traffic danger. Media coverage of road traffic crashes may reinforce this perception. As part of a wider effort to model the system dynamics of urban cycling, in this paper we examined how media coverage of cyclist fatalities in London changed across a period when the prevalence of cycling doubled. We compared this with changes in the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities as a control group. METHODS: Police records of traffic crashes (STATS19) were used to identify all cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities in London between 1992 and 2012. We searched electronic archives of London's largest local newspaper to identify relevant articles (January 1992-April 2014), and sought to identify which police-reported fatalities received any media coverage. We repeated this in three smaller English cities. RESULTS: Across the period when cycling trips doubled in London, the proportion of fatalities covered in the local media increased from 6% in 1992-1994 to 75% in 2010-2012. By contrast, the coverage of motorcyclist fatalities remained low (4% in 1992-1994 versus 5% in 2010-2012; p=0.007 for interaction between mode and time period). Comparisons with other English cities suggested that the changes observed in London might not occur in smaller cities with lower absolute numbers of crashes, as in these settings fatalities are almost always covered regardless of mode share (79-100% coverage for both cyclist and motorcyclist fatalities). CONCLUSION: In large cities, an increase in the popularity (and therefore 'newsworthiness') of cycling may increase the propensity of the media to cover cyclist fatalities. This has the potential to give the public the impression that cycling has become more dangerous, and thereby initiate a negative feedback loop that dampens down further increases in cycling. Understanding these complex roles of the media in shaping cycling trends may help identify effective policy levers to achieve sustained growth in cycling.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Accidentes de Tránsito/tendencias , Ciclismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciclismo/tendencias , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Revelación/tendencias , Periódicos como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Heridas y Traumatismos/mortalidad , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Londres/epidemiología
18.
Can J Psychiatry ; 60(7): 329-33, 2015 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26175392

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare trends in coverage of empirically supported and alternative autism treatments in Canadian newspapers during a 10-year period and to examine whether the portrayal of empirically supported and alternative treatments differed. METHOD: We searched a sample of 10 daily local and national Canadian newspapers using the word autism combined with intervention or treatment in the Proquest Canadian Newsstand and Eureka.cc databases, which yielded a total of 857 articles published between 2004 and 2013. In our subsequent analyses, we only included articles whose main topic was autism and that referred to at least one treatment. We then categorized the 137 remaining articles by treatment and rated whether each treatment category was portrayed in a favourable, unfavourable, or neutral manner. RESULTS: In total, 46% of the articles discussed at least 1 empirically supported treatment, 53% at least 1 alternative treatment, and 12% at least 1 uncategorized treatment. Newspaper articles provided favourable, unfavourable, and neutral portrayals of empirically supported treatments in 75%, 10%, and 16% of cases, respectively. In contrast, alternative treatments were portrayed favourably in 52%, unfavourably in 32%, and neutrally in 16% of cases. Our analyses indicated that empirically supported treatments were portrayed more favourably than alternative treatments (χ(2) = 10.42, df = 2, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Despite some encouraging trends, our study has shown that researchers and clinicians must continue to clarify misconceptions about autism treatment. Families of people with autism spectrum disorders should be directed toward more reliable and accurate sources of information.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico/terapia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Canadá , Humanos
19.
Tob Control ; 24(1): 94-9, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23864404

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The news media plays an important role in agenda setting and framing of stories about tobacco control. The purpose of this study was to examine newspaper, newswire and television coverage of tobacco issues in the USA over a 7-year period. METHODS: Analyses of 2004-2010 news media surveillance system data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office on Smoking and Health, based on content analysis and quantitative methods. Information on extent of news coverage, and types of tobacco-related themes, were examined from articles in 10 newspapers and 2 major newswires, as well as transcripts from 6 national television networks. RESULTS: The overall extent of newspaper, newswire and television stories about tobacco, and level of coverage by specific media outlets, varied over time, especially for newspapers. Nevertheless, there was an average of 3 newspaper stories, 4 newswire stories, and 1 television tobacco-related story each day. Television stories were more likely to contain cessation/addiction or health effects/statistics themes and less likely to contain secondhand smoke or policy/regulation themes than newspaper/newswire stories. There was more variation in the choice of tobacco theme among individual newspapers/newswires than television media outlets. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage of tobacco in the USA was relatively constant from 2004 to 2010. Audiences were more likely to be exposed to different tobacco themes in newspapers/newswires than on television. Tracking information about tobacco news stories can be used by advocates, programs and others for planning and evaluation, and by researchers for hypothesis generation.


Asunto(s)
Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Televisión/tendencias , Tabaco , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Public Underst Sci ; 24(1): 96-111, 2015 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24510920

RESUMEN

This paper explores which actors and factors influence media coverage of climate change in Russia. It does this by analysing the coverage of three events by five Russian national newspapers (Komsomol'skaya pravda, Rossiyskaya gazeta, Izvestiya, Kommersant and Sovetskaya Rossiya). The three events are the Kyoto Conference in 1997, the Copenhagen Conference in 2009 and the Russian heat-wave of 2010. This paper concludes that regardless of the ownership structure of the newspapers or their dependence on advertising, there is little difference in quantity and quality of overall coverage on climate change. With most newspapers relying on Russian officials as information sources, almost none criticise or question Russian climate policy. Furthermore, the article concludes that, in Russia, the omission of climate change issues from discussion in national newspapers becomes a greater problem than biased coverage, as the lack of commentary decidedly prevents these issues from entering the public debate.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Periódicos como Asunto/tendencias , Opinión Pública , Política Ambiental , Federación de Rusia
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