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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 19, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment involves movement of teeth by compression and resorption of the alveolar bone using orthodontic forces. These movements are closely linked to the interactions between the teeth and the periodontal tissues that support them. Owing to an increase in adults seeking orthodontic treatment, orthodontists increasingly encounter patients with periodontal diseases, in whom orthodontic treatment is contraindicated. In rare cases, periodontitis may develop after treatment initiation. However, no approach for treating periodontitis after the initiation of orthodontic treatment has been established. Here, we present an approach for managing localized severe periodontitis manifesting after initiating orthodontic treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old Japanese woman was referred to the Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery by an orthodontist who observed symptoms of acute periodontitis in the maxillary molars that required periodontal examination and treatment. A detailed periodontal examination, including oral bacteriological examination, revealed localized severe periodontitis (stage III, grade B) in the maxillary left first and second molars and in the mandibular right second molar. After consultation with the orthodontist, the orthodontic treatment was suspended based on the results of the bacteriological examination to allow for periodontal treatment. Full-mouth disinfection was performed with adjunctive oral sitafloxacin. Periodontal and bacteriological examinations after treatment revealed regression of the localized periodontitis with bone regeneration. Thereafter, orthodontic treatment was resumed, and good progress was achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontists should recognize the risk of acute severe periodontitis in young adults. Asymptomatic patients with localized severe periodontitis may clear a screening test before orthodontic treatment but develop acute symptoms with bone resorption during orthodontic treatment. Therefore, patients requiring orthodontic treatment should be examined by their family dentist or a periodontist to rule out periodontal issues that may impede orthodontic treatment. The patients should also be informed of age-related risks. Further, periodontists, family dentists, and orthodontists who treat adults should be informed about periodontitis and the need for interdisciplinary collaboration. In patients who develop periodontitis after orthodontic treatment initiation, temporary interruption of orthodontic treatment and aggressive periodontal intervention may facilitate recovery.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Adulto , Periodontitis/terapia
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677905

RESUMEN

Periodontitis is caused by pathogens in the oral cavity. It is a chronic infectious disease that causes symptoms including gingival bleeding and tooth loss resulting from the destruction of periodontal tissues coupled with inflammation. Dendropanax morbiferus H.Lév (DM) is a natural product that exhibits various biological activities with few side effects. In this study, the potential of DM leaf hot-water extracts (DMWE) as a treatment for periodontitis was determined and its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated. Compounds in DMWE were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production was measured in RAW 264.7 cells. We measured the gingival index and gingival sulcus depth, and micro-CT was performed in vivo using a ligature-induced periodontitis rat model, which is similar to human periodontitis. The DMWE-treated group exhibited a decrease in cytokine concentration and relieved the gingival index and gingival sulcus depth compared with the periodontitis-induced control group. In addition, micro-CT and histological analysis revealed that DMWE exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and improved alveolar bone loss in periodontitis-induced rats. These findings suggest that DMWE has excellent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that protect and prevent periodontal tissue damage and tooth loss caused by the inflammatory response.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Periodontitis , Pérdida de Diente , Ratas , Humanos , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Pérdida de Diente/complicaciones , Pérdida de Diente/tratamiento farmacológico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Periodontitis/patología , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/etiología , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/patología , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico
3.
Nutrients ; 15(2)2023 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36678171

RESUMEN

Studies have suggested an important role of dyslipidemia, a condition with alterations in blood lipid levels, in promoting an additional effect on periodontal breakdown. Thus, this study aimed to explore the theoretical pathways associated with dyslipidemia and periodontitis. We used data from 11,917 US adults with complete periodontal examinations participating in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Our hypothesis was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) and periodontitis as a latent variable reflecting the shared variance of the number of surfaces with periodontal pocket depth [PPD] = 4 mm, PPD = 5 mm, PPD ≥ 6 mm, clinical attachment level [CAL] = 4 mm, CAL = 5mm, CAL ≥ 6 mm, and furcation involvement. The model also considered distal determinants (age, sex, and socioeconomic status) and proximal determinants (HbA1c, smoking and alcohol consumption, and obesity). The model showed sufficient global fit (Root Mean Squared Error of Approximation = 0.04, 90%CI = 0.04-0.05, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.93, Comparative Fit Index = 0.95). Age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, and smoking were directly associated with periodontitis (p < 0.01). Dyslipidemia revealed a significant direct effect on periodontitis (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.086, SE 0.027; p < 0.01), also mediated via an indirect pathway through HbA1c (SC = 0.021; SE 0.010; p = 0.02) and obesity (SC = 0.036; SE 0.012; p < 0.01) and resulted in a total effect on periodontitis. Dyslipidemia was associated with periodontitis through a direct pathway and indirectly through HbA1c and obesity in the US population. These results support the need for a multi-professional approach to tackling oral and noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), directed at their common risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Dislipidemias , Periodontitis , Adulto , Humanos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Dislipidemias/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología
4.
Biomed Res ; 44(1): 9-16, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36682799

RESUMEN

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been studied primarily in the context of type 2 immune responses. Recent reports suggest that IL-33 also enhances the func- tions of various immune cells and contributes to the development of different inflammatory diseas- es. Interestingly, IL-33 and its receptor ST2 axis exerted either inhibitory or promotional effects on alveolar bone loss in various periodontitis models. Using a mouse model of ligature-induced periodontitis, we found that the levels of mRNAs encoding IL-33 and other inflammatory cyto- kines (IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα) were augmented in gingival tissues of wild-type (WT) mice, and that the alveolar bone loss amount was lower in IL-33-deficient than WT mice. The numbers and proportions of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T and regulatory T cells were decreased while those of Th17 cells were increased in the draining lymph nodes of IL-33-deficient mice compared to WT mice. Additionally, the level of RNA encoding an osteoclastogenic molecule, i.e., receptor activa- tor of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), in ligated gingival tissue was higher in IL-33-defi- cient than WT mice. These results suggest that IL-33 is involved in alveolar bone loss in the ligature-induced periodontitis model, although IL-33 may inhibit osteoclast differentiation.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Periodontitis , Ratones , Animales , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/etiología , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/patología , Interleucina-33/genética , Periodontitis/patología , Citocinas , Osteogénesis , Ligando RANK/genética , Ligando RANK/farmacología
5.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 9(1): 3, 2023 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36681674

RESUMEN

Several oral diseases are characterized by a shift within the oral microbiome towards a pathogenic, dysbiotic composition. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are often part of patient care. However, because of the rising antibiotic resistance, alternatives are increasingly desirable. Alternatively, supplying beneficial species through probiotics is increasingly showing favorable results. Unfortunately, these probiotics are rarely evaluated comparatively. In this study, the in vitro effects of three known and three novel Lactobacillus strains, together with four novel Streptococcus salivarius strains were comparatively evaluated for antagonistic effects on proximal agar growth, antimicrobial properties of probiotic supernatant and the probiotic's effects on in vitro periodontal biofilms. Strain-specific effects were observed as differences in efficacy between genera and differences within genera. While some of the Lactobacillus candidates were able to reduce the periodontal pathobiont A. actinomycetemcomitans, the S. salivarius strains were not. However, the S. salivarius strains were more effective against periodontal pathobionts P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, and F. nucleatum. Vexingly, most of the Lactobacillus strains also negatively affected the prevalence of commensal species within the biofilms, while this was lower for S. salivarius strains. Both within lactobacilli and streptococci, some strains showed significantly more inhibition of the pathobionts, indicating the importance of proper strain selection. Additionally, some species showed reductions in non-target species, which can result in unexpected and unexplored effects on the whole microbiome.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Periodontitis , Probióticos , Humanos , Periodontitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Lactobacillus/fisiología , Biopelículas , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Probióticos/farmacología
6.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 44(1): 18-24; quiz 25, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36696274

RESUMEN

Periodontitis is a chronic, multifactorial inflammatory disease characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth-supporting apparatus. Determining tooth prognosis is of central importance in clinical practice to help both the clinician and patient understand the risks and benefits of treatment while shedding light on the patient's long-term periodontal prognosis and aiding in the development of an individualized treatment plan. Several indexing-type systems have been proposed for determining the prognosis of periodontally involved teeth. The periodontal risk score (PRS) is a simple, evidence-based, motivational tool that can be used in daily clinical practice in both healthy and periodontally involved patients. The PRS incorporates systemic and lifestyle prognostic factors to achieve superior predictive accuracy. With the PRS, patients are encouraged to achieve a target score (representing an "excellent" prognosis) that can be realistically attained through compliance with a periodontal maintenance plan. The purpose of this article is to present to clinicians how to implement this evidence-based tool into their daily practices and thus help patients improve their long-term periodontal prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Pérdida de Diente , Humanos , Periodontitis/terapia , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedad Crónica
8.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 9(1): 43-53, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36697200

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrosis contributes to the onset and persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and AF-related stroke. Periodontitis, a common infectious and inflammatory disease, aggravates some systemic diseases. However, the association of periodontitis with AF and with atrial fibrosis has remained unclarified. OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to elucidate the relationship between periodontitis and atrial fibrosis by studying resected left atrial appendages (LAAs). METHODS: Seventy-six patients with AF (55 with nonparoxysmal AF, 25 with mitral valve regurgitation, 18 with LAA thrombus) who were scheduled to undergo LAA excision during cardiac surgery were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent an oral examination, and the remaining number of teeth, bleeding on probing, periodontal probing depth, and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) were evaluated as parameters of periodontitis. The degree of fibrosis in each LAA was quantified by Azan-Mallory staining. RESULTS: Bleeding on probing (R = 0.48; P < 0.0001), periodontal probing depth of ≥4 mm (R = 0.26; P = 0.02), and PISA (R = 0.46; P < 0.0001) were positively correlated with atrial fibrosis. Among patients with >10 remaining teeth, PISA was positively and strongly correlated with atrial fibrosis (R = 0.57; P < 0.0001). After adjustments for age, AF duration, BMI, mitral valve regurgitation, and CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack) score, PISA was significantly associated with atrial fibrosis (ß = 0.016; P = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: The authors histologically revealed the association of periodontitis with atrial fibrosis. This indicates that periodontitis, which is modifiable, is likely a risk factor for AF.


Asunto(s)
Apéndice Atrial , Fibrilación Atrial , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral , Periodontitis , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Fibrilación Atrial/epidemiología , Fibrilación Atrial/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/complicaciones , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/diagnóstico por imagen , Insuficiencia de la Válvula Mitral/epidemiología , Fibrosis , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Periodontitis/patología
9.
Theranostics ; 13(1): 231-249, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36593966

RESUMEN

Rationale: Diabetes exacerbates the prevalence and severity of periodontitis, leading to severe periodontal destruction and ultimately tooth loss. Delayed resolution of inflammation is a major contributor to diabetic periodontitis (DP) pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms of this imbalanced immune homeostasis remain unclear. Methods: We collected periodontium from periodontitis with or without diabetes to confirm the dysfunctional neutrophils and macrophages in aggravated inflammatory damage and impaired inflammation resolution. Our in vitro experiments confirmed that SIRT6 inhibited macrophage efferocytosis by restraining miR-216a-5p-216b-5p-217 cluster maturation through ''non-canonical'' microprocessor complex (RNA pulldown, RIP, immunostaining, CHIP, Luciferase assays, and FISH). Moreover, we constructed m6SKO mice that underwent LIP-induced periodontitis to explore the in vitro and in vivo effect of SIRT6 on macrophage efferocytosis. Finally, antagomiR-217, a miRNA antagonism, was delivered into the periodontium to treat LIP-induced diabetic periodontitis. Results: We discovered that insufficient SIRT6 as a histone deacetylase in macrophages led to unresolved inflammation and aggravated periodontitis in both human and mouse DP with accumulated apoptotic neutrophil (AN) and higher generation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Mechanistically, we validated that macrophage underwent high glucose stimulation resulting in disturbance of the SIRT6-miR-216/217 axis that triggered impeded efferocytosis of AN through targeting the DEL-1/CD36 axis directly. Furthermore, we demonstrated the inhibitory role of SIRT6 for MIR217HG transcription and identified a non-canonical action of microprocessor that SIRT6 epigenetically hindered the splicing of the primary miR-216/217 via the complex of hnRNPA2B1, DGCR8, and Drosha. Notably, by constructing myeloid-specific deletion of SIRT6 mice and locally delivering antagomir-217 in DP models, we strengthened the in vivo effect of this axis in regulating macrophage efferocytosis and inflammation resolution in DP. Conclusions: Our findings delineated the emerging role of SIRT6 in mediating metabolic dysfunction-associated inflammation, and therapeutically targeting this regulatory axis might be a promising strategy for treating diabetes-associated inflammatory diseases.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , MicroARNs , Periodontitis , Fagocitosis , Sirtuinas , Animales , Humanos , Ratones , Antagomirs/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Inflamación/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroARNs/genética , MicroARNs/metabolismo , Periodontitis/genética , Periodontitis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Unión al ARN/metabolismo , Sirtuinas/genética , Sirtuinas/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279755, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608039

RESUMEN

Glycemic control appears to have a significant impact on the relationship between periodontitis and diabetes. The current study aimed to investigate the association between the stage of periodontitis and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients considered to be normoglycemic. A total of 135 patients (100 females and 35 males) with no history of diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 38.4 years old. All patients underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination. Periodontal diagnosis was determined according to the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal Disease. The glycemic state of the patients was assessed using a chair-side HbA1c analyzer. Ninety patients were diagnosed with periodontitis. Higher average HbA1c levels were associated with the different stages of periodontitis (p<0.01). Most of the non-periodontitis patients were in the non-diabetes group (67%), while most of the periodontitis patients were in the undiagnosed pre-diabetes group (47% of the stages I and II group, and 44% of the stages III and IV groups) (p<0.001). Periodontitis was found to be significantly associated with elevated glycated hemoglobin levels in patients not previously diagnosed with diabetes, and the elevation in HbA1c levels was more evident in patients with stage III and IV periodontitis.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Periodontitis , Estado Prediabético , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Estado Prediabético/complicaciones , Glucemia
11.
Clin Oral Investig ; 27(1): 421-430, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598602

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total, free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with periodontitis diagnosis and 44 healthy participants were included in this study. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein, procalcitonin, and albumin levels were measured from the serum samples obtained. Free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were calculated. Total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were compared between the healthy control and periodontitis groups. The association of total 25 (OH)D levels with periodontitis was tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and free 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly lower in the periodontitis group than in the healthy control group (p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, a significant correlation was observed between total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and periodontitis (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that there is a relationship between total, free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and periodontitis. In addition, it has been shown that the determination of free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels does not provide additional advantages in terms of the relationship between periodontitis and vitamin D. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In this case-control study, we examined the relationship between total, free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D and periodontitis. We found lower total, free, and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in periodontitis patients. It was also found that vitamin D-binding protein may be an important biomarker in the identification of various forms of periodontal disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT05343273.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Humanos , Proteína de Unión a Vitamina D , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Vitamina D
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673763

RESUMEN

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading neurodegenerative disease with deteriorating cognition as its main clinical sign. In addition to the clinical history, it is characterized by the presence of two neuropathological hallmark lesions; amyloid-beta (Aß) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), identified in the brain at post-mortem in specific anatomical areas. Recently, it was discovered that NFTs occur initially in the subcortical nuclei, such as the locus coeruleus in the pons, and are said to spread from there to the cerebral cortices and the hippocampus. This contrasts with the prior acceptance of their neuropathology in the enthorinal cortex and the hippocampus. The Braak staging system places the accumulation of phosphorylated tau (p-tau) binding to NFTs in the locus coeruleus and other subcortical nuclei to precede stages I-IV. The locus coeruleus plays diverse psychological and physiological roles within the human body including rapid eye movement sleep disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression, regulation of sleep-wake cycles, attention, memory, mood, and behavior, which correlates with AD clinical behavior. In addition, the locus coeruleus regulates cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal activities, which have only recently been associated with AD by modern day research enabling the wider understanding of AD development via comorbidities and microbial dysbiosis. The focus of this narrative review is to explore the modes of neurodegeneration taking place in the locus coeruleus during the natural aging process of the trigeminal nerve connections from the teeth and microbial dysbiosis, and to postulate a pathogenetic mechanism due to periodontal damage and/or infection focused on Treponema denticola.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Periodontitis , Humanos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Locus Coeruleus/metabolismo , Locus Coeruleus/patología , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Señales (Psicología) , Disbiosis , Periodontitis/metabolismo
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673851

RESUMEN

Periodontal and peri-implant soft and hard tissue in diabetic patients have always been a topic of interest for researchers and clinicians alike. Among which, a subtopic that has attracted more attention is the beneficial effect of metformin (MF) on periodontal and peri-implant soft and hard tissue. This review aimed to assess the impact of MF on the periodontal and peri-implant soft- and hard-tissue healing among diabetic patients. Research was conducted using the keywords 'metformin', 'diabetes', 'periodontitis', 'implant', and 'peri-implantitis' via the Medline (PubMed) and Google Scholar databases. Selected articles were reviewed. A total of 21 articles, discussing the impact on periodontal health (six animal studies, seven clinical studies, and three systematic reviews) and five studies on peri-implant health (four animal studies and one clinical study) were included. All have reported a positive impact of MF on decreasing the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and ultimate bone loss. Similarly, human studies reported a positive effect of MF on clinical and radiographic parameters compared with controls. Despite systematic reviews reporting heterogeneity among the included studies, MF has shown a positive impact on periodontal health. In animal, clinical studies, and systematic reviews, MF showed a protective impact on periodontal and peri-implant health.


Asunto(s)
Periimplantitis , Periodontitis , Animales , Humanos , Periodontitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Periimplantitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Cicatrización de Heridas
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674052

RESUMEN

Periodontitis (PO), a chronic microbially-induced inflammation of the supporting tissues of the tooth, is linked to various systemic diseases. We analyze its bidirectional relationship to chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major health-care problem with impressive excess mortality. Overwhelming associative relationship between CKD and PO are analyzed. Major pathophysiologic mechanisms that link CKD to PO are then presented: systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and imbalance of oxidative stress characteristic of CKD have a role in PO development and might influence escape mechanisms of oral microbiota. Subclinical local and systemic inflammation induced by PO might influence in turn CKD outcomes. Homeostatic changes induced by CKD such as mineral bone disorders, acidosis, uremic milieu, or poor salivary flow are also relevant for the occurrence of PO. There is insufficient evidence to recommend a standardized diagnostic and therapeutic approach regarding association of PO to CKD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Óseas , Periodontitis , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Inflamación
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 31: e20220359, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Based on a holistic concept of polymicrobial etiology, we have hypothesized that putative and candidate periodontal pathogens are more frequently detected in consortia than alone in advanced forms of periodontal diseases (PD). OBJECTIVE: To correlate specific consortia of periodontal pathogens with clinical periodontal status and severity of periodontitis. METHODOLOGY: Subgingival biofilm was obtained from individuals with periodontal health (113, PH), gingivitis (91, G), and periodontitis (209, P). Genomic DNA was purified and the species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Aa JP2-like strain, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Dialister pneumosintes (Dp), and Filifactor alocis (Fa) were detected by PCR. Configural frequency and logistic regression analyses were performed to correlate microbial consortia and PD. RESULTS: Aa + Pg in the presence of Dp (phi=0.240; χ2=11.9, p<0.01), as well as Aa JP2 + Dp + Fa (phi=0.186, χ2=4.6, p<0.05) were significantly more associated in advanced stages of P. The consortium Aa + Fa + Dp was strongly associated with deep pocketing and inflammation (p<0.001). The best predictors of disease severity (80% accuracy) included older age (OR 1.11 [95% CI 1.07 - 1.15], p<0.001), Black/African-American ancestry (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.19 - 2.99], p=0.007), and high frequency of Aa + Pg + Dp (OR 3.04 [95% CI 1.49 - 6.22], p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Specific microbial consortia of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, associated with demographic parameters, correlate with severe periodontitis, supporting the multifactorial nature of PD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Periodontales , Periodontitis , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Bacteroides , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Gravedad del Paciente
16.
Int J Oral Sci ; 15(1): 4, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631439

RESUMEN

Periodontitis is the most widespread oral disease and is closely related to the oral microbiota. The oral microbiota is adversely affected by some pharmacologic treatments. Systemic antibiotics are widely used for infectious diseases but can lead to gut dysbiosis, causing negative effects on the human body. Whether systemic antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis can affect the oral microbiota or even periodontitis has not yet been addressed. In this research, mice were exposed to drinking water containing a cocktail of four antibiotics to explore how systemic antibiotics affect microbiota pathogenicity and oral bone loss. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that gut dysbiosis caused by long-term use of antibiotics can disturb the oral microbiota and aggravate periodontitis. Moreover, the expression of cytokines related to Th17 was increased while transcription factors and cytokines related to Treg were decreased in the periodontal tissue. Fecal microbiota transplantation with normal mice feces restored the gut microbiota and barrier, decreased the pathogenicity of the oral microbiota, reversed the Th17/Treg imbalance in periodontal tissue, and alleviated alveolar bone loss. This study highlights the potential adverse effects of long-term systemic antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis on the oral microbiota and periodontitis. A Th17/Treg imbalance might be related to this relationship. Importantly, these results reveal that the periodontal condition of patients should be assessed regularly when using systemic antibiotics in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Periodontitis , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Disbiosis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Virulencia , Periodontitis/inducido químicamente , Citocinas
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 23(1): 19, 2023 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. Periodontitis (PD is considered a high-risk factor for OSCC, but the genetic mechanism is rarely studied. This study aims to link OSCC and PD by identifying common differentially expressed miRNAs (Co-DEmiRNAs), their related genes (Hub genes), transcription factors (TFs), signaling pathways, enrichment functions, and compounds, and searching for genetic commonalities. METHODS: The miRNAs expression datasets of OSCC and PD were searched from the GEO database. The miRNA and related crosstalk mechanism between OSCC and PD was obtained through a series of analyses. RESULTS: hsa-mir-497, hsa-mir-224, hsa-mir-210, hsa-mir-29c, hsa-mir-486-5p, and hsa-mir-31are the top miRNA nodes in Co-DEmiRNA-Target networks. The most significant candidate miRNA dysregulation genes are ZNF460, FBN1, CDK6, BTG2, and CBX6, while the most important dysregulation TF includes HIF1A, TP53, E2F1, MYCN, and JUN. 5-fluorouracil, Ginsenoside, Rh2, and Formaldehyde are the most correlated compounds. Enrichment analysis revealed cancer-related pathways and so on. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive analysis reveals the interacting genetic and molecular mechanism between OSCC and PD, linking both and providing a foundation for future basic and clinical research.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Neoplasias de la Boca , Periodontitis , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello , Humanos , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , MicroARNs/genética , Neoplasias de la Boca/genética , Periodontitis/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeza y Cuello/genética
18.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 21(1): 7-16, 2023 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651311

RESUMEN

Periodontal disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are inflammatory diseases affecting the adult population of the world. PD is mainly caused by infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and by the synergistic action of various microorganisms. These microorganisms penetrate into the subgingival tissue and cause bacteremia, leading to disruption of the homeostasis of the internal environment of the body. Virulence factors known as gingipains, which are cysteine proteases and other toxins, including fimbria and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are strongly associated with periodontitis and other systemic inflammation. PD has a known polymicrobial aetiology, and patients who eventually develop sporadic AD tend to have recurrent infections before a clinical diagnosis of dementia. AD, the most common neurodegenerative disease, is characterised by poor memory and specific hallmark proteins. An increasing number of studies have shown that periodontal pathogens are increasingly associated with this form of dementia. Many articles have shown that P. gingivalis infections directly increase the risk of PD and may indirectly lead to the development of AD. However, these links and probable pathogenesis remain to be explored. The aim of this review was to explore whether P. gingivalis periodontal infection is associated with AD and to provide possible mechanisms of association.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Enfermedades Periodontales , Periodontitis , Adulto , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/complicaciones , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/epidemiología , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas/complicaciones , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Inflamación/complicaciones , Enfermedades Periodontales/complicaciones
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 36: e0125, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651384

RESUMEN

This study reviews the influence of contextual factors on periodontitis based on a systematic search of studies recorded in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases. Periodontitis was assessed by clinical attachment loss and probing depth for studies with data on the socioeconomic status (SES) of a specific area (area-level SES) or dental care service (service-level) in a catchment area among individuals aged 18 and over. Two independent reviewers performed study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality. Of the 646 articles identified, 13 were included in the systematic review, representing 101,362 individuals from five countries (USA, UK, Brazil, China, and Uruguay). A higher prevalence of periodontitis was described in lower SES neighborhoods, more deprived postcodes, and poorer provinces. Gini Index results were mixed and inconclusive. Three studies showed that higher coverage of primary dental care at the municipal level was associated with a lower prevalence of periodontitis. Contextual factors at the area-level SES and dental care service might influence periodontitis, but the existing evidence is unclear. The contextual effect is important for periodontal health and may contribute to the prevalence of periodontitis, independent of well-known risk factors and individual levels.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Prevalencia , Periodontitis/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Uruguay
20.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(1): 71-76, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647646

RESUMEN

Periodontitis and diabetes mellitus are both chronic diseases with a rather high prevalence and they are closely associated with each other. On one hand, diabetes mellitus poses as a risk factor for periodontitis. On the other hand, periodontitis has a negative impact on glucose control in diabetic patients. The two-way relationship has aroused a lot of research interest in recent years. Herein, approaching the issue by looking at the effect of periodontitis on diabetes, we summarized the mechanism of the traditional periodontal pocket-blood circulation pathway and reviewed the role of the oral-gut axis in the mechanism, which has been proposed in recent years. In addition, regarding the impact of diabetes on periodontitis, we summarized new findings concerning changes in oral microbiota, abnormal levels of cytokines and adipokines, oxidative stress, unbalanced osteogenic and osteoclastic activities, and the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products. We hope this paper will be helpful for further studies on the mechanism of association between periodontitis and diabetes.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus , Periodontitis , Humanos , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Periodontitis/metabolismo , Factores de Riesgo , Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones
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