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1.
Food Chem ; 334: 127508, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711265

RESUMEN

Quercetin, a potential polyphenolic which possesses several biological effects. The influenza virus polymerase basic 2 (PB2) subunit of RNA polymerase responsible for replication, degree of virus conservation and active target site for designing specific antivirals. The quercetin derivatives downloaded from PubChem were screened using PyRX software configured with Vina Wizard, targeted on cap-binding site of the PB2 of influenza viral RNA polymerase. Among the PubChem library (total 97,585,747 compounds), 410 quercetin derivatives were screened using molecular docking (affinity: <-9.0 kcal) for their drug-likeness and in vitro cytopathic effect by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Among all quercetin derivatives, quercetin 3'-glucuronide (Q3G) showed strongest binding affinity towards cap-binding site of the PB2 subunit with -9.6 kcal of binding affinity and 0.00054 mM of Ki value, while quercetin 3'-glucuronide (Q7G) was presented highest anti-influenza activity with 2.10 ± 0.05 of IC50 on influenza A/PR/8/34 virus and non-cytotoxic effect as CC50 > 100 µg/mL.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Virus de la Influenza A/efectos de los fármacos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animales , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/metabolismo , Sitios de Unión , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , ARN Polimerasas Dirigidas por ADN/química , ARN Polimerasas Dirigidas por ADN/metabolismo , Perros , Humanos , Virus de la Influenza A/enzimología , Influenzavirus B/efectos de los fármacos , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Estructura Terciaria de Proteína , Subunidades de Proteína/química , Subunidades de Proteína/metabolismo , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacología , Termodinámica
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141734, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882555

RESUMEN

We estimated associations between ambient air pollution, home environment and asthma as well as rhinitis among adults across China. A total of 40,279 young adults from eight Chinese cities participated in a questionnaire survey (participation rate 75%). There were questions on health and home environment. Information on city level gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, ambient temperature and PM10 and NO2 were collected from registers. Two-level logistic regression models were used to study health associations. Totally 1.6% reported asthma and 6.6% reported allergic rhinitis (AR). Higher temperature was associated with more asthma but less AR. Higher GDP was associated with less asthma but more AR. Higher degree of urbanization, higher level of NO2 and living near heavily trafficked road were risk factors for asthma and AR. Participants in older buildings reported more asthma. Redecoration and buying new furniture were related to more asthma and AR (OR = 1.15-1.91). Using natural gas (OR = 1.34) and biomass (OR = 1.35) for cooking were risk factors for AR. Burning mosquito coils and incense increased the risk of asthma and AR. Cat keeping (OR = 2.88), dog keeping (OR = 2.04), cockroaches (OR = 1.54) and rats or mice (OR = 1.46) were associated with asthma. Cockroaches increased the risk of AR (OR = 1.22). Air humidifier and air cleaner were linked to asthma and AR. Frequent cleaning and exposing bedding to sunshine were protective. In conclusion, urbanization, NO2 and traffic exhaust can increase the risk of adult asthma and AR. Higher ambient temperature was related to more asthma but less AR. Indoor animals such as cats, dogs, rats/mice and presence of cockroaches were associated with asthma or AR. Indoor chemical sources such as redecoration and new furniture were other risk factors. Cooking with natural gas or biomass and burning mosquito coils and incense were associated with asthma or AR. Frequent cleaning and exposing bedding to sunshine were protective.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Asma , Rinitis Alérgica , Anciano , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Animales , Asma/epidemiología , Gatos , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Perros , Humanos , Ratones , Ratas , Rinitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141810, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882566

RESUMEN

The channel and fjord region of southern Chilean Patagonia hosts giant kelp forests (Macrocystis pyrifera) that have little known site-specific responses to diverse physical gradients. In this study, the functionality of the bio-optical, morphological and biochemical features of the kelps, that determine their light trapping and acclimation, were studied along a gradient of varying turbidity and light conditions at the land-terminating glacier of fjord Yendegaia in the Beagle Channel. These habitats are marked by glacial retreat, and M. pyrifera has successfully colonized new areas due to the effects of warming. Results indicated that under a sharp gradient of turbidity and light availability, the kelps have adapted shading characteristics. The photobiological traits (e.g. light absorption, pigment concentration, photochemistry and blade optics) of algae from depths between 6 and 13 m varied in relation to the degree of turbidity along the fjord. However, these populations did not show obvious intra-thallus variation along the longitudinal profile e.g. blades located at different depths showed relatively similar acclimation potential to the prevailing light field. Only basal sporophylls showed general differences in comparison with the vegetative fronds. Otherwise, the high phenolic (phlorotannin) content, which was reflected in the massive presence of intracellular physodes, suggests that these organisms could be biochemically well-equipped to cope with changes in physical conditions or the presence of herbivore invertebrates (e.g. sea urchins).


Asunto(s)
Macrocystis , Animales , Chile , Perros , Estuarios , Cubierta de Hielo , Fotobiología
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151200

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) on the osseointegration of immediate implants in a healing situation with greater challenges. The mandibular premolars of eight beagle dogs were submitted to ligature-induced periodontal disease. After 3 months, teeth were extracted and immediate implants were placed in the sockets previously decontaminated by mechanical debridement (MD) or MD+aPDT. Following 12 weeks, the dogs were euthanized and the specimens were analyzed. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated significantly better results for the immediate implants decontaminated by debridement associated with aPDT. The sites treated with MD+aPDT led to osseointegration of the immediate implants without evidence of inflammation; conversely, evidence of peri-implantitis was observed where aPDT was not used.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Implantes Dentales , Periodontitis , Fotoquimioterapia , Animales , Perros , Oseointegración
5.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(4): 482-487, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151116

RESUMEN

Pain recognition and treatment in companion animals are important aspects of veterinary medicine, yet the teaching of these concepts may not be adequate at all academic institutions. This study was designed to evaluate veterinary students' ability to recall signs of pain and specific analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. We hypothesized that students in the fourth, or final, year of their veterinary curriculum would have a better understanding of pain recognition and be able to recall more analgesic options. A brief, voluntary, and anonymous open question survey was made available to all veterinary students, years 1 to 4, at our institution. The questions included, "How does a cat/dog show signs of pain?" and "What pain medications are used in cats/dogs?" Survey responses were collated according to the students' year in the curriculum, and the most common responses for signs of pain and analgesic medications recalled by the students in both the cat and dog were compared for significant differences. Results showed that students in the class of 2017 (seniors) had no superior recall of analgesic medications or recognition of pain in cats or dogs compared to the other classes. Vocalization was the most common sign of pain recalled with at least 50% responses from all classes. Carprofen was the most commonly recalled analgesic for dogs (the difference between classes, p = .04). Meloxicam was the most commonly recalled analgesic for cats (the difference among classes, p < .001). Based on these results, areas of improvement were identified for our analgesic curriculum.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Educación en Veterinaria , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Gatos/tratamiento farmacológico , Gatos , Perros , Humanos , Dolor/diagnóstico , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/veterinaria , Estudiantes
6.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 908-914, 2020 Nov 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171567

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the effects of fluorinated porcine hydroxyapatite (FPHA) on guided bone regeneration of peri-implant buccal bone defects in canine mandible. Methods: Six male beagle dogs were randomly divided into two groups with different time points (4 weeks and 12 weeks after implants placement), with 3 dogs in each group. Bilateral mandibular second premolars, first molars, and second molars in each dog were extracted. The wounds were allowed to heal for 12 weeks. For each dog, four implant beds were prepared in each side and standardized peri-implant buccal bone defect was created at each implant site. After implants placement, the defect sites were randomly allocated in a split-mouth design to blank control group, deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), the porcine hydroxyapatite (PHA), FPHA and covered with collagen membranes. The animals were sacrificed 4 or 12 weeks after the surgery. Biopsies of the implant sites were obtained for micro-CT evaluation [bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and bone trabecular separation degree (Tb.Sp)] and histological analysis. Results: Micro-CT results showed that 4 weeks after implants placement, PHA, FPHA and DBBM successfully maintained the contour of alveolar ridge at the buccal aspect of the implants, while the contour of alveolar ridge collapsed in the blank control group. BV/TV in the FPHA group [(24.77±2.20) %] was significantly higher than that in the PHA group [(16.89±1.70)%] and DBBM group [(15.68±3.15)%] (P<0.05). Tb.Sp in the FPHA group (0.70±0.07) was significantly lower than that in the DBBM group (1.03±0.19) (P<0.05). Twelve weeks after implants placement, the alveolar ridge contour of the grafted sites in PHA, FPHA and DBBM group remained stable. The alveolar ridge of the blank control group was still collapsed. There was no significant difference in BV/TV and Tb.Sp between PHA group, FPHA group and DBBM group. The histomorphological analysis showed that 4 weeks after implants placement, in the central area of the defect, the amount and maturity of new bone (NB) around the material particles in FPHA group was higher than that in PHA group and DBBM group. Osseointegration could be observed between the NB and implant surface in all the four groups. Twelve weeks after implants placement, the material particles were surrounded by a large number of mature NB in PHA, FPHA and DBBM group. Conclusions: The incorporation of fluoride ion into PHA could effectively promote the repair of peri-implant bone defects in the early stage of guided bone regeneration.


Asunto(s)
Sustitutos de Huesos , Implantes Dentales , Animales , Regeneración Ósea , Bovinos , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Perros , Durapatita , Masculino , Mandíbula/cirugía , Membranas Artificiales , Oseointegración , Porcinos
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148588

RESUMEN

Fever is a widely recognised presenting symptom of COVID-19. Consequently, other febrile illnesses may be difficult to distinguish from COVID-19-leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. One such illness is murine typhus, a fleaborne illness with worldwide distribution caused by Rickettsia typhi It often presents with fever, headache and myalgia, all of which have been commonly reported with COVID-19. Although the disease is usually mild with a good prognosis, there have been reports of severe illness and death. I present a case of murine typhus in a young male who had 2 weeks of headaches and daily fevers during the COVID-19 pandemic. He was ultimately tested for murine typhus when his occupation as a dog trainer was queried, and he experienced resolution of symptoms after treatment with doxycycline. During this pandemic, clinicians must be vigilant of other febrile illnesses whose symptoms overlap with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Doxiciclina/administración & dosificación , Fiebre/diagnóstico , Exposición Profesional/análisis , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Rickettsia typhi/aislamiento & purificación , Tifus Endémico Transmitido por Pulgas , Adulto , Atención Ambulatoria/métodos , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Betacoronavirus , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reservorios de Enfermedades/microbiología , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Perros , Fiebre/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tifus Endémico Transmitido por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Tifus Endémico Transmitido por Pulgas/tratamiento farmacológico , Tifus Endémico Transmitido por Pulgas/microbiología , Tifus Endémico Transmitido por Pulgas/fisiopatología
8.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e6, 2020 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054249

RESUMEN

Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) can infect both animals and humans, there is a paucity of veterinary studies on antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in South Africa. Secondary data of canine clinical cases presented at the hospital from January 2007 to December 2013 was used. The following information was recorded: type of sample, the date of sampling and the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Frequencies, proportions and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all the categorical variables. In total, 155 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified and included in this study. All the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial (AMR), while 92% were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Most isolates were resistant to lincomycin (98%), penicillin-G (96%), orbifloxacin (90%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (87%). A low proportion of isolates was resistant to imipenem (6%), tobramycin (12%), amikacin (16%) and gentamicin (18%). A high proportion of MDR-P. aeruginosa isolates was resistant to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (99%), tylosin (99%), chloramphenicol (97%) and doxycycline (96%). Few (6%) of MDR-P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was associated with infections of various organ systems in this study. All P. aeruginosa isolates of P. aeruginosa exhibited resistance to ß-lactams, fluoroquinolones and lincosamides. Clinicians at the hospital in question should consider these findings when treating infections associated with P. aeruginosa.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/veterinaria , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efectos de los fármacos , Centros Médicos Académicos , Animales , Antibacterianos/clasificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Perros , Hospitales Veterinarios , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/microbiología , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiología , Sudáfrica
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2945-2951, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030572

RESUMEN

Minute virus of canines (MVC) belongs to the family Parvoviridae, genus Bocaparvovirus, and has been mainly described during enteritis episodes in young dogs. This study reports the characterization of four divergent MVC strains detected between 2012 and 2018, three of which were from dogs illegally imported into Italy, most probably from Eastern Europe, that cluster together phylogenetically but share low genetic similarity with the fourth MVC from an autochthonous dog and other available MVC sequences. Our data indicate that the introduction of genetically distinct MVC strains occurred through the illegal movement of dogs from a geographic area where a distinct MVC lineage was most likely circulating. Enforced surveillance of MVC in the dog population of Eastern Europe and its neighboring countries may shed light on, and eventually trace back to, illegal animal movements.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros/virología , Perros/virología , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/veterinaria , Parvovirus Canino/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , ADN Viral/química , ADN Viral/genética , Europa Oriental , Italia , Infecciones por Parvoviridae/virología , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , Viaje
10.
Science ; 370(6516): 522-523, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122368

Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 385-390, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128864

RESUMEN

Ehrlichia canis is the common blood pathogen infected dogs in Thailand that significantly affect dog health and caused canine monocytic ehrlichiosis which leads to anaemia, high morbidity also mortality rates. This study was performed to analyse associated risk factors and evaluate the significance of haematological responses of dogs infected with E. canis in Phitsanulok province, the northern part of Thailand. Blood samples were collected from 94 dogs, 27 (28.7%) dogs have been confirmed E. canis infection by nested PCR method. Mostly of infected dogs had hypohemoglobinemia (<12.1 g/dl), leucocytosis (>15.5×103/µl), neutrophilia (>10.6×103/µl) and thrombocytopenia (<170×103/µl). However, only thrombocytopenia was statistically different between E. canis infected and non-infected groups. Additionally, no significant statistical relationship between E. canis infection rate and sex, age or breed apparent. These data supported that infection with E. canis is endemic in dogs and thrombocytopenia may highlight during infection which reliability to use in the clinical diagnosis of E. canis infection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiosis , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Ehrlichiosis/veterinaria , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Tailandia/epidemiología
13.
Trop Doct ; 50(4): 285-291, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998656

RESUMEN

Although human toxocariasis can lead to serious complications including neurological, ocular and visceral complications, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological information about the seroprevalence of Toxocara species in humans. In the present study, we analysed and reviewed the overall seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Iran. The data collection was systematically undertaken on published articles using the PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases. A total of 27 studies from the past two decades reporting seroprevalence of human toxocariasis met our eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of Toxocara infection was estimated as 6.58% (95% confidence interval = 3.98-9.77). A wide variation between different studies was observed (Q statistic = 799.37, df = 26, P < 0.0001, and I2 = 96.7%). The seroprevalence rate of toxocariasis in the Iranian population is relatively high; contamination of the environment by eggs from the host as well as from household dogs and cats should be blamed.


Asunto(s)
Larva Migrans Visceral/epidemiología , Larva Migrans Visceral/transmisión , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión , Animales , Gatos , Perros , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Larva Migrans Visceral/parasitología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Toxocara/inmunología , Toxocara/aislamiento & purificación , Toxocariasis/epidemiología , Toxocariasis/parasitología , Toxocariasis/transmisión , Zoonosis/parasitología
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4628-4631, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019025

RESUMEN

This paper demonstrates the design and manufacturing of a smart and connected internet-of-things collar system for the collection of behavioral and environmental information from working canines. The environmental factors of ambient light, ambient temperature, ambient noise levels, barometric pressure and relative humidity are recorded by the smart collar system in addition to behavioral information about barking incidences and activity levels. The data are collected from the sensors and transmitted via Bluetooth to the handler's smartphone where the custom app also acquires GPS positioning using the on-board smartphone sensors. The stored data on the smartphone are uploaded to the IBM Cloud once the user is connected to a WiFi network. The low power design of the smart collar system permits it to be used continuously for 27 hours with a 290 mAh lithium polymer battery. The cost of the system is low enough to let the handlers have multiple collars and exchange it if needed or recharge it overnight when not in use. This system is currently being scaled up to be tested on hundreds of canine puppies by a preeminent guide dog school in the US. As a result, the design emphasis here has been on the cost and power reduction, comfortable ergonomics, user friendliness, and robustness of data streaming. We expect the system to provide continuous quantitative data for improving guide dog training programs in addition to contributing the well-being of other working dogs in the future.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Inteligente , Animales , Recolección de Datos , Perros , Femenino , Registros , Férulas (Fijadores)
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5184-5187, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019153

RESUMEN

Long-term preclinical study available extracranial brain activator (ECBA) system, ECBAv2, is proposed for the non-anesthetic canine models. The titanium-packaged module shows enhanced durability, even after a year of implantation in the scalp. In addition, the wearable helmet type base station provides a stable experimental environment without anesthesia. In this work, HFS stimulation is induced to six canine models for 30 minutes every day over 4 weeks (10Hz, 40Hz and no stimulation for each pair of subjects). Pre- and post-HFS stimulation PET-CT image shows remarkable increases of glucose metabolism in the temporal and parietal lobes. Moreover, both the 40-Hz and 10-Hz groups shows noticeable increase and the former group has more increments than the latter. Our results establish that HFS stimulation definitely worked as facilitating brain activity which may affect memory and sensory skills, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Cráneo , Animales , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Perros , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Cuero Cabelludo
17.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 879-886, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107750

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal ventilation pressure for ventilated postmortem CT assessment of the lungs in cadaveric dogs and compare the optimal ventilation pressures between dogs with and without focal lung lesions. SAMPLE: 12 cadaveric dogs. PROCEDURES: CT was performed with dogs positioned in sternal recumbency within 30 to 180 minutes after death. After orotracheal intubation, lungs were aerated to ventilation pressures of 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 cm H2O. Lung attenuation measurements were made at 5 predetermined anatomical locations with use of a multi-image analysis graphic user interface tool. Lungs were considered hyperaerated (-1000 to -901 HU), normo-aerated (-900 to -501 HU), poorly aerated (-500 to -101 HU), and nonaerated (-100 to 100 HU) on the basis of lung attenuation values. Optimal ventilation pressure was defined as the pressure at which the percentage of normo-aerated lung was greatest. For analysis, dogs were assigned to one group when focal lung lesions were evident and to another group when lesions were not evident. RESULTS: Median optimal ventilation pressure was significantly higher for those dogs with lung lesions (35 cm H2O), compared with those without (25 cm H2O). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A ventilation pressure of 35 cm H2O may be considered for ventilated postmortem CT to determine the presence of focal lung lesions; however, further investigation is required.


Asunto(s)
Pulmón , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Animales , Perros , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Respiración , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/veterinaria
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 888-893, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107751

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of sidestream dark field (SDF) video microscopy for the evaluation of the jejunal microvasculature of healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 30 healthy sexually intact female shelter dogs anesthetized for ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES: Preoperative physical and clinicopathologic assessments were performed to confirm health status. Then healthy dogs were anesthetized, and the abdomen was incised at the ventral midline for ovariohysterectomy and jejunal microvasculature evaluation. An SDF video microscope imaged the microvasculature of 2 sites of a portion of the jejunum, and recorded videos were analyzed with software capable of quantitating parameters of microvascular health. Macrovascular parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation) were also recorded during anesthesia. RESULTS: Quantified jejunal microvascular parameters included valid microvascular density (mean ± SD, 251.72 ± 97.10 µm/mm), RBC-filling percentage (66.96 ± 8.00%), RBC column width (7.11 ± 0.72 µm), and perfused boundary region (2.17 ± 0.42 µm). The perfused boundary region and RBC-filling percentage had a significant negative correlation. Strong to weak positive correlations were noted among the perfused boundary regions of small-, medium-, and large-sized microvessels. No significant correlations were identified between microvascular parameters and age, body weight, preoperative clinicopathologic results, or macrovascular parameters. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interrogation of the jejunal microvasculature of healthy dogs with SDF video microscopy was feasible. Results of this study indicated that SDF video microscopy is worth additional investigation, including interrogation of diseased small intestine in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Yeyuno , Microvasos , Animales , Perros , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Microcirculación , Microscopía por Video/veterinaria
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190421, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111904

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In Bolivia, before 1982 there were no records of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases that would allow us to review and describe the temporospatial occurrence of VL by ecoregions in provinces and departments of Bolivia to evaluate its impact on public health, risk of outbreaks, or dispersion. METHODS: This update on VL in Bolivia is based on research, reviews, and retrospective literature analyses of online data and libraries and institutional reports, from 1939 to the present. RESULTS: In Bolivia, 56 cases of VL have been reported. Until 2014, only three endemic departments had been identified (La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Tarija). Since then, further cases have been recorded in Pando, Cochabamba, and Beni, and in Chuquisaca in 2015. In Yungas, a VL focus was confirmed by isolating and comparing parasites from human and dog cases, and from the Lu. longipalpis vector. VL cases from seven departments, involving 12 different ecoregions were located within the Amazon and Plata basins. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that dogs are its primary reservoir, and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector (currently dispersed in six departments). The primary vectors in areas where Lutzomyia longipalpis is absent are Migonemyia migonei and Lutzomyia cruzi.


Asunto(s)
Leishmaniasis Visceral , Psychodidae , Adolescente , Animales , Bolivia/epidemiología , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Insectos Vectores , Leishmaniasis Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniasis Visceral/epidemiología , Leishmaniasis Visceral/veterinaria , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
20.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(9): 739-746, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112166

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trazodone following rectal administration of a single dose to healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES: Each dog received a single dose of trazodone (approx 8 mg/kg) per rectum. Trazodone tablets were crushed into a powder, mixed with 5 mL of tap water, and injected into the rectum via a red rubber catheter. Sedation scores were assigned, and blood samples were collected for determination of plasma trazodone concentration at predetermined times before and after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. RESULTS: Plasma trazodone concentration remained below the detection limit for 1 dog even though it became moderately sedate. Median (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range [IQR]) maximum plasma trazodone concentration and volume of distribution and clearance corrected for bioavailability were 1.00 µg/mL (0.66 to 1.40 µg/mL), 10.3 L/kg (7.37 to 14.4 L/kg), and 639 mL/kg/h (594 to 719 mL/kg/h), respectively. Median time to maximum plasma trazodone concentration and elimination half-life were 15 minutes (range, 15 to 30 minutes) and 12 hours (IQR, 7.99 to 12.7 hours), respectively. All dogs became mildly or moderately sedate, and the extent of sedation was maximal at a median of 30 minutes (IQR, 30 to 60 minutes) after trazodone administration. No adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Rectal administration of trazodone may be a viable option for sedation and treatment of anxiety in dogs for which administration of sedatives and anxiolytics by other routes is contraindicated. Further research is necessary to better elucidate the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trazodone following rectal administration and determine optimal dosing.


Asunto(s)
Ansiolíticos , Trazodona , Administración Oral , Administración Rectal , Animales , Área Bajo la Curva , Perros , Semivida
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