Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 323.536
Filtrar
1.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 105(1): 115834, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343475

RESUMEN

Despite the enzootic cycle of rabies in dog populations, laboratory confirmation of human rabies has been hardly reported in Cameroon. This study aimed to determine the rate of molecular detection and phylogenetic relatedness of Rabies Virus (RABV) isolates from suspected human rabies cases in Cameroon. From 2014 to 2018, 21 suspected human rabies cases were tested for RABV genomic RNA. Full-length sequence of the nucleoprotein (N) coding gene of RABV isolates detected were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. As results, skin biopsies and/or saliva samples from 10 of the 21 suspected human rabies cases were positive for genomic RABV RNA. Four new N gene sequences were generated from confirmed cases. The studied RABV isolates fell into the Cosmopolitan clades, sub-clades Africa-1a and 1b. This study showed a low rate of molecular detection of RABV in suspected human rabies cases; thus, underscoring the interest of systematic laboratory confirmation.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Rabia , Rabia , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Rabia/diagnóstico , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/veterinaria , Filogenia , Camerún/epidemiología , ARN
2.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120576, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336188

RESUMEN

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, exposure to which is associated with birth defects, neurocognitive and reproductive impairments, and cancer. Little is known, however, about VOC exposure in pet dogs and cats, which represent sentinels for human exposure as well as having value as companion animals. In this study, we determined 38 VOC metabolites (VOCMs) in urine samples collected from 47 dogs and 42 cats from the Albany area of New York State. Seventeen (in cats) to twenty (in dogs) VOCMs were found at detection frequencies (DFs) above 60%. The creatinine-adjusted geometric mean (GM) concentrations of individual VOCMs ranged from 5.43 (EMA) to 761 µg/g (3HPMA) in dog urine and 0.824 (SBMA) to 278 µg/g (ATCA) in cat urine. The ∑20 VOCM concentration in dog urine was 2280 µg/g (geometric mean) and the ∑17 VOCM concentration in cat urine was 847 µg/g. Eight individual VOCMs were significantly more abundant in dog than in cat urine, and the urinary concentrations of several VOCMs in dogs were comparable to those reported for human tobacco smokers. Metabolites of acrolein accounted for 43% of ∑20 VOCM concentration in dogs, whereas those of cyanide and benzene accounted for 60% of ∑17 VOCM concentration in cats. Based on acrylamide exposure doses, calculated hazard quotients were above 1 in 77% of dogs and 50% of cats studied, and cancer risk values (using a benchmark of 10-6) from exposure to acrylamide exceeded 1 for all dogs and cats. This is the first study to report VOCM concentrations in urine collected from pet dogs and cats and highlights the need to identify sources and health implications of VOCs exposure in these animals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Humanos , Gatos , Perros , Estados Unidos , Animales , New York , Acrilamidas
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105549, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116317

RESUMEN

Categories are a fundamental building block of cognition that simplify the multitude of entities we encounter into equivalence classes. By simplifying this barrage of inputs, categories support reasoning about and interacting with their members. For example, despite differences in size, color, and other features, we can treat members of the category of dogs as equivalent, and thus generalize information about any given dog to other dogs. Simplifying entities into categories in adulthood is supported by selective attention, in which people focus on category-relevant attributes, while filtering out category-irrelevant attributes. However, much category learning takes place in infancy and early childhood, when selective attention undergoes substantial development. We designed two experiments to disentangle the contributions of the focusing and filtering aspects of selective attention to category learning over development. Experiment 1 provided evidence that learning simple categories was accompanied by selective attention in both 4- and 5- year-old children and adults. Experiment 2 provided evidence that only focusing contributed to selective attention in 4-year-olds, whereas both focusing and filtering contributed to selective attention in 5-year-olds and adults. Thus, category learning may recruit different aspects of selective attention across development.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Aprendizaje , Preescolar , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Solución de Problemas
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159433, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244489

RESUMEN

Fatal dog poisoning after uptake of neurotoxic cyanobacteria associated with aquatic macrophytes in Tegeler See (Berlin, Germany) raised concerns about critical exposure of humans, especially children, to cyanotoxins produced by macrophyte associated cyanobacteria during recreational activity. From 2017 to 2021 a total of 398 samples of macrophytes washed ashore at bathing sites located at 19 Berlin lakes were analysed for anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins, as were 463 water samples taken in direct proximity to macrophyte accumulations. Cyanotoxins were detected in 66 % of macrophyte samples and 50 % of water samples, with anatoxins being the most frequently detected toxin group in macrophyte samples (58 %) and cylindrospermopsins in water samples (41 %). Microcoleus sp. associated with the water moss Fontinalis antipyretica was identified as anatoxin producing cyanobacterium in isolated strains as well as in field samples from Tegeler See. Anatoxin contents in macrophyte samples rarely exceeded 1 µg/g macrophyte fresh weight and peaked at 9. 2 µg/g f.w. Based on established toxicological points of departure, a critical anatoxin content of macrophyte samples of 3 µg/g f.w. is proposed. Five samples, all taken in Tegeler See and all associated with the water moss Fontinalis antipyretica, exceeded this value. Contents and concentrations of microcystins and cylindrospermopsins did not reach critical levels. The potential exposure risks to anatoxins for children and dogs are assessed and recommendations are given.


Asunto(s)
Toxinas Bacterianas , Cianobacterias , Niño , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Microcistinas/análisis , Toxinas de Cianobacterias , Berlin , Toxinas Bacterianas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Agua/análisis
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159550, 2023 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265636

RESUMEN

Worldwide, the number of pet dogs increases yearly, and as a result so does the use of veterinary medicines for flea and tick control. We investigated the potential transfer of veterinary flea products from dogs to the environment in a 'proof of principle' experiment. For this purpose, samples of hair, urine, and water after swimming were investigated. Nine dogs were recruited for this study, eight of which had been recently treated with an ectoparasiticide product. Hair and urine samples were tested for afoxalaner, fluralaner, fipronil and imidacloprid. Interestingly, contamination with ectoparasiticides was frequently demonstrated in samples from dogs untreated with these particular substances, suggesting widespread secondary transfer. In addition, hair retrieved from a bird's nest contained fipronil, fluralaner and imidacloprid, indicating a potential pathway for the exposure of juvenile birds. Three of the dogs also participated in a swimming experiment. One had been treated with oral fluralaner, whilst the remaining two had received other compounds not included in our study. However, in all three dogs, both fluralaner and imidacloprid were detected in hair samples. Fluralaner concentrations in the swimming water exceeded Dutch water quality standards, indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment. Imidacloprid levels increased after each swimming dog, but did not breach Dutch water quality standard levels. These findings all call for improvements in the current risk assessment and management for veterinary medicines, by including companion animals and their exposure pathways into ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Infestaciones por Pulgas , Insecticidas , Siphonaptera , Drogas Veterinarias , Perros , Animales , Infestaciones por Pulgas/veterinaria , Ecosistema
6.
N Z Vet J ; 71(1): 33-36, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165167

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate the frequency of carriage of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in a population of clinically normal dogs within the Christchurch and wider Canterbury region, an area in which MRSP has been detected. METHODS: Buccal and perianal swabs were collected from 126 clinically normal dogs presenting at veterinary clinics in the Christchurch/Canterbury region for de-sexing or routine vaccination. S. pseudintermedius was isolated by selective culture. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials by disc diffusion. RESULTS: S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 92/126 (73.0 (95% CI = 64.4-80.5)%) dogs, with 38/126 (30.2 (95% CI = 22.3-39.0)%) positive dogs carrying S. pseudintermedius at both sampled sites. More animals (78/126; 61.9 (95% CI = 52.8-70.4)%) had positive mouth cultures than positive perianal region cultures (52/126; 41.3 (95% CI = 32.6-50.4)%). No MRSP was isolated from clinically normal dogs. However, resistance to penicillin (106/130 (85.1%) swabs) and tetracycline (33/130 (25.4%) swabs) was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the dogs in this sample were carriers of S. pseudintermedius. However, none of these isolates were MRSP. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: While most clinically normal dogs in the studied region are likely to be carriers of S. pseudintermedius, only a small proportion, if any, are likely to be carriers of MRSP. Antibiotic stewardship practices may be important to maintain low-level circulation of drug-resistant bacterial lineages.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Perros , Animales , Resistencia a la Meticilina , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/microbiología , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria
7.
Ann Anat ; 245: 152000, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183940

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The existence of the basivertebral nerve and meningeal branch of the spinal nerve has not been proven in dogs to date. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine whether dogs have a meningeal branch of the spinal nerve (MBSN) and a basivertebral nerve (BVN) and to (2) describe anatomical characteristics of these two nerves. Authors also put forward a discussion on the possible clinical relevance of these findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dissections were performed on six embalmed dogs at the Veterinary Faculty of Barcelona with the use of stereomicroscopy and microsurgery equipment. RESULTS: The MBSN (grossly) and BVN (grossly and histologically) were identified in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar region in all dog specimens. In addition, other small fibers (suspected nerves) entering the vertebral body through small foramina close to the end plates were identified. Histological examination of the tissues confirmed the presence of nerve fibers (myelinated and unmyelinated) in suspected BVN samples. Results of the present study indicated that dogs have BVNs. Also, suspected nerve fibers were identified among the epidural fat, running from the intervertebral foramina, that likely represent the MBSN. CONCLUSION: These findings open up the discussion on extrapolation of treatment options employed in human medicine for "low back pain", such as BVN ablation, which is discussed in this article. Further anatomic and clinical studies of the innervation for the vertebral body, periosteum, vasculature, dorsal longitudinal ligament and anulus fibrosus are necessary to elucidate possible anatomical variants and breed differences as well as potential clinical (e.g., therapeutic) relevance.


Asunto(s)
Dolor de la Región Lumbar , Nervios Espinales , Perros , Humanos , Animales , Nervios Espinales/cirugía , Dolor de la Región Lumbar/cirugía , Columna Vertebral , Disección , Región Lumbosacra
8.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 53(1): 225-240, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36400472

RESUMEN

Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases in dogs and cats, but diagnosis is challenging. The gold standard for diagnosis of pancreatitis is pancreatic biopsy, which has many limitations. As such, clinical diagnosis of pancreatitis based on a consistent clinical picture (eg, signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings), supportive laboratory screening diagnostics, pancreatitis-specific laboratory testing, consistent imaging findings, and thorough diagnostic evaluation ruling out alternate differential diagnoses is most often used in clinical patients. Alternate differential diagnoses in patients presenting with clinical findings that might be consistent with pancreatitis may have secondary reactive pancreatitis, which mimics primary pancreatitis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Pancreatitis , Gatos , Perros , Animales , Pancreatitis/diagnóstico , Pancreatitis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Aguda , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/veterinaria
9.
Acta Trop ; 237: 106729, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36280206

RESUMEN

We examined the anti-acanthamoebic efficacy of green tea Camellia sinensis solvent extract (SE) or its chemical constituents against Acanthamoeba castellanii by using anti-trophozoite, anti-encystation, and anti-excystation assays. C. sinensis SE (625-5000 µg/mL) inhibited trophozoite replication within 24-72 h. C. sinensis SE exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of encystation, with a marked cysticidal activity at 2500-5000 µg/mL. Two constituents of C. sinensis, namely epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine, at 100 µM and 200 µM respectively, significantly inhibited both trophozoite replication and encystation. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that 156.25-2500 µg/mL of SE was not toxic to human corneal epithelial cells, while up to 625 µg/mL was not toxic to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This study shows the anti-acanthamoebic potential of C. sinensis SE against A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts. Pre-clinical studies are required to elucidate the in vivo efficacy and safety of C. sinensis SE.


Asunto(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Camellia sinensis , Animales , Perros , Humanos , Cafeína/farmacología , Solventes/farmacología , Trofozoítos
10.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 49(1): 203-211, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36266141

RESUMEN

The current gold standard for the clinical diagnosis of portal hypertension (PH) is an invasive and indirect estimation of portal vein pressure (PVP). Therefore, the need for a non-invasive PVP measurement method is urgent. Subharmonic scattering of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) microbubbles is under investigation in clinical research as a pressure indicator. However, the driving acoustic pressure must be optimized to improve the ambient pressure sensitivity of the subharmonic amplitude for different UCAs. In this study, for the first time, we obtained the relationship between the PVP and the amplitude of the subharmonic signal scattered from SonoVue microbubbles by using two canines to build the PH model. The results revealed a desirable linear correlation between the subharmonic amplitude and PVP (<20 mmHg) at the incident acoustic pressure of 453 kPa (r = -0.910, p < 0.005; sensitivity: -2.003 dB/mmHg); this was one order of magnitude higher in sensitivity than that of the in vitro case with a detectable pressure variation of approximately 1 mmHg. This indicates the feasibility of using UCA microbubbles to accurately measure low ambient pressures in vivo and further exhibits the potential of the method for non-invasive pressure estimation in clinical applications.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Portal , Microburbujas , Perros , Animales , Vena Porta/diagnóstico por imagen , Hexafluoruro de Azufre , Fosfolípidos , Medios de Contraste , Ultrasonografía/métodos
11.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104735, 2023 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174949

RESUMEN

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by Babesia canis, with acute kidney injury as one of the common complications. In the study 8 healthy control dogs and 22 dogs with naturally occurring babesiosis were enrolled, with the aim to analyse differences in serum and urinary proteomes between healthy dogs and dogs with different degree of renal dysfunction in babesiosis using a label-based high-throughput quantitative proteomic approach. In serum, 58 proteins were found differentially abundant between healthy controls and groups of dogs with different degrees of renal dysfunction in babesiosis, while in urine there were 259 differentially abundant proteins. In addition, altered biological pathways were detected in the diseased dogs using bioinformatics tools and validation of several candidate biomarkers was performed. SIGNIFICANCE: The main aim of this comprehensive study was to perform analyses of serum and urinary proteomes of dogs with renal dysfunction in babesiosis compared to healthy dogs using, for the first time, a high-throughput proteomic method and functional enrichment analyses. Serum and urine samples of the same dogs were investigated in order to gain a more complete picture of pathologic changes taking place in renal dysfunction in babesiosis. We highlighted two putative biomarkers validated herein which could be of importance for early diagnosis of renal dysfunction in canine babesiosis, as they are easily accessible from urine and their concentration rises before the appearance of azotaemia: urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP).


Asunto(s)
Babesiosis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Enfermedades Renales , Perros , Animales , Babesiosis/complicaciones , Babesiosis/diagnóstico , Proteómica , Proteoma , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Enfermedades Renales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Renales/orina , Enfermedades Renales/veterinaria
12.
Parasitol Int ; 92: 102683, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162804

RESUMEN

We report two cases of ectopic dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis in the subconjunctival and subcutaneous tissues of dogs. In Case 1, a 10-year-old female poodle suffered from a subconjunctival mass in the left eye that was refractory to antibiotic and steroid treatments. The mass was removed surgically, and a whitish nematode was identified within the mass. In Case 2, a stray 3-year-old male greyhound was rescued and transferred to a local veterinary hospital. During care, two nematodes were observed on the left hind paw and leg. The observed worms were not typical of D. immitis; therefore, the species was confirmed using molecular methods. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high genetic identity with other previously reported D. immitis strain. Subcutaneous and subconjunctival dirofilariasis have been mainly caused by D. repens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of subconjunctival ectopic dirofilariasis by D. immitis in a dog, and the first report of subcutaneous localization in Korea. Therefore, in endemic regions, ectopic dirofilariasis caused by D. immitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in subconjunctival and subcutaneous masses.


Asunto(s)
Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Dirofilariasis , Enfermedades de los Perros , Masculino , Femenino , Perros , Animales , Dirofilaria immitis/genética , Dirofilariasis/diagnóstico , Dirofilariasis/epidemiología , Tejido Subcutáneo , Filogenia , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Dirofilaria repens/genética
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

RESUMEN

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Tripanosomiasis/diagnóstico , Tripanosomiasis/veterinaria , Tripanosomiasis/epidemiología , Ciervos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Océano Índico , Caballos
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245867, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285615

RESUMEN

Abstract Feral dogs are well-organized hunters of ungulates in many parts of the world, causing great damage to wildlife populations and ultimately to the ecosystem. In Pakistan, the impacts of feral dogs on the wildlife have not been documented yet. In a period of fifteen years (2006-2020), feral dogs have killed hundreds of threatened markhor in Chitral gol national park (CGNP), Pakistan. Despite direct predation other impacts including disturbance and competition with other natural predators, could compromise conservation and management efforts. The population of feral dogs seems to have been increased with the increase of dumping sites by communities. Our findings suggest that there are pressing needs of controlling the feral dogs population and eradicating them from the core zone of CGNP and surrounding buffer communities. Conventional culling of dogs should be coupled with modern techniques like castration and sterilization. Communities should be educated regarding the clean environment, proper disposal of home wastes and, biodiversity conservation.


Resumo Os cães ferozes são caçadores bem organizados de ungulados em muitas partes do mundo, causando grandes danos à população de animais selvagens e, em última instância, ao ecossistema. No Paquistão, os impactos dos cães selvagens na vida selvagem ainda não foram documentados. Em um período de 15 anos (2006-2020), cães selvagens mataram centenas de markhor ameaçados no parque nacional Chitral gol (CGNP), Paquistão. Apesar da predação direta, outros impactos, incluindo distúrbios e competições com outros predadores naturais podem comprometer os esforços de conservação e manejo. A população de cães selvagens parece ter aumentado com o aumento dos locais de despejo pelas comunidades. Nossas descobertas sugerem que há necessidades urgentes para controlar a população de cães selvagens e erradicá-los da zona central do CGNP e das comunidades-tampão vizinhas. O abate convencional de cães deve ser combinado com técnicas modernas como castração e esterilização. As comunidades devem ser educadas sobre o meio ambiente limpo, o descarte adequado de resíduos domésticos e a conservação da biodiversidade.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Perros , Ecosistema , Parques Recreativos , Pakistán , Cabras , Animales Salvajes
15.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 26(1): 257-280, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402485

RESUMEN

Over the past years, the concept of pain management in veterinary medicine has evolved and led to the establishment of a new concept of multimodal approach to pain management, as the current standard of care. The use of multimodal analgesia combining pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic techniques not only helps optimize the quality and efficacy of analgesia but also may prevent the development of chronic or persistent pain. During the past decade, acupuncture has become more popular and evolved into one of the most used forms of integrative medicine interventions and nonpharmacologic therapeutic options for pain management in humans and animals in North America and Europe. There is ample evidence from basic and clinical research for acupuncture is effective in the treatment of acute and chronic pain by influencing neural networks of the nervous system. While in the modern days' veterinary acupuncture has been predominantly used in horses and dogs, its popularity in zoologic companion animals (ZCA) has increased in recent years as an adjunct therapy for treating musculoskeletal, neurologic, and gastrointestinal disorders due to its minimal invasiveness and low risk of adverse events. The integrative use of acupuncture has become even more important with the increasingly limited use of opiates in veterinary medicine due to the opiate crisis. The purpose of this article aims to provide guidance for using acupuncture for pain management in ZCA in clinical practice, based on available information and recommendations from experienced veterinary acupuncturists.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Analgesia , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Caballos , Mascotas , Terapia por Acupuntura/veterinaria , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Analgesia/veterinaria , Dolor/prevención & control , Dolor/veterinaria
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2587: 107-124, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401026

RESUMEN

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the mutations in the DMD gene resulting in no dystrophin production. Skipping DMD exons using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) is an emerging treatment strategy that can restore the reading frame of the mutated gene and produce truncated but functional dystrophin protein. To date, four PMOs, including eteplirsen, casimersen, viltolarsen, and golodirsen, have been conditionally approved by the FDA for the treatment of DMD. Since degeneration of muscle fibers and irreversible fibrosis occur from childhood, the earlier treatment is preferred. The canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan (CXMDj), a dog model of DMD, produces no dystrophin and exhibits a severe phenotype similar to human patients from early childhood. As such, CXMDj, which harbors a splice site mutation in intron 6, is a useful model for examining the long-term effects of early PMO treatment. In this chapter, we describe the systemic delivery of a cocktail of four PMOs that can successfully induce multiple exon skipping (exons 6-9) in neonatal dystrophic dogs. We also describe the procedures to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity, including clinical grading of dystrophic dogs, ELISA-based quantification of PMOs, histology, RT-PCR, and western blotting.


Asunto(s)
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Humanos , Preescolar , Perros , Animales , Exones/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patología , Oligonucleótidos Antisentido/genética , Sistemas de Lectura
17.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2587: 67-103, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401025

RESUMEN

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Patients gradually lose motor function, become wheelchair-bound, and die from respiratory and/or cardiac muscle failure. Dystrophin-null dogs have been used as a large animal model for DMD since 1988 and are considered an excellent bridge between rodent models and human patients. While numerous protocols have been published for studying muscle and heart physiology in mice, few such protocols exist for studying skeletal muscle contractility, heart function, and whole-body activity in dogs. Over the last 20 years, we have developed and adapted an array of assays to evaluate whole-body movement, gait, single muscle force, whole limb torque, cardiac electrophysiology, and hemodynamic function in normal and dystrophic dogs. In this chapter, we present detailed working protocols for these assays and lessons we learned during the development and use of these protocols.


Asunto(s)
Distrofina , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Ratones , Corazón , Músculo Esquelético , Miocardio
18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2587: 31-41, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401022

RESUMEN

Viltolarsen is a phosphorodiamidate morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (PMO) designed to skip exon 53 of the DMD gene for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), one of the most common lethal genetic disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles and cardiomyopathy. It was developed by Nippon Shinyaku in collaboration with the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP) in Japan based on the preclinical studies conducted in the DMD dog model at the NCNP. After showing hopeful results in pre-clinical trials and several clinical trials across North America and Japan, it received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for DMD in 2020. Viltolarsen restores the reading frame of the DMD gene by skipping  exon 53 and produces a truncated but functional form of dystrophin. It can treat approximately 8-10% of the DMD patient population. This paper aims to summarize the development of viltolarsen from preclinical trials to clinical trials to, finally, FDA approval, and discusses the challenges that come with fighting DMD using antisense therapy.


Asunto(s)
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Oligonucleótidos , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Perros , Animales , United States Food and Drug Administration , Oligonucleótidos/uso terapéutico , Morfolinos/genética , Morfolinos/uso terapéutico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/tratamiento farmacológico , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2587: 353-375, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401038

RESUMEN

The immune response is a primary hurdle in the development of gene therapy for neuromuscular diseases. Both innate and adaptive immune responses have been observed in human trials. The canine model is an excellent platform to understand immunological consequences of gene therapy. Over the last several decades, we have conducted gene replacement and gene repair therapies in the canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated expression of the highly abbreviated micro-dystrophin gene, the larger mini-dystrophin gene, and the Cas9-based CRISPR genome editing machinery. We have evaluated the innate, humoral, and cellular immune responses to the AAV vector and the transgene product. In this chapter, we share our experience in collecting and processing of the dog blood samples for immunological assays, and our protocols for quantitative evaluation of cytokines and chemokines, antibodies, and T-cell responses.


Asunto(s)
Distrofina , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Distrofina/genética , Distrofina/metabolismo , Vectores Genéticos/genética , Terapia Genética/métodos , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Inmunidad Humoral
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2587: 377-386, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401039

RESUMEN

Herein, a method to use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to modulate immune response against rAAV transduction in a canine Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) model is presented. The aim is to overcome the immune response against adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid itself as well as against the AAV-derived transgene.AAV is currently the most used viral vector because of its relative safety and high efficiency of gene transfer to nondividing cells. Since DMD is caused by a deficiency of dystrophin protein due to mutation or deletion in the dystrophin gene, dystrophin replacement therapy using AAV vectors carrying dystrophin as a therapeutic gene is an effective treatment as shown by animal experiments and clinical trials. Because DMD is a systemic disease, the amount of AAV vector required to achieve efficacy is impractically large. MSC have been used in combination with organ transplants due to their immunomodulatory effects. By using MSCs and AAVs in combination as described below, we are able to decrease the immune response to AAV capsid and the transgene as well as to reduce the dose of AAV to approximately 1/100 of the dose used in conventional clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Distrofina , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Perros , Animales , Distrofina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Terapia Genética/métodos , Dependovirus/genética , Dependovirus/metabolismo , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas/metabolismo , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...