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1.
Med Gas Res ; 12(1): 18-23, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472498

RESUMEN

Cytoreg is an ionic therapeutic agent comprising a mixture of hydrochloric, sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, oxalic, and citric acids. In diluted form, it has demonstrated efficacy against human cancers in vitro and in vivo. Although Cytoreg is well tolerated in mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs by oral and intravenous administration, its mechanism of action is not documented. The acidic nature of Cytoreg could potentially disrupt the pH and levels of ions and dissolved gases in the blood. Here, we report the effects of the intravenous administration of Cytoreg on the arterial pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide pressures, and bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations. Our results demonstrate that Cytoreg does not disturb the normal blood pH, ion levels, or carbon dioxide content, but increases oxygen levels in rats. These data are consistent with the excellent tolerability of intravenous Cytoreg observed in rabbits, and dogs. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of the Andes, Venezuela (CEBIOULA) (approval No. 125) on November 3, 2019.


Asunto(s)
Equilibrio Ácido-Base , Antineoplásicos , Animales , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Bicarbonatos/farmacología , Perros , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Ratones , Conejos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
2.
Theriogenology ; 177: 103-115, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688970

RESUMEN

The neonatal period in dogs remains associated with high mortality rates. Sepsis is the main cause of neonatal losses during the first three weeks of life. Additionally, failure in the clinical assessment and early diagnosis of sick newborns is still common, leading to inadequate care, which contributes to a high mortality rate. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe the incidence of sepsis in canine newborns, the clinical aspects involved, the main isolated bacterial agents and mortality rates to facilitate clinicians' early recognition of this condition. Of the 152 litters and 762 neonates evaluated, 14.8% (113/762) had sepsis or septic shock, and the mortality rate among affected puppies was 25.6% (29/113). Among the puppies with sepsis that died, early mortality (0-2 days of age) occurred in 69% (20/29) of affected neonates, and late mortality (3-30 days of age) occurred in 31% (9/29) of affected neonates. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) in clinical parameters (heart and respiratory rates, blood glucose, body temperature, peripheral oxygen saturation and reflexes) were noted among healthy neonates and neonates with sepsis and septic shock. The main and most relevant clinical signs were apathy, a reduced sucking reflex, diarrhea, the neonatal triad, failure to gain weight, bradycardia, dyspnea, cyanotic mucous membranes, body erythema, reduced peripheral oxygen saturation, cyanosis and tissue necrosis in the extremities. The mother may have been the main source of infection for 87.6% (99/113) of neonates with sepsis. Most infections were transmitted during pregnancy (68%, 77/113) in cases of neonatal sepsis. The major source of infection for neonates was the uterus, followed by breast milk and maternal oropharyngeal secretions. The most frequently isolated bacterial agent was Escherichia coli, accounting for 25.6% (29/113) of sepsis cases. The morbidity and mortality of neonatal sepsis in dogs is high. The clinical evaluation and diagnosis of sepsis in neonates differ from those in adult animals. Thus, knowledge of the neonatal particularities of sepsis is essential for proper clinical management and greater survival of these patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Sepsis Neonatal , Sepsis , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Escherichia coli , Femenino , Incidencia , Sepsis Neonatal/epidemiología , Sepsis Neonatal/veterinaria , Embarazo , Sepsis/epidemiología , Sepsis/veterinaria
3.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 95-99, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34136960

RESUMEN

Conjunctivitis is a frequent disease of the eye with the typical clinical sign being the "red eye" and comprises a very heterogeneous group with different causes. In general, infectious conjunctivitis must be strictly differentiated from non-infectious conjunctivitis. Allergic conjunctivitis is a subtype of non-infectious conjunctivitis and imposes as an acute, intermittent or chronic, inflammation which is most frequently caused by airborne allergens. The leading clinical sign is chemosis, and patients typically complain about itching. Allergic conjunctivitis is often a reaction to topical and systemic drugs or cosmetics as well as animal hairs from cats and/or dogs. Allergic conjunctivitis is sub-classified into the following forms: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (also termed: hay fever conjunctivitis), atopic conjunctivitis, vernal conjunctivitis, upper limbal (kerato-) conjunctivitis, and conjunctivitis associated with various oculomucocutaneous syndromes. In each form, there are distinctive features in: clinical appearance, generating agent(s), as well as treatment as listed here.


Asunto(s)
Conjuntivitis Alérgica , Animales , Gatos , Conjuntivitis Alérgica/diagnóstico , Conjuntivitis Alérgica/tratamiento farmacológico , Conjuntivitis Alérgica/epidemiología , Perros , Humanos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150041, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500270

RESUMEN

Legacy landmines in post-conflict areas are a non-discriminatory lethal hazard and can still be triggered decades after the conflict has ended. Efforts to detect these explosive devices are expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous to humans and animals involved. While methods such as metal detectors and sniffer dogs have successfully been used in humanitarian demining, more tools are required for both site surveying and accurate mine detection. Honeybees have emerged in recent years as efficient bioaccumulation and biomonitoring animals. The system reported here uses two complementary landmine detection methods: passive sampling and active search. Passive sampling aims to confirm the presence of explosive materials in a mine-suspected area by the analysis of explosive material brought back to the colony on honeybee bodies returning from foraging trips. Analysis is performed by light-emitting chemical sensors detecting explosives thermally desorbed from a preconcentrator strip. The active search is intended to be able to pinpoint the place where individual landmines are most likely to be present. Used together, both methods are anticipated to be useful in an end-to-end process for area surveying, suspected hazardous area reduction, and post-clearing internal and external quality control in humanitarian demining.


Asunto(s)
Sustancias Explosivas , Animales , Abejas , Bioacumulación , Monitoreo Biológico , Perros , Manejo de Especímenes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Theriogenology ; 177: 133-139, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34700070

RESUMEN

This study aimed to compare the activity of selected glycosidases (ß-galactosidase, α-l-fucosidase, ß-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase, and sialidase) in homogenates of uterine tissues obtained from female dogs with and without pyometra. In addition, it examined the availability of substrates for these glycosidases in the homogenates. The study was carried out on female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy for pyometra (n = 10) and clinically healthy dogs (n = 10) undergoing elective spaying. The activity of ß-galactosidase, α-l-fucosidase, and ß-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase was analyzed using a spectrofluorometer and that of sialidase using a colorimetric method. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Alcian Blue (AB) and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining was performed to determine the presence of substrates for these glycosidases in the homogenates of uterine tissues. The results revealed that the activity of all the examined glycosidases was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the uterine tissues isolated from dogs with pyometra in comparison to healthy dogs. The electrophoretic patterns of the selected samples showed several proteins, which contained different sugar moieties stained by AB and PAS and the profiles differed significantly between the pyometra group and the healthy group. Densitometric analysis of AB staining showed patterns between 233 and 148, 86 and 55, and 43 and 20 kDa, which differed markedly in sugar content between the examined groups of animals. Similarly, PAS staining analysis revealed patterns of different molecular weights, between 233 and 117 and between 55 and 32 kDa, which also differed in sugar content. These findings suggest that canine pyometra is accompanied by the increase in the activity of selected glycosidases in the uterus. This could potentially modify the glycan structures of uterine glycoproteins and in result their biological functions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential role of the increased activity of glycosidases in the pathogenesis of this disease.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Piómetra , Animales , Diestro , Perros , Femenino , Glicoproteínas , Neuraminidasa , Piómetra/veterinaria , alfa-L-Fucosidasa , beta-Galactosidasa , beta-N-Acetilhexosaminidasas
6.
Parasitol Int ; 86: 102477, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619383

RESUMEN

Babesia gibsoni, the causative agent of canine piroplasmosis, is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite predominantly reported in Asian countries. The present study aimed at genotypic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates prevalent in dogs in Kerala, a southern state of India. Blood samples were collected from 272 dogs in Kerala and B. gibsoni infection was detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular confirmation of B. gibsoni parasites was carried out by 18S rRNA nested-PCR, followed by sequencing. Nested-PCR detected a higher percentage of dogs (40.44%) positive for B. gibsoni infection than microscopy where 15.81% dogs were detected positive for infection. Genetic characterization of B. gibsoni isolates (n = 11) prevalent in dogs in the state of Kerala was carried out by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 855 bp thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP) gene fragment. Phylogenetic analysis of the B. gibsoni TRAP (BgTRAP) gene revealed that B. gibsoni isolates from Kerala formed a distinct cluster with the isolates from north India and Bangladesh, away from other East Asian isolates. Nucleotide analysis of the tandem repeats of BgTRAP gene showed considerable genetic variation among Indian isolates that was shared by B. gibsoni isolates of Bangladesh but not by the isolates of East Asian countries. The results of the present study further confirmed that B. gibsoni parasites in a distinct genetic clade are endemic in dogs in India and Bangladesh. However, elaborate studies are required for better understanding of the genetic diversity of B. gibsoni.


Asunto(s)
Babesia/aislamiento & purificación , Babesiosis/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Variación Genética , Filogenia , Animales , Babesia/genética , Babesiosis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Perros , India/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Proteínas Protozoarias/análisis , Trombospondinas/análisis
7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(6): 3524-3530, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739803

RESUMEN

A highly sensitive novel amperometric genosensor has been developed for rapid detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) DNA in fecal swabs of naturally infected dogs. The genosensor is based on a single stranded 5°-thiolated (SH) DNA probe complementary to VP1/VP2 gene of canine parvo vaccine strain, immobilized covalently on a polycrystalline gold (Au) electrode. The genosensor has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). The ssDNA-SH/Au electrode was hybridized with single stranded target DNA (ss T-DNA) in the sample. This hybridization was detected by reduction in current, generated by interaction of methylene blue (MB) with free guanine of ssDNA. The current response of genosensor was determined by CV, DPV and EIS. The sensor detected single stranded genomic DNA (ss g-DNA) isolated from vaccine strain of CPV in the range, 1.0-12.0 ng/µl at 25 °C for 10 min. Subsequently, the genobiosensor was applied for detection of CPV viral DNA in fecal swabs of naturally infected dogs. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.0 ng/µl of fecal viral DNA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on development and application of amperometric biosensor for rapid, sensitive, specific point of care detection of viral DNA of CPV in feces.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Parvovirus Canino , Animales , ADN Viral , Perros , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Heces , Oro , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Parvovirus Canino/genética
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757668, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790645

RESUMEN

Background: Robust dog vaccination coverage is the primary way to eliminate canine rabies. Haiti conducts annual canine mass vaccination campaigns, but still has the most human deaths in the Latin American and Caribbean region. We conducted an evaluation of dog vaccination methods in Haiti to determine if more intensive, data-driven vaccination methods, using smartphones for data reporting and geo-communication, could increase vaccination coverage to a level capable of disrupting rabies virus transmission. Methods: Two cities were designated into "Traditional" and "Technology-aided" vaccination areas. Traditional areas utilized historical methods of vaccination staff management, whereas Technology-aided areas used smartphone-supported spatial coordination and management of vaccination teams. Smartphones enabled real time two-way geo-communication between campaign managers and vaccinators. Campaign managers provided geographic instruction to vaccinators by assigning mapped daily vaccination boundaries displayed on phone handsets, whilst vaccinators uploaded spatial data of dogs vaccinated for review by the campaign manager to inform assignment of subsequent vaccination zones. The methods were evaluated for vaccination effort, coverage, and cost. Results: A total of 11,420 dogs were vaccinated during the 14-day campaign. The technology-aided approach achieved 80% estimated vaccination coverage as compared to 44% in traditional areas. Daily vaccination rate was higher in Traditional areas (41.7 vaccinations per team-day) compared to in technology-aided areas (26.8) but resulted in significantly lower vaccination coverages. The cost per dog vaccinated increased exponentially with the associated vaccination coverage, with a cost of $1.86 to achieve 25%, $2.51 for 50% coverage, and $3.19 for 70% coverage. Conclusions: Traditional vaccination methods failed to achieve sufficiently high vaccination coverages needed to interrupt sustained rabies virus transmission, whilst the technology-aided approach increased coverage above this critical threshold. Over successive campaigns, this difference is likely to represent the success or failure of the intervention in eliminating the rabies virus. Technology-aided vaccination should be considered in resource limited settings where rabies has not been controlled by Traditional vaccination methods. The use of technology to direct health care workers based on near-real-time spatial data from the field has myriad potential applications in other vaccination and public health initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Virus de la Rabia , Rabia , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/prevención & control , Perros , Humanos , Vacunación Masiva , Rabia/prevención & control , Tecnología
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1163-1170, 2021 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727086

RESUMEN

CASE DESCRIPTION: During the same week, 3 sequential patients (a 10-year-old 8.7-kg spayed female poodle cross [dog 1], 13-year-old 2.6-kg spayed female domestic longhair cat, and 13-year-old 9.0-kg castrated male mixed-breed dog [dog 2]) underwent CT-angiography (day 0) and transarterial embolization (day 1) for nonresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 2) or prostatic carcinoma (1). CLINICAL FINDINGS: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was suspected in all animals on the basis of higher serum creatinine concentrations after contrast medium administration (exposure), compared with baseline concentrations before exposure, consistent with CIN definitions. The total dose of contrast medium was < 3 mL/kg for each exposure. For all 3 patients, creatinine concentration peaked at a median of 3 days (range, 2 to 3 days) after the first exposure (day 0), and the median absolute and relative increases in creatinine concentration after exposure (vs baseline concentrations before exposure) were 2.9 mg/dL (range, 2.2 to 3.7 mg/dL) and 410% (range, 260 to 720%), respectively. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: The patients received individually tailored supportive care for acute kidney injury. Serum creatinine concentrations began to improve at a median of 4 days (range, 3 to 4 days) and returned to within reference limits at a median of 7 days (range, 3 to 13 days) following initial exposure. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: CIN should be considered as a potential complication following IV administration of contrast medium. Short-term outcome following CIN can be excellent with supportive care.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Enfermedades Renales , Neoplasias , Lesión Renal Aguda/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de los Gatos/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Gatos/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de los Gatos/terapia , Gatos , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada/veterinaria , Medios de Contraste/efectos adversos , Angiografía Coronaria , Creatinina , Enfermedades de los Perros/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Perros , Femenino , Enfermedades Renales/veterinaria , Masculino , Neoplasias/veterinaria , Factores de Riesgo , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
10.
J Biotechnol ; 342: 79-91, 2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751134

RESUMEN

GR15 is a short molecule or peptide composed of aliphatic amino acids and possesses to have antioxidant properties. The GR15, 1GGGAFSGKDPTKVDR15 was identified from the protein S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAMe) expressed during the sulfur departed state of Arthrospira platensis (spirulina or cyanobacteria). The in-silico assessment and the structural features of GR15 showed its antioxidant potency. Real-time PCR analysis found the up-regulation of ApSAMe expression on day 15 against oxidative stress due to 10 mM H2O2 treatment in A. platensis (Ap). The antioxidant activity of GR15 was accessed by the cell-free antioxidant assays such as ABTS, SARS, HRAS and NO; the results showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The toxicity assay was performed in both in vitro and in vivo models, in which peptide does not exhibit any toxicity in MDCK cell and zebrafish embryos. The intercellular ROS reduction potential of GR15 peptide was also investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models including LDH assay, antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), and fluorescent staining assay (DCFDA, Hochest and Acridine orange sting) was performed; the results showed that the GR15 peptide was effectively reduced the ROS level. Further, RT-PCR demonstrated that GR15 enhanced the antioxidant property and also up-regulated the antioxidant gene, thus reduced the ROS level in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on the results obtained from this study, we propose that GR15 has the potential antioxidant ability; hence further research can be directed towards the therapeutic product or drug development against disease caused by oxidative stress.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Spirulina , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Perros , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/toxicidad , Larva/metabolismo , Células de Riñón Canino Madin Darby , Estrés Oxidativo , Péptidos/metabolismo , S-Adenosilmetionina , Spirulina/metabolismo , Pez Cebra/metabolismo
11.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(6): 567-e154, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796560

RESUMEN

The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis, serves a crucial role in maintaining body hydration and protection from environmental insults. When the stratum corneum is injured or when the genetic blueprints are flawed, the body is at risk of dehydration, secondary infections and allergen sensitization. Advancements in veterinary dermatology have revealed a wide gamut of disease from relatively benign to lethal that specifically arise from flawed structural proteins, enzymes or lipids needed to create the corneocytes and lipid bilayers of the SC. Some conditions closely mimic their human counterparts while others are unique to the dog. This review will focus on forms of ichthyosis in the dog.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Ictiosis , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Enfermedades de los Perros/genética , Perros , Células Epidérmicas , Epidermis , Ictiosis/genética , Ictiosis/veterinaria , Piel
12.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(6): 654-663, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796561

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is the main aetiological agent of canine pyoderma. Whole genome sequencing is the most comprehensive way of obtaining relevant genomic information about micro-organisms. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Oxford Nanopore technology enables quality sequencing and de novo assembly of the whole genome of S. pseudintermedius. Whole genome analysis of S. pseudintermedius may help to better understand the pathogenesis of canine pyodermas. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-two strains of S. pseudintermedius isolated from the skin of five healthy dogs and 33 strains isolated from skin of 33 dogs with pyoderma were analysed. DNA was extracted and sequenced using Oxford Nanopore MinION, a new technology that delivers longer reads in a hand-held device. The pangenome was analysed and visualised with Anvi'o 6.1. RESULTS: Nanopore technology allowed the sequencing and de novo assembly of the genomes of 55 S. pseudintermedius strains isolated from healthy dogs and from dogs with pyoderma. The average genome size of S. pseudintermedius was 2.62 Mbp, with 48% being core genome. Pyoderma isolates contained a higher number of antimicrobial resistance genes, yet the total number of virulence factors genes did not change between isolates from healthy dogs and from dogs with pyoderma. Genomes of meticillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) strains were larger than those of meticillin-susceptible (MSSP) strains (2.80 Mbp versus 2.59 Mbp), as a consequence of a greater presence of antimicrobial resistance genes, phages and prophages. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This technique allows much more precise and easier characterisation of canine S. pseudintermedius populations and may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of canine pyodermas.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Piodermia , Animales , Perros , Piodermia/veterinaria , Staphylococcus/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma/veterinaria
13.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(6): 664-e174, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796563

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Topical treatments can be beneficial for managing canine superficial pyoderma. A novel antiseptic agent, olanexidine gluconate, has become available recently for use in humans, and its efficacy for canine pyoderma as topical therapy is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The antimicrobial effect of olanexidine was evaluated using minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) towards Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Furthermore, its clinical efficacy in canine superficial pyoderma was assessed in a randomized, single-blinded study. ANIMALS: Twenty-eight client-owned dogs with atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The MIC of olanexidine was determined for S. pseudintermedius isolates (n=73) by serial dilution of 96-well broth microdilution method. Regarding the clinical trial, all recruited dogs were randomized into two groups; one treated with 1.5% olanexidine spray once daily and the other with a 3% chlorhexidine shampoo once a week for 2 times, respectively. Clinical assessment was performed at days 0 and 14 according to the guidelines of the Japanese Society of Antimicrobials for Animals. RESULTS: The MIC values for methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and methicillin-sensitive S. pseudintermedius (MSSP) were 0.23 µg/ml and 0.24 µg/ml (P =0.9), respectively. In clinical trial, olanexidine and chlorhexidine showed substantial improvement in clinical presentation compared to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Olanexidine showed comparable efficacy to chlorhexidine (P=0.73). Moreover, the MIC against S. pseudintermedius indicated high bactericidal activity, which was supported by the topical effectiveness of olanexidine.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Piodermia , Animales , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Biguanidas , Enfermedades de los Perros/tratamiento farmacológico , Perros , Glucuronatos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana/veterinaria , Piodermia/tratamiento farmacológico , Piodermia/veterinaria , Staphylococcus
14.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(6): 631-e169, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796564

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To optimise the interleukin (IL)-31-blocking therapy in atopic dermatitis (AD), an understanding of the chronology in the expression of IL-31 and its receptor (IL-31RA) is needed. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: (i) To assess the chronological expression of IL-31 in canine AD skin lesions, (ii) to compare it with serum IL-31 levels and macroscopic skin lesion scores, and (iii) to determine the identity of IL-31- and IL-31RA-positive cells. ANIMALS: Four atopic dogs sensitised to house dust mites. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Skin and blood samples were obtained 0 h, 24 h, 48 and 96 h after allergen provocation. IL-31 and IL-31RA single-staining immunofluorescence (IF), as well as IL-31/CD3, IL-31/CD4 and IL-31RA/ß3-tubulin double-staining IF were performed. The IL-31-positive cells were counted subjectively. RESULTS: The peak IL-31 expression for three of four dogs occurred 24 h or 48 h postchallenge; it started to decrease at 96 h. There was no significant correlation between the IL-31 expression scores and the serum IL-31 concentrations or the macroscopic skin lesion scores (P = 0.35 and P = 0.36, respectively). The majority of IL-31-positive cells were positive for CD3 (range 91-100%) and CD4 (range 63-100%), indicating that they were helper T (Th) cells. Unexpectedly, sebaceous glands were strongly immunolabelled with IL-31; the extinction of this positivity after immunoabsorption with IL-31 further supported the validity of this immunostaining. The IL-31RA was visualised on keratinocytes and a small proportion of dermal nerves. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The early and transient production of IL-31 by Th cells supports the concept of using IL-31 inhibiting strategies as a proactive therapy to prevent flares of AD skin lesions.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Enfermedades de los Perros , Animales , Dermatitis Atópica/veterinaria , Perros , Interleucinas , Queratinocitos , Piel
15.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(6): 605-e161, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796565

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In human medicine, narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy has been used to treat various T-cell-mediated skin diseases. However, the effect of NB-UVB on inflamed canine skin remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of NB-UVB phototherapy on the skin of dogs with hapten-induced contact dermatitis. ANIMALS: Seven healthy beagles without skin problems. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dogs were irradiated with varying doses of NB-UVB to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED). After determining the MEDs of six dogs (excluding one of the seven whose skin did not show a visible reaction), we investigated the effect of NB-UVB on their inflamed skin by topically applying 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), which causes type 1 helper T cell (Th1)- and cytotoxic T-cell (Tc)1-induced skin inflammation. We then irradiated the skin with NB-UVB. We analysed the treated skin samples via histopathological and immunohistochemical methods, and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) to demonstrate apoptotic cells. We also analysed the cytokine gene transcription via real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS: The NB-UVB MEDs caused mild inflammatory changes yet no severe epidermal exfoliations in the irradiated skin. In DNCB-treated skin irradiated by the NB-UVB MEDs, TUNEL-positive dermal apoptotic cells were increased significantly compared with those of DNCB-treated, nonirradiated skin. INF-γ and TNF-α transcription levels in DNCB-treated, irradiated skin were significantly lower than those in the DNCB-treated, nonirradiated skin. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Phototherapy using NB-UVB MEDs attenuated cutaneous Th1 and Tc1 cytokine responses with minimal skin damage in a canine model of hapten-induced contact dermatitis.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis por Contacto , Enfermedades de los Perros , Terapia Ultravioleta , Animales , Dermatitis por Contacto/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/radioterapia , Perros , Haptenos , Piel , Linfocitos T , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Terapia Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Terapia Ultravioleta/veterinaria
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 647903, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746070

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study is to apply the canine olfactory sensitivity to detect COVID-19-positive axillary sweat samples as a One Health approach in Latin America. One hundred volunteers with COVID-like symptoms were invited to participate, and both axillary sweat samples for dog detection and nasopharynx/oropharynx swabs for qPCR were collected. Two dogs, previously trained, detected 97.4% of the samples positive for COVID-19, including a false-negative qPCR-test, and the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 98.2%. Therefore, we can conclude that canine olfactory sensitivity can detect a person infected with COVID-19 through axillary sweat successfully and could be used as an alternative to screen them without invasive testing.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Única , Animales , Perros , Humanos , ARN Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
17.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764092

RESUMEN

We present a case of a 51-year-old immunosuppressed man with underlying chronic lymphoproliferative leukaemia (CLL), who presented to us in emergency with breathlessness, hydrophobia, anxiety and restlessness. He had a history of category 3 dog bite 2 months ago and had received a full course of rabies immunoglobulin and antirabies vaccine (ARV) as per the national schedule. As there were frank clinical reports of rabies, the patient was managed according to Milwaukee regimen. The patients died within a week of the appearance of symptoms. The brain autopsy revealed Negri bodies conforming the mortality due to rabies.Immunosuppressed patients, like our patient who had CLL have low antibody formation after rabies prophylaxis. Antibody titres in immunosuppressed patients need to be measured after the 2-4 weeks of the last injection of ARV to decide whether a booster of ARV needs to be administered or not.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras , Vacunas Antirrábicas , Rabia , Animales , Formación de Anticuerpos , Mordeduras y Picaduras/complicaciones , Perros , Humanos , Masculino , Profilaxis Posexposición , Rabia/prevención & control
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770654

RESUMEN

Technological breakthroughs in recent years have led to a revolution in fields such as Machine Vision and Search and Rescue Robotics (SAR), thanks to the application and development of new and improved neural networks to vision models together with modern optical sensors that incorporate thermal cameras, capable of capturing data in post-disaster environments (PDE) with rustic conditions (low luminosity, suspended particles, obstructive materials). Due to the high risk posed by PDE because of the potential collapse of structures, electrical hazards, gas leakage, etc., primary intervention tasks such as victim identification are carried out by robotic teams, provided with specific sensors such as thermal, RGB cameras, and laser. The application of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to computer vision is a breakthrough for detection algorithms. Conventional methods for victim identification in these environments use RGB image processing or trained dogs, but detection with RGB images is inefficient in the absence of light or presence of debris; on the other hand, developments with thermal images are limited to the field of surveillance. This paper's main contribution focuses on implementing a novel automatic method based on thermal image processing and CNN for victim identification in PDE, using a Robotic System that uses a quadruped robot for data capture and transmission to the central station. The robot's automatic data processing and control have been carried out through Robot Operating System (ROS). Several tests have been carried out in different environments to validate the proposed method, recreating PDE with varying conditions of light, from which the datasets have been generated for the training of three neural network models (Fast R-CNN, SSD, and YOLO). The method's efficiency has been tested against another method based on CNN and RGB images for the same task showing greater effectiveness in PDE main results show that the proposed method has an efficiency greater than 90%.


Asunto(s)
Trabajo de Rescate , Robótica , Algoritmos , Animales , Perros , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Redes Neurales de la Computación
19.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(10): 1154-1162, 2021 11 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs. ANIMALS: 20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017. PROCEDURES: In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared. RESULTS: Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma , Enfermedades de los Perros , Embolización Terapéutica , Hiperplasia Prostática , Animales , Arterias , Carcinoma/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de los Perros/terapia , Perros , Embolización Terapéutica/veterinaria , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinaria , Resultado del Tratamiento
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