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1.
J. Health NPEPS ; 6(1)jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147344

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a letalidade da COVID-19 por sexo e idade entre os profissionais de saúde do Estado Pará, Brasil. Método: estudo epidemiológico e observacional, com utilização de dados secundários públicos sobre casos e óbitos acumulados por COVID-19 e dados demográficos, entre março e outubro de 2020. O número de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 ocorridos entre profissionais de saúde foram comparados em relação à idade e ao sexo pelo teste qui-quadrado, seguido por regressão logística pelo método Backward Stepwise de Wald. Resultados: entre os 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, 70,3% eram do sexo feminino e 61,3% com idade entre 30 a 49 anos (39,2±11,6 anos). Registraram-se 97 óbitos, com uma taxa de letalidade de 0,6%. A probabilidade de óbito foi 52,8 vezes (20,7-134,5) e 4,0 vezes (2,5-6,2) maior entre jovens e homens quando comparados às demais notificações. Conclusão: a taxa de letalidade entre os profissionais de saúde é alta, especialmente entre homens jovens. Este é um alerta sobre os impactos da doença entre os trabalhadores da saúde e suscita ao poder público, especificamente ao setor saúde melhores condições de trabalho e políticas de saúde do trabalhador.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the lethality of COVID-19 by sex and age among health professionals in the state of Pará, Brazil. Method: epidemiological and observational study, using public secondary data on cases and deaths accumulated by COVID-19 and demographic data, between March and October 2020. The number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 that occurred among health professionals were compared in relation to age and sex using the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression using Wald's Backward Stepwise method. Results: among the 15,332 confirmed cases of COVID-19, 70.3% were female and 61.3% aged between 30 and 49 years (39.2 ± 11.6 years). 97 deaths were recorded, with a fatality rate of 0.6%. The probability of death was 52.8 times (20.7-134.5) and 4.0 times (2.5-6.2) higher among young men and men when compared to other reports. Conclusion: the lethality rate among health professionals is high, especially among young men. This is an alert about the impacts of the disease among health workers and raises the public authorities, specifically the health sector, better working conditions and worker health policies.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la letalidad de COVID-19 por sexo y edad en profesionales de la salud en el estado de Pará, Brasil. Método: estudio epidemiológico y observacional, utilizando datos secundarios públicos sobre casos y defunciones acumulados por COVID-19 y datos demográficos, entre marzo y octubre de 2020. Se comparó el número de casos y defunciones por COVID-19 ocurridos entre profesionales de la salud en relación con edad y sexo usando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, seguida de regresión logística usando el método de Wald Backward Stepwise. Resultados: entre los 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, el 70,3% eran mujeres y el 61,3% tenían entre 30 y 49 años (39,2 ± 11,6 años). Se registraron 97 muertes, con una tasa de letalidad del 0,6%. La probabilidad de muerte fue 52,8 veces (20,7-134,5) y 4,0 veces (2,5-6,2) más grande entre hombres y jóvenes en comparación con otros informes. Conclusión: la tasa de letalidad entre los profesionales de la salud es alta, especialmente entre los hombres jóvenes. Se trata de una alerta sobre los impactos de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores de la salud y plantea a las autoridades públicas, específicamente al sector salud, mejores condiciones laborales y políticas de salud laboral.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Laboral , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Política de Salud , Brasil , Estudios Epidemiológicos
2.
Med Care ; 59(5): 456-460, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Telehealth services historically have played a small role in the provision of health care in the United States. However during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, public and private insurers rapidly expanded access to telehealth in order to reduce exposure and avoid transmission. It is unknown whether telehealth will become a more regular substitute for in-person care beyond the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to provide evidence on the value of telehealth by comparing the productivity of physicians and other specialized clinicians who provide telehealth with the productivity of those who do not. RESEARCH DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective data analysis of 17,705 unique providers in the areas of internal medicine, cardiology, dermatology, psychiatry, psychology, and optometry practicing in the US veterans affairs health care system during the period 2015 to 2018. For each year, we measured individual providers productivity by the total number of relative value units (RVUs) per full-time equivalent (FTE). We estimated the impact of providing telehealth on RVUs/FTE using fixed effects regression models estimated on a panel dataset of 58,873 provider-year observations and controlling for provider and patient characteristics. RESULTS: Overall provider productivity increased in veterans affairs over the period, particularly in cardiology and dermatology. Providers of telehealth had above average productivity by 124 RVUs/FTE, or ∼4% of average total provider productivity. For the highest quartile of telehealth providers, average productivity was 188 RVUs/FTE higher than productivity of other providers. CONCLUSION: Strategies that encourage long-term integration of telehealth into provider practices may contribute to overall health care value.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Escalas de Valor Relativo , Telemedicina , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
3.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248741, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793579

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To characterize psychological distress and factors associated with distress in healthcare practitioners working during a stringent lockdown in a country (Jordan) that had exhibited one of the lowest incidence rates of Covid-19 globally at the time of the survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey sent to healthcare practitioners working in various hospitals and community pharmacies. Demographic, professional and psychological characteristics (distress using Kessler-6 questionnaire, anxiety, depression, burnout, sleep issues, exhaustion) were measured as were sources of fear. Descriptive and multivariable statistics were performed using level of distress as the outcome. RESULTS: We surveyed 937 practitioners (56.1% females). Approximately 68%, 14%, and 18% were nurses/technicians, physicians, and pharmacists (respectively). 32% suffered from high distress while 20% suffered from severe distress. Exhaustion, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances were reported (in past seven days) by approximately 34%, 34%, 19%, and 29% of subjects (respectively). Being older or male, a positive perception of communications with peers, and being satisfied at work, were significantly associated with lower distress. Conversely, suffering burnout; reporting sleep-related functional problems; exhaustion; being a pharmacist (relative to a physician); working in a cancer center; harboring fear about virus spreading; fear that the virus threatened life; fear of alienation from family/friends; and fear of workload increases, were significantly associated with higher distress. CONCLUSION: Despite low caseloads, Jordanian practitioners still experienced high levels of distress. Identified demographic, professional and psychological factors influencing distress should inform interventions to improve medical professionals' resilience and distress likelihood, regardless of the variable Covid-19 situation.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Personal de Salud , Distrés Psicológico , Cuarentena , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , /psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Jordania , Masculino , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249550, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793673

RESUMEN

Data on the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody in healthcare workers (HCWs) is scarce, especially in pediatric settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positivity among HCWs of a tertiary pediatric hospital. In addition, follow-up of the serological response in the subgroup of seropositive HCWs was analysed, to gain some insight on the persistence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. We performed a retrospective analysis of voluntary SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing, which was made available free of charge to HCWs of the Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw (Poland). Plasma samples were collected between July 1 and August 9, 2020, and tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay. Of 2,282 eligible participants, 1,879 (82.3%) HCWs volunteered to undergo testing. Sixteen HCWs tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, corresponding to a seroprevalence of 0.85%. Among seropositive HCWs, three HCWs had confirmed COVID-19. Nine (56.3%) of the seropositive HCWs reported neither symptoms nor unprotected contact with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases in the previous months. A decline in the IgG index was observed at a median time of 86.5 days (range:84‒128 days) after symptom onset or RT-PCR testing. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the duration of persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, as well as the correlation between seropositivity and protective immunity against reinfection. Regardless of the persistence of antibodies and their protective properties, such low prevalence indicates that this population is vulnerable to a second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , /inmunología , Adulto , /inmunología , Femenino , Hospitales Pediátricos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Polonia , Prevalencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 43, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794759

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Occupational contact with blood and body fluids poses a significant risk to healthcare workers. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors affecting needlestick injuries (NSI) in healthcare personnel in Iran. METHODS: In March 2020, researchers studied six international databases such as Medline/PubMed, ProQuest, ISI/WOS, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar for English papers and two Iranian databases (MagIran and SID) for Persian papers. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist was used to assess quality of studies. The method of reporting was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were included in the analysis. Results showed that females (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.58, P value = 0.009), younger age (OR = 2.75, 95 % CI 2.27-3.33, P value < 0.001, rotated shift workers (OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.47-3.15, P value < 0.001), not attending training courses (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07-1.56, P value = 0.006), working in the surgery ward (OR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.33-2.50, P value < 0.001), less work experience (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.04-1.95, P value = 0.025) apposed a greater risk factors for NSI among healthcare workers. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this review, factors such as young age, less work experience, work shift, and female gender are considered as strong risk factors for NSI injury in Iran. Preventive measures including education programs can reduce the burden of NSI among healthcare personnel.


Asunto(s)
Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Lesiones por Pinchazo de Aguja/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Irán/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Healthc Q ; 24(1): 44-49, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864440

RESUMEN

Pandemics are associated with heightened distress among healthcare workers (HCWs). We report qualitative findings from a two-stage survey administered to HCWs at a large acute care hospital in Ontario during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify their concerns and wellness needs. Responses reflected HCWs' desires to be heard, protected, prepared, supported and cared for by the organization. HCWs' concerns were diverse and dynamic, reflecting the specific circumstances of their work and personal lives as well as the shifting landscape of the pandemic. We discuss implications for organizations seeking to promote and protect HCWs' psychological well-being and resilience during pandemics.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/psicología , /prevención & control , Personal de Salud/normas , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Personal de Hospital/psicología , Personal de Hospital/normas , Personal de Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(13): 495-500, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793460

RESUMEN

Messenger RNA (mRNA) BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 in randomized placebo-controlled Phase III trials (1,2); however, the benefits of these vaccines for preventing asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection, particularly when administered in real-world conditions, is less well understood. Using prospective cohorts of health care personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers* in eight U.S. locations during December 14, 2020-March 13, 2021, CDC routinely tested for SARS-CoV-2 infections every week regardless of symptom status and at the onset of symptoms consistent with COVID-19-associated illness. Among 3,950 participants with no previous laboratory documentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2,479 (62.8%) received both recommended mRNA doses and 477 (12.1%) received only one dose of mRNA vaccine.† Among unvaccinated participants, 1.38 SARS-CoV-2 infections were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) per 1,000 person-days.§ In contrast, among fully immunized (≥14 days after second dose) persons, 0.04 infections per 1,000 person-days were reported, and among partially immunized (≥14 days after first dose and before second dose) persons, 0.19 infections per 1,000 person-days were reported. Estimated mRNA vaccine effectiveness for prevention of infection, adjusted for study site, was 90% for full immunization and 80% for partial immunization. These findings indicate that authorized mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are effective for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of symptom status, among working-age adults in real-world conditions. COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for all eligible persons.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Socorristas , Personal de Salud , Enfermedades Profesionales/prevención & control , Ocupaciones/clasificación , Adolescente , Adulto , /administración & dosificación , Socorristas/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunas Sintéticas/inmunología , Adulto Joven
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e26734, 2021 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651708

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK National Health Service (NHS) extended eligibility for influenza vaccination this season to approximately 32.4 million people (48.8% of the population). Knowing the intended uptake of the vaccine will inform supply and public health messaging to maximize vaccination. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the acceptance of influenza vaccination in the 2020-2021 season, specifically focusing on people who were previously eligible but routinely declined vaccination and newly eligible people. METHODS: Intention to receive the influenza vaccine in 2020-2021 was asked of all registrants of the largest electronic personal health record in the NHS by a web-based questionnaire on July 31, 2020. Of those who were either newly or previously eligible but had not previously received an influenza vaccination, multivariable logistic regression and network diagrams were used to examine their reasons to undergo or decline vaccination. RESULTS: Among 6641 respondents, 945 (14.2%) were previously eligible but were not vaccinated; of these, 536 (56.7%) intended to receive an influenza vaccination in 2020-2021, as did 466 (68.6%) of the newly eligible respondents. Intention to receive the influenza vaccine was associated with increased age, index of multiple deprivation quintile, and considering oneself to be at high risk from COVID-19. Among those who were eligible but not intending to be vaccinated in 2020-2021, 164/543 (30.2%) gave reasons based on misinformation. Of the previously unvaccinated health care workers, 47/96 (49%) stated they would decline vaccination in 2020-2021. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, COVID-19 has increased acceptance of influenza vaccination in previously eligible but unvaccinated people and has motivated substantial uptake in newly eligible people. This study is essential for informing resource planning and the need for effective messaging campaigns to address negative misconceptions, which is also necessary for COVID-19 vaccination programs.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Personal de Salud/psicología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto Joven
13.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652829

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has afflicted tens of millions of people, fostering and unprecedent effort in vaccine development and distribution. Healthcare workers (HCW) play a key role in vaccine promotion and patient guidance, and it is likely that hesitancy among this population will have a major impact on the adoption of a successful immunization policy. To investigate HCW attitudes towards anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccination, we developed an anonymous online cross-sectional survey. 1723 Italian HCW responded. Overall, 1155 (67%) intended to be vaccinated, while 443 (26%) were not sure and 125 (7%) declared refusal. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with hesitancy were using Facebook as the main information source and being a non-physician HCW, while predictors of acceptance included younger age, being in close contact with high-risk groups and having received flu vaccination during the 2019-2020 season. Reasons for hesitancy included lack of trust in vaccine safety (85%) and receiving little (78%) or conflicting (69%) information about vaccines. According to our results, adequate investment in vaccine education for healthcare personnel appears to be urgently needed, prioritizing non-physicians and information quality spread through social media. We hope that our data could help governments and policy-makers to target communication in the ongoing COVID-19 vaccination campaign.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Personal de Salud/psicología , Negativa a la Vacunación/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Negativa a la Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248867, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750956

RESUMEN

During COVID-19 emergency the majority of health structures in Europe saturated or nearly saturated their availabilities already in the first weeks of the epidemic period especially in some regions of Italy and Spain. The aim of this study is to analyse the efficiency in the management of hospital beds before the COVID-19 outbreak at regional level in France, Germany, Italy and Spain. This analysis can indicate a reference point for future analysis on resource management in emergency periods and help hospital managers, emergency planners as well as policy makers to put in place a rapid and effective response to an emergency situation. The results of this study clearly underline that France and Germany could rely on the robust structural components of the hospital system, compared to Italy and Spain. Presumably, this might have had an impact on the efficacy in the management of the COVID-19 diffusion. In particular, the high availability of beds in the majority of the France regions paired with the low occupancy rate and high turnover interval led these regions to have a high number of available beds. Consider also that this country generally manages complex cases. A similar structural component is present in the German regions where the number of available beds is significantly higher than in the other countries. The impact of the COVID-19 was completely different in Italy and Spain that had to deal with a relevant large number of patients relying on a reduced number of both hospital beds and professionals. A further critical factor compared to France and Germany concerns the dissimilar distribution of cases across regions. Even if in these countries the hospital beds were efficiently managed, the concentration of hospitalized patients and the scarcity of beds have put pressure on the hospital systems.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Equipos y Suministros de Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Administración Hospitalaria/estadística & datos numéricos , /patología , Francia , Alemania , Gastos en Salud , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia , España
16.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248025, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657167

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCW) treating COVID-19 patients are at high risk for infection and may also spread infection through their contact with vulnerable patients. Smell loss has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unknown whether monitoring for smell loss can be used to identify asymptomatic infection among high risk individuals. In this study we sought to determine if tracking smell sensitivity and loss using an at-home assessment could identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study tracking 473 HCW across three months to determine if smell loss could predict SARS-CoV-2 infection in this high-risk group. HCW subjects completed a longitudinal, behavioral at-home assessment of olfaction with household items, as well as detailed symptom surveys that included a parosmia screening questionnaire, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our main measures were the prevalence of smell loss in SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW versus SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW, and timing of smell loss relative to SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 17 (3.6%) of 473 HCW. HCW with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to report smell loss than SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW on both the at-home assessment and the screening questionnaire (9/17, 53% vs 105/456, 23%, P < .01). 6/9 (67%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW reporting smell loss reported smell loss prior to having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and smell loss was reported a median of two days before testing positive. Neurological symptoms were reported more frequently among SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW who reported smell loss compared to those without smell loss (9/9, 100% vs 3/8, 38%, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of HCW, self-reported changes in smell using two different measures were predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smell loss frequently preceded a positive test and was associated with neurological symptoms.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/tendencias , Adulto , /virología , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Autoinforme , Olfato/fisiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 26, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777294

RESUMEN

Introduction: Mozambique has a generalized HIV epidemic, among pregnant women, HIV prevalence is estimated at 15.8% with a vertical transmission rate of 14%, more than double global targets. We evaluate electronic national health information system (SIS-MA) performance to verify if the data flow procedures met its objectives and evaluated the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) surveillance system to access its attributes and usefulness. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional evaluation of the PMTCT surveillance system in eight facilities in Gaza and Inhambane provinces using the centers for disease control and prevention guidelines (2001). For data quality, we cross-referenced patient registries from health facilities against the SIS-MA. We also interviewed 34 health technicians, using a Likert scale, to assess the following attributes of the PMTCT surveillance system: simplicity, stability, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness and data quality, usefulness of the system and knowledge of PMTCT. Results: regarding the simplicity measure, we verified that the registry books contain more than 30 variables. The system was 83% flexible in maintaining functionality with the introduction of new health facilities in the system. The completeness of the data was 50% and concordance of data from the register book and monthly reports was 89%. Conclusion: the PMTCT SIS-MA is useful in supporting the collection, analysis, interpretation and continuous and systematic dissemination of health data that are used to define and monitor public health policies in Mozambique. However, continued efforts are needed to improve data quality to ensure that the SIS-MA can adequately monitor the PMTCT program and contribute to reduced vertical transmission.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mozambique , Vigilancia de la Población , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 35, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777303

RESUMEN

Introduction: unsafe injection practices are commonplace in low-income countries, and place health care workers at risk of blood-borne infections. A safe injection strategy requires a synchronized approach to deal with change in behavior of users and service providers towards safer practice. There is general lack of data on injection safety practices in Cross River State. This was a baseline study to compare the knowledge and practice of safe injection practices among primary health care (PHC) workers in urban and rural health facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: this was a cross-sectional comparative study among PHC workers in randomly selected rural and urban Local Government Areas (LGAs). Using multistage sampling technique, a total of 320 respondents: 160 from the urban LGAs and 160 from the rural LGAs were interviewed. Semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain data. Data analysis was done using STATATM version 14.0. Associations were tested using Chi square, and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: in this study, there was no difference in the baseline knowledge (58.8% vs. 55.0%, P=0.499) and practice (33.1% vs. 34.4%, P=0.813) of injection safety between PHC workers in the urban and rural locations. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the senior health workers had a two-fold increased odds of practicing safe injection compared to their junior counterparts [OR=2.21 (95% CI: 1.28,3.84)]. Conclusion: in both the urban and rural locations, there was good knowledge but poor practice of injection safety among respondents in the LGAs; hence, the need to organize periodic injection safety training and retraining of PHC workers targeting junior workers to improve on the practices of injection safety.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Inyecciones/normas , Atención Primaria de Salud/normas , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Servicios de Salud Rural/normas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Servicios Urbanos de Salud/normas , Adulto Joven
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5788, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707646

RESUMEN

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, yet limited information is available on risk factors of infection. We pooled data on occupational surveillance of 10,654 HCW who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in six Italian centers. Information was available on demographics, job title, department of employment, source of exposure, use of personal protective equipment (PPEs), and COVID-19-related symptoms. We fitted multivariable logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of infection. The prevalence of infection ranged from 3.0 to 22.0%, and was correlated with that of the respective areas. Women were at lower risk of infection compared to men. Fever, cough, dyspnea and malaise were the symptoms most strongly associated with infection, together with anosmia and ageusia. No differences in the risk of infection were detected according to job title, or working in a COVID-19 designated department. Reported contact with a patient inside or outside the workplace was a risk factor. Use of a mask was strongly protective against risk of infection as was use of gloves. The use of a mask by the source of exposure (patient or colleague) had an independent effect in reducing infection risk.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200653, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681958

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze potential triggers of moral suffering experiences of health professionals, reported in the media, during the COVID-19 pandemic and to propose a theoretical construct of analysis. METHODS: Study with qualitative approach whose data source were 50 reports published online, collected passively and actively, submitted to Content Analysis with the help of ATLAS.ti software. RESULTS: The potential moral problems that trigger moral suffering are related to the threat to moral integrity, infrastructure/logistics and teamwork problems, and emotional aspects, revealing their articulation with damage to the foundations of a healthy work environment, which generated the proposal of a construct. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The articulation between the experiences of moral suffering and the commitment of the fundamentals of a healthy work environment has brought important contributions to the adoption of strategies to protect and stimulate moral deliberation by professionals in favor of practice and society.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Principios Morales , Estrés Psicológico , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Investigación Cualitativa , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
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