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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 198-198, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-194909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism through which basic personality dimensions predict indicators of psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic, including subjective well-being and perceived stress. As a personality characteristic highly contextualized in stressful circumstances, resilience was expected to have a mediating role in this relationship. METHOD: A sample of 2,722 Slovene adults, aged from 18 to 82 years filled in the Big Five Inventory, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Mental Health Continuum. A path analysis with the Bootstrap estimation procedure was performed to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience in the relationship between personality and psychological functioning. RESULTS: Resilience fully or partially mediated the relationships between all the Big Five but extraversion with subjective well-being and stress experienced at the beginning of the COVID-19 outburst. Neuroticism was the strongest predictor of less adaptive psychological functioning both directly and through diminished resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Resilience may be a major protective factor required for an adaptive response of an individual in stressful situations such as pandemic and the associated lockdown


ANTECEDENTES/OBJETIVO: El objetivo fue dilucidar el mecanismo subyacente a través del cual las dimensiones básicas de la personalidad predicen indicadores del funcionamiento psicológico durante la pandemia de COVID-19, incluido el bienestar subjetivo y el estrés percibido. Como característica de la personalidad altamente contextualizada en circunstancias estresantes, se esperaba que la resiliencia tuviera un papel mediador en esta relación. MÉTODO: Una muestra de 2.722 adultos eslovenos (18-82 años), completó el Big Five Inventory, la Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, la Perceived Stress Scale y el Mental Health Continuum. Se realizó un análisis de ruta con el procedimiento de estimación Bootstrap para evaluar el efecto mediador de la resiliencia en la relación entre la personalidad y el funcionamiento psicológico. RESULTADOS: La resiliencia medió total o parcialmente las relaciones entre los Cinco Grandes, y la extraversión con bienestar subjetivo y el estrés experimentado, al comienzo del estallido de COVID-19. El neuroticismo fue el predictor más fuerte de un funcionamiento psicológico menos adaptativo, tanto directamente como a través de la disminución de la capacidad de resiliencia. CONCLUSIONES: La resiliencia puede ser un factor de protección importante y requerido para una respuesta adaptativa de un individuo en situaciones estresantes como la pandemia y el confinamiento asociado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Resiliencia Psicológica , Personalidad/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Pandemias , Inventario de Personalidad/normas , Psicometría/métodos , Neuroticismo/fisiología
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22780-22786, 2020 09 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868412

RESUMEN

Does being disagreeable-that is, behaving in aggressive, selfish, and manipulative ways-help people attain power? This question has long captivated philosophers, scholars, and laypeople alike, and yet prior empirical findings have been inconclusive. In the current research, we conducted two preregistered prospective longitudinal studies in which we measured participants' disagreeableness prior to entering the labor market and then assessed the power they attained in the context of their work organization ∼14 y later when their professional careers had unfolded. Both studies found disagreeable individuals did not attain higher power as opposed to extraverted individuals who did gain higher power in their organizations. Furthermore, the null relationship between disagreeableness and power was not moderated by individual differences, such as gender or ethnicity, or by contextual variables, such as organizational culture. What can account for this null relationship? A close examination of behavior patterns in the workplace found that disagreeable individuals engaged in two distinct patterns of behavior that offset each other's effects on power attainment: They engaged in more dominant-aggressive behavior, which positively predicted attaining higher power, but also engaged in less communal and generous behavior, which predicted attaining less power. These two effects, when combined, appeared to cancel each other out and led to a null correlation between disagreeableness and power.


Asunto(s)
Personalidad/fisiología , Poder Psicológico , Adulto , Disentimientos y Disputas , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Relaciones Interpersonales , Liderazgo , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Ocupaciones , Estudios Prospectivos , Personalidad Tipo A
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858996

RESUMEN

The relationship between Dark Triad traits and risky behaviours has been shown in recent years. However, few studies have attempted to disentangle this relationship using a person-centred approach. The goal of the current study was to identify subgroups of individuals on the basis of their scores on Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism and analyse the differences between them in a set of risky behaviours (i.e., frequency of substance use, reactive and proactive aggression, risk perception and risk engagement, and problematic internet use). The sample consisted of 317 undergraduates aged 18-34 (46% males). The results of the latent profile analysis showed five subgroups of individuals that were identified based on their scores on the Dark Triad traits: low-Dark Triad, narcissistic, Machiavellian/narcissistic, psychopathic, and Machiavellian/psychopathic. Overall, the Machiavellian/narcissistic and Machiavellian/psychopathic subgroups showed higher scores for most risky behaviours. The low-Dark Triad scored higher for risk perception. No significant differences between subgroups were found as regards frequency of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the combination of the Dark Triad traits lead to more negative outcomes as regards risky behaviour than individual components. Moreover, they highlight the relevance of using a person-centred approach in the study of dark personalities.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Personalidad/fisiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Agresión/psicología , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventario de Personalidad , Asunción de Riesgos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236271, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726318

RESUMEN

Behavioral development in domestic dogs has been investigated for predicting suitability for service dog work or for matching with the "right" families as well as for identifying predispositions to behavioral problems. Findings from the scientific literature seem to confirm that conducting behavioral tests at 7 weeks of age is too early to reliably predict the temperament and personality of a dog. However, this period for domestic dogs is sensitive for early life learning and conditions during this time could have important consequences in adulthood. The aims of this study were to evaluate inter-rater reliability of a simple standardized test and to investigate which factors influence the behavioral reaction of puppies. 105 seven-week old puppies were exposed to five subtests: social attraction, following, retrieving, sudden appearance, noise. During each task, the behaviour of each pup was scored on a 3-5 point scale that reflected the suitability of the pup's reaction to the task. Scores were evaluated for a single subtest and for two aggregate indicators (i.e. response to a person: social attraction subtest and following subtest and response to object and noise: retrieving subtest, sudden appearance subtest and noise subtest). Three assessors independently scored the dogs' reactions for each task. Inter-rater reliability of the three assessors were analyzed with Fleiss' Kappa and Kendall's coefficient, which showed a high inter-rater reliability in 4 of 5 tasks. The ordered logistic regression was carried out to obtain a proportional odds model that was used to model the relationship between sex, litter size, stimulating environment, parity of mother, adequate maternal behavior and high scores. Litter size and maternal parity were associated with test performance in response to a person. The variance of effect of litter was high in response to object and noise. Taken together, our results suggest that using this scoring system there is sufficient inter-rater reliability in the test and litter size and mother experience influences task performances related to dog-human interaction.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Personalidad/fisiología , Animales , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta/normas , Perros , Femenino , Masculino , Ruido/efectos adversos , Conducta Social
5.
Psychopathology ; 53(3-4): 157-167, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663821

RESUMEN

Almost all forms of psychopathology, including personality disorders, are arrived at through complex interactions among neurobiological vulnerabilities and environmental risk factors across development. Yet despite increasing recognition of etiological complexity, psychopathology research is still dominated by searches for large main effects causes. This derives in part from reliance on traditional inferential methods, including ordinary factor analysis, regression, ANCOVA, and other techniques that use statistical partialing to isolate unique effects. In principle, some of these methods can accommodate etiological complexity, yet as typically applied they are insensitive to interactive functional dependencies (modulating effects) among etiological influences. Here, we use our developmental model of antisocial and borderline traits to illustrate challenges faced when modeling complex etiological mechanisms of psychopathology. We then consider how computational models, which are rarely used in the personality disorders literature, remedy some of these challenges when combined with hierarchical Bayesian analysis.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Factorial , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Personalidad/fisiología , Psicopatología/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235396, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609785

RESUMEN

Personality traits such as grit and self-control are important determinants of success in life outcomes. However, most measures of these traits, which rely on self-reports, might be biased when used for the purpose of evaluating education policies or interventions. Recent research has shown the potential of survey effort-in particular, item non-response and careless answering-as a proxy measure of these traits. The current investigation uses a dataset of high school seniors (N = 513) to investigate survey effort measures in relationship with teacher reports, performance task measures, high school academic outcomes, and college attendance. Our results show promise for use of survey effort as proxy measures of grit and self-control.


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Motivación , Personalidad/fisiología , Autoinforme , Autocontrol/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232570, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484832

RESUMEN

In the last years, there has been a considerable increase of research into the neuroimaging correlates of inter-individual temperament and character variability-an endeavour for which the term 'personality neuroscience' was coined. Among other neuroimaging modalities and approaches, substantial work focuses on functional connectivity in resting state (rs-FC) functional magnetic resonance imaging data. In the current paper, we set out to independently query the questions asked in a highly cited study that reported a range of functional connectivity correlates of personality dimensions assessed by the widely used 'Big Five' Personality Inventory. Using a larger sample (84 subjects) and an equivalent data analysis pipeline, we obtained widely disagreeing results compared to the original study. Overall, the results were in line with the hypotheses of no relation between functional connectivity and personality, when more precise permutation-based multiple testing procedures were applied. The results demonstrate that as with other neuroimaging studies, great caution should be applied when interpreting the findings, among other reasons due to multiple testing problem involved at several levels in many neuroimaging studies. Of course, the current study results can not ultimately disprove the existence of some link between personality and brain's intrinsic functional architecture, but clearly shows that its form is very likely different and much more subtle and elusive than was previously reported.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Personalidad/fisiología , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Mapeo Encefálico , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Vías Nerviosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Pruebas de Personalidad , Descanso
8.
Psicosom. psiquiatr ; (13): 20-32, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198562

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Evaluar en personas transexuales adolescentes y adultas jóvenes atendidas en una Unidad especializada de Identidad de Género, la evolución de la demanda, la presencia de psicopatología, autoestima, calidad de vida y personalidad. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio transversal en una cohorte de personas transexuales adolescentes y adultas jóvenes sin tratamientos previos de afirmación de género, obtenida mediante muestreo consecutivo que solicitaron atención sanitaria desde 2014 hasta 2017. La medición de las variables fue realizada mediante siete test validados: Inventario para la depresión de Beck-BDI, Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo-STAI-R/E, Escala de Miedo a la Evaluación Negativa-FNE, Escala de Estrés y Evitación Social-SAD, Índice de calidad de vida-QLI-Sp, versión española, Escala de Autoestima-EAE, versión española y Cuestionario de Personalidad de Eysenck-EPI. RESULTADOS: Se analizan las variables recogidas de 190 personas, 110 hombres transexuales (Mujer-Hombre) y 80 mujeres transexuales (Hombre-Mujer), referentes a la evaluación previa al inicio de los tratamientos médicos de afirmación de género. La demanda en los últimos años ha tenido un incremento notable sobre todo en menores de edad, suponiendo el 43,45% de la misma. La ratio en hombres transexuales ha ido aumentado frente a las mujeres transexuales llegando a ser 1,3 frente a 1. El 18% presentaba depresión moderada y el 3% grave. La ansiedad estado estaba presente en el 48% de la muestra de forma moderada y en el 23% de forma severa, con distribución similar a la ansiedad rasgo (43 y 31% respectivamente). El miedo a la evaluación negativa estaba presente en el 5% de los sujetos y el 7% presentaba conductas de evitación social. La mitad de la muestra tenía baja autoestima. El 10% valoraban su calidad de vida como mala o muy mala y el 28% como regular. Un 20% puntúan alto en rasgo de neuroticismo y 21% puntuó en baja extroversión. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en ninguna de las variables estudiadas en función del género, ni cuando se compararon adolescentes (10 a 19 años) con personas adultas jóvenes (20-35 años). CONCLUSIONES: Existe un porcentaje importante de personas transexuales adolescentes y adultas jóvenes, qué al iniciar la demanda de tratamientos médicos de afirmación de género, manifiestan clínica depresiva y ansiosa y en menor medida ansiedad social. La mitad de ellas tienen baja autoestima, el 40% considera que su calidad de vida es regular o mala y la quinta parte muestra inestabilidad emocional e introversión. BREVE DESCRIPCIÓN DEL CONTENIDO: Hemos analizado la evolución de la demanda asistencial y diferentes variables de salud mental, autoestima, calidad de vida y personalidad, recogidas en los cuestionarios administrados en la evaluación inicial, previa al inicio de tratamientos médicos de afirmación de género, con el fin de detectar las necesidades de apoyo psicoterapéutico que precisa esta población para afrontar con éxito el protocolo de tratamiento médico y la adaptación social en género sentido


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evolution of demand, the presence of psychopathology, self-esteem, quality of life and personality in transgender adolescents and young adults attended in a specialized Unit of Gender Identity. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of adolescent and young adult transsexuals without prior gender affirmation treatments, obtained through consecutive sampling that requested health care from 2014 to 2017. The variables were measured using seven validated tests: Inventory of Beck-BDI depression, State-Trait Anxiety Questionnaire-STAI-R / E, Scale of Fear of Negative Evaluation-FNE, Stress Scale and Avoidance Social-SAD, Quality of Life Index-QLI-Sp, Spanish version, Self-Esteem Scale-EAE, Spanish version and Eysenck-EPI Personality Questionnaire. RESULTS: The data collected from 190 people (110 female-to-male (F-M) and 80 male-to-female (M-F) are analyzed, referring to the evaluation prior to the start of medical gender affirmation treatments. Demand in recent years has had a notable increase, especially in minors, representing 43.45% of it. The ratio in transsexual men has been increasing compared to transsexual women, reaching 1.3 compared to 1. 18% had moderate depression and 3% severe. The anxiety state was present in 48% of the sample moderately and in 23% severely, with distribution similar to trait anxiety (43 and 31% respectively). The fear of negative evaluation was present in 5% of the subjects and 7% had social avoidance behaviors. Half of the sample had low self-esteem. 10% valued their quality of life as bad or very bad and 28% as regular. 20% scored high on neuroticism trait and 21% scored low extroversion. No significant differences were found in any of the variables studied according to gender, nor when adolescents (10 to 19 years old) were compared with young adults (20-35 years old). CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant percentage of adolescents and young adult transsexuals, which when they start the demand for medical gender affirmation treatments, manifest depressive and anxious clinic and to a lesser extent social anxiety. Half of them have low self-esteem, 40% consider their quality of life to be regular or bad, and a fifth show emotional instability and introversion


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Trastornos del Desarrollo Sexual/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Autoimagen , Personalidad/fisiología , España , Psicometría/métodos , Síntomas Afectivos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adaptación Psicológica , Ajuste Social
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8487, 2020 05 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444847

RESUMEN

There is ample evidence that morphological and social cues in a human face provide signals of human personality and behaviour. Previous studies have discovered associations between the features of artificial composite facial images and attributions of personality traits by human experts. We present new findings demonstrating the statistically significant prediction of a wider set of personality features (all the Big Five personality traits) for both men and women using real-life static facial images. Volunteer participants (N = 12,447) provided their face photographs (31,367 images) and completed a self-report measure of the Big Five traits. We trained a cascade of artificial neural networks (ANNs) on a large labelled dataset to predict self-reported Big Five scores. The highest correlations between observed and predicted personality scores were found for conscientiousness (0.360 for men and 0.335 for women) and the mean effect size was 0.243, exceeding the results obtained in prior studies using 'selfies'. The findings strongly support the possibility of predicting multidimensional personality profiles from static facial images using ANNs trained on large labelled datasets. Future research could investigate the relative contribution of morphological features of the face and other characteristics of facial images to predicting personality.


Asunto(s)
Cara/anatomía & histología , Cara/fisiología , Expresión Facial , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Desarrollo de la Personalidad , Personalidad/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad/clasificación , Adulto Joven
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9800-9807, 2020 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312813

RESUMEN

Does infant temperament predict adult personality and life-course patterns? To date, there is scant evidence examining relations between child temperament and adult outcomes, and extant research has relied on limited methods for measuring temperament such as maternal report. This prospective longitudinal study followed a cohort of infants (n = 165) for three decades to examine whether infant behavioral inhibition, a temperament characterized by cautious and fearful behaviors to unfamiliar situations, shapes long-term personality, social relationships, vocational/education, and mental health outcomes in adulthood. At age 14 mo, behavioral inhibition was assessed using an observation paradigm. In adolescence (15 y; n = 115), error monitoring event-related potentials were measured in a flanker task. In adulthood (26 y; n = 109), personality, psychopathology, and sociodemographics were self-reported using questionnaires. We found that infants with higher levels of behavioral inhibition at 14 mo grew up to become more reserved and introverted adults (ß = 0.34) with lower social functioning with friends and family (ß = -0.23) at age 26. Infant behavioral inhibition was also a specific risk factor for adult internalizing (i.e., anxiety and depression, ß = 0.20) psychopathology, rather than a transdiagnostic risk for general and externalizing psychopathology. We identified a neurophysiologic mechanism underlying risk and resilience for later psychopathology. Heightened error monitoring in adolescence moderated higher levels of adult internalizing psychopathology among behaviorally inhibited individuals. These findings suggest meaningful continuity between infant temperament and the development of adult personality. They provide the earliest evidence suggesting that the foundation of long-term well-being is rooted in individual differences in temperament observed in infancy.


Asunto(s)
Miedo/psicología , Inhibición Psicológica , Personalidad/fisiología , Temperamento/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Lactante , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(7): 459-464, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345044

RESUMEN

The role of human factors in employee information security awareness (ISA) has garnered increased attention, with many researchers highlighting a potential link between problematic technology use and poorer online safety and security. This study aimed to present additional evidence for this by exploring the relationship between of Fear of Missing Out (FoMO) and ISA in employees. A total of 718 participants completed an online questionnaire that included a measure of FoMO, ISA, as well as the Big Five personality inventory. Participants who reported higher levels of FoMO had lower overall ISA, as well as having poorer knowledge, a more negative attitude, and engaged in riskier behaviors in relation to ISA. FoMO was also demonstrated to be the largest single negative predictor for ISA, above that of age, gender, and the key personality traits tested. The potential reasons for the influence of FoMO over ISA are discussed, as well as the implications for organizational information security.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad Computacional , Miedo/psicología , Personalidad/fisiología , Trabajo/psicología , Humanos , Internet , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9270-9276, 2020 04 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295883

RESUMEN

Neuroticism is one of the major traits describing human personality, and a predictor of mental and physical disorders with profound public health significance. Individual differences in emotional variability are thought to reflect the core of neuroticism. However, the empirical relation between emotional variability and neuroticism may be partially the result of a measurement artifact reflecting neuroticism's relation with higher mean levels-rather than greater variability-of negative emotion. When emotional intensity is measured using bounded scales, there is a dependency between variability and mean levels: at low (or high) intensity, it is impossible to demonstrate high variability. As neuroticism is positively associated with mean levels of negative emotion, this may account for the relation between neuroticism and emotional variability. In a metaanalysis of 11 studies (N = 1,205 participants; 83,411 observations), we tested whether the association between neuroticism and negative emotional variability was clouded by a dependency between variability and the mean. We found a medium-sized positive association between neuroticism and negative emotional variability, but, when using a relative variability index to correct for mean negative emotion, this association disappeared. This indicated that neuroticism was associated with experiencing more intense, but not more variable, negative emotions. Our findings call into question theory, measurement scales, and data suggesting that emotional variability is central to neuroticism. In doing so, they provide a revisionary perspective for understanding how this individual difference may predispose to mental and physical disorders.


Asunto(s)
Afecto/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Neuroticismo/fisiología , Adulto , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Personalidad/fisiología
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229470, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251476

RESUMEN

The present study used exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) to examine the theorized dimension structure of the brief version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BR) at the scale-level (i.e., 11 lower-order primary factors loading on four higher-order factors) and item-level (sets of 12 items loading on 11 lower-order primary factors). A total of 214 adults from the community addressed the MPQ-BR and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales. The findings revealed poor fit and poorly defined factors at the item-level alongside adequate fit and well-defined factors at the scale-level. The higher-order factors in the latter model were supported for external validity in terms of demonstrating the expected theoretical and empirical correlations with the scales of the BIS/BAS scales. Result related implications for professional application, as well as potential revisions of the MPQ-BF are illustrated.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/genética , Personalidad/genética , Psicometría , Adulto , Agresión/fisiología , Conducta/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Inhibición Psicológica , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Personalidad/fisiología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/patología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/fisiopatología , Inventario de Personalidad/normas , Pruebas de Personalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(3): 279-292, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212749

RESUMEN

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia and its extended phenotype-often termed psychoticism or positive schizotypy-are characterized by the inclusion of novel, erroneous mental contents. One promising framework for explaining positive symptoms involves apophenia, conceptualized here as a disposition toward false-positive errors. Apophenia and positive symptoms have shown relations to openness to experience (more specifically, to the openness aspect of the broader openness/intellect domain), and all of these constructs involve tendencies toward pattern seeking. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the relations between psychoticism and non-self-report indicators of apophenia, let alone the role of normal personality variation. The current research used structural equation models to test associations between psychoticism, openness, intelligence, and non-self-report indicators of apophenia comprising false-positive error rates on a variety of computerized tasks. In Sample 1, 1,193 participants completed digit identification, theory of mind, and emotion recognition tasks. In Sample 2, 195 participants completed auditory signal detection and semantic word association tasks. Psychoticism and the openness aspect were positively correlated. Self-reported psychoticism, openness, and their shared variance were positively associated with apophenia, as indexed by false-positive error rates, whether or not intelligence was controlled for. Apophenia was not associated with other personality traits, and openness and psychoticism were not associated with false-negative errors. Findings provide insights into the measurement of apophenia and its relation to personality and psychopathology. Apophenia and pattern seeking may be promising constructs for unifying the openness aspect of personality with the psychosis spectrum and for providing an explanation of positive symptoms. Results are discussed in the context of possible adaptive characteristics of apophenia as well as potential risk factors for the development of psychotic disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Creatividad , Inteligencia/fisiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidad/fisiología , Inventario de Personalidad , Solución de Problemas/fisiología , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228672, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130225

RESUMEN

Risk-takers are rhetorically extolled in America, but does this veneration ignore the downsides of failure? We test competing perspectives on how workplace risk-takers are perceived by examining cultural attitudes about individuals who successfully take, unsuccessful take, and avoid risks at work. The results of two experiments show that, in comparison to risk-avoidance, expected workplace outcomes are enhanced by successful risk-taking and that failure does not appear to significantly harm expected workplace outcomes for risk-takers. While one experiment finds that failed risk-takers are seen as more likely to be downsized (because they are viewed as more foolish), we also find failed risk-takers are perceived as more likely to be hired and promoted. Mediation analyses reveal this is primarily because risk-taking-regardless of outcome-considerably increases perceptions of agency and decreases perceptions of indecisiveness, and these attributions predict positive workplace outcomes. We also find the results to be remarkably similar across varying participant characteristics (namely, gender, race, education level, work experience, income, and age), which suggests that there is a broad cultural consensus in the U.S. about the value of risk-taking. In sum, we find evidence that observers generally make more positive attributions about risk-takers than about risk-avoiders, even when risk-takers fail.


Asunto(s)
Personalidad/fisiología , Selección de Personal , Asunción de Riesgos , Percepción Social , Lugar de Trabajo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Psicológicas , Distribución Aleatoria , Adulto Joven
16.
Behav Neurol ; 2020: 5232184, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148563

RESUMEN

Individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have the perception of memory problems without showing impairment on standardized cognitive tests. SCD has been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuroticism and openness personality dimensions have also been associated with SCD and AD. From the aforementioned, we aimed to ascertain whether the dimensions and traits defined by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) differentiate between individuals with SCD and the general population (GP). A total of 187 participants with SCD and mild affective symptomatology recruited from the Fundació ACE Health Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) project completed the ZKPQ. Each SCD participant was matched by sex and age to an individual from the GP. Both samples included 71 men and 116 women with a mean age of 65.9 years. Results indicated that the SCD group scored significantly lower in Neuroticism-Anxiety and Activity than the GP group. Only Activity remained statistically significant in a multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that individuals with SCD have a low energy level and a dislike for an active and busy life. From the obtained results and knowing additional physical activities may delay the conversion from normal aging to cognitive impairment, we encourage promoting this lifestyle in daily routine. The assessment of personality may result in an SCD plus feature, which may serve as an upgrading strategy for future research.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Personalidad/fisiología , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/psicología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Autoevaluación Diagnóstica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
17.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 350-364, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138943

RESUMEN

In recent years, irritability has received increasing attention among mental health professionals given its transdiagnostic associations with diverse forms of psychopathology. In contrast to other emotional states and traits, however, literature addressing associations between irritability and related temperament and personality constructs is limited. In addition, those who study irritability have diverse perspectives on its neurobiological substrates. In this comment, we situate irritability in the literatures on child temperament and adult personality, and describe a model in which irritability derives from low tonic dopamine (DA) levels and low phasic DA reactivity in subcortical neural structures implicated in appetitive responding. We note that different findings often emerge in neuroimaging studies when irritability is assessed in circumscribed diagnostic groups versus representative samples. We conclude with directions for future research, and propose that more authors use hierarchical Bayesian modeling, which captures functional dependencies between irritability and other dispositional traits (e.g., trait anxiety) that standard regression models are insensitive too. Treatment implications are also considered.


Asunto(s)
Genio Irritable/fisiología , Trastornos del Humor/fisiopatología , Personalidad/fisiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Ansiedad/psicología , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos del Humor/diagnóstico , Temperamento/fisiología
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229795, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Personality traits and mental health problems have been previously reported in unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) patients; however, few studies have clarified the relations between these variables and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study was designed to characterize the personality traits, HRQoL and mental health of patients with UIA and to evaluate whether personality has an influence on HRQoL and whether this is mediated by the patients' emotional symptoms. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with UIAs (mean age 62.6 years, 83.9% women) answered questionnaires for depression, anxiety, HRQoL and personality traits between June 2016 and May 2019. RESULTS: Eight percent of the sample had depression, and 27.4% had anxiety. Participants showed high levels of responsibility, kindness and neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and openness. HRQoL scores were normal compared with the Colombian population. Structural equation analysis showed that patients' HRQoL was negatively affected by anxiety levels and that the latter are associated with the patient's personality, where neuroticism is directly associated with symptomatology and inversely associated with extraversion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed the importance of personality and emotional symptoms in the HRQoL of UIA patients. These results are important for developing strategies for psychological counseling in patients with UIAs.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Aneurisma Intracraneal/psicología , Personalidad/fisiología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Extraversión Psicológica , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuroticismo/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Psychol Aging ; 35(3): 317-328, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134303

RESUMEN

Cognitive complaints and engagement in cognitive activities are two consistent predictors of cognitive aging outcomes, including risk for nonnormative decline. Though research has considered predictors of complaints and engagement in general, little work has attended to the fact that these fluctuate at the daily level. The current study examined individual difference predictors of means and variability for engagement and complaints across 10 days in a sample of older adults (n = 136; Mage = 70.45 years). When comparing personality traits to indicators of cognitive performance, personality differences appeared better unique predictors for these measures of daily cognitive life. Specifically, even when accounting for demographics, measures of cognitive performance, and the other personality traits investigated, older adults higher on openness to experience reported fewer daily cognitive complaints and more engagement on average, as well as greater daily variability in engagement. In addition, higher neuroticism predicted greater variability in reports of cognitive complaints across days. Implications are discussed with respect to how these findings advance our understanding of cognitive complaints and engagement in daily life. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Personalidad/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5288, 2020 03 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210263

RESUMEN

Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a personality trait in humans characterised by a tendency to process information deeply, to be easily overstimulated, and to have strong emotional responses and an enhanced sensitivity to subtle stimuli. A trait similar to SPS has recently been identified in dogs ("canine Sensory Processing Sensitivity", cSPS). In children, this trait interacts with parenting factors to influence emotional and mental development, which in turn are linked to behaviour problems. Paralleling these findings in humans, we demonstrate that cSPS interacts with owner personality and use of aversive communication to influence the likelihood of behaviour problems in dogs. More behaviour problems were reported for more highly sensitive dogs per se, when there was a relative mismatch between owner and dog personality, and when use of "negative punishment" was reported. These findings indicate that a dog's personality might moderate how an individual is affected by environmental factors, particularly owner personality and communication style, emphasising the importance of considering individuality in prevention, development and treatment of behaviour problems in dogs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Emociones/fisiología , Personalidad/fisiología , Mascotas/psicología , Sensación/fisiología , Animales , Perros , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mascotas/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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