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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 260-268, 2020 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588603

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Marijuana is one of the most widely used psychoactive substance. There is evidence of genetic predisposition for addiction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate personality traits measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, combined with analysis of Tag1B rs1079597 and Tag1D rs1800498 located in the DRD2 gene. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 214 rural cannabinoid users and 301 controls. The same psychometric test and real-time PCR genotyping were performed in both studied groups. RESULTS: The values of Anxiety state, Anxiety trait, NEO FFI: Neuroticism and Openness in the rural cannabis using group were significantly higher than in the control group. On the other hand, lower values were observed among rural people using cannabis compared to the control group for NEO FFI: Extraversion, Agreeability and Conscientiousness. In the Anxiety trait subscale, a 2% association with the polymorphism DRD2 Tag1B rs1079597 was detected in subjects using cannabis. However, for the DRD2 Tag1D rs1800498, there was no effect on the differences in personality traits between rural cannabis users and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows differences in personality traits between the cannabis using group and controls. Interaction between genetic factors and personality traits was also detected. The association showing the combination of psychological characteristics and genetic variants can bring us closer to the overall picture of the issue of marijuana addiction.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Consumidores de Drogas/psicología , Personalidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pruebas de Personalidad , Polonia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229470, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251476

RESUMEN

The present study used exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) to examine the theorized dimension structure of the brief version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BR) at the scale-level (i.e., 11 lower-order primary factors loading on four higher-order factors) and item-level (sets of 12 items loading on 11 lower-order primary factors). A total of 214 adults from the community addressed the MPQ-BR and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales. The findings revealed poor fit and poorly defined factors at the item-level alongside adequate fit and well-defined factors at the scale-level. The higher-order factors in the latter model were supported for external validity in terms of demonstrating the expected theoretical and empirical correlations with the scales of the BIS/BAS scales. Result related implications for professional application, as well as potential revisions of the MPQ-BF are illustrated.


Asunto(s)
Emociones/fisiología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/genética , Personalidad/genética , Psicometría , Adulto , Agresión/fisiología , Conducta/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Inhibición Psicológica , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Personalidad/fisiología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/patología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/fisiopatología , Inventario de Personalidad/normas , Pruebas de Personalidad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(3): 513-521, 2020 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846724

RESUMEN

Personality, especially the dimensions of neuroticism and conscientiousness, has prospectively predicted the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such a relationship could be explained by personality and AD risk having a common cause such as a gene; by personality creating a predisposition for AD through health behavior or inflammation; by personality exerting a pathoplastic effect on the cognitive consequences of neuropathology; or by AD and personality change existing on a disease spectrum that begins up to decades before diagnosis. Using the 5-dimensional taxonomy of personality, the present review describes how these models might arise, the evidence for each, and how they might be distinguished from one another empirically. At present, the evidence is sparse but tends to suggest predisposition and/or pathoplastic relationships. Future studies using noninvasive assessment of neuropathology are needed to distinguish these 2 possibilities.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Personalidad , Anciano , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/etiología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/genética , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades/etiología , Humanos , Personalidad/genética
4.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(2): 145-154, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452059

RESUMEN

There is evidence that corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene polymorphisms and indifferent impulsive personality traits play an important role in violent aggression in male adolescents. Genotyping for two tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs242924, rs17689966) was conducted using TaqMan SNP for 138 violent young male criminals, 98 nonviolent young male criminals, and 153 noncriminal adults. The general situation and personality traits (SSP) questionnaire was given to the young violent and nonviolent male criminal groups. The results showed that the frequency of the G allele in rs242924 of the CRHR1 gene in the violent aggression group was higher than that in the normal adult controls (P < 0.025, OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.13-4.62). The difference in genotype distribution was significant among the three groups (P < 0.05), and when the violent group was compared with the two control groups, no significant difference was found (P > 0.025). The impulsiveness, trait irritability, verbal trait aggression, and physical trait aggression scores in the violent group were significantly higher than those in the nonviolent group of adolescents. These findings suggest that the variance in CRHR1 gene polymorphisms and personality traits may play a role in violent aggression in male adolescents, and that the interaction of the CRHR1 gene and the impulsive personality trait may cause an increased susceptibility to violence towards others.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Personalidad/genética , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptores de Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/genética , Adolescente , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Bioethics ; 34(1): 81-89, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30941781

RESUMEN

It is likely that gene editing technologies will become viable in the current century. As scientists uncover the genetic contribution to personality traits and cognitive styles, parents will face hard choices. Some of these choices will involve trade-offs from the standpoint of the individual's welfare, while others will involve trade-offs between what is best for each and what is good for all. Although we think we should generally defer to the informed choices of parents about what kinds of children to create, we argue that decisions to manipulate polygenic psychological traits will be much more ethically complicated than choosing Mendelian traits like blood type. We end by defending the principle of regulatory parsimony, which holds that when legislation is necessary to prevent serious harms, we should aim for simple rules that apply to all, rather than micro-managing parental choices that shape the traits of their children. While we focus on embryo selection and gene editing, our arguments apply to all powerful technologies which influence the development of children.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Toma de Decisiones/ética , Edición Génica/ética , Mejoramiento Genético/ética , Padres/psicología , Personalidad/genética , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226802, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887219

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of BDNF val66met polymorphism on long-term cardiac outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been unclear. Environmental factors may modify the association, but these have not been investigated to date. This study aimed to investigate the potential interactive effects of BDNF val66met polymorphism and personality traits, one of the main environmental prognostic factors of ACS, on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ACS. METHODS: A total of 611 patients with recent ACS were recruited at a university hospital in Korea. Baseline evaluations from 2007 to 2012 assessed BDNF val66met polymorphism and personality using the Big Five Inventory, which yielded two personality clusters (resilient and vulnerable) and five dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness). Over a 5~12 year follow-up after the index ACS, times to MACE were investigated using Cox regression models after adjustment for a range of covariates. RESULTS: The BDNF val66met polymorphism modified the associations between vulnerable personality type and worse long-term cardiac outcomes in ACS patients with significant interaction terms, in that the associations were statistically significant in the presence met allele. Similar findings were observed for the individual personality dimensions of agreeableness and neuroticism. CONCLUSIONS: Gene (BDNF val66met polymorphism) x environment (personality traits) interactions on long-term cardiac outcomes were found in ACS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Coronario Agudo/genética , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/psicología , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/genética , Personalidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Síndrome Coronario Agudo/diagnóstico , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neuroticismo , Trastornos de la Personalidad , Pronóstico , República de Corea , Resiliencia Psicológica
8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(6): 660-666, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875804

RESUMEN

The first twin study in Serbia began in 2011 as a part of the research project, 'Psychological Foundations of Mental Health: Hereditary and Environmental Factors'. At the same time, the research team from the Faculty of Philosophy and Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad established the first Serbian twin registry. The registry is intended primarily for the purpose of the research in behavioral genetics, as well as potential future studies in human genetics. It includes information on 1658 volunteers, including twin-pairs, their parent and siblings. The behavioral genetic study of adult twins has been focused on the hereditary and environmental sources of variance of different psychological characteristics, such as personality traits, cognitive abilities, executive functions and aggression, as well as some anthropometric measures and aspects of mental and physical health. Certain molecular genetic analyses have also been performed. The research team is currently starting the longitudinal twin study of children, which will be focused on different indicators of emotional, cognitive and physical development.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades en Gemelos/epidemiología , Genética Conductual , Personalidad/genética , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Gemelos Dicigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Enfermedades en Gemelos/genética , Enfermedades en Gemelos/psicología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Serbia/epidemiología , Hermanos , Adulto Joven
9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 290, 2019 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712636

RESUMEN

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that temperament is strongly influenced by more than 700 genes that modulate associative conditioning by molecular processes for synaptic plasticity and long-term learning and memory. The results were replicated in three independent samples despite variable cultures and environments. The identified genes were enriched in pathways activated by behavioral conditioning in animals, including the two major molecular pathways for response to extracellular stimuli, the Ras-MEK-ERK and the PI3K-AKT-mTOR cascades. These pathways are activated by a wide variety of physiological and psychosocial stimuli that vary in positive and negative valence and in consequences for health and survival. Changes in these pathways are orchestrated to maintain cellular homeostasis despite changing conditions by modulating temperament and its circadian and seasonal rhythms. In this review we first consider traditional concepts of temperament in relation to the new genetic findings by examining the partial overlap of alternative measures of temperament. Then we propose a definition of temperament as the disposition of a person to learn how to behave, react emotionally, and form attachments automatically by associative conditioning. This definition provides necessary and sufficient criteria to distinguish temperament from other aspects of personality that become integrated with it across the life span. We describe the effects of specific stimuli on the molecular processes underlying temperament from functional, developmental, and evolutionary perspectives. Our new knowledge can improve communication among investigators, increase the power and efficacy of clinical trials, and improve the effectiveness of treatment of personality and its disorders.


Asunto(s)
Personalidad/genética , Temperamento , Animales , Genética Conductual , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/genética , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/genética
10.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 1353-1360, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413556

RESUMEN

Background: Psychological stress is a factor which predisposes people to many somatic and mental disorders. Women are at a significantly higher risk of stress than men, and their reactions to stress are stronger. Personality traits are thought to play a special role in the psychology of stress and may be crucial for the choice of a stress-coping strategy. Considering that stress is so common in everyday life, an attempt to understand how stress-coping styles are related to personality and genetic factors acquires special significance. Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze stress-coping styles and personality traits in healthy late reproductive age women with regard to genetic factors. Patients and methods: The study involved 345 healthy late reproductive age women from northwest Poland, whose mean age was 42.3±4.5 years. The study was conducted using The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, The Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five--Factor Inventory, and genetic testing. Results: There were neither statistically significant relationships between personality traits and the genotype distribution of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region, nor between stress-coping styles and the genotype distribution of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the MAO-A promoter region. Conclusion: Based on the results, all personality traits statistically significantly correlated with the choice of task-oriented coping and emotion-oriented coping. Some of personality traits are genetically determined. The choice of a stress-coping style was significantly related to personality traits. A direct influence of genetic factors on the choice of a stress-coping style was not confirmed in our study.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Personalidad/genética , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Emociones , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Repeticiones de Minisatélite , Monoaminooxidasa/genética , Polonia , Polimorfismo Genético
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(36): 17741-17746, 2019 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431527

RESUMEN

A foundational question in the social sciences concerns the interplay of underlying causes in the formation of people's political beliefs and prejudices. What role, if any, do genes, environmental influences, or personality dispositions play? Social dominance orientation (SDO), an influential index of people's general attitudes toward intergroup hierarchy, correlates robustly with political beliefs. SDO consists of the subdimensions SDO-dominance (SDO-D), which is the desire people have for some groups to be actively oppressed by others, and SDO-egalitarianism (SDO-E), a preference for intergroup inequality. Using a twin design (n = 1,987), we investigate whether the desire for intergroup dominance and inequality makes up a genetically grounded behavioral syndrome. Specifically, we investigate the heritability of SDO, in addition to whether it genetically correlates with support for political policies concerning the distribution of power and resources to different social groups. In addition to moderate heritability estimates for SDO-D and SDO-E (37% and 24%, respectively), we find that the genetic correlation between these subdimensions and political attitudes was overall high (mean genetic correlation 0.51), while the environmental correlation was very low (mean environmental correlation 0.08). This suggests that the relationship between political attitudes and SDO-D and SDO-E is grounded in common genetics, such that the desire for (versus opposition to) intergroup inequality and support for political attitudes that serve to enhance (versus attenuate) societal disparities form convergent strategies for navigating group-based dominance hierarchies.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Personalidad/genética , Predominio Social , Identificación Social , Gemelos Monocigóticos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Gemelos Monocigóticos/genética , Gemelos Monocigóticos/psicología
12.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(12): 1289-1299, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321769

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Serotonin system genes are commonly studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but genetic studies to date have produced inconsistent results, possibly because phenotypic heterogeneity has not been adequately accounted for. In this paper, we studied candidate serotonergic genes and homogenous phenotypic subgroups as presented through obsessive-compulsive (OC) trait dimensions in a general population of children and adolescents. We hypothesized that different serotonergic gene variants are associated with different OC trait dimensions and, furthermore, that they vary by sex. METHODS: Obsessive-compulsive trait dimensions (Cleaning/Contamination, Counting/Checking, Symmetry/Ordering, Superstition, Rumination, and Hoarding) were examined in a total of 5,213 pediatric participants in the community using the Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (TOCS). We genotyped candidate serotonin genes (directly genotyping the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in SLC6A4 for 2018 individuals and using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data for genes SLC6A4, HTR2A, and HTR1B for 4711 individuals). We assessed the association between variants across these genes and each of the OC trait dimensions, within males and females separately. We analyzed OC traits as both (a) dichotomized based on a threshold value and (b) quantitative scores. RESULTS: The [LG + S] variant in 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with hoarding in males (p-value of 0.003 and 0.004 for categorical and continuous analyses, respectively). There were no significant findings for 5-HTTLPR in females. Using SNP array data, there were significant findings for rumination in males for HTR2A SNPs (p-value of 1.04e-6 to 5.20e-6). CONCLUSIONS: This represents the first genetic association study of OC trait dimensions in a community-based pediatric sample. Our strongest results indicate that hoarding and rumination may be distinct in their association with serotonin gene variants and that serotonin gene variation may be specific to sex. Future genetic association studies in OCD should properly account for heterogeneity, using homogenous subgroups stratified by symptom dimension, sex, and age group.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Compulsiva/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Acaparamiento/genética , Conducta Obsesiva/genética , Personalidad/genética , Rumiación Cognitiva/fisiología , Serotonina/genética , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1B/genética , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT2A/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Serotonina en la Membrana Plasmática/genética , Caracteres Sexuales
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357601

RESUMEN

The Taq1A polymorphism located in the ANKK1 gene is one of the most widely studied polymorphisms in regards to the genetics of behavior and addiction. The aim of our study was to analyze this polymorphism with regard to personality characteristics and anxiety measured by means of the Personality Inventory-(NEO Five-Factor Inventory-NEO-FFI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in polysubstance addicted subjects. The study group consisted of 600 male volunteers, including 299 addicted subjects and 301 controls. Psychiatrists recruited members for both groups. Addiction was diagnosed in the case group. In the control group mental illness was excluded. The same psychometric test and genotyping using the real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method was performed for both groups. The results were investigated by means of multivariate analysis of the main effects Multi-factor ANOVA. Significantly higher scores on the scale of STAI state and Neuroticism and Openness traits, as well as lower scores on the scales of Extraversion, Agreeability, and Conscientiousness, were found in the case group subjects, compared to the controls. Differences in frequency of genotypes and alleles of Taq1A polymorphism between the studied groups were not found. Multi-factor ANOVA of addicted subjects and control subjects and the ANKK1 Taq1A variant interaction approximated the statistical significance for the STAI state. The main effects ANOVA of both subjects' groups were found for the STAI state and trait, the Neuroticism scale, the Extraversion scale, and the Agreeability scale. The ANKK1 Taq1A main effects approximated the statistical significance of the STAI trait. Our study shows not only differences in personality traits between addicted and non-addicted subjects, but also the possible impact of ANKK1 on given traits and on addiction itself.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Genotipo , Personalidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinasas/genética , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Ansiedad , Trastornos de Ansiedad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventario de Personalidad , Fenotipo , Psicometría , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adulto Joven
14.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(7): 1418-1429, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045220

RESUMEN

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating behavior and personality in humans and other mammals. Polymorphisms in genes coding for the serotonin receptor subtype 1A (HTR1A), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), and the serotonin degrading enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) are associated with anxiety, impulsivity, and neurotic personality in humans. In primates, previous research has largely focused on SLC6A4 and MAOA, with few studies investigating the role of HTR1A polymorphic variation on behavior. Here, we examined variation in the coding region of HTR1A across apes, and genotyped polymorphic coding variation in a sample of 214 chimpanzees with matched measures of personality and behavior. We found evidence for positive selection at three amino acid substitution sites, one in chimpanzees-bonobos (Thr26Ser), one in humans (Phe33Val), and one in orangutans (Ala274Gly). Investigation of the HTR1A coding region in chimpanzees revealed a polymorphic site, where a C/A single nucleotide polymorphism changes a proline to a glutamine in the amino acid sequence (Pro248Gln). The substitution is located in the third intracellular loop of the receptor, a region important for serotonin signal transduction. The derived variant is the major allele in this population (frequency 0.67), and is associated with a reduction in anxiety, decreased rates of male agonistic behavior, and an increase in socio-positive behavior. These results are the first evidence that the HTR1A gene may be involved in regulating social behavior in chimpanzees and encourage further systematic investigation of polymorphic variation in other primate populations with corresponding data on behavior.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Agonística , Ansiedad/genética , Pan troglodytes/genética , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1A/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Femenino , Variación Genética , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/psicología , Personalidad/genética
15.
Politics Life Sci ; 38(1): 1-13, 2019 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094675

RESUMEN

We investigate the link between genes, psychological traits, and political engagement using a new data set containing information on a large sample of young German twins. The TwinLife Study enables us to examine the predominant model of personality, the Big Five framework, as well as traits that fall outside the Big Five, such as cognitive ability, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the underpinnings of political engagement. Our results support previous work showing genetic overlap between some psychological traits and political engagement. More specifically, we find that cognitive ability and openness to experience are correlated with political engagement and that common genes can explain most of the relationship between these psychological traits and political engagement. Relationships between genes, psychological traits, and political engagement exist even at a fairly young age, which is an important finding given that previous work has relied heavily on older samples to study the link between genes, psychological traits, and political engagement.


Asunto(s)
Personalidad/genética , Política , Cognición , Femenino , Genética Conductual , Alemania , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Gemelos Dicigóticos , Gemelos Monocigóticos
16.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089096

RESUMEN

AIM: To search for genetic variants associated with premorbid personality in patients with schizophrenia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 272 men diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on premorbid personality difficulties: mild (group 1, n=110), moderate (group 2, n=113), marked (group 3, n=49). The following polymorphisms were genotyped: 5-HTR2A (T102C), 5-HTTLPR, BDNF (Val66Met), CRP (-717A>G). RESULTS: A significant increase in the frequency of the CC (5-HTR2A T102C), LL (5-HTTLPR) and Met/Met (BDNF Val66Met) genotypes was identified in group 3 compared to group 1. Frequencies of CC and LL genotypes were significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 as well. The differences between group 2 and group 3 were found only for the Met/Met genotype. There were no between-group differences in the frequencies of CRP (-717A>G) genotypes. CONCLUSION: 5-HTR2A (T102C), 5-HTTLPR, BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphisms previously reported to modify schizophrenia course are also associated with premorbid personality in schizophrenic patients.


Asunto(s)
Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo , Serina Peptidasa A2 que Requiere Temperaturas Altas , Personalidad , Trastornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Proteínas de Transporte de Serotonina en la Membrana Plasmática , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/genética , Genotipo , Serina Peptidasa A2 que Requiere Temperaturas Altas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidad/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT2A , Esquizofrenia/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Serotonina en la Membrana Plasmática/genética
17.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 100: 85-97, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817934

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent the affective features of psychopathy used to delineate youth at high risk for externalizing pathology. The genetic etiology CU traits is not currently well-understood. METHODS: The current review surveyed the literature for studies on the genetic underpinnings of CU traits and integrated information from 39 genetic studies. RESULTS: The results from 24 studies with quantitative data suggest that the heritability for CU traits is likely between 36-67%. A majority of the 16 molecular genetic studies focused on candidate genes in the serotonin and oxytocin systems with results that have not been well replicated. Although two genome-wide association studies have been conducted, no genome-wide significant loci have been discovered. DISCUSSION: There is some evidence to suggest that the serotonin and oxytocin systems may play a role in CU traits; however, there is currently not enough evidence to implicate specific genetic mechanisms. The authors encourage researchers to continue to apply the most up-to-date and relevant methodology, specifically collaborations and consortiums using genome-wide and polygenic methods.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de la Conducta/genética , Trastorno de la Conducta/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Epigénesis Genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Personalidad/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios en Gemelos como Asunto
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(3): 635-658, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920282

RESUMEN

Recent work in personality development has indicated that the magnitude of individual differences in personality increases over child development. Do such patterns reflect the differentiation of individuals by genotype, an increasing influence of environmental factors, or some (interactive) combination of the two? Using a population-based sample of over 2,500 twins and multiples from the Texas Twin Project, we estimated age trends in the variances in self- and parent-reported measures of the Big Five personality traits between Ages 8 and 18 years. We then estimated age trends in the genetic and environmental components of variance in each measure. Individual differences in personality increased in magnitude from childhood through mid-adolescence. This pattern emerged using both children's self-reports and ratings provided by their parents, and was primarily attributable to increases in the magnitude of genetic influences. Most of the increasing genetic variance appeared nonadditive, pointing to the possibility that developmental processes tend to make genetically similar individuals disproportionately more alike in their personality traits over time. These findings could reflect increasing or accumulating effects of trait-by-trait interactions; person-by-environment transactions, whereby genetically similar people are disproportionally likely to experience similar environments; the activation of dominant genes across developmental transitions (e.g., puberty); or some combination of these three processes, among other factors. Theories of personality development will need to accommodate these descriptive findings, and longitudinal, genetically informed designs are needed to test some of the specific hypotheses springing from this study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo del Adolescente/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Genética Conductual , Personalidad/fisiología , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Personalidad/genética , Desarrollo de la Personalidad
19.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(6): 1145-1163, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920283

RESUMEN

Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) can be used to predict individual genetic risk and resilience. For example, a GPS for years of education (EduYears) explains substantial variance in cognitive traits such as general cognitive ability and educational achievement. Personality traits are also known to contribute to individual differences in educational achievement. However, the association between EduYears GPS and personality traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we test the relation between GPS for EduYears, neuroticism, and well-being, and 6 personality and motivation domains: Academic Motivation, Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. The sample was drawn from a U.K.-representative sample of up to 8,322 individuals assessed at age 16. We find that EduYears GPS was positively associated with Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Academic Motivation, predicting between 0.6% and 3% of the variance. In addition, we find that EduYears GPS explains between 8% and 16% of the association between personality domains and educational achievement at the end of compulsory education. In contrast, both the neuroticism and well-being GPS significantly accounted for between 0.3% and 0.7% of the variance in a subset of personality domains. Furthermore, they did not significantly account for any of the covariance between the personality domains and achievement, with the exception of the neuroticism GPS explaining 5% of the covariance between Neuroticism and achievement. These results demonstrate that the genetic effects of educational attainment relate to personality traits, highlighting the multifaceted nature of EduYears GPS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Éxito Académico , Logro , ADN/genética , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Inventario de Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Personalidad/genética , Adolescente , Extraversión Psicológica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Reino Unido
20.
Behav Genet ; 49(3): 286-297, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810878

RESUMEN

The interrelations among well-being, neuroticism, and depression can be captured in a so-called well-being spectrum (3-phenotype well-being spectrum, 3-WBS). Several other human traits are likely linked to the 3-WBS. In the present study, we investigate how the 3-WBS can be expanded. First, we constructed polygenic risk scores for the 3-WBS and used this score to predict a series of traits that have been associated with well-being in the literature. We included information on loneliness, big five personality traits, self-rated health, and flourishing. The 3-WBS polygenic score predicted all the original 3-WBS traits and additionally loneliness, self-rated health, and extraversion (R2 between 0.62% and 1.58%). Next, using LD score regression, we calculated genetic correlations between the 3-WBS and the traits of interest. From all candidate traits, loneliness and self-rated health were found to have the strongest genetic correlations (rg = - 0.79, and rg= 0.64, respectively) with the 3-WBS. Lastly, we use Genomic SEM to investigate the factor structure of the proposed spectrum. The best model fit was obtained for a two-factor model including the 5-WBS traits, with two highly correlated factors representing the negative- and positive end of the spectrum. Based on these analyses we propose to include loneliness and self-rated health in the WBS and use a 5-phenotype well-being spectrum in future studies to gain more insight into the determinants of human well-being.


Asunto(s)
Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Personalidad/genética , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Depresión , Extraversión Psicológica , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética/métodos , Envejecimiento Saludable , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Soledad/psicología , Masculino , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Neuroticismo , Fenotipo
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