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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 141-153, jan.-jun. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150774

RESUMEN

O objetivo desse estudo é analisar e investigar a qualidade de vida em pessoas com lesão medular, através de uma revisão sistemática. Buscaram-se os principais trabalhos publicados no período de 2006 a 2019, nas bases de dados CAPES e Scielo. Todos os estudos utilizaram medidores quantitativos sobre qualidade de vida, os quais são: o WHOQOL-Bref e o SF-36. Os resultados de forma geral mostraram que o sujeito com lesão medular avalia sua qualidade de vida como boa e sua saúde de forma geral satisfatória. O domínio físico e do meio ambiente foram os domínios mais citados nas pesquisas como um fator negativo, sendo ele relacionado com a questão da acessibilidade. Verificou-se que estudos futuros são de extrema importância, para compreender a qualidade de vida desses indivíduos, assim como para a melhoria de políticas públicas para questão de acessibilidade e autonomia desses sujeitos.(AU)


The aim of this study is to analyze and investigate the quality of life in people with spinal cord injury, through a systematic review. The main studies published in the period 2006 to 2019 were searched in the CAPES, Scielo. All the studies used quantitative measure about quality of life, which were the WHOQOL-Bref and the SF-36. The results generally showed that the subject with spinal cord injury evaluates their quality of life as good and their health in a general satisfactory manner. The physical and environmental domains were the most cited domains in the researches as a negative factor, being related to the issue of accessibility. It was found that future studies are extremely important to understand the quality of life of these individuals, as well as for the improvement of public policies for the question of accessibility and autonomy of these subjects.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal , Personas con Discapacidad , Política Pública , Autonomía Personal
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800131

RESUMEN

Selection of assistive technology devices (ATDs), which are imperative for persons with disabilities to improve their quality of life, requires collaboration of users and multidisciplinary professionals. However, it is still unknown how to design and implement an adequate collaborative work flow and a professional team. Under Japanese governmental ATD provision system, based on the application by clients, ATDs are mainly selected through collaborative processes with the clients and health professionals in public organizations, rehabilitation counseling centers (RCCs). By employing qualitative study methods in this study, we investigated the ATD selection process in which health professionals in RCCs collaboratively assess clients with physical disabilities so as to support them in selecting the adequate ATDs. To identify the perspectives required for ATD selection completely, the assessment processes were recorded and analyzed with a pseudo setting in two RCCs. Content analysis of the conversations between the client and professionals revealed the characteristics of the information exchanged in the assessment processes. A total of 760 assessment items were identified, thus indicating a broad array of interest. Despite the richness of information collected for the assessment, half of the assessment items did not have corresponding items in the documents that were employed during the prescription process. Thematic analysis of the interviews that followed revealed the common values and collaborative processes in ATD selection, which were shared and elaborated among the staff in daily social interactions. To facilitate implementation of ATD provision in various areas with few resources, it may be effective to convert this tacit-to-tacit knowledge sharing into a more explicit sharing by promoting analyses of good practices.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Dispositivos de Autoayuda , Consejo , Humanos , Japón , Calidad de Vida
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804553

RESUMEN

This systematic review adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement (PRISMA) guidelines and used the method of network meta-analysis to compare the effects of different types of interventions from different perspectives which were abilities of daily life activity, psychological health, social functioning, and overall life quality. The eligibility criteria were: (1) Participants were adults above 18 years old with disabilities; (2) Interventions could be classified into active exercise, passive therapy, psychological education, psychosocial support program, multi-disciplinary program, and usual care; (3) Outcomes should be the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that could be classified into abilities of daily life activity, psychological health, social functioning, and overall life quality; (4) Randomized designed and published in English. The keywords and their search field were: (1) "people with disabilities/disability", "disabled", "handicapped", or "disable people" in titles or abstracts; (2) AND "randomized" or "randomised" in titles or abstracts; (3) NOT "design", "protocol", or "review" in titles. After searching in databases of Medline (EBSCO), PubMed, CINAHL, and Ovid, 16 studies were included. As a result, active exercise and passive therapy are most likely to be the best interventions for overall life quality, psychological education and passive therapy are most likely to be the best interventions for abilities of daily life activity, and psychosocial support programs are most likely to be the best intervention for psychological health and social functioning.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Metaanálisis en Red , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806884

RESUMEN

Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) need to adapt to their progressive disability to achieve and maintain a high degree of life satisfaction (LS), but little is known about the meaning of LS and adaptation. This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of the meaning of LS and adaptation in persons with PD. Open-ended in-depth interviews were performed with 13 persons diagnosed with PD, 9 women, 3 men, and one non-binary person (mean age 54 years, mean time since diagnosis 3.4 years). The interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. The participants were in the process of adapting to their new health situation. There were two quite distinct groups: one that adapted through acceptance and one that struggled to resist the disease and the profound impact it had on their lives. The thematic structural analysis covers eight themes illustrating the meaning of LS and adaptation, through either acceptance or resistance. Adaptation to PD involves a transitional process characterized by either acceptance or resistance, which influences a person's LS. Acceptance makes LS possible, whereas resistance constitutes a behavioral barrier to adaptation and LS. Rehabilitation professionals need to understand this individual process to be able to support a person with PD to reach and maintain a high level of LS. Understanding the link between LS and adaptation can support rehabilitation professionals to provide targeted interventions for people with PD.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Enfermedad de Parkinson , Adaptación Psicológica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción Personal , Investigación Cualitativa , Tiempo
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807823

RESUMEN

Work disability may originate early during work history and involve sickness absences (SA) and eventually permanent disability. We studied this process over 15 years. Questionnaire data collected in 1981 on health, working conditions, and lifestyle of Finnish municipal employees aged 44-58 years (n = 6257) were linked with registers on SA (≥10 workdays), disability pension, and death from the period 1986-1995. Trajectory analysis was used to assess development in SA (days/year) over 5 years (1981-1985). We analyzed determinants of the trajectories with multinomial regression, while trajectory membership was used as a predictor of disability pension (DP) during the subsequent 10 years in survival analysis. Three SA trajectories emerged: increasing (women: 6.8%; men: 10.2%), moderate (21.2%; 22.7%), and low. In a mutually adjusted model, the increasing trajectory in women was associated with baseline musculoskeletal (MSD), mental and respiratory disorders, injuries, obesity, sleep problems, and low exercise (effect sizes OR > 2), and in men with MSD, sleep problems, smoking, low exercise, and non-satisfaction with management. The moderate trajectory associated with MSD, 'other somatic disorders', sleep problems, and awkward work postures in both genders; in women, also overweight, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, and (inversely) knowledge-intensive work, and in men, smoking and mental disorders were thus associated. Ten-year risks of DP contrasting increasing vs. low SA were more than 10-fold in both genders and contrasting moderate vs. low SA 3-fold in women and 2-fold in men. These findings emphasize the need for early identification of workers with short-term problems of work ability and interventions regarding lifestyle, health, and working conditions, to help prevent permanent disability.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Jubilación , Adulto , Femenino , Finlandia/epidemiología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pensiones , Ausencia por Enfermedad
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808617

RESUMEN

People with intellectual disability (ID) and extensive support needs experience poorer quality of life than their peers whose disability is not as severe. Many of them live in residential settings that limit community participation and prevent them from exercising control over their lives. This work analyzes the extent to which professional practices are aimed at promoting the right to community living for people with ID and extensive support needs, as well as the rights that are particularly linked to it, such as the right to habilitation and rehabilitation and the right to privacy. A specific questionnaire was designed and administered to 729 adults with intellectual disability (M = 37.05; DT = 12.79) living in different settings (family home, residential facilities and group homes). Measurement and structural models were estimated using exploratory structural equation modeling. Results obtained reveal that people with extensive support needs receive less support in terms of guaranteeing their right to independent living and privacy, especially when they live in disability-related services. This study highlights the need to implement and monitor, using valid and reliable indicators, mesosystem strategies that guarantee the right to live and participate in the community, especially for individuals with ID and extensive support needs.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Discapacidad Intelectual , Adulto , Hogares para Grupos , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Instituciones Residenciales
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808812

RESUMEN

We aim to evaluate the association between self-reported disabilities and infertility and whether disabilities are associated with decreased likelihood of seeking infertility-related care. This US nationally representative cross-sectional analysis includes 3789 non-pregnant women aged 18-49 years without history of hysterectomy or oophorectomy (NHANES, 2013-2018). Disabilities and infertility were both self-reported in personal interviews with trained interviewers. Logistic regression models estimated the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between disabilities and infertility and related care seeking. Models adjusted for potential confounders and complex probability sampling. Compared to women without disabilities, women with disabilities (WWD) had higher odds of infertility (aOR: 1.78 (1.31-2.40)). Similar findings were observed for sensory (2.32 (1.52-3.52)) and cognitive disabilities (1.77 (1.28-2.44)). Among women with infertility, WWD were less likely to seek infertility-related care (0.68 (0.32-1.44)) but these estimates were not statistically significant. WWD have increased odds of reporting infertility, and if affected, are less likely to visit a health care provider for this condition. While more research is needed to understand reproductive health issues and needs among WWD, it is important to push for more equitable policies and practices to address the health needs of this underserved population.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Infertilidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Reproducción , Adulto Joven
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809518

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Assistive Technology (AT) refers to "assistive products and related systems and services developed for people to maintain or improve functioning and thereby to promote well-being". Improving the process of design and creation of assistive products is an important step towards strengthening AT provision. PURPOSE: (1) to present a framework for designing and creating Low-Cost AT; (2) to display the preliminary results and evidence derived from applying the framework. METHODOLOGY: First, an evidence-based process was applied to develop and conceptualize the framework. Then, a pilot project to validate the framework was carried out. The sample was formed by 11 people with disabilities. The measure instruments were specific questionnaire, several forms of the Matching Person-Technology model, the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale, and a tool to assess the usability and universal design of AT. RESULTS: The framework integrates three phases: Identification (Design), Creation (Making the prototype), and Implementation (Outcome Measures), based on the principles of Design Thinking, and with a user-centered perspective. The preliminary results showed the coherence of the entire process and its applicability. The matching between person and device was high, representing the importance of involving the user in the design and selection of AT. CONCLUSIONS: The framework is a guide for professionals and users to apply a Low-Cost and Do-It-Yourself perspective to the provision of AT. It highlights the importance of monitoring the entire procedure and measuring the effects, by applying the outcome measures.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Dispositivos de Autoayuda , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Tecnología
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809690

RESUMEN

This paper aims to address the information gap on the influence of socio-demographic factors on access and utilization of Assistive Technology (AT) among children with disabilities in Malawi. Thus, it contributes towards the realization of the recommendations of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with disabilities and the development of a framework for creating an effective national AT policy. The paper used two statistically matched datasets, namely, the 2017 survey on Living conditions among persons with disabilities in Malawi and the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health survey. Logistic regression and structural equation modeling techniques were utilized to assess the influence of socio-demographic factors on the use of AT among children with disabilities. The results indicate that there is a high level of unmet need for AT among young children aged 2 to 9 and those living in urban areas. The results further indicate that children with multiple disabilities have lower odds (OR = 0.924) of using AT for personal mobility compared to children with a single functional difficulty. These results entail that AT needs for children with multiple disabilities are not adequately addressed. Therefore, when developing policies on AT, younger children and those with multiple disabilities need to be specifically targeted.


Asunto(s)
Niños con Discapacidad , Personas con Discapacidad , Dispositivos de Autoayuda , Niño , Preescolar , Demografía , Humanos , Malaui , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799941

RESUMEN

The interest and competitiveness in sports for persons with disabilities has increased significantly in the recent years, creating a demand for technological tools supporting practice. Wearable sensors offer non-invasive, portable and overall convenient ways to monitor sports practice. This systematic review aims at providing current evidence on the application of wearable sensors in sports for persons with disability. A search for articles published in English before May 2020 was performed on Scopus, Web-Of-Science, PubMed and EBSCO databases, searching titles, abstracts and keywords with a search string involving terms regarding wearable sensors, sports and disability. After full paper screening, 39 studies were included. Inertial and EMG sensors were the most commonly adopted wearable technologies, while wheelchair sports were the most investigated. Four main target applications of wearable sensors relevant to sports for people with disability were identified and discussed: athlete classification, injury prevention, performance characterization for training optimization and equipment customization. The collected evidence provides an overview on the application of wearable sensors in sports for persons with disability, providing useful indication for researchers, coaches and trainers. Several gaps in the different target applications are highlighted altogether with recommendation on future directions.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Deportes , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Atletas , Humanos , Monitoreo Fisiológico
11.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 268, 2021 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882871

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Socio-demographic transitions have dramatically changed the traditional family care settings in China, caused unmet care needs among older adults. However, whether different primary caregiver types have different influences on disabled older adults' health outcomes remain poorly understood. We aimed to examine the association between the type of primary caregiver (e.g., spouse and children) and death among community-dwelling Chinese older adults disabled in activities of daily living. METHODS: We used data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 4278 eligible adults aged ≥ 80 years. We classified primary caregiver type into five categories: spouse, son/daughter-in-law, daughter/son-in-law, grandchildren, and domestic helper. We used Cox regression model to examine the association between primary caregiver type and all-cause mortality. Covariates included age, sex, residence, years of education, co-residence status, financial independence, whether living with children, number of ADL disability, number of chronic conditions, and self-reported health, cognitive impairment, and caregiving quality. RESULTS: Married older adults whose primary caregivers were son/daughter-in-law had a 38% higher hazard of death than those who had spouse as the primary caregiver. Married men who received care primarily from son/daughter-in-law or daughter/son-in-law had a 64 and 68% higher hazard of death, respectively, than those whose primary caregiver was spouse. The association between primary caregiver type and mortality among widowed older adults differed between urban and rural areas. Urban residents who had domestic helpers as the primary caregiver had an 16% lower hazard of death, while those living in rural areas had a 50% higher hazard of death, than those having son/daughter-in-law as the primary caregiver. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of care of the primary caregiver may be a risk factor for mortality of disabled older adults in China. Interventions are necessary for reducing unmet needs and managing care burden.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Personas con Discapacidad , Actividades Cotidianas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
12.
Codas ; 33(1): e20190184, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886743

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: to analyze the composition of teams and the geographical distribution of the services and professionals of the Health Care Network for People with Disabilities (RCPD, initials in Portuguese). METHODS: cross-sectional observational study developed from secondary data on the specialized component in rehabilitation, with a sample of 3,271 professionals. RESULTS: half of the services was observed in three broad regions; there is a greater representation of Specialized Services in Intellectual Disability Rehabilitation (SERDI, initials in Portuguese), private services and physiotherapists. We observed that most services had full teams; however, most of them do not comply with the minimum workload established by national policy. The Enlarged Health Regions of Jequitinhonha, Norte and the Centros Especializados em Reabilitação (CER, initials in Portuguese) modality presented the highest averages in terms of professionals and workload. Our results show a significant statistical association between full teams and private services. CONCLUSION: these results have the potential to contribute to the development of strategies to minimize the disparities found in the geographical distribution, in rehabilitation modalities, and public service investments.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Discapacidad Intelectual , Estudios Transversales , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Humanos
13.
Dimens Crit Care Nurs ; 40(3): 164-173, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792276

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early mobilization (EM) is associated with reduced physical disability post-intensive care (PD PIC). Yet, contextual factors facilitate or impede delivery of EM in the intensive care unit (ICU). Only 45% of ICUs in the United States routinely practice EM despite its recognized benefits. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the evidence on the relationship between critical care EM, PD PIC, and personal (patient-level) factors, using the theoretical lens of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). METHOD: The Whittemore and Knafl methodology for integrative reviews and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) reporting guidelines were followed. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies (n = 38) that evaluated EM and 1 or more domains of the World Health Organization ICF were included. Quality was appraised using the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. Study characteristics were evaluated for common themes and relationships. The ICF domains and subdomains pertaining to each study were synthesized. RESULTS: Early mobilization delivery was influenced by personal factors. Deeper sedation level, the presence of delirium, higher patient acuity, the presence of medical devices, and patient weight were identified barriers to EM delivery. Patient engagement in EM was associated with improved delivery. Patients who enjoyed rehabilitation were more likely to demonstrate improvement in functional impairment than those who did not enjoy rehabilitation. DISCUSSION: Early mobilization is associated with reduced PD PIC, yet numerous contextual factors affect the delivery of EM in the ICU. Further study of patient-level factors and EM must explore the relationship between patient engagement, baseline demographics, and functional status at ICU admission, patient-level considerations for decisions to mobilize, and EM in the ICU. This research is critical to improving the delivery of EM in the ICU and reducing PD PIC.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Ambulación Precoz , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805159

RESUMEN

This study investigates to what extent pain in multiple sites and common risk factors related to work environment, occupational class and health behaviours are associated with cause-specific work disability (WD) development clusters. The study population was derived from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (n = 2878). Sequence analysis created clusters of similar subsequent cause-specific WD development in an eight-year follow-up period. Cross-tabulations and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the extent to which baseline factors, including pain in multiple sites, were associated with the subsequent WD clusters. A solution with five distinct WD clusters was chosen: absence of any WD (40%), low and temporary WD due to various causes (46%), WD due to mental disorders (3%), WD due to musculoskeletal (8%) and WD due to other causes (4%). Half of the employees in the musculoskeletal WD cluster had pain in multiple locations. In the adjusted model the number of pain sites, low occupational class and physical working conditions were linked to the musculoskeletal WD. The identified characteristics of the different WD clusters may help target tailored work disability prevention measures for those at risk.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Trastornos Mentales , Finlandia/epidemiología , Humanos , Dolor , Factores de Riesgo
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805507

RESUMEN

This study investigated smoking behaviors by disability type among people with disabilities in Korea and identified factors associated with attempted smoking cessation and successful four-week smoking abstinence. Data were collected between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2019. Predictors of attempted smoking cessation and successful four-week smoking abstinence were analyzed by disability type in 557 participants. Compared to people with mental health disorders, people with physical disabilities or brain lesions were more likely to attempt smoking cessation, and people with physical or internal disabilities were more likely to successfully abstain for four weeks. Common predictors of smoking cessation attempts and four-week abstinence were education level and CO level. Employment status predicted attempted cessation, while confidence in smoking cessation predicted four-week abstinence. To provide effective smoking cessation services for people with disabilities, disability type should be considered, and comprehensive and sustainable community-based programs need to be developed. Furthermore, a standardized survey of people with disabilities should be conducted to examine socioeconomic factors, including health status, employment, and education level, and to explore fundamental measures needed to address the problem of smoking among people with disabilities.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Humanos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Seúl , Fumar
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805538

RESUMEN

Some population groups could be especially vulnerable to the effects of population ageing. The Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI) has been proposed as a measure of disability, but it has not been used in minority groups. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of disability using the GALI and to analyse its determinants in immigrant and Roma populations. Data from the Spanish National Health Survey 2017 and the National Health Survey of the Roma Population 2014 were used, including adults aged 50 and above. Prevalence of disability was estimated, and odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression models to assess the association between disability and demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables. The prevalence of disability was estimated at 39.4%, 30.6%, and 58.7% in the native, immigrant, and Roma populations, respectively. Gender was a common determinant for the native and Roma populations. On the other hand, among immigrants, the risk of disability increased over the time residing in Spain. There were significant interactions with age and gender in the native population. Disability has different determinants in the three population groups. Public health measures to protect the Roma population and immigrants' health should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios , Factores Socioeconómicos , España/epidemiología
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809884

RESUMEN

This paper presents a new architecture that integrates Internet of Things (IoT) devices, service robots, and users in a smart assistive environment. A new intuitive and multimodal interaction system supporting people with disabilities and bedbound patients is presented. This interaction system allows the user to control service robots and devices inside the room in five different ways: touch control, eye control, gesture control, voice control, and augmented reality control. The interaction system is comprised of an assistive robotic arm holding a tablet PC. The robotic arm can place the tablet PC in front of the user. A demonstration of the developed technology, a prototype of a smart room equipped with home automation devices, and the robotic assistive arm are presented. The results obtained from the use of the various interfaces and technologies are presented in the article. The results include user preference with regard to eye-base control (performing clicks, and using winks or gaze) and the use of mobile phones over augmented reality glasses, among others.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Robotizados , Dispositivos de Autoayuda , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799344

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the kinematic characteristics of the upper limb segments during the archery shooting of Paralympic Wheelchair Class archers (ARW2-second wheelchair class-paraplegia or comparable disability) and Paralympic Standing Class archers (ARST-standing archery class-loss of 25 points in the upper limbs or lower limbs), where archers are classified according to their disability grade among elite disabled archers. The participants of this study were selected as seven elite athletes with disabilities by the ARW2 (n = 4) and ARST (n = 3). The analysis variables were (1) the time required for each phase, (2) the angle of inclination of the body center, (3) the change of trajectory of body center, and (4) the change of the movement trajectory of the bow center by phase when performing six shots in total. The ARW2 group (drawing phase; M = 2.228 s, p < 0.05, holding phase; M = 4.414 s, p < 0.05) showed a longer time than the ARST group (drawing phase; M = 0.985 s, holding phase; M = 3.042 s), and the angle of the body did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Additionally, in the direction of the anteroposterior axis in the drawing phase, the change in the movement trajectory of the body center showed a more significant amount of change in the ARW2 group than in the ARST group, and the change in the movement trajectory of the bow center did not show a significant difference between the two groups.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Deportes , Atletas , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Estudios de Factibilidad , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799429

RESUMEN

Workers living with intellectual disability suffer in a special way from the onset of premature aging. Hence the need to generate alternatives and policies for the development of a new model for active aging and the care of workers with intellectual disability. Our objective in this study is, therefore, to devise intervention measures that can minimize the effects of aging on the lives and the activities of these workers. Employing the Delphi technique, we assembled and consulted a panel of 8 experts with relevant expertise in the fields of intellectual disability; aging; employment and dependency. The panel included employers, families and workers with disability. Each expert reached a prior consensus over every response and contribution after having consulted four other experts with similar backgrounds, a consultative process in which a total of 40 experts participated. A total of 68 measures were proposed which correspond to three lines of action or key contexts: Firms and Organizations that employ People with Intellectual Disability; People with Intellectual Disability, and Family setting. In all, 10 recommendations with a focus on both firms and organizations were advanced to implement the proposed measures. The conclusion was that interventions are needed from the time at which the first symptoms of deterioration are detected, which should not necessarily lead to immediate loss of employment, as well as individualized and coordinated interventions among all relevant stakeholders, including the families.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Discapacidad Intelectual , Envejecimiento , Consenso , Empleo , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/epidemiología
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805773

RESUMEN

Poor accessibility of healthcare facilities is a major barrier for people with disabilities when seeking care. Yet, accessibility is rarely routinely audited. This study reports findings from the first national assessment of the accessibility of primary health care facilities, undertaken in Brazil. A national accessibility audit was conducted by trained staff of all 38,812 primary healthcare facilities in Brazil in 2012, using a 22-item structured questionnaire. An overall accessibility score was created (22 items), and three sub-scales: external accessibility (eight items), internal accessibility (eight items), information accessibility (six items). The main finding is that the overall accessibility score of primary care facilities in Brazil was low (mean of 22, standard deviation (SD) of 0.21, on a 0-100 scale). Accessibility of different aspects of the healthcare facilities was also low, including external space (mean = 31.0, SD = 2.0), internal space (18.9, 1.9) and accessibility features for people with other visual or hearing impairments (6.3, SD = 1.0). Scores were consistently better in the least poor regions of Brazil and in facilities in larger municipality size (indicating more urban areas). In conclusion, large-scale accessibility audits are feasible to undertake. Poor accessibility means that people with disabilities will experience difficulties in accessing healthcare, and this is a violation of their rights according to international and Brazilian laws.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Derecho a la Salud , Brasil , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Atención Primaria de Salud
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