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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e23989, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792551

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are significantly higher among young people experiencing homelessness than in the general population. Despite a willingness to quit, homeless youth have little success in doing so on their own, and existing cessation resources tailored to this population are lacking. Homeless youth generally enjoy the camaraderie and peer support that group-based programs offer, but continuous in-person support during a quit attempt can be prohibitively expensive. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an automated text messaging intervention (TMI) as an adjunct to group-based cessation counseling and provision of nicotine patches to help homeless youth quit smoking. This paper outlines the lessons learned from the implementation of the TMI intervention. METHODS: Homeless youth smokers aged 18 to 25 years who were interested in quitting (n=77) were recruited from drop-in centers serving homeless youth in the Los Angeles area. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, all participants received a group-based cessation counseling session and nicotine patches, with 52% (40/77) randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of text messages to provide additional support for their quit attempt. Participants received text messages on their own phone rather than receiving a study-issued phone for the TMI. We analyzed baseline and follow-up survey data as well as back-end data from the messaging platform to gauge the acceptability and feasibility of the TMI among the 40 participants who received it. RESULTS: Participants had widespread (smart)phone ownership-16.4% (36/219) were ineligible for study participation because they did not have a phone that could receive text messages. Participants experienced interruptions in their phone use (eg, 44% [16/36] changed phone numbers during the follow-up period) but reported being able to receive the majority of messages. These survey results were corroborated by back-end data (from the program used to administer the TMI) showing a message delivery rate of about 95%. Participant feedback points to the importance of carefully crafting text messages, which led to high (typically above 70%) approval of most text messaging components of the intervention. Qualitative feedback indicated that participants enjoyed the group counseling session that preceded the TMI and suggested including more such group elements into the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The TMI was well accepted and feasible to support smoking cessation among homeless youth. Given high rates of smartphone ownership, the next generation of phone-based smoking cessation interventions for this population should consider using approaches beyond text messages and focus on finding ways to develop effective approaches to include group interaction using remote implementation. Given overall resource constraints and in particular the exigencies of the currently ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, phone-based interventions are a promising approach to support homeless youth, a population urgently in need of effective smoking cessation interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03874585; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03874585. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13722-020-00187-6.


Asunto(s)
Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Fumadores/psicología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/efectos adversos , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiología , Masculino , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Fumar/epidemiología , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
2.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3338, 2021 02 24.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822539

RESUMEN

Drawing on multiple sources, this article presents an analysis of a national survey implemented by Street Clinic teams in Brazil on the homeless population and the COVID-19 pandemic. Through the lens of certain ethical-political principles and methodological decisions, we focus our analysis on discourses about who lives and works on the streets during the pandemic, connecting discourse with experience. From the perspective of governmentality and biopolitics, we seek to shed light on power relations that reveal modes of government embodied at the street level - mainly related to isolation measures and social distancing - to create tensions surrounding the emergence of the notion of the homeless population in the midst of the pandemic. We conclude with a discussion of the precariousness that circumscribes life on the streets as a shared condition, and search for ways to comprehend forms of resistance and the right to exist.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Regulación Gubernamental , Política de Salud , Personas sin Hogar , Proveedores de Redes de Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Brasil/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Proveedores de Redes de Seguridad/organización & administración , Justicia Social
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809704

RESUMEN

Poverty creates social conditions that increase the likelihood of homelessness. These include exposure to traumatic life experiences; social disadvantages such as poor educational experiences; being raised in a broken family, care homes or foster care; physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; and neglect at an early age. These conditions reduce people's ability to negotiate through life challenges. This cross-sectional study documents the clustering and frequency of adverse social conditions among 152 homeless people from four cities in North West England between January and August 2020. Two-step cluster analysis showed that having parents with a criminal record, care history, and child neglect/abuse history was predictive of homelessness. The cluster of indicator variables among homeless people included sexual abuse (χ2 (N = 152) = 220.684, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.7), inappropriate sexual behaviour (χ2 (N = 152) = 207.737, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.7), emotional neglect (χ2 (N = 152) = 181.671, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.7), physical abuse by step-parent (χ2 (N = 152) = 195.882, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.8), and physical neglect (χ2 (N = 152) = 205.632, p < 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.8). Poverty and homelessness are intertwined because of the high prevalence of poverty among the homeless. Poverty sets up a chain of interactions between social conditions that increase the likelihood of unfavourable outcomes: homelessness is at the end of the interaction chain. Interventions supporting families to rise out of poverty may also reduce entry into homelessness.


Asunto(s)
Personas sin Hogar , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Niño , Análisis por Conglomerados , Estudios Transversales , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Humanos
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(7): 3132-3135, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877682

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Vulnerable populations are being more severely impacted by the ongoing pandemic, and the recent release of vaccines for Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) may offer them protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of homeless persons to be vaccinated against COVID-19; secondary aims were to analyze the immunization coverage for other conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine and immunization coverage for other conditions were investigated through a form in 112 persons experiencing homelessness referring to the primary care medical services of the Eleemosynaria Apostolica, Holy See. RESULTS: Most subjects, with a male preponderance, were willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19 (64.3%), 3.6% were unsure and 32.1% preferred not to be vaccinated. When answering questions on the immunization coverage for tuberculosis and hepatitis A and B, most subjects reported not to be vaccinated (48.2%, 56.2% and 55.3%, respectively) or did not know (33%, 28.6% and 27.7%). CONCLUSIONS: A significant portion of our sample declared to be willing to be vaccinated against COVID-19. It would be auspicious that the recent statements from several countries on the importance to extend COVID-19 vaccination to fragile populations be followed by the distribution of the vaccine to these populations.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , /prevención & control , Personas sin Hogar , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Hepatitis A/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la Hepatitis A/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis B/prevención & control , Vacunas contra Hepatitis B/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Roma , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 317, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827570

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To identify the determinants of health care use among homeless individuals. METHODS: Data were taken from the Hamburg survey of homeless individuals (n = 100 individuals in the here used model, mean age 44.8 years, SD 12.5) focusing on homeless individuals in Hamburg, Germany. The number of physician visits in the past 3 months and hospitalization in the preceding 12 months were used as outcome measures. Drawing on the Andersen model of health care use as a conceptual framework, predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need factors as well as psychosocial variables were included as correlates. RESULTS: Negative binomial regressions showed that increased physician visits were associated with being female (IRR: 4.02 [95% CI: 1.60-10.11]), absence of chronic alcohol consume (IRR: 0.26 [95% CI: 0.12-0.57]) and lower health-related quality of life (IRR: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.96-0.98]). Furthermore, logistic regressions showed that the likelihood of hospitalization was positively associated with lower age (OR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.89-0.98]), having health insurance (OR: 8.11 [2.11-30.80]) and lower health-related quality of life (OR: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.94-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that predisposing characteristics (both age and sex), enabling resources (i.e., health insurance) and need factors in terms of health-related quality of life are main drivers of health care use among homeless individuals. This knowledge may assist in managing health care use.


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Personas sin Hogar , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Adulto , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210490, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651111

RESUMEN

Importance: Several jurisdictions in the United States have secured hotels to temporarily house people experiencing homelessness who require isolation or quarantine for confirmed or suspected coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To our knowledge, little is known about how these programs serve this vulnerable population outside the hospital setting. Objective: To assess the safety of a hotel-based isolation and quarantine (I/Q) care system and its association with inpatient hospital capacity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study of a hotel-based I/Q care system for homeless and unstably housed individuals in San Francisco, California, was conducted from March 19 to May 31, 2020. Individuals unable to safely isolate or quarantine at home with mild to moderate COVID-19, persons under investigation, or close contacts were referred from hospitals, outpatient settings, and public health surveillance to 5 I/Q hotels. Of 1009 I/Q hotel guests, 346 were transferred from a large county public hospital serving patients experiencing homelessness. Exposure: A physician-supervised team of nurses and health workers provided around-the-clock support, including symptom monitoring, wellness checks, meals, harm-reduction services, and medications for opioid use disorder. Main Outcomes and Measures: Characteristics of I/Q hotel guests, program retention, county hospital readmissions, and mean length of stay. Results: Overall, the 1009 I/Q hotel guests had a median age of 44 years (interquartile range, 33-55 years), 756 (75%) were men, 454 (45%) were Latinx, and 501 (50%) were persons experiencing sheltered (n = 295) or unsheltered (n = 206) homelessness. Overall, 463 (46%) received a diagnosis of COVID-19; 303 of 907 (33%) had comorbid medical disorders, 225 of 907 (25%) had comorbid mental health disorders, and 236 of 907 (26%) had comorbid substance use disorders. A total of 776 of 955 guests (81%) completed their I/Q hotel stay; factors most strongly associated with premature discontinuation were unsheltered homelessness (adjusted odds ratio, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.3-8.6; P < .001) and quarantine status (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6; P = .001). In total, 346 of 549 patients (63%) were transferred from the county hospital; of 113 ineligible referrals, 48 patients (42%) had behavioral health needs exceeding I/Q hotel capabilities. Thirteen of the 346 patients transferred from the county hospital (4%) were readmitted for worsening COVID-19. Overall, direct transfers to I/Q hotels from emergency and outpatient departments were associated with averting many hospital admissions. There was a nonsignificant decrease in the mean hospital length of stay for inpatients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 from 5.5 to 2.7 days from March to May 2020 (P = .11). Conclusions and Relevance: To support persons experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic, San Francisco rapidly and safely scaled a hotel-based model of I/Q that was associated with reduced strain on inpatient capacity. Strategies to improve guest retention and address behavioral health needs not met in hotel settings are intervention priorities.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Personas sin Hogar , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Cuarentena , Adulto , Femenino , Hospitales Públicos , Vivienda , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Cooperación del Paciente , Readmisión del Paciente , Transferencia de Pacientes , Estudios Retrospectivos , San Francisco , Poblaciones Vulnerables
8.
CMAJ Open ; 9(1): E302-E308, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785478

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is unclear what the best strategy is for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among residents of homeless shelters and what individual factors are associated with testing positive for the virus. We sought to evaluate factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among residents of homeless shelters and to evaluate positivity rates in shelters where testing was conducted in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks or for surveillance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart audit to obtain repeated cross-sectional data from outreach testing done at homeless shelters between Apr. 1 and July 31, 2020, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. We compared the SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate for shelters where testing was conducted because of an outbreak (at least 1 known case) with those tested for surveillance (no known cases). A patient-level analysis evaluated differences in demographic, health and behavioural characteristics of residents who did and did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2 at shelters with at least 2 positive cases. RESULTS: One thousand nasopharyngeal swabs were done on 872 unique residents at 20 shelter locations. Among the 504 tests done in outbreak settings, 69 (14%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 1 (0.2%) was indeterminate. Among the 496 tests done for surveillance, 11 (2%) were positive and none were indeterminate. Shelter residents who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were significantly less likely to have a health insurance card (54% v. 72%, p = 0.03) or to have visited another shelter in the last 14 days (0% v. 18%, p < 0.01). There was no association between SARS-CoV-2 positivity and medical history or symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support testing of asymptomatic shelter residents for SARS-CoV-2 when a positive case is identified at the same shelter. Surveillance testing when there are no known positive cases may detect outbreaks, but further research should identify efficient strategies given scarce testing resources.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , /genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Seguro de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ontario/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
9.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 26, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658042

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated unprecedented changes in the way that services are delivered to individuals experiencing homelessness and problem substance use. Protecting those at high risk of infection/transmission, whilst addressing the multiple health and social needs of this group, is of utmost importance. The aim of this novel qualitative study was to document how one service in Scotland, the Wellbeing Centre run by The Salvation Army, adapted in response. METHODS: Care was taken to identify methods that did not create additional stress at this pressured time. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Centre clients (n = 10, in-person and telephone) and staff (n = 5, telephone), and external professionals (n = 5, telephone), during April-August 2020. These were audio-recorded, fully transcribed, and analysed using Framework. Service documents were used to enhance contextual understanding. Analysis was informed by theories of psychologically informed environments and enabling environments. RESULTS: The start of the pandemic was a time of confusion, disruption, and isolation. Centre staff rapidly adapted methods of engagement to provide a range of comprehensive physical and emotional supports, to both existing and new clients, through telephone and online communication and, eventually, socially distanced in-person support. This involved balancing the risks of COVID-19 infection/transmission with the benefits of continuity of support to those highly vulnerable to a range of harms. Whilst the pandemic created many challenges, it also facilitated removal of barriers, particularly concerning provision of harm reduction services which had previously been severely constrained. Clients described the Centre as a 'lifeline', providing stability and safety during a period of profound disruption when other services closed their doors. Strong leadership, intensive team working, support/training for staff, a focus on relationships, and active use of client feedback, enabled responsive adaptation to fast-changing demands and the creation of a 'culture of care'. CONCLUSION: This study provides a unique insight into the pandemic by analysing the response of one homeless service during the height of the pandemic. We present a range of implications that have international relevance for those designing policies, and adapting front-line services, to proactively respond to COVID-19 and the continued public health crises of homelessness and drug-related deaths.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Reducción del Daño , Personas sin Hogar , Apoyo Social , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Investigación Cualitativa , Escocia
11.
Med Care ; 59(Suppl 2): S101-S102, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710079

RESUMEN

This introduction describes the impetus and context for this special issue on multimorbidity in homeless populations. The guest editors begin the introduction by describing the problem of homelessness which has been exacerbated by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The editors then describe the content of this special issue, which includes original research examining special populations such as homeless youth, aging populations, and Veterans as well as medical and behavioral health conditions such as tuberculosis, HIV, and opioid use disorder. Two editorials are also included in this special issue that comment on the history of homelessness and the link between homelessness and suicide. The editors acknowledge the different stakeholders that helped support this special issue and highlight the need for continued research and innovative solutions to improve the health, housing, and well-being of homeless populations.


Asunto(s)
Personas sin Hogar , Multimorbilidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por VIH , Vivienda , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Opioides , Suicidio , Tuberculosis , Veteranos
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(4): 287-300, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rate of alcohol-related mortality in people experiencing homelessness and alcohol use disorder is high and necessitates accessible and effective treatment for alcohol use disorder. However, typical abstinence-based treatments do not optimally engage this population. Recent studies have shown that harm-reduction treatment, which does not require abstinence, but instead aims to incrementally reduce alcohol-related harm and improve health-related quality of life, is acceptable to and effective for this population. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of combined pharmacological and behavioural harm-reduction treatment for alcohol use disorder (HaRT-A) in people experiencing homelessness and alcohol use disorder. METHODS: This randomised clinical trial was done at three community-based service sites (low-barrier shelters and housing programmes) in Seattle (WA, USA). Eligible participants were adults (aged 21-65 years) who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for alcohol use disorder and who experienced homelessness in the past year. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) by permuted block randomisation, stratified by site, to receive either HaRT-A plus intramuscular injections of 380 mg extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group); HaRT-A plus placebo injection (HaRT-A plus placebo group); HaRT-A alone (HaRT-A alone group); or community-based supportive services as usual (services-as-usual control group). Patients assigned to receive HaRT-A attended sessions at baseline (week 0) and in weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. XR-NTX and placebo injections were administered in weeks 0, 4, and 8. During the study, participants, interventionists, and investigators were masked to group assignment in the two injection arms. All participants were invited to follow-up assessments at weeks 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36. The primary outcomes were self-reported alcohol use quantity (ie, alcohol quantity consumed on peak drinking occasion, as measured with the Alcohol Quantity Use Assessment questionnaire) and frequency (measured with the Addiction Severity Index), alcohol-related harm (measured with the Short Inventory of Problems-2R questionnaire), and physical and mental health-related quality of life (measured with the Short Form-12 survey). Using piecewise growth modelling and an intention-to-treat model, we compared the effects of the three active treatment groups with the services-as-usual control group, and the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group with the HaRT-A plus placebo group, over the 12-week treatment course and during the 24 weeks following treatment withdrawal. Safety analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01932801. FINDINGS: Between Oct 14, 2013, and Nov 30, 2017, 417 individuals experiencing homelessness and alcohol use disorder were screened, of whom 308 were eligible and randomly assigned to the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group (n=74), the HaRT-A plus placebo group (n=78), the HaRT-A alone group (n=79), or the services-as-usual control group (n=77). Compared with the services-as-usual control group, the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group showed significant improvements from baseline to 12 weeks post-treatment across four of the five primary outcomes: peak alcohol quantity (linear B -0·48 [95% CI -0·79 to -0·18] p=0·010; full model Cohen's d=-0·68), alcohol frequency (linear B -4·42 [-8·09 to -0·76], p=0·047; full model Cohen's d=-0·16), alcohol-related harm (linear B -2·22 [-3·39 to -1·06], p=0·002; full model Cohen's d=-0·56), and physical health-related quality of life (linear B 0·66 [0·23 to 1·10], p=0·012; full model Cohen's d=0·43). Compared with the services-as-usual control group, the HaRT-A plus placebo group showed significant improvements in three of the five primary outcomes: peak alcohol quantity (linear B -0·41 [95% CI -0·67 to -0·15] p=0·010; full model Cohen's d=-0·23), alcohol frequency (linear B -5·95 [-9·72 to -2·19], p=0·009; full model Cohen's d=-0·13), and physical health-related quality of life (linear B 0·53 [0·09 to 0·98], p=0·050; full model Cohen's d=0·35). Compared with the services-as-usual control group, the HaRT-A alone group showed significant improvements in two of the five primary outcomes: alcohol-related harm (linear B -1·58 [95% CI -2·73 to -0·42] p=0·025; full model Cohen's d=-0·40) and physical health-related quality of life (linear B 0·63 [0·18 to 1·07], p=0·020; full model Cohen's d=0·41). After treatment discontinuation at 12 weeks, the active treatment groups plateaued, whereas the services-as-usual group showed improvements. Thus, during the post-treatment period (weeks 12 to 36), the services-as-usual control group showed greater reductions in alcohol-related harm compared with both the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group (linear B 0·96 [0·24 to 1·67], p=0·028; full model Cohen's d=0·24) and the HaRT-A alone group (linear B 1·02 [0·35 to 1·70], p=0·013; full model Cohen's d=0·26). During the post-treatment period, the services-as-usual control group significantly improved on mental health-related quality of life compared with the HaRT-A alone group (linear B -0·46 [-0·79 to -0·12], p=0·024; full model Cohen's d=-0·28), and on physical health-related quality of life compared with the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group (linear B -0·42 [-0·67 to -0·17], p=0·006; full model Cohen's d=-0·27), the HaRT-A plus placebo group (linear B -0·42 [-0·69 to -0·15], p=0·009; full model Cohen's d=-0·27), and the HaRT-A alone group (linear B -0·47 [-0·72 to -0·22], p=0·002; full model Cohen's d=-0·31). For all other primary outcomes, there were no significant linear differences between the services-as-usual and active treatment groups. When comparing the HaRT-A plus placebo group with the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX group, there were no significant differences for any of the primary outcomes. Missing data analysis indicated that participants were more likely to drop out in the services-as-usual control group than in the active treatment groups; however, primary outcome findings were found to be robust to attrition. Participants in the HaRT-A plus XR-NTX, HaRT-A plus placebo, and HaRT-A alone groups were not more likely to experience adverse events than those in the services-as-usual control group. INTERPRETATION: Compared with existing services, combined pharmacological and behavioural harm-reduction treatment resulted in decreased alcohol use and alcohol-related harm and improved physical health-related quality of life during the 12-week treatment period for people experiencing homelessness and alcohol use disorder. Although not as consistent, there were also positive findings for behavioural harm-reduction treatment alone. Considering the non-significant differences between participants receiving HaRT-A plus placebo and HaRT-A plus XR-NTX, the combined pharmacological and behavioural treatment effect cannot be attributed to XR-NTX alone. Future studies are needed to further investigate the relative contributions of the pharmacological and behavioural components of harm-reduction treatment for alcohol use disorder, and to ascertain whether a maintenance treatment approach could extend these positive outcome trajectories. FUNDING: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.


Asunto(s)
Disuasivos de Alcohol/administración & dosificación , Alcoholismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Personas sin Hogar/psicología , Naltrexona/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Disuasivos de Alcohol/efectos adversos , Alcoholismo/psicología , Terapia Conductista/métodos , Centros Comunitarios de Salud Mental , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Reducción del Daño , Humanos , Inyecciones Intramusculares , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Naltrexona/efectos adversos , Calidad de Vida
14.
Am J Public Health ; 111(5): 835-838, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734837

RESUMEN

Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program, in Boston, Massachusetts, implemented an intensive telehealth case management intervention combined with emergency financial assistance for 270 homeless-experienced people living with HIV (PLWH) to reduce COVID-19 transmission and promote HIV care retention during Boston's first pandemic peak (March 16-May 31, 2020). Our telehealth model successfully maintained prepandemic case management and primary care contact levels, highlighting the importance of such programs in supporting the care engagement of homeless-experienced PLWH and addressing the dual COVID-19 and HIV epidemics.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Manejo de Caso/tendencias , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Personas sin Hogar , Atención Primaria de Salud/economía , Telemedicina/economía , Boston/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/etnología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 27(3): 285-294, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762544

RESUMEN

CONTEXT: Local agencies across the United States have identified public health isolation sites for individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who are not able to isolate in residence. PROGRAM: We describe logistics of establishing and operating isolation and noncongregate hotels for COVID-19 mitigation and use the isolation hotel as an opportunity to understand COVID-19 symptom evolution among people experiencing homelessness (PEH). IMPLEMENTATION: Multiple agencies in Atlanta, Georgia, established an isolation hotel for PEH with COVID-19 and noncongregate hotel for PEH without COVID-19 but at risk of severe illness. PEH were referred to the isolation hotel through proactive, community-based testing and hospital-based testing. Daily symptoms were recorded prospectively. Disposition location was recorded for all clients. EVALUATION: During April 10 to September 1, 2020, 181 isolation hotel clients (77 community referrals; 104 hospital referrals) were admitted a median 3 days after testing. Overall, 32% of community referrals and 7% of hospital referrals became symptomatic after testing positive; 83% of isolation hotel clients reported symptoms at some point; 93% completed isolation. Among 302 noncongregate hotel clients, median stay was 18 weeks; 61% were discharged to permanent housing or had a permanent housing discharge plan. DISCUSSION: Overall, a high proportion of PEH completed isolation at the hotel, suggesting a high level of acceptability. Many PEH with COVID-19 diagnosed in the community developed symptoms after testing, indicating that proactive, community-based testing can facilitate early isolation. Noncongregate hotels can be a useful COVID-19 community mitigation strategy by bridging PEH at risk of severe illness to permanent housing.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Guías como Asunto , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Vivienda/normas , Salud Pública/normas , Cuarentena/normas , Aislamiento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Georgia/epidemiología , Vivienda/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 239, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a leading cause for chronic liver diseases worldwide. The European Union and World Health Organization aspire to eliminate HCV by 2030. However, among at-risk populations, including, homeless people, prisoners and People Who Inject Drugs, access to diagnosis and treatment is challenging. Hepcare Europe is an integrated model of care developed to address this by assessing potential reasons for these restrictions and determining measures needed to improve HCV diagnosis, treatment and access to care within different communities. OBJECTIVES: HepCare Europe is an EU-supported project involving collaboration between five institutions in: Ireland, United Kingdom, Spain and Romania. We aim to explore the journey of care experienced by those living with HCV with a focus on previous care disruptions (loss to follow up) and the new HepCare Europe Programme. METHODS: Research teams conducted semi-structured interviews with patients who accessed services through HepCare Europe thus, patients were recruited by purposeful sampling. Patients interviewed had received, or were in the final weeks of receiving, treatment. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and translated into English, and sent to the Dublin team for inductive thematic analysis. Researchers from the HepCare Europe research team coded the data separately, then together. RESULTS: Common themes are introduced to present similarities, following individual site themes to highlight the importance of tailored interventions for each country. Key themes are: 1) Hepatitis C patients lost to follow up 2) HepCare improved access to treatment and 3) the need for improved HCV education. Individual themes also emerged for each site. These are: Ireland: New opportunities associated with achieving Sustained Virologic Responses (SVR). Romania: HCV is comparatively less crucial in light of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) coinfections. UK: Patients desire support to overcome social barriers and Spain: Improved awareness of HCV, treatment and alcohol use. CONCLUSION: This study identified how the tailored HepCare interventions enabled improved HCV testing and linkage to care outcomes for these patients. Tailored interventions that targeted the needs of patients, increased the acceptability and success of treatment by patients. HepCare demonstrated the need for flexibility in treatment delivery, and provided additional supports to keep patients engaged and educated on new treatment therapies.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Hepatitis C/terapia , Adulto , Consumidores de Drogas , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Hepacivirus , Personas sin Hogar , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prisioneros , Rumanía , España , Respuesta Virológica Sostenida , Reino Unido
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669672

RESUMEN

Homelessness is a persistent problem in the United States in general and in Southern California especially. While progress has been made in reducing the number of people experiencing homelessness in the United States from 2007 (647,000) to 2019 (567,000), it remains an entrenched problem. The purpose of this paper is to outline a novel, interdisciplinary academic-practice partnership model to address homelessness. Where singular disciplinary approaches may fall short in substantially reducing homelessness at the community and population level, our model draws from a collective impact model which coordinates discipline-specific approaches through mutually reinforcing activities and shared metrics of progress and impact to foster synergy and sustainability of efforts. This paper describes the necessary capacity-building at the institution and community level for the model, the complementary strengths and contributions of each stakeholder discipline in the proposed model, and future goals for implementation to address homelessness in the Southern California region.


Asunto(s)
Personas sin Hogar , Creación de Capacidad , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670288

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Current evidence suggests that mortality is considerably higher in individuals experiencing homelessness. The aim of this study was to analyze the mortality rate and the mortality risk factors in a sample of individuals experiencing homelessness in the city of Girona over a ten-year period. (2) Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of 475 people experiencing homelessness with the available clinical and social data. Our sample was comprised of 84.4% men and 51.8% foreign-born people. Cox's proportional hazard models were used to identify mortality risk factors between origin groups. (3) Results: 60 people died during the ten-year period. The average age of death was 49.1 years. After adjusting for demographic characteristics and the duration of homelessness, the risk factors for mortality were origin (people born in Spain) (HR = 4.34; 95% CI = 1.89-10.0), type 2 diabetes (HR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.62-5.30), alcohol use disorder (HR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.12-3.29), and infectious diseases (HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.09-2.39). Our results show a high prevalence of infectious and chronic diseases. Type 2 diabetes emerges as an important risk factor in homelessness. The average age of death of individuals experiencing homelessness was significantly lower than the average age of death in the general population (which is greater than 80 years). (4) Conclusions: Foreign-born homeless people were generally younger and healthier than Spanish-born homeless people. Chronic diseases were controlled better in Spanish-born people, but this group showed an increased risk of mortality.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Personas sin Hogar , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 138, 2021 03 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685434

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Researchers have pointed out the paucity of research investigating long-term consequences of experiencing homelessness in childhood or youth. Limited research has indicated that the experience of homelessness in childhood or youth is associated with adverse adjustment-related consequences in adulthood. Housing First (HF) has acknowledged effectiveness in improving housing outcomes among adults experiencing homelessness and living with serious mental illness, although some HF clients struggle with maintaining housing. The current study was conducted to examine whether the experience of homelessness in childhood or youth increases the odds of poorer housing stability following entry into high-fidelity HF among adults experiencing serious mental illness and who were formerly homeless. METHODS: Data were drawn from the active intervention arms of a HF randomized controlled trial in Metro Vancouver, Canada. Participants (n = 297) were referred to the study from service agencies serving adults experiencing homelessness and mental illness between October 2009 and June 2011. The Residential Time-Line Follow-Back Inventory was used to measure housing stability. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator was used to estimate the association between first experiencing homelessness in childhood or youth and later housing stability as an adult in HF. RESULTS: Analyses indicated that homelessness in childhood or youth was negatively associated with experiencing housing stability as an adult in HF (aOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Further supports are needed within HF to increase housing stability among adult clients who have experienced homelessness in childhood or youth. Asking clients about the age they first experienced homelessness may be of clinical utility upon enrollment in HF and may help identify support needs related to developmental experiences. Results further emphasize the importance of intervening earlier in life in childhood and youth before experiencing homelessness or before it becomes chronic. Findings also contribute to a limited knowledge base regarding the adverse long-term consequences of childhood and youth homelessness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN57595077 and ISRCTN66721740 . Registered on October 9, 2012.


Asunto(s)
Personas sin Hogar , Trastornos Mentales , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Niño , Vivienda , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Problemas Sociales
20.
Am J Public Health ; 111(5): 854-859, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734836

RESUMEN

Objectives. To examine shelter characteristics and infection prevention practices in relation to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection point prevalence during universal testing at homeless shelters in the United States.Methods. SARS-CoV-2 testing was offered to clients and staff at homeless shelters, irrespective of symptoms. Site assessments were conducted from March 30 to June 1, 2020, to collect information on shelter characteristics and infection prevention practices. We assessed the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence and shelter characteristics, including 20 infection prevention practices by using crude risk ratios (RRs) and exact unconditional 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results. Site assessments and SARS-CoV-2 testing results were reported for 63 homeless shelters in 7 US urban areas. Median infection prevalence was 2.9% (range = 0%-71.4%). Shelters implementing head-to-toe sleeping and excluding symptomatic staff from working were less likely to have high infection prevalence (RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8; and RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6; respectively); shelters with medical services available were less likely to have very high infection prevalence (RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2, 1.0).Conclusions. Sleeping arrangements and staffing policies are modifiable factors that might be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence in homeless shelters. Shelters should follow recommended practices to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personas sin Hogar/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana , Humanos , Prevalencia , Estados Unidos
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