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1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 1): 423-428, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813444

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the research was to study the cellular composition of the gums in children of primary school age with normal body weight and overweight for further use of this data in the early diagnostics of periodontal diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We examined 81 children aged from 6 to 12 years. Cytological examination of gingival cytograms was performed in all examined children. RESULTS: Results: Based on the analysis of the quantitative content of epithelial cells in children with normal body weight, their ratio was established, which is determined by the percentage of 0: 6: 94 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial). The obtained data completely coincide with the percentage of the differentiated ratio of epitheliocytes of multilayered squamous epithelium in children with normal body weight with inflammation and without it in the periodontal tissues. Our cytological examinations of gingival scrape smears in overweight children in contrast to the results of the study of epithelial scrape smears in children with normal body weight have some differences. Thus, in the process of calculation, the degree of differentiation of various epitheliocytes determines their percentage as follows - 3: 7: 90 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial) for children with gingivitis, and 2: 5: 93 (parabasal, intermediate, superficial) for children without inflammation in the periodontal tissues. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The obtained results allowed us to conclude that in overweight children, in contrast to children with normal body weight, the number of parabasal cells decreases, and the number of superficial and intermediate cells increases.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal Ideal , Sobrepeso , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Instituciones Académicas
2.
Georgian Med News ; (311): 163-168, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814412

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of various drinking liquids on an the dentoalveolar system in rats. The study was carried out on 25 white male rats from the nursery of Krolinfo branch of the Moscow region which were kept in standard vivarium conditions. Age of rats-3-6 months, weight - 150-200 grams. The study was carried out in accordance with the ethical principles of humane treatment of animals, in accordance with the current legislation of the Russian Federation. To assess the effect of consumed fluids, groups of 5 animals of the same sex (males, females) were used. The animals were randomly assigned to groups. Observation of animals was carried out for 6 months, during this period the animals were in conditions of free access to food and as drink received the studied liquids ad libitum. Experimental groups within 3 months received the following types of drink: I (control group) - tap water; The II group - Coca-Cola; The III group - honey water; The IV group - the distilled water; The V group - light water. The results obtained by the authors and the data provided in literature confirm that among the factors that affect the teeth condition, in particular the characteristics of the hardness of enamel and dentin, the use of various sugar-containing drinks, as well as the duration, quantity, and frequency of their use, can play a significant role. These factors remain largely unexplored at present. It is obvious that in order to stop caries, it is necessary to develop and carry out a set of preventive measures, including limiting the consumption of sweets and beverages containing sugar, along with regular dental care and a balanced diet.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas , Animales , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Masculino , Ratas , Federación de Rusia
3.
Rev. ciênc. méd., (Campinas) ; 30: e215075, 10 mar. 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151684

RESUMEN

A quantidade de pessoas obesas vem crescendo significativamente em todo o mundo.Esse fato representa um risco para o aumento do número de portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. A farmacoterapia do diabetes pode alterar o peso corporal, auxiliando tanto na perda como no ganho ponderal. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar os fármacos utilizados no tratamento da diabetes tipo 2 que podem interferir no peso corporal, a fim de auxiliar os profissionais na orientação de indivíduos portadoresda doença. Para tanto, foi realizada uma revisão integrativa nas bases de dados: SciELO, Scholar Google, PubMed, BVS e Portal de Periódicos Capes, a partir de trabalhos publicados entre 2010 e 2019. Observou-se que as biguanidas, os inibidores da α-glicosidade, os análogos de incretinas, os análogos da amilina e os inibidores do cotransportador de sódio/glicose acarretam perda de peso. Por outro lado, as sulfonilureias, as meglitinidas e as glitazonas conferem ganho de peso ao paciente. Sendo assim, a prescrição desses fármacos deve ser feita de maneira individualizada


Obesity has been growing significantly worldwide, representing a risk for the increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacotherapy of diabetes can alter body weight, aiding in weight loss as well as in weight gain. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to review studies on the drugs used in type 2 diabetes that may interfere with body weight, in order to assist professionals in guiding individuals with diabetes. For this, an integrative review was performed in the SciELO, Scholar Google, PubMed, VHL, and Portal of Capes journals databases, considering works published between 2010 and 2019. We observed that biguanides, α-glucosity inhibitors, analogues of incretins, amylin analogues, and sodium / glucose co-transporter inhibitors lead to weight loss. On the other hand, sulphonylureas, meglitinides, and glitazones confer weight gain. Therefore, the prescription of these drugs should be made in an individualized fashion


Asunto(s)
Servicios Farmacéuticos , Peso Corporal , Personal de Salud , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Quimioterapia , Hipoglucemiantes , Aumento de Peso , Obesidad
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234855, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729380

RESUMEN

Exposure to the hight-fat diet may alter the control of food intake promoting hyperphagia and obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of this diet on dopamine receptors (drd1 and drd2), proopiomelanocortin (pomc), neuropeptideY (npy) genes expression, and preference food in adult rats. Wistar female rats were fed a hight-fat or control diet during pregnancy and lactation. The offspring were allocated into groups: Lactation - Control (C) and High-fat (H). Post-weaning - Control Control (CC), offspring of mothers C, fed a control diet after weaning; Control Hight-fat (CH), offspring of mothers C, fed a hight-fat diet after weaning; Hight-fat Control (HC), offspring of mothers H, fed with control diet after weaning; and Hight-fat Hight-fat (HH), offspring of mothers H, fed a H diet after weaning. The groups CH and HH presented greater expression of drd1 in comparison to the CC. The drd2 of CH and HC presented higher gene expression than did CC. HH presented higher pomc expression in comparison to the other groups. HC also presented greater expression in comparison to CH. The npy of HH presented greater expression in relation to CH and HC. HH and HC have had a higher preference for a high-fat diet at 102º life's day. The high-fat diet altered the gene expression of the drd1, drd2, pomc and npy, and influencing the food preference for high-fat diet.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa , Proopiomelanocortina , Animales , Peso Corporal , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Expresión Génica , Neuropéptido Y/genética , Embarazo , Proopiomelanocortina/genética , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/genética
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 233: 105793, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667916

RESUMEN

Sperm quantity/quality are significant reproductive endpoints with clear links to population level dynamics. Amphipods are important model organisms in environmental toxicology. Despite this, field monitoring of male fertility in invertebrates has rarely been used in monitoring programs. The aim of this study was to compare sperm quality/quantity in an amphipod collected at six UK locations with differing water quality. Due to low sperm counts and an observed lack of relationship between sperm count and weight in amphipods collected from a nationally protected conservation area (Langstone Harbour, England), we also compared datasets from this site over a decade to determine the temporal significance of this finding. One collection to evaluate a female reproductive endpoint was also performed at this site. Interestingly, this harbour consistently presented some of the lowest sperm counts comparable to highly industrial sites and low eggs number from females. Amphipods collected from all the sites, except from Langstone Harbour, presented strong positive correlations between sperm count and weight. Given Langstone Harbour has several international and national protected statutes primarily for marine life and birds, our results indicate that E. marinus, one important food component for wading birds, might be impacted by unknown reproductive stressors. These unknown stressors maybe related to agricultural runoff, leachate from historical landfills and effluent from storm water overflows. This study highlights the importance of exploring new reproductive endpoints such as sperm quantity/quality in marine monitoring programs.


Asunto(s)
Anfípodos/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Anfípodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Ecotoxicología , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinámica Poblacional , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Recuento de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/citología
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1405-1422, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658780

RESUMEN

Aim: Iridoid glycosides (IG) as the major active fraction of Syringa oblata Lindl. has a proven anti-inflammatory effect for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, its current commercial formulations are hampered by low bioavailability and unable to reach inflamed colon. To overcome the limitation, dual functional IG-loaded nanoparticles (DFNPs) were prepared to increase the residence time of IG in colon. The protective mechanism of DFNPs on DSS-induced colonic injury was evaluated in rats. Materials and Methods: We prepared DFNPs using the oil-in-water emulsion method. PLGA was selected as sustained-release polymer, and ES100 and EL30D-55 as pH-responsive polymers. The morphology and size distribution of NPs were measured by SEM and DLS technique. To evaluate colon targeting of DFNPs, DiR, was encapsulated as a fluorescent probe into NPs. Fluorescent distribution of NPs were investigated. The therapeutic potential and in vivo transportation of NPs in gastrointestinal tract were evaluated in a colitis model. Results: SEM images and zeta data indicated the successful preparation of DFNPs. This formulation exhibited high loading capacity. Drug release results suggested DFNPs released less than 20% at the first 6 h in simulated gastric fluid (pH1.2) and simulated small intestine fluid (pH6.8). A high amount of 84.7% sustained release from NPs in simulated colonic fluid (pH7.4) was beyond 24 h. DiR-loaded NPs demonstrated a much higher colon accumulation, suggesting effective targeting due to functionalization with pH and time-dependent polymers. DFNPs could significantly ameliorate the colonic damage by reducing DAI, macroscopic score, histological damage and cell apoptosis. Our results also proved that the potent anti-inflammatory effect of DFNPs is contributed by decrease of NADPH, gene expression of COX-2 and MMP-9 and the production of TNF-α, IL-17, IL-23 and PGE2. Conclusion: We confirm that DFNPs exert protective effects through inhibiting the inflammatory response, which could be developed as a potential colon-targeted system.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Colon/patología , Glicósidos Iridoides/uso terapéutico , Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Colitis Ulcerosa/inducido químicamente , Colitis Ulcerosa/genética , Colitis Ulcerosa/patología , Colon/efectos de los fármacos , Ciclooxigenasa 2/genética , Ciclooxigenasa 2/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextran , Liberación de Fármacos , Fluorescencia , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Glicósidos Iridoides/sangre , Glicósidos Iridoides/farmacocinética , Glicósidos Iridoides/farmacología , Masculino , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinasa 9 de la Matriz/metabolismo , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , NADPH Oxidasas/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Tamaño de la Partícula , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Distribución Tisular/efectos de los fármacos
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1819-1836, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707942

RESUMEN

Background: The development of vaccines is a promising and cost-effective strategy to prevent emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) infections. The purpose of this study was to prepare a multiepitope peptide nanovaccine and evaluate its immunogenicity and protective effect in BALB/c mice. Methods: The B-cell and T-cell epitopes of Omp22 from A. baumannii were predicted using bioinformatics methods and identified by immunological experiments. The optimal epitopes were conjugated in series by 6-aminocaproic acid and chemically synthesized multiepitope polypeptide rOmp22. Then, rOmp22 was encapsulated by chitosan (CS) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) to prepare CS-PLGA-rOmp22 nanoparticles (NPs). The immunogenicity and immunoprotective efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Results: CS-PLGA-rOmp22 NPs were small (mean size of 272.83 nm) with apparently spherical structures, positively charged (4.39 mV) and nontoxic to A549 cells. A high encapsulation efficiency (54.94%) and a continuous slow release pattern were achieved. Compared with nonencapsulated rOmp22, CS-PLGA-rOmp22 immunized BALB/c mice induced higher levels of rOmp22-specific IgG in serum and IFN-γ in splenocyte supernatant. Additionally, lung injury and bacterial burdens in the lung and blood were suppressed, and potent protection (57.14%-83.3%) against acute lethal intratracheal A. baumannii challenge was observed in BALB/c mice vaccinated with CS-PLGA-rOmp22. Conclusion: CS-PLGA-rOmp22 NPs elicited specific IgG antibodies, Th1 cellular immunity and protection against acute lethal intratracheal A. baumannii challenge. Our results indicate that this nanovaccine is a desirable candidate for preventing A. baumannii infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Acinetobacter/inmunología , Acinetobacter baumannii/inmunología , Vacunas Bacterianas/inmunología , Quitosano/química , Epítopos/inmunología , Nanopartículas/química , Péptidos/inmunología , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Células A549 , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/sangre , Infecciones por Acinetobacter/microbiología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Anticuerpos Antibacterianos/inmunología , Carga Bacteriana , Peso Corporal , Epítopos/química , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad Humoral , Inmunización , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/microbiología , Pulmón/patología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Péptidos/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/aislamiento & purificación , Bazo/patología , Análisis de Supervivencia
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671943

RESUMEN

Objective: To provide an overview of what is known about the impact of COVID-19 on weight and weight-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology. Results: A total of 19 out of 396 articles were included. All studies were conducted using online self-report surveys. The average age of respondents ranged from 19 to 47 years old, comprised of more females. Almost one-half and one-fifth of the respondents gained and lost weight during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Among articles that examined weight, diet and physical activity changes concurrently, weight gain was reported alongside a 36.3% to 59.6% increase in total food consumption and a 67.4% to 61.4% decrease in physical activities. Weight gain predictors included female sex, middle-age, increased appetite, snacking after dinner, less physical exercise, sedentary behaviors of ≥6 h/day, low water consumption and less sleep at night. Included articles did not illustrate significant associations between alcohol consumption, screen time, education, place of living and employment status, although sedentary behaviors, including screen time, did increase significantly. Conclusions: Examining behavioral differences alone is insufficient in predicting weight status. Future research could examine differences in personality and coping mechanisms to design more personalized and effective weight management interventions.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Pandemias , Aumento de Peso , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 01, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681955

RESUMEN

This study describes body weight changes among participants of the NutriNet Brasil cohort (n = 14,259) during the covid-19 pandemic. We analyzed data reported before the pandemic onset (01/26/2020 to 03/18/2020) and about six months after (09/14/2020 to 10/19/2020). Our results show that 19.7% of the participants gained ≥ 2 kg. Weight gain was directly associated with male gender, lower education, and previous presence of overweight, and inversely associated with age. In turn, 15.2% lost ≥ 2kg, being directly associated with male gender and previous presence of overweight and inversely associated with age.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Pandemias , Factores de Edad , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Aumento de Peso
10.
Animal ; 15(2): 100083, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712206

RESUMEN

The conventional commercial hatcheries used today do not allow the newly hatched chicks to consume feed or water. Combined with natural variation in hatching time, this can lead to early hatched chicks being feed-deprived for up to 72 h before being unloaded at the rearing site. This study investigated the effects of hatching time on time to first feed intake and development of organs, digestive enzymes and productivity in terms of growth and feed conversion ratio in chicks hatched on-farm. Chicks were divided into three hatching groups (early, mid-term and late), and assessed over a full production cycle of 34 days. The results revealed that chicks remain inactive for a considerable amount of time before engaging in eating-related activities. Eating activity of 5% (i.e. when 5% of birds in each hatching group were eating or standing close to the feeder) was recorded at an average biological age (BA) of 25.4 h and a proportion of 50% birds with full crop was reached at an average BA of 30.6 h. Considering that the hatching window was 35 h in this study, the average chick probably did not benefit from access to feed and water immediately post-hatch in this case. At hatch, mid-term hatchlings had a heavier small intestine (30.1 g/kg bw) than both early (26.4 g/kg bw) and late (26.0 g/kg bw) hatchlings. Relative length of the small intestine was shorter in late hatchlings (735 cm/kg bw) than in mid-term (849 cm/kg bw) and early (831 cm/kg bw) hatchlings. However, the relative weight of the bursa fabricii was greater in mid-term (1.30 g/kg bw) than in early hatchlings (1.01 g/kg bw). At hatch, late hatchlings were heavier than early and mid-term hatchlings (P < 0.05), but by 3 days of age early hatchlings were heavier than mid-term and late hatchlings (P < 0.01). The only effect persisting throughout the study was a difference in the relative weight of the small intestine, where late hatchlings had heavier intestines than early hatchlings (P < 0.05). Thus, while there were differences between hatching groups, this study showed that the hatchlings seemed capable of compensating for these as they grew.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Animales , Peso Corporal , Granjas
11.
Animal ; 15(2): 100096, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712208

RESUMEN

Rabbits are particularly sensitive to heat stress which can affect productive performance, with rabbit breed/line possibly playing a role on the response to this condition. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of different ambient temperatures on the live performance and carcass traits of growing rabbits divergently selected for total body fat content. The two genetic lines (Lean and Fat) were selected based on the total body fat content estimated by computer tomography during five generations. From birth to slaughter (13 weeks of age), the rabbits were housed in two rooms where the temperature was controlled with air conditioners: in the control room the average ambient temperature was 20 °C and in the high temperature room it was 28 °C. After weaning (35 d), 60 Lean and 60 Fat rabbits/room were housed by two in wire-mesh cages and fed ad libitum with commercial pellets. The BW and feed intake (FI) were measured at 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 weeks of age to calculate the daily weight gain (DWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Mortality was recorded daily. At the end of the experiment, rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were measured. Mortality was independent of temperature and line. The temperature significantly influenced the FI, DWG, BW and the fat deposits: they were lower at higher ambient temperature. The effect of temperature differed according to the rabbits' total body fat content. At control temperature, the FI (165 vs 155 g/day; P < 0.05) and FCR (4.67 vs 4.31; P < 0.05) were higher in Fat rabbits, which also had more perirenal (36.2 vs 23.1 g; P < 0.05) and scapular fat (10.8 vs 7.1 g; P < 0.05). At high temperature, no differences in fat depots (14.5 vs 9.8 g; 5.3 vs 3.5 g) were found between the two lines. It can be concluded that temperature × genetic line interaction had an important role in productive and carcass traits, as the effect of temperature differs between Lean and Fat rabbits.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Carne , Tejido Adiposo , Animales , Composición Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal , Carne/análisis , Fenotipo , Conejos , Temperatura
12.
Animal ; 15(2): 100126, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712215

RESUMEN

Liver flukes (Fasciola spp.) are important helminth parasites of livestock globally and cause substantial reductions in health and productivity of beef cattle. Attempts to control fluke have been thwarted by the difficulty of vaccine design, the evolution of flukicide resistance and the need to control the intermediate snail host. Mechanisms to reduce the impact of parasites on animal performance have typically focused on promoting host resistance - defined as the ability of the host to kill and remove the parasite from its system - and such strategies include improving protein nutrition or selective breeding for resistance. Organisms, however, have another broad mechanism for mitigating the impact of parasites: they can show tolerance, defined as the ability to maintain health or performance under increasing parasite burden. Tolerance has been studied in the plant literature for over a century, but there are very few empirical studies of parasite tolerance in livestock. In this study, we used data collected from >90 000 beef cattle to estimate the impact of the severity of liver fluke infection on performance and variation in tolerance of fluke. Severity of liver fluke infection was estimated using liver "fibrosis score" on a scale of 0-3 and performance estimated as (1) age at slaughter and (2) daily dead weight gain. Animals with higher fibrosis scores were slaughtered around 2 weeks later than animals with no fluke and gained around 10 g less weight per day. There was also considerable variation in these effects of fibrosis score, such that animals from different producers and breeds varied in their tolerance of fluke infection. While breeds did not vary in the association between fibrosis and age at slaughter, there was considerable variation among producers: high fibrosis score delayed slaughter by up to 50 days in some producers, but not at all in others. Meanwhile, there was support for variation in the slope of daily dead weight gain on fibrosis score among both breeds and producers, with some unaffected by high fluke scores and some breeds and producers experiencing a 20 g/day lower weight gain under high fluke scores. Our results point to the potential for both environmental and genetic variation in tolerance of liver fluke in cattle, paving the way for quantitative genetic and nutritional research into the feasibility of promoting tolerance as a disease mitigation strategy.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis , Animales , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Fascioliasis/veterinaria , Aumento de Peso
13.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(4): 286-291, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764829

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stiffness of the liver parenchyma in healthy adult cats by means of point shear wave elastography (PSWE). ANIMALS: 18 client-owned adult (1- to 6-year-old) healthy cats. PROCEDURES: Echogenicity and echotexture of the liver parenchyma were assessed by means of conventional B-mode ultrasonography. The shear wave velocity (Vs) of the right and left portions of the liver were measured by means of PSWE. RESULTS: B-mode ultrasonography revealed no abnormalities in echotexture or echogenicity of the liver parenchyma in any cat. Mean (95% CI) Vs in the liver parenchyma was 1.46 m/s (1.36 to 1.55 m/s) for the right portion, 1.36 m/s (1.26 to 1.47 m/s) for the left portion, and 1.43 m/s (1.35 to 1.51 m/s) overall. The difference in mean Vs between the 2 portions of the liver was significant. No significant correlation was found between Vs and body weight or between Vs and the depth at which this variable was measured. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Quantitative PSWE of the liver was feasible in healthy adult cats. The obtained values for Vs may be useful for interpretation of and comparison with values measured in cats with liver disease. Additional research is needed to explore the potential usefulness of PSWE for diagnostic purposes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Gatos , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad , Hepatopatías , Animales , Peso Corporal , Gatos , Diagnóstico por Imagen de Elasticidad/veterinaria , Hígado/diagnóstico por imagen , Hepatopatías/diagnóstico por imagen , Hepatopatías/veterinaria , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248008, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657182

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically impacted lifestyle behaviour as public health initiatives aim to "flatten the curve". This study examined changes in activity patterns (physical activity, sedentary time, sleep), recreational physical activities, diet, weight and wellbeing from before to during COVID-19 restrictions in Adelaide, Australia. This study used data from a prospective cohort of Australian adults (parents of primary school-aged children; n = 61, 66% female, aged 41±6 years). Participants wore a Fitbit Charge 3 activity monitor and weighed themselves daily using Wi-Fi scales. Activity and weight data were extracted for 14 days before (February 2020) and 14 days during (April 2020) COVID-19 restrictions. Participants reported their recreational physical activity, diet and wellbeing during these periods. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine change over time. Participants slept 27 minutes longer (95% CI 9-51), got up 38 minutes later (95% CI 25-50), and did 50 fewer minutes (95% CI -69--29) of light physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. Additionally, participants engaged in more cycling but less swimming, team sports and boating or sailing. Participants consumed a lower percentage of energy from protein (-0.8, 95% CI -1.5--0.1) and a greater percentage of energy from alcohol (0.9, 95% CI 0.2-1.7). There were no changes in weight or wellbeing. Overall, the effects of COVID-19 restrictions on lifestyle were small; however, their impact on health and wellbeing may accumulate over time. Further research examining the effects of ongoing social distancing restrictions are needed as the pandemic continues.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Padres/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Australia/epidemiología , Peso Corporal , Dieta/psicología , Dieta/tendencias , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Monitores de Ejercicio , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Prospectivos , Conducta Sedentaria , Sueño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2123-2136, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731994

RESUMEN

Purpose: Nanomaterial-based drug-delivery systems allowing for effective targeted delivery of smallmolecule chemodrugs to tumors have revolutionized cancer therapy. Recently, as novel nanomaterials with outstanding physicochemical properties, boron nitride nanospheres (BNs) have emerged as a promising candidate for drug delivery. However, poor dispersity and lack of tumor targeting severely limit further applications. In this study, cancer cell-membrane biomimetic BNs were designed for targeted anticancer drug delivery. Methods: Cell membrane extracted from HeLa cells (HM) was used to encapsulate BNs by physical extrusion. Doxorubicin (Dox) was loaded onto HM-BNs as a model drug. Results: The cell-membrane coating endowed the BNs with excellent dispersibility and cytocompatibility. The drug-release profile showed that the Dox@HM-BNs responded to acid pH, resulting in rapid Dox release. Enhanced cellular uptake of Dox@HM-BNs by HeLa cells was revealed because of the homologous targeting of cancer-cell membranes. CCK8 and live/dead assays showed that Dox@HM-BNs had stronger cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, due to self-selective cellular uptake. Finally, antitumor investigation using the HeLa tumor model demonstrated that Dox@HM-BNs possessed much more efficient tumor inhibition than free Dox or Dox@BNs. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the newly developed HM-BNs are promising as an efficient tumor-selective drug-delivery vehicle for tumor therapy.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Compuestos de Boro/química , Membrana Celular/patología , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Nanosferas/química , Neoplasias/patología , Animales , Antineoplásicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Doxorrubicina/farmacología , Doxorrubicina/uso terapéutico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberación de Fármacos , Endocitosis/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Nanosferas/ultraestructura , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Espectrometría por Rayos X , Distribución Tisular/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 132-137, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745566

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID- 19) constitutes a major global pandemic health care system challenge. Shortly following the disease outbreak, like SARS-CoV virus, all affected countries are implementing various preventive and control measures to mitigate the spread of the disease. Optimizing public health system during COVID-19 pandemic requires not only advanced medical and biological sciences knowledge, but also all human sciences related to social, as well as nutritional behavior, and lifestyle practices. AIM: To investigate the effect of COVID-19- quarantine on healthy nutritional behavior and lifestyle practices among Jordanian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study among Jordanian population was conducted using an online questionnaire between March and April 2020. Participants were kindly requested to answer a standardized and validated structured questionnaire. Demographic information (age, gender, place of residence, and occupation), anthropometric data (reported weight and height); nutritional behavior information (number of meals per day, snakes, water intake), and physical activity behavior were requested. RESULTS: A total of 4473 respondents were included in the study; obese (n = 1135), normal body weight (n = 1561), and underweight (n = 116). During COVID-19 quarantine, a significant increase in body weight (12.9% underweight, 28.5% normal body weight, 36.4% overweight' and 41.1% of obese (p < 0.001) was reported. Moreover, the number of snacks between meals (p < 0.001), number of main meals (p < 0.001), and the smoking rate was also increased significantly; however, there was no significant difference regarding physical activity among various weight status groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we have provided evidence, for the first time, that there were significant negative changes in healthy nutritional behavior among Jordanians during COVID-19 quarantine who encountered significantly increased body weight, appetite, and smoking. Hence, future larger cross-sectional studies are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Jordania , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Comidas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Bocadillos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Joven
18.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 158-165, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745572

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of stay-at-home and lockdown measures. It is currently unknown if the experience of lockdown leads to long term changes in individual's eating behaviors. The objectives of this study were: i) to derive longitudinal trajectories of change in eating during UK lockdown, and ii) to identify risk factors associated with eating behavior trajectories. METHOD: Data from 22,374 UK adults from the UCL COVID-19 Social study (a panel study collecting weekly data during the pandemic) were analyzed from 28th March to 29th May 2020. Latent Class Growth Analysis was used to derive trajectories of change in eating. These were then associated with prior socio-economic, health-related and psychological factors using multinomial regression models. RESULTS: Analyses suggested five trajectories, with the majority (64%) showing no change in eating. In contrast, one trajectory was marked by persistently eating more, whereas another by persistently eating less. Overall, participants with greater depressive symptoms were more likely to report any change in eating. Loneliness was linked to persistently eating more (OR = 1.07), whereas being single or divorced, as well as stressful life events, were associated with consistently eating less (OR = 1.69). Overall, higher education status was linked to lower odds of changing eating behavior (OR = 0.54-0.77). Secondary exploratory analyses suggest that participants self-reported to have overweight were more commonly categorised into the group consistently eating more, whereas participants with underweigh persistently ate less. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found that one third of the sample report changes in quantities eaten throughout the first UK lockdown period. Findings highlight the importance of adjusting public health programs to support eating behaviors in future lockdowns both in this and potential future pandemics. This is particularly important as part of on-going preventive efforts to prevent nutrition-related chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 42: 233-238, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Paediatric Crohn's disease (CD) has been associated with undernutrition. Accurate and accessible measures of body composition would provide data to personalise nutritional therapy. We assessed feasibility of MRI-derived measures of psoas cross-sectional area (PCSA) in paediatric CD and correlated with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measures. METHODS: MRI small bowel/pelvis images of patients with CD, aged <18 years, were retrieved. Patients with concurrent anthropometric and BIS measurements were eligible for inclusion. The PCSA at L3 was calculated by two assessors and combined. To assess reproducibility of measures we calculated the coefficient of variation (CoV). Age, height-Z-scores, weight-Z-scores and BIS measures were correlated with PCSA. Using normal paediatric data from CT-scans we derived psoas area Z-scores for our cohort. RESULTS: 10 patients were included. Mean age at MRI scan was 14.6 years (11.7-16.3). PCSA was calculated for all MRI scans. There was high reproducibility between measurers, mean CoV 0.099. There was a significant positive correlation between PCSA and BIA-derived fat free mass, Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) 0.831, p = 0.003. Correlation coefficients for PCSA and Height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-age -Z-score and age were PCC 0.343- p = 0.33, PCC = 0.222- p = 0.54, and PCC 0.6034- p = 0.065, respectively. The mean PCSA Z-score was -1.81, with 70% of the patients having a Z-score < -2.0. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the feasibility of deriving measures of body composition from routine MRI imagine. There was significant positive correlation between PCSA and BIS-derived lean mass. Further studies are required to confirm applicability of normal ranges prior to routine clinical implementation.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagen , Espectroscopía Dieléctrica/métodos , Impedancia Eléctrica , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagen , Adolescente , Antropometría/métodos , Composición Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación Nutricional , Pelvis , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e24574, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761635

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a common chronic disease in modern society, and the etiology and pathogenesis of it is still unknown. For its main symptoms: disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism, the usual treatment is applying statin and hypoglycemic drugs. Comparing to the long-term application of these drugs which may cost great side effects, Dendrobium Nobile Lindl (DN) has been proved for its hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects without obvious side effects. So this trial is aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DN-powder in intervention of MS, and to explore the mechanism of action of DN through multi-group correlation analysis. METHODS: This clinical trial is a single-arm, non-randomized, open, exploratory trial. A total of 30 participants who are suffering from MS will be assigned into therapy group (n = 30). The treatment course will last for 8 weeks, and a follow-up period for 4 weeks. The participants will receive DN-powder for 6 g, twice a day during the study period. The primary outcome will be the change of lipid and glucose metabolism. Other outcomes will be the body weight and body mass index (BMI) which will be assessments record in every 2 weeks. Participants who quit the trial due to untolerable reactions or uncontrollable conditions will enter into a follow-up period after the last treatment. All participants will enter into a follow-up period for 4 weeks after the last treatment. Adverse events will be recorded during the whole study. DISCUSSION: The results of the trial are aim to provide evidence of the safety and efficacy of DN-powder in intervention of MS which may be potential to become an important alternative therapy for certain patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: It has been registered at http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=55914. (Identifier: ChiCTR2000034550), Registered 9 July 2020.


Asunto(s)
Dendrobium/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Hipoglucemiantes/efectos adversos , Hipolipemiantes/efectos adversos , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Glucemia/análisis , Glucemia/efectos de los fármacos , Glucemia/metabolismo , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Hipolipemiantes/administración & dosificación , Metabolismo de los Lípidos/efectos de los fármacos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/sangre , Síndrome Metabólico/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
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