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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100441], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230381

RESUMEN

In the context of body image and mental health, transgender individuals face distinctive challenges stemming from the complexities of their gender identity journey, societal expectations, and body norms. However, the existing line of research on this topic remains limited. This study explores the complex relationship in transgender individuals between body objectification, body weight dissatisfaction, and eating concerns. A sample of 154 individuals (77 transgenders paired with 77 cisgenders) was recruited via LGBTQ+ groups’ mailing lists. Participants completed various questionnaires assessing body image, eating psychopathology, depression, and body objectification. Propensity score matching was performed with different variables: age, current BMI, years of education, current self-identified gender, and sexual orientation. The results revealed that transgender individuals experienced higher levels of body objectification, body weight dissatisfaction, and eating concerns compared to their cisgender counterparts. Additionally, age emerged as a protective factor, as older transgender individuals demonstrated improved body acceptance and self-esteem. Logistic regression analyzes indicated that bulimic behaviors, depressive symptoms, and appearance control beliefs were specific factors significantly associated with being transgender. Our findings highlight the unique challenges faced by transgender individuals in navigating their gender identity and body image, underscoring the importance of targeted interventions and support systems.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Personas Transgénero , Identidad de Género , Autoimagen , Imagen Corporal , Psicología Clínica , Salud Mental , Peso Corporal
2.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 25(1): 16, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321487

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Critically ill COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients receive thromboprophylaxis with the LMWH nadroparin. Whether a standard dosage is adequate in attaining the target anti-FXa levels (0.20-0.50 IU/ml) in these groups is unknown. METHODS: This study was a prospective, observational study in the ICU of a large general teaching hospital in the Netherlands. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU who received LMWH in a prophylactic dosage of 2850 IU, 5700 IU or 11400 IU subcutaneously were eligible for the study. Anti-FXa levels were determined 4 h after administration. Relevant laboratory parameters, prespecified co-variates and clinical data were extracted from the electronic health record system. The primary goal was to evaluate anti-FXa levels in critically ill patients on a prophylactic dosage of nadroparin. The second goal was to investigate whether covariates had an influence on anti-FXa levels. RESULTS: A total of 62 patients were included in the analysis. In the COVID-19 group and non-COVID-19 group, 29 (96%) and 12 patients (38%) reached anti-FXa levels above 0.20 IU/ml, respectively. In the non-COVID-19 group, 63% of the patients had anti-FXA levels below the target range. When adjusted for nadroparin dosage a significant relation was found between body weight and the anti-FXa level (p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: A standard nadroparin dosage of 2850 IU sc in the critically ill patient is not sufficient to attain target anti-FXa levels in the majority of the studied patient group. We suggest a standard higher dosage in combination with body-weight dependent dosing as it leads to better exposure to nadroparin. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Retrospectively registered, ClinicalTrials.gov ID NTC 05926518 g, date of registration 06/01/23, unique ID 2020/1725.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Tromboembolia Venosa , Humanos , Nadroparina/uso terapéutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Enfermedad Crítica , Estudios Prospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevención & control , Peso Corporal
3.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 65, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321519

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pectus excavatum (PE) is the most common congenital abnormality of the chest wall. Most patients with PE have slim bodies. Some studies have been conducted on the physical growth of children and adolescents who underwent the Nuss procedure. This study aimed to evaluate body measurement changes in adult patients with PE after the Nuss procedure. METHODS: A total of 272 adult PE patients, who underwent the Nuss procedure and pectus bars removal from August 2014 to December 2020, were evaluated retrospectively. Body measurement [body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI)] of the patients were collected before Nuss repair and after bar removal. We used the interquartile range (IQR) to identify and exclude outliers. Associations between changes in body measurement and clinical and radiological features were evaluated. RESULTS: The BH, BW and BMI showed significantly increased after pectus bar removal, compared to pre-Nuss procedure parameters (BH 173.8 ± 5.9 cm vs. 173.9 ± 5.9 cm, P < 0.001; BW 60.3 ± 8.1 kg vs. 61.1 ± 8.8 kg, P = 0.005; BMI 19.9 ± 2.2 kg/m2 vs. 20.1 ± 2.4 kg/m2, P = 0.02). The same result were observed in the male subgroup, the HI ≥ 4 group and the male subgroup within the HI ≥ 4 group. CONCLUSIONS: The BH, BW and BMI were significantly increased after completing surgical correction of PE using the Nuss procedure, particularly in young males and patients with more pronounced deformities.


Asunto(s)
Tórax en Embudo , Pared Torácica , Adulto , Niño , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Tórax en Embudo/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Pared Torácica/cirugía , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Resultado del Tratamiento
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0293363, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324604

RESUMEN

Atlanto-axial instability is a common disease that affects toy-breed dogs. Most cases of atlanto-axial instability are congenital. Furthermore, patients with atlanto-axial instability are predisposed to other concurrent diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to retrospectively determine the presence of concurrent diseases in cases with atlanto-axial instability using imaging data and analyze the relationship between clinical parameters and the incidence of complex malformations. The clinical data and imaging findings of 41 toy-breed dogs diagnosed with atlanto-axial instability were analyzed using their medical records and imaging data. Occipital dysplasia (17/27), atlanto-occipital overlapping (22/34), dens dysplasia (27/41), Chiari-like malformation (8/34), syringomyelia (5/34), lateral ventricular enlargement (20/36), and intracranial arachnoid cyst (5/35) were observed in patients with atlanto-axial instability. The body weight of the patients in the groups with atlanto-occipital overlapping and lateral ventricular enlargement was lower than that of those in the groups without these diseases (1.78 ± 0.71 vs 2.71 ± 1.15 kg, P = 0.0269, 1.60 ± 0.40 vs 2.75 ± 1.08 kg, P = 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, when the correlation between the total number of concurrent diseases and the age at onset and body weight was examined, it became clear that lower body weight was associated with the incidence of a greater number of concurrent diseases. Thus, the findings of this study suggest that toy-breed dogs are more likely to present with complex malformations and should be evaluated carefully with additional examinations and treatment methods.


Asunto(s)
Articulación Atlantoaxoidea , Enfermedades de los Perros , Siringomielia , Humanos , Perros , Animales , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Perros/congénito , Siringomielia/diagnóstico por imagen , Siringomielia/epidemiología , Siringomielia/veterinaria , Examen Físico , Peso Corporal , Articulación Atlantoaxoidea/diagnóstico por imagen
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 39: e390924, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324802

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease which is categorized via destruction of joint cartilage and it also affects the various joints, especially knees and hips. Sinomenine active phytoconstituents isolated from the stem of Sinomenium acutum and already proof anti-inflammatory effect against the arthritis model of rodent. In this experimental protocol, we scrutinized the anti-osteoarthritis effect of sinomenine against monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) induced OA in rats. METHODS: MIA (3 mg/50 µL) was used for inducing the OA in the rats, and rats received the oral administration of sinomenine (2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg body weight) up to the end of the experimental study (four weeks). The body and organs weight were estimated. Aggrecan, C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), glycosaminoglycans (GCGs), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), antioxidant, inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) were analyzed. RESULTS: Sinomenine significantly (P < 0.001) boosted the body weight and reduced the heart weight, but the weight of spleen and kidney remain unchanged. Sinomenine significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the level of nitric oxide, MCP-1 and improved the level of aggrecan, IFN-γ and GCGs. Sinomenine remarkably upregulated the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase and suppressed the level of malonaldehyde. It effectually modulated the level of inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators and significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the level of MMPs, like MMP-1, 2, 3, 9 and 13. CONCLUSIONS: Sinomenine is a beneficial active agent for the treatment of OA disease.


Asunto(s)
Cartílago Articular , Morfinanos , Osteoartritis , Ratas , Animales , Ácido Yodoacético/metabolismo , Ácido Yodoacético/farmacología , Osteoartritis/metabolismo , Agrecanos/metabolismo , Agrecanos/farmacología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Cartílago Articular/metabolismo , Metaloproteinasas de la Matriz/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Peso Corporal
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 40(1): e00070523, 2024.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324867

RESUMEN

The planning, monitoring, and evaluation of food and nutrition actions depend on reliable estimates based on adequate anthropometric data. The study aimed to analyze the quality of anthropometric data of children aged under 5 years in the Brazilian National Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (SISVAN) from 2008 to 2020. The sample comprised 23,453,620 children aged under 5 years. Initially, we evaluated the distribution of missing values and values outside the spectrum of the instrument, and calculated the digit preference index for weight and height. The nutritional indexes height for age (HAZ), weight for age (WAZ), and body mass index for age (BAZ) were calculated according to the World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards. Then, we identified the biologically implausible values (BIV) and calculated the standard deviation (SD) of the nutritional indexes. For each municipality, we calculated the mean and SD of HAZ and WAZ; and plotted the SD values as a function of the mean. In all Federative Units, the digit preference index reached a minimum value of 80 for height and 20 for weight. For the three nutritional indexes, there was a reduction in the frequency of BIV in the 2008-2020 period. Even after the exclusion of BIV, we identified high variability for the three nutritional indexes. The indicators evaluated showed low quality of measurement, especially in the North and Northeast regions. Our results indicate insufficient quality of anthropometric data in children aged under 5 years, and reinforce the need to invest in actions to improve the collection and recording of anthropometric information.


O planejamento, o monitoramento e a avaliação das ações de alimentação e nutrição dependem de estimativas confiáveis realizadas a partir de dados antropométricos de qualidade adequada. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a qualidade de dados antropométricos de crianças menores de 5 anos no Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (SISVAN) no período de 2008 a 2020. A amostra compreendeu 23.453.620 crianças menores de 5 anos. Inicialmente, avaliamos a distribuição de valores faltantes e de valores fora do espectro do equipamento e calculamos o índice de preferência de dígito para peso e altura. Os índices nutricionais altura para idade (A-I), peso para idade (P-I) e índice de massa corporal para idade (IMC-I) foram calculados com a utilização do padrão de crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde, de 2006. Em seguida, sinalizamos os valores biologicamente implausíveis (VBI) e calculamos o desvio padrão (DP) dos índices nutricionais. Para cada município, calculamos a média e o DP de A-I e P-I e plotamos os valores de DP em função da média. Em todas as Unidades Federativas, o índice de preferência de dígito alcançou valor mínimo de 80 para altura e 20 para peso. Para os três índices nutricionais, houve redução da frequência de VBI no período de 2008 a 2020. Mesmo após a exclusão dos VBI, identificamos elevada variabilidade para os três índices nutricionais. Os indicadores avaliados demonstraram baixa qualidade da mensuração principalmente nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. Nossos resultados indicam qualidade insuficiente dos dados antropométricos em crianças menores de 5 anos e reforçam a necessidade de investimento em ações para o aprimoramento da coleta e do registro das informações antropométricas.


La planificación, monitoreo y evaluación de acciones de alimentación y nutrición dependen de estimaciones confiables realizadas a partir de datos antropométricos de calidad adecuada. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la calidad de datos antropométricos de niños menores de 5 años en el Sistema de Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional (SISVAN) entre los años 2008 y 2020. La muestra se compuso de 23.453.620 niños menores de 5 años. Al principio, evaluamos la distribución de valores faltantes y de valores fueras del espectro del equipo, y calculamos el índice de preferencia de dígito para peso y altura. Los índices nutricionales altura para edad (A-E), peso para edad (P-E) e índice de masa corporal para edad (IMC-E) se calcularon utilizando el patrón de crecimiento de la Organización Mundial de la Salud de 2006. Luego, indicamos los valores biológicamente inverosímiles (VBI) y calculamos la desviación estándar (DE) de los índices nutricionales. Para cada municipio, calculamos la media y la DE de A-E y P-E; y representamos los valores de DE en función de la media. En todas las Unidades Federativas, el índice de preferencia de dígito alcanzó el valor mínimo de 80 para altura y 20 para peso. Para los tres índices nutricionales, hubo una disminución de la frecuencia de VBI entre los años de 2008 y 2020. Incluso tras excluir los VBI, identificamos una alta variabilidad para los tres índices nutricionales. Los indicadores evaluados demostraron una baja calidad de medición, sobre todo en las regiones Norte y Nordeste. Nuestros resultados indican una calidad insuficiente de datos antropométricos en niños menores de 5 años y fortalecen la necesidad de inversión en acciones para mejorar la recolección y registro de las informaciones antropométricas.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Niño , Preescolar , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Índice de Masa Corporal , Antropometría
7.
Avian Dis ; 67(4): 298-304, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300650

RESUMEN

Escherichia coli is one of the first commensal bacteria to colonize the chicken gut, where it predominates at an early stage of broiler chick life. Escherichia coli can potentially cause colibacillosis in chickens, spreading to extraintestinal systemic organs, which results in high economic losses in poultry industry, as well as a potential risk to public health. Many studies conducted to investigate the effectiveness of natural products as alternatives to antibiotics and to enhance the production performance in broiler chickens have assessed E. coli load in the chicken gut, but it is still unknown how the E. coli count is linked to broiler growth performance. A systematic search of published research articles, including key terms of interest such as broiler chickens, growth performance, and E. coli count, was conducted using two main databases (PubMed and the Web of Science). A random effects metaregression model was built to evaluate the association between E. coli count and weight gain in untreated groups of broilers (negative controls) from eligible studies. Of 2108 articles in the initial screening, 60 were included in the final meta-analysis. After data extraction, records from the ileum and cecum at 21, 35, and 42 days of age were considered for the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that the average E. coli count in both the ileum and cecum at 21 days of age was positively associated with the average weight gain in the studied broiler chickens, while no statistically significant associations were found at 35 and 42 days of age. In conclusion, the positive association between E. coli load and body weight gain in young broiler chickens may be attributed to the relative dominance of E. coli in the gut of this age group when the microbial population is less diverse. The dynamic association between the production performance and the load of E. coli that has dubious pathogenic potential suggests the importance of careful assessment of commensal E. coli to develop strategies to enhance production, particularly in young broiler chickens.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Escherichia coli , Aumento de Peso , Peso Corporal
8.
Avian Dis ; 67(4): 326-339, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300654

RESUMEN

Necrotic enteritis (NE) continues to be a significant burden to the poultry industry, compounded by pressure to reduce antibiotic use. Researchers use NE-challenge models to study the infection biology of NE and as screening tools to develop potential novel interventions. Currently, data are limited comparing such models between research establishments, and few indicate which quantitative metrics provide the most accurate measure for determining the efficacy of interventions. We compared data from 10 independent NE-challenge trials incorporating six challenge models employed in four geographical regions to determine the extent of variability in bird responses and to determine, using principal component analysis (PCA), which variables discriminated most effectively between nonchallenged control (NC) and challenged control (CC) groups. Response variables related to growth performance (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion), health (mortality, lesion scores, NE induction rate), and, in three trials only, gut integrity (tight junction protein claudin-1, claudin-2, and zonula occludens-1 expression, coccidia counts, and intestinal permeability [assessed by FITC-dextran assay]). Treatments included a CC, which varied between trials (for example, in Eimeria predisposition, Clostridium perfringens strain, and days of inoculation), and a NC. The degree of response to challenge in CC birds varied significantly among models and trials. In all trials, lesion scores 1 to 4 days postchallenge were increased in CC vs. NC birds and varied both within and among models (by 0.29-1.17 points and 0.05-2.50 points, respectively). In addition, NE-related mortality at day 28 was increased in CC vs. NC, both within and among models (by 1.79%-4.72% and 0.02%-16.70%, respectively), and final (day 35 or 42) body weight was reduced by 3.9%-14.4% and overall FCR increased by up to 27% across trials (P , 0.05). A PCA on the combined dataset including only performance indicators failed to adequately differentiate NC and CC groups. However, the combination of performance and gut integrity variables and standardization of data by trial and phase achieved greater resolution between groups. This indicated that the inclusion of both types of variables in future NE-challenge studies would enable the generation of more robust predictions about intervention efficacy from different types of infection models. A final PCA based on a subset of key indicator variables, including body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, and lesion score, achieved a good level of separation between NC and CC status of birds and could, with further research, be a useful supplement to existing approaches for assessing and predicting the NE status of birds in the field.


Determinación del impacto variable de la enteritis necrótica mediante indicadores de rendimiento y salud en modelos de infección de pollos de engorde. La enteritis necrótica (EN) sigue siendo un problema importante para la industria avícola, que se ha agudizado por la presión para reducir el uso de antibióticos. Los investigadores utilizan modelos de desafío de enteritis necrótica para estudiar la biología de la infección de este problema y como herramientas de detección para desarrollar posibles intervenciones novedosas. Actualmente, los datos que comparan dichos modelos entre grupos de investigación son limitados y pocos indican qué métricas cuantitativas proporcionan la medida más precisa para determinar la eficacia de las intervenciones. Comparamos datos de 10 ensayos independientes de desafío para enteritis necrótica que incorporan seis modelos de desafío empleados en cuatro regiones geográficas para determinar el grado de variabilidad en las respuestas de las aves y determinar, utilizando el análisis de componentes principales (PCA), qué variables discriminaron más efectivamente entre el control no desafiado (NC) y grupos de control desafiados (CC). Variables de respuesta relacionadas con el rendimiento del crecimiento (aumento de peso, consumo de alimento, conversión alimenticia), salud (mortalidad, puntuaciones de lesiones, tasa de inducción de enteritis necrótica) y, en sólo tres ensayos, la integridad intestinal (proteína de unión estrecha claudina-1, claudina-2, y expresión de zonula occludens-1, recuentos de coccidias y permeabilidad intestinal [evaluada mediante ensayo FITC-dextrano]). Los tratamientos incluyeron un control desafiado, que fue variable entre los ensayos (por ejemplo, en la predisposición a Eimeria, la cepa de Clostridium perfringens y los días de inoculación) y un control no desafiado. El grado de respuesta al desafío en aves del grupo control desafiado varió significativamente entre modelos y ensayos. En todos los ensayos, las puntuaciones de lesiones de 1 a 4 días después del desafío aumentaron en las aves del grupo control desafiado en comparación con el control no desafiado y variaron tanto dentro como entre los modelos (entre 0.29 y 1.17 puntos y entre 0.05 y 2.50 puntos, respectivamente). Además, la mortalidad relacionada con enteritis necrótica en el día 28 aumentó en el control desafiado en comparación con el control no desafiado, tanto dentro como entre modelos (entre un 1.79% y un 4.72% y entre un 0.02% y un 16.70%, respectivamente), y el peso corporal final (día 35 o 42). se redujo entre un 3.9% y un 14.4% y la conversión alimenticia en general aumentó hasta un 27% en todos los ensayos (P ,0.05). El análisis de componentes principales sobre el conjunto de datos combinado que incluye solo indicadores de desempeño no logró diferenciar adecuadamente los grupos control no desafiado y desafiado. Sin embargo, la combinación de variables de rendimiento e integridad intestinal y la estandarización de los datos por ensayo y fase lograron una mayor resolución entre los grupos. Esto indicó que la inclusión de ambos tipos de variables en futuros estudios de desafío para enteritis necrótica permitiría la generación de predicciones más sólidas sobre la eficacia de la intervención a partir de diferentes tipos de modelos de infección. Un análisis de componentes principales final basado en un subconjunto de variables indicadoras clave, incluido el peso corporal, el consumo de alimento, el índice de conversión alimenticia, la mortalidad y la puntuación de las lesiones, logró un buen nivel de separación entre el estado de las aves no desafiadas y desafiadas y podría, con más investigación, ser un complemento útil a los enfoques existentes para evaluar y predecir el estado de enteritis necrótica de las aves en el campo.


Asunto(s)
Enteritis , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Pollos , Antibacterianos , Peso Corporal , Enteritis/veterinaria
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 41, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302973

RESUMEN

The coinfection of ALVs (ALV-J plus ALV-A or/and ALV-B) has played an important role in the incidence of tumors recently found in China in local breeds of yellow chickens. The study aims to obtain a better knowledge of the function and relevance of ALV coinfection in the clinical disease of avian leukosis, as well as its unique effect on the pathogenicity in Three-yellow chickens. One-day-old Three-yellow chicks (one day old) were infected with ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J mono-infections, as well as ALV-A + J, ALV-B + J, and ALV-A + B + J coinfections, via intraperitoneal injection, and the chicks were then grown in isolators until they were 15 weeks old. The parameters, including the suppression of body weight gain, immune organ weight, viremia, histopathological changes and tumor incidence, were observed and compared with those of the uninfected control birds. The results demonstrated that coinfection with ALVs could induce more serious suppression of body weight gain (P < 0.05), damage to immune organs (P < 0.05) and higher tumor incidences than monoinfection, with triple infection producing the highest pathogenicity. The emergence of visible tumors and viremia occurred faster in the coinfected birds than in the monoinfected birds. These findings demonstrated that ALV coinfection resulted in considerably severe pathogenic and immunosuppressive consequences.


Asunto(s)
Virus de la Leucosis Aviar , Leucosis Aviar , Coinfección , Neoplasias , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral , Animales , Pollos , Coinfección/veterinaria , Virulencia , Viremia/veterinaria , Leucosis Aviar/epidemiología , Neoplasias/veterinaria , Peso Corporal , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 66, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305918

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality traits of broiler chickens raised on plastic-grid floors, traditional wood shavings, and wood shavings enriched with zeolite. The experimental design included the allocation of 504-day-old chicks to three different bedding materials, namely wood shavings, plastic-grid floors, and zeolite litter, each with four replications (42 birds per replicate). The chicks were individually weighed at birth and grouped according to their average body weights. An experiment involving 504 chicks was conducted, with each replicate consisting of 42 male chicks of similar body weight. At the end of the experiment, a total of 120 chickens were slaughtered with 10 chickens selected from each replicate for processing carcass and meat quality traits. The effects of different bedding materials on mortality (P = 0.812), body weight (P = 0.565), and body weight gain (P = 0.569) were not significant. The ANOVA test was conducted to compare the main effects of performance, carcass, and meat quality characteristics. The feed intake was significantly affected in the 2nd, and 3rd weeks (P = 0.001; 0.023); in addition, the feed conversion ratio was significant in the 2nd, 4th, and overall period (P = 0.003; P = 0.026; P = 0.038) by the bedding materials. The breast yield (P = 0.001), thigh yield (P = 0.028), and wing yield (P = 0.023) were significant. The type of bedding material used in broiler production significantly influenced the pH24 (P = 0.030), L* (P = 0.037), a* (P = 0.000), and CL (P = 0.028). It was concluded that both a plastic-grid floor and zeolite supplementation to wood shaving litter did not significantly affect overall growth performance in broiler chickens. However, the plastic-grid floor showed superior effects on breast meat yield and quality characteristics, particularly reducing cooking loss, when compared to zeolite supplementation in wood shaving litter. The plastic-grid floor led to a slight increase in the feed conversion ratio. Consequently, adopting a plastic grid floor emerges as a viable alternative to traditional wood shavings in broiler farming.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Zeolitas , Animales , Masculino , Madera , Vivienda para Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Peso Corporal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Carne/análisis , Dieta/veterinaria , Alimentación Animal/análisis
11.
Br J Radiol ; 97(1154): 399-407, 2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308025

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of low-dose CT urography to that of concurrently acquired conventional CT using dual-source CT. METHODS: This retrospective study included 357 consecutive CT urograms performed by third-generation dual-source CT in a single institution between April 2020 and August 2021. Two-phase CT images (unenhanced phase, excretory phase with split bolus) were obtained with two different tube current-time products (280 mAs for the conventional-dose protocol and 70 mAs for the low-dose protocol) and the same tube voltage (90 kVp) for the two X-ray tubes. Iterative reconstruction was applied for both protocols. Two radiologists independently performed quantitative and qualitative image quality analysis and made diagnoses. The correlation between the noise level or the effective radiation dose and the patients' body weight was evaluated. RESULTS: Significantly higher noise levels resulting in a significantly lower liver signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were noted in low-dose images compared to conventional images (P < .001). Qualitative analysis by both radiologists showed significantly lower image quality in low-dose CT than in conventional CT images (P < .001). Patient's body weight was positively correlated with noise and effective radiation dose (P < .001). Diagnostic performance for various diseases, including urolithiasis, inflammation, and mass, was not different between the two protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Despite inferior image quality, low-dose CT urography with 70 mAs and 90 kVp and iterative reconstruction demonstrated diagnostic performance equivalent to that of conventional CT for identifying various diseases of the urinary tract. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Low-dose CT (25% radiation dose) with low tube current demonstrated diagnostic performance comparable to that of conventional CT for a variety of urinary tract diseases.


Asunto(s)
Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Urografía , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Dosis de Radiación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Urografía/métodos , Interpretación de Imagen Radiográfica Asistida por Computador/métodos , Peso Corporal
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(2): 496-510, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are the leading prebiotics in the market. Available evidence provides conflicting results regarding the beneficial effects of ITF on cardiovascular disease risk factors. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ITF supplementation on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Emcare, AMED, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library databases from inception through May 15, 2022. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) administered ITF or placebo (for example, control, foods, diets) to adults for ≥2 weeks and reported one or more of the following: low, very-low, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, VLDL-C, HDL-C); total cholesterol; apolipoprotein A1 or B; triglycerides; fasting blood glucose; body mass index; body weight; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; systolic or diastolic blood pressure; or hemoglobin A1c. Two reviewers independently and in duplicate screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We pooled data using random-effects model, and assessed the certainty of evidence (CoE) using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: We identified 1767 studies and included 55 RCTs with 2518 participants in meta-analyses. The pooled estimate showed that ITF supplementation reduced LDL-C [mean difference (MD) -0.14 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: -0.24, -0.05), 38 RCTs, 1879 participants, very low CoE], triglycerides (MD -0.06 mmol/L, 95% CI: -0.12, -0.01, 40 RCTs, 1732 participants, low CoE), and body weight (MD -0.97 kg, 95% CI: -1.28, -0.66, 36 RCTs, 1672 participants, low CoE) but little to no significant effect on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. The effects were larger when study duration was ≥6 weeks and in pre-obese and obese participants. CONCLUSION: ITF may reduce low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and body weight. However, due to low to very low CoE, further well-designed and executed trials are needed to confirm these effects. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019136745.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Inulina , Adulto , Humanos , Inulina/farmacología , Inulina/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Fructanos/farmacología , Fructanos/uso terapéutico , LDL-Colesterol , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Peso Corporal , Obesidad , Triglicéridos
13.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 43(1): 8, 2024 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310267

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The concept of metabolically obese, normal weight (MONW) has emerged to describe individuals with a normal body mass index (BMI) who are at a relatively high risk of chronic diseases. However, BMI itself is a suboptimal index for the assessment of the health risks associated with visceral fat. The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is considered to be a reliable and cost-effective marker of insulin resistance. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to determine the TyG index cut-off values that could be used to define MONW in older people and to determine the usefulness of these values for the prediction of chronic diseases. METHODS: A total of 4,721 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey who were ≥ 60 years of age and did not have underweight or obesity were included. MONW was defined using the criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS), and the TyG index was calculated on the basis of the fasting plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations. Chronic diseases, including T2DM, hypertension, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), were diagnosed. RESULTS: The prevalence of MS increased from the lowest to the highest TyG index tertile. The cut-off values of the TyG index for MONW were calculated as 8.88 and 8.80 for males and females, respectively. MONW, defined using these cut-off values, was associated with high odds ratios for NAFLD, T2DM, and hypertension in both males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The TyG index cut-off values calculated in the present study can be used to discriminate individuals with MONW from other older individuals without obesity and to predict the risk of chronic diseases. These findings show that the TyG index is an effective and cost-efficient method of assessing the risk of chronic diseases in people with MONW.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensión , Síndrome Metabólico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Peso Corporal , Triglicéridos , Glucosa , Índice de Masa Corporal , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Obesidad/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Glucemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Enfermedad Crónica
14.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 19(1): 48, 2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326873

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic neurodevelopmental condition characterised by a range of debilitating and lifelong symptoms. The many physical and behavioural challenges that arise with adults with PWS often necessitate full-time (i.e., 24-hour) professional care support. However, despite the fact that many clinicians regard full-time PWS-specific care to represent best practice, relatively few studies have directly examined the benefits of such services. The purpose of this paper is to use archival data to investigate the impact of full-time care services on people with PWS, and to assemble a large statistical dataset on which robust analyses of improvements in weight, BMI, and behavioural outcomes can be based. METHODS: Information collated by the International PWS Organisation (IPWSO), an international non-profit membership organisation supporting national PWS associations around the world, was combined into a single anonymised dataset for statistical analysis. Data were supplied by service-providers from several countries who provide full-time support to people with PWS. The dataset included details on the specific services provided, basic demographic information on service recipients, including weight, body mass index (BMI), and observational records relating to behaviours of concern (BOC; consisting of temper outbursts, skin-picking, egocentrism, inflexibility, and striving for dominance). RESULTS: A total of 193 people with PWS (ranging in age from < 10 yrs to > 50 yrs; 93% of whom were > 18 yrs), residing in 11 services across 6 countries, were represented in the dataset. On average, people with PWS showed significant reductions in weight and BMI after joining a full-time care service, with improvements within one year of entering, which were cumulative over time and independent of age or initial weight at entry. Similar cumulative improvements over time were seen for BOC within one year and were unrelated to age or severity of BOC at entry. The degree to which services are specialised for residents with PWS appeared to confer particular benefits, with people living in PWS-exclusive services showing the greatest improvements in weight, BMI, and BOC. Reductions in BOC were associated with greater, rather than less, social contact, suggesting that these improvements were not achieved at the expense of broader freedoms, such as the opportunity to meet with families and friends. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that full-time care services have a high likelihood of enhancing the lives of people with PWS within one year with long-lasting benefits, especially if those services are exclusive and specialised around the particular needs of PWS.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Niño , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Peso Corporal
15.
Nutrients ; 16(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337730

RESUMEN

This evaluation of the impact of behavioral risk factors on the incidence of urinary infections was based on a questionnaire in which 1103 respondents, predominantly women (883), participated. From the statistical processing of the data, it was observed that 598 of the respondents were of normal weight; the rest, more than half, were underweight or overweight (χ2 = 32.46, p < 0.001), with male respondents being predominantly overweight or obese (169 out of a total of 220). Most of the respondents were young (χ2 = 15.45, p < 0.001), under the age of 45 (840). According to the processed data, it was found that respondents in the age group of 26-35 years showed the greatest vulnerability to recurrent urinary infections, while the age group of 18-25 years recorded the highest number of responses related to the rare presence or even absence of episodes of urinary infections. A body weight-related vulnerability was also noted among the respondents; the majority of obese people declared that they face frequent episodes of urinary infections. Regarding diet quality, 210 respondents reported an adherence to an unhealthy diet, 620 to a moderately healthy diet, and 273 to a healthy diet. Of the respondents who adhered to a healthy diet, 223 were women (χ2 = 2.55, p = 0.279). There was a close connection between diet quality and the frequency of urinary infections: from the statistical processing of the data, it was observed that the highest percentage of respondents who rarely (57.14%) or never got urinary infections (29.30%) were among those who adhered to a healthy diet, and the highest percentage of those who declared that they often got urinary infections were among those with increased adherence to an unhealthy diet (χ2 = 13.46, p = 0.036). The results of this study highlight a strong impact of obesity, reduced consumption of fruit and vegetables, and sedentary lifestyle on the risk of recurring urinary infections.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad , Sobrepeso , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Incidencia , Obesidad/epidemiología , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Dieta , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Masa Corporal
16.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 15(1): 46, 2024 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365799

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy in head and neck cancer management causes degeneration of the salivary glands (SG). This study was designed to determine the potential of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) as a cell-based therapy to regenerate irradiated parotid SG tissues and restore their function using a murine model. METHODS: Cultured isolated cells from gingival tissues of 4 healthy guinea pigs at passage 3 were characterized as GMSCSs using flow cytometry for surface markers and multilineage differentiation capacity. Twenty-one Guinea pigs were equally divided into three groups: Group I/Test, received single local irradiation of 15 Gy to the head and neck field followed by intravenous injection of labeled GMSCs, Group II/Positive control, which received the same irradiation dose followed by injection of phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and Group III/Negative control, received (PBS) injection only. Body weight and salivary flow rate (SFR) were measured at baseline, 11 days, 8-, 13- and 16-weeks post-irradiation. At 16 weeks, parotid glands were harvested for assessment of gland weight and histological and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: The injected GMSCs homed to degenerated glands, with subsequent restoration of the normal gland histological acinar and tubular structure associated with a significant increase in cell proliferation and reduction in apoptotic activity. Subsequently, a significant increase in body weight and SFR, as well as an increase in gland weight at 16 weeks in comparison with the irradiated non-treated group were observed. CONCLUSION: The study provided a new potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of xerostomia by re-engineering radiated SG using GMSCs.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Ratones , Animales , Cobayas , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Glándulas Salivales , Inyecciones Intravenosas , Peso Corporal
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3869, 2024 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365996

RESUMEN

Improving feed utilization efficiency is a challenge in aquaculture. Therefore, we developed an indirect benchmark to use in selecting trout for improved efficiency of feed utilization on plant protein (soy)-based diets, with the long-term goal of reducing the cost of commercial trout production. We used a four-part integrative approach to identify feed efficient individuals among 1595 fish coming from 12 genetically selected families by establishing the phenotypic relationship between feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight variations using compensatory feeding regimes. Additionally, we examined the nutritional composition of fish filet for each efficiency phenotype during the compensatory regimen. Our findings showed that the fish with the lowest weight loss during a feed deprivation period and the highest weight gain during the refeeding period (FD-/RF +) demonstrated the lowest FCR (FCR = 0.99) and consisted of individuals from several lines. This finding confirms the possibility of improving feed efficiency in mixed lines. Although feeding period has an effect on nutritional composition of fillet, such selection criteria did not show an effect on groups. Overall, successful selection for the improvement of feed efficiency will have a broad application to commercial fish selective breeding programs, leading to increased aquaculture sustainability in the long run.


Asunto(s)
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Humanos , Animales , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Dieta , Selección Artificial , Peso Corporal/genética , Alimentación Animal/análisis
18.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2024: 9063936, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371227

RESUMEN

Objectives: Flavonoids comprise a huge class of phenolic compounds widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. Although quercetin and rutin have been studied individually for their therapeutic value, the synergistic effect of combining the two has previously not been measured. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of both quercetin and rutin when combined in the form of SophorOx™ (a proprietary preparation of quercetin-rutin) in exercised rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered SophorOx™ at 500 mg·kg-1·b.w. and subjected to daily exercise on a fabricated treadmill for 4 weeks. A total of 24 animals were randomly divided into four groups. All the animals were examined for body weight, feed consumption, signs of clinical abnormalities, and morbidity. In addition, serum collected on days 8, 15, 22, and 29 were measured for the liver function test (LFT), random blood sugar (RBS), inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidative stress markers (8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cytokine levels interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) by the ELISA method. Results: Rats that received SophorOx™ showed no signs of adverse effects, and no significant changes were observed in body weight, feed consumption, liver enzymes, and blood glucose levels. The exercise-treated rats administered with SophorOx™ exhibited a significant reduction in oxidative and inflammatory marker levels, viz., CRP (113.32 ng·mL-1) and oxidative stress markers 8-OHdG (19.32 pg·mL-1), MDA (1.06 nmol·mL-1), 8-iso-PGF2α (1.29 ng·mL-1), IL-1ß (0.77 pg·mL-1), and IL-6 (317.14 pg·mL-1) in comparison to those rodents that were exercised without SophorOx™. Conclusion: Oral administration of SophorOx™ significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory marker levels when measured in the rodents subjected to high-intensity exercise.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Quercetina , Ratas , Animales , Quercetina/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Rutina/farmacología , Rutina/uso terapéutico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; 43(1): 2314576, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375828

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the effects of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) on the complications in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. METHODS: We retrospectively included VLBW neonates (<37 weeks) who were delivered by HDP pregnant women with a body weight of < 1,500 g (HDP group) hospitalized in our hospital between January 2016 and July 2021. Gestational age matched VLBW neonates delivered by pregnant women with a normal blood pressure, with a proportion of 1:1 to the HDP group in number, served as normal control. RESULTS: Then we compared the peripartum data and major complications between HDP group and control. The body weight, prelabor rupture of membrane (PROM), maternal age, cesarean section rate, fetal distress, small for gestational age (SGA), mechanical ventilation, RDS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) (≥2 stage), Apgar score at 1 min, and mortality in HDP group showed statistical differences compared with those of the control (all p < 0.05). To compare the major complications among HDP subgroups, we classified the VLBW neonates of the HDP group into three subgroups including gestational hypertension group (n = 72), pre-eclampsia (PE) group (n = 222), and eclampsia group (n = 14), which showed significant differences in the fetal distress, Apgar score at 1 min, SGA, ventilation, RDS and NEC (≥2 stage) among these subgroups (all p < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that eclampsia and PE were the independent risk factors for SGA and NEC, respectively. CONCLUSION: HDP was associated with increased incidence of neonatal asphyxia, fatal distress, SGA, mechanical ventilation, RDS, NEC and mortality. Besides, eclampsia and PE were independent risk factors for SGA and NEC.


Asunto(s)
Eclampsia , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo , Enfermedades del Recién Nacido , Preeclampsia , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Humanos , Femenino , Hipertensión Inducida en el Embarazo/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sufrimiento Fetal , Cesárea , Recién Nacido de muy Bajo Peso , Preeclampsia/epidemiología , Retardo del Crecimiento Fetal , Peso Corporal , Peso al Nacer
20.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1277113, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38356942

RESUMEN

Objective: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hypoglycemic drug, tirzepatide, for treating obesity based on indicators such as BMI, waist circumference, and body weight. Methods: A search formula was written using search terms such as "tirzepatide," "overweight," and "obesity." A comprehensive search was conducted on databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science using a computer. Random controlled trial (RCT) literature was selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extracting the data, literature bias risk assessment and meta-analysis were conducted using RevMan 5.4 software. The search deadline is from the establishment of each database to May 2023. Results: A total of 12 randomized controlled trials were included, with a total of 11,758 patients. Meta analysis results showed that compared with the glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RAs), placebo and insulin groups, tirzepatide could significantly reduce the BMI (body mass index) of patients [MD = -1.71, 95% CI (-2.46, -0.95), p < 0.00001], [MD = -3.99, 95% CI (-3.69, -2.45), p < 0.00001], [MD = -4.02, 95% CI (-4.72, -3.31), p < 00.00001]. In terms of decreasing waist circumference, tirzepatide has a more significant advantage [MD = -4.08, 95% CI (-5.77, -2.39), p < 0.00001], [MD = -7.71, 95% CI (-10.17, -5.25), p < 0.00001], [MD = -9.15, 95% CI (-10.02, -8.29), p < 0.00001]. In the analysis of body weight, tirzepatide showed a more significant reduction effect compared to the control group [MD = -5.65, 95% CI (-7.47, -3.82), p < 0.001], [MD = -10.06, 95% CI (-12.86, -7.25), p < 0.001], [MD = -10.63, 95% CI (-12.42, -8.84), p < 0.001]. In comparison with placebo, tirzepatide had a prominent advantage in weight loss ≥20% and ≥25% [RR = 30.43, 95% CI (19.56, 47.33), p < 0.00001], [RR = 37.25, 95% CI (26.03, 53.30), p < 0.00001]. Subgroup analysis showed a dose-dependent therapeutic effect. In terms of safety, compared with the placebo and insulin groups, the incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions was markedly higher in the tirzepatide group, slightly higher to the GLP-1 RAs group. The hypoglycemic (<70 mg/dL) risk of tirzepatide was slightly higher to that of placebo and GLP-1 RAs, but significantly lower than that of the insulin group [RR = 0.46, 95% CI (0.36, 0.58), p < 0.001]. The incidence of other adverse events, including pancreatitis, cholecystitis, major adverse cardiovascular events-4, hypersensitivity reactions, and neoplasms did not show significant statistical differences compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Tirzepatide, as a weight loss drug, significantly reduces BMI, waist circumference and body weight while gastrointestinal adverse reactions need to be vigilant. Overall, its efficacy is significant and its safety is high.


Asunto(s)
Polipéptido Inhibidor Gástrico , Receptor del Péptido 2 Similar al Glucagón , Insulinas , Obesidad , Humanos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Peso Corporal , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/uso terapéutico , Insulinas/uso terapéutico
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