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1.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 194-200, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135590

RESUMEN

Objective: To survey the children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China for a better understanding of the current situation of childhood stunting. Methods: According to a stratified cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional survey on children under 7 years of age was carried out in 9 cities (Beijing, Harbin and Xi'an in northern China; Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan in central China; and Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming in southern China) from June to November in 2016. A total of 110 499 children were recruited. Height of children was evaluated using the growth standards for Chinese children (2009 edition) .Children with height less than the 3rd percentile of the growth standards were considered as stunting, and children with height between the 3rd and 10th percentiles of the growth standards were considered as relatively short stature. Chi-square test was used for comparison between data of boys and girls, urban and suburban, as well as among different ages and regions. Results: Totally 113 084 children under 7 years of age should be investigated and actually 110 499 children were investigated, with a rate of 97.7%. The prevalence of stunting was 1.9% (2 141/110 499) among all the children. The prevalence of stunting in urban children (1.6%, 904/55 524) was lower than that in suburban children (2.3%, 1 237/54 975, χ(2)=56.246, P<0.01). The gender difference in stunting prevalence was not statistically significant (1.9% (1 121/57 921) in boys and 1.9% (1 020/52 578) in girls, χ(2)=0.003, P=0.965). The prevalence of stunting decreased with age for children younger than 3 years, from 1.8% (312/17 080) in 0-<1 year of age group to 1.2% (168/13 740) in 2-<3 years of age group, but increased to 2.2% (240/11 073) at 6-<7 years group. Comparison among different regions showed that the stunting prevalence in southern region was higher than those in the central and northern regions (0.9% (193/20 374) in northern urban, 0.8% (154/18 486) in central urban, and 3.3% (557/16 664) in southern urban children), showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=437.736, P<0.01); 1.1% (241/21 924) in northern suburban, 1.4% (227/16 775) in central suburban and 4.7% (769/16 276) in southern suburban children, showing a statistical significance (χ(2)=646.533, P<0.01). In urban areas, the difference between the central and northern regions showed no statistical significance (χ(2)=1.429, P=0.232) and the stunting prevalence of central Chinese children was slightly higher than that of northern Chinese children in suburban areas (χ(2)=5.130, P=0.024). Among the nine cities, the stunting prevalence of Guangzhou (6.1%, 613/10 019) was higher than those of other cities (χ(2)=1 559.64, P<0.01). Among the stunting children, 78.4% (1 679/2 141) were classified as borderline or mild and only 7.2% (154/2 141) were classified as severe. The prevalence of relatively short stature was 5.2% (5 721/110 499). Conclusions: The prevalence of stunting among children under 7 years of age in nine cities of China is low and most of the stunting children were classified as mild; the prevalence of stunting in suburban children is higher than that in urban children; the gender difference show no statistical significance; and the prevalence of stunting in southern Chinese children is higher than those in central and northern Chinese children.


Asunto(s)
Estatura , Desarrollo Infantil , Trastornos del Crecimiento/epidemiología , Beijing , Estatura/fisiología , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Trastornos del Crecimiento/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(3): 206-212, 2020 Mar 02.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135592

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the timing of permanent tooth emergence and its association with physical growth among children aged 4-7 years in 9 cities of China, and to analyze the trend of permanent teeth development. Methods: According to a stratified cluster sampling design, a cross-sectional survey on the timing of permanent tooth emergence children aged 4-7 years was carried out in 9 cities (Beijing, Harbin and Xi'an in northern China; Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan in central China; Guangzhou, Fuzhou and Kunming in southern China) from June to October in 2015. A total of 37 973 children (19 035 boys and 18 938 girls) were recruited and were divided into different age groups (4.0-<4.5, 4.5-5.0, 5.0-5.5 and 6.0-<7.0 years of age). The situation of the exfoliation of primary teeth and the eruption of permanent teeth were investigated. Height and weight were measured using the standardized methods. Z-scores of physical growth indicators were calculated using the growth standards for Chinese children in 2009. Probit regression analysis was used to determine the median and percentile age of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth. Chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data and t test was used for comparison of measurement data between boys and girls, urban and suburban as well as among different ages and regions. Meanwhile, the data from the national survey on physical growth and development of children under 7 years of age in 9 cities of China in 1995 were used to analyze the trends of the permanent teeth development. Results: The rate of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth in 37 973 children aged 4-7 years was higher with age, which was 0.6% (42/7 568) in 4.0-<4.5 years of age group, 30.3% (2 295/7 583) in 5.5-<6.0 years of age group, and 74.5% (5 680/7 627) in 6.0-<7.0 years of age group. The rates of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth in boys were all lower than those of girls except for children aged 4.0-<4.5 years (all P<0.01). The rate of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth in urban children was higher than that in suburban children for older than 5.5-6.0 years of age group in boys and older than 4.5-5.0 years of age group in girls, which was 74.2% (1 427/1 924) in urban boys aged 6.0-<7.0 years and 69.2% (1 305/1 885) in suburban boys aged 6.0-<7.0 years (χ(2)=11.446, P<0.01). The age of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth was 6.00 (95%CI: 5.98-6.01) years and the range of the 3-97 percentile was 4.88-7.11 years of age. The median permanent tooth emergence age of girls was lower than that of boys (5.94 vs. 6.06 years) and the median age of urban children was lower than that of suburban children (5.94 vs. 6.05 years). The median permanent tooth emergence age of southern Chinese children (6.05 years) was higher than that of northern (5.97 years) and central Chinese children (5.97 years). The weight for age Z-scores (WAZ), height for age Z-scores (HAZ) and body mass index for age Z-scores (BMIZ) of children with transition from deciduous to permanent teeth (0.35±1.17, 0.32±1.00, 0.23±1.16) were significantly higher than those of children without transition from deciduous to permanent teeth (0.03±1.13, 0.03±1.02, 0.04±1.13, t=20.81,21.67,12.09, all P<0.05). In comparison with the data in 1995, data in 2015 showed that the rate of transition from deciduous to permanent teeth was higher, for example, the rate of urban boys aged 6.0-<7.0 years group was 63.8% (1 146/1 796) in 1995, and increased to 74.2% (1 427/1 924) in 2015 (χ(2)=46.748, P<0.01). The median permanent tooth emergence age decreased by 0.24 years in 2015 as compared with that in 1995. Conclusions: The development of permanent teeth is earlier in girls than in boys, earlier in urban children than in suburban children and slightly delay in southern children than in central and northern Chinese children. In addition, the development of permanent teeth, which is related to the physical growth, slightly accelerate in China during the past 20 years.


Asunto(s)
Estatura/fisiología , Erupción Dental , Diente Primario , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , China , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108970, 2020 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007421

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disorders constitute the principal cause of deaths worldwide and will continue as the major disease-burden by the year 2060. A significant proportion of heart failures occur because of use and misuse of drugs and most of the investigational agents fail to achieve any clinical relevance. Here, we investigated rosuvastatin and retinoic acid for their "pharmacological pleiotropy" against high dose ß-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol)-induced acute myocardial insult. Rats were pretreated with rosuvastatin and/or retinoic acid for seven days and the myocardial injury was induced by administering isoproterenol on the seventh and eighth day. After induction, rats were anaesthetized for electrocardiography, then sacrificed and different samples were collected/stored for various downstream assays. Myocardial injury with isoproterenol resulted in increased cardiac mass, decreased R-wave amplitude, increased QRS and QT durations; elevated levels of cardiac markers like cTnI, CK-MB, ALT and AST; increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and tissue nitric oxide levels; decreased endogenous antioxidants like SOD, CAT, GR, GST, GPx and total antioxidant activity; increased inflammatory markers like TNF-α and IL-6; decreased the mRNA expression of Nrf2 and Bcl-2; increased the mRNA expression of Bax, eNOS and iNOS genes. Pretreatment with rosuvastatin and/or retinoic acid mitigated many of the above biochemical and pathological alterations. Our results demonstrate that rosuvastatin and retinoic acid exert cardioprotective effects and may act as potential agents in the prevention of ß-adrenergic agonist-induced acute myocardial injury in rats. Cardioprotective potential of rosuvastatin and retinoic acid could be attributed to their influence on the redox pathways, immunomodulation, membrane stability, Nrf2 preservation, iNOS and Bax expression levels. Thus, they may act directly or indirectly at various steps, the breakpoints, in the pathophysiological cascade responsible for cardiac injury. Our study gives insights about the pharmacological pleiotropism of rosuvastatin and retinoic acid.


Asunto(s)
Isoproterenol/toxicidad , Infarto del Miocardio/inducido químicamente , Infarto del Miocardio/prevención & control , Rosuvastatina Cálcica/farmacología , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Tretinoina/farmacología , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/toxicidad , Animales , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/uso terapéutico , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Corazón/anatomía & histología , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Tamaño de los Órganos , Distribución Aleatoria , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
4.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020361

RESUMEN

High levels of adiposity in the population have a major impact on various diseases, but previous epidemiologic studies have largely been restricted to simple anthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI), an imperfect predictor of disease risk. There is a critical need for the use of improved measures of relative weight and body composition in large-scale, population-based research.The current article presents initial descriptive results of body composition and fat distribution based on the midterm baseline dataset of the German National Cohort, which included 101,817 participants who were examined in 18 study centers in Germany between March 2014 and March 2017. The anthropometric measures encompassed body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), sonography of abdominal adipose tissue, 3D-body scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging.BMI analyses showed that 46.2% of men and 29.7% of women were overweight and 23.5% of men and 21.2% of women were obese. On average, women in almost all age groups demonstrated more subcutaneous adipose tissue layer thickness than men. The mean values of visceral adipose tissue layer thickness, on the other hand, were higher among men than among women in all age groups and increased continuously across age groups in both sexes.The comprehensive assessment of body composition and fat distribution provides novel future opportunities for detailed epidemiologic analyses of overweight and adiposity in relation to the development of chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferencia de la Cintura
5.
BMJ ; 368: l6775, 2020 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005673

RESUMEN

The studyDambha-Miller H, Day AJ, Strelitz J, et al. Behaviour change, weight loss and remission of Type 2 diabetes: a community-based prospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2019. doi:10.1111/dme.14122This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme (project number 08/116/300) as well as the Wellcome Trust (grant number: G061895), the Epidemiology Unit programme (MC_UU_12015/4), and the National Health Service R&D support funding.To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000841/weight-loss-after-type-2-diabetes-diagnosis-boosts-chance-of-remission.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pérdida de Peso , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Medicina Estatal
6.
Gene ; 736: 144420, 2020 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007585

RESUMEN

Leptin has been proved to play critical roles in energy metabolism, body weight regulation, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its roles are still largely unclear in fish. Here, we report two leptin genes (lepA and lepB) from the Northern snakehead (Channa argus) and their transcriptions in response to different feeding status. The snakehead lepA is 781 bp in length and contains a 480 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 159-aa protein, while the snakehead lepB is 553 bp in length and contains a 477 bp ORF encoding a 158-aa protein. Multi-sequences alignment, three-dimensional (3D) model prediction, syntenic and genomic comparison, and phylogenetic analysis confirm two leptin genes are widely existing in teleost. Tissue distribution revealed that the two leptin genes exhibit different patterns. In a post-prandial experiment, the hepatic lepA and brain lepB showed a similar transcription pattern. In a long-term (2-week) fasting and refeeding experiment, the hepatic lepA and brain lepB showed a similar transcription change pattern induced by food deprivation stimulation but differential changes after refeeding. These findings suggest snakehead lepA and lepB are differential both in tissue distribution and molecular functions, and they might play as an important regulator in energy metabolism and food intake in fish, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Ayuno/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Peces/genética , Leptina/genética , Sistemas de Lectura Abierta/genética , Transcripción Genética/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Peso Corporal/genética , Genómica/métodos , Filogenia , Alineación de Secuencia , Distribución Tisular/genética
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107845, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004533

RESUMEN

Vegetable oils are frequently used as solvents for lipophilic materials; accordingly, the effects of their components should be considered in animal experiments. In this study, the effects of various vegetable oils on the course of Trypanosoma congolense infection were examined in mice. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered four kinds of oils (i.e., coconut oil, olive oil, high oleic safflower oil, and high linoleic safflower oil) with different fatty acid compositions and infected with T. congolense IL-3000. Oil-treated mice infected with T. congolense showed significantly higher survival rates and lower parasitemia than those of control mice. Notably, coconut oil, which mainly consists of saturated fatty acids, delayed the development of parasitemia at the early stage of infection. These results indicated that vegetable oil intake could affect T. congolense infection in mice. These findings have important practical implications; for example, they suggest the potential effectiveness of vegetable oils as a part of the regular animal diet for controlling tropical diseases and indicate that vegetable oils are not suitable solvents for studies of the efficacy of lipophilic agents against T. congolense.


Asunto(s)
Aceites Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Trypanosoma congolense/efectos de los fármacos , Tripanosomiasis Africana/dietoterapia , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Aceite de Coco/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Coco/química , Aceite de Coco/farmacología , Ingestión de Energía/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido Linoleico/análisis , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ácido Oléico/análisis , Aceite de Oliva/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Oliva/química , Aceite de Oliva/farmacología , Parasitemia/prevención & control , Aceites Vegetales/clasificación , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Aceites Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Aceite de Azafrán/administración & dosificación , Aceite de Azafrán/química , Aceite de Azafrán/farmacología , Tripanosomiasis Africana/prevención & control
8.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 15-20, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009122

RESUMEN

Body weight gain in middle age is thought to be mainly attributable to body fat gain. However, the association between the change in body weight and change in fat weight is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between the changes in body weight and fat weight in a middle-aged general population using a community-based cohort. We studied 3,193 subjects who underwent health check-ups. Fat weight was measured using a TANITA DC-270A body composition analyzer (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo). Good correlation was observed between the changes in body weight and fat weight (Pearson r = 0.88, P < 0.001). Among the study subjects, 408 (13%) were categorized in the weight loss group (weight loss ≥ 5%), 2,442 (76%) in the weight stable group, and 343 (11%) in the weight gain group (weight gain ≥ 5%). The percentage of change in fat weight in relation to the change in body weight was 65% on average in subjects with body weight loss, and 70% on average in those with body weight gain. Good correlation between changes in body weight and fat weight was observed regardless of age, gender, and baseline body mass index. A change in body weight was closely correlated with a change in fat weight among the middle-aged general population. Body weight change in the middle-age population appears to be mainly attributable to the change in fat weight.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Aumento de Peso/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo/fisiología , Anciano , Composición Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/epidemiología
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18754, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011459

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to evaluate related risk factors for gallstone disease in Shanghai.We analyzed successive physical examinations of 2288 adults who were recruited at the Jinshan Branch of the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University Hospital from July 2010 to December 2012. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the influence factors on the risks of gallstone development.The incidence of gallstone disease was 4.11% (94/2,288). Older age (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.03; P = .039), higher body weight (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.04; P = .021), alanine transaminase activity (ALT) (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03; P = .001), total standard bicarbonate (SB) (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.06; P < .001), free SB (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12-1.21; P < .001), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.32-1.91; P < .001) were associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease. Based on univariate logistic analysis, increased triglyceride (TG) levels were associated with a reduced risk of gallstone disease (OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60-0.97; P = .024). The results of multivariable logistic regression analysis showed higher LDL levels correlated with an increased risk of gallstone disease (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.31-2.81; P < .001), while age, weight, ALT, total SB, free SB, and TG levels did not affect the risk of gallstone disease.The although unadjusted results showed age, weight, ALT, total SB, free SB, TG, and LDL levels to be associated with the risk of gallstone disease, adjusting for potential factors revealed only increased LDL levels to be associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease.


Asunto(s)
Cálculos Biliares/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Alanina Transaminasa/sangre , Biomarcadores/sangre , Peso Corporal , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(2): 1167-1173, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014970

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A gastrostomy feeding tube is one method for long-term feeding support in patients undergoing radio(chemo)therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this study was to analyze the safety of prophylactic gastrostomy tube placement and usage in HNSCC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HNC patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiological percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG) tube placement prior to radio(chemo)therapy from 2010-2014 were retrospectively reviewed regarding procedural and long-term gastrostomy tube-related complications, usage of PEG/RPG, weight profile, pretreatment and posttreatment body mass index. RESULTS: A total of 212 patients underwent prophylactic feeding tube placement (71% RPG, 27% PEG and 2% surgical jejunostomy). A total of 173 patients utilized their gastrostomy tubes for either total or supplemental nutrition support. Despite this, 157 patients (74%) lost weight during therapy (mean weight loss=8 kg). The rate of severe tube-related complications (peritonitis/incorrect placement) was low and similar in both groups (PEG 2.7% vs. RPG 3.4%). CONCLUSION: Although a very high proportion of patients used their PEG/RPG during radio(chemo)therapy there was a high mean weight loss. Serious complications of tube placement were rare.


Asunto(s)
Gastrostomía , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/dietoterapia , Intubación Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Peso Corporal , Quimioradioterapia , Nutrición Enteral/efectos adversos , Nutrición Enteral/métodos , Femenino , Gastrostomía/efectos adversos , Gastrostomía/métodos , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/terapia , Humanos , Intubación Gastrointestinal/efectos adversos , Intubación Gastrointestinal/métodos , Yeyunostomía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104894

RESUMEN

The Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is an economically important pest of citrus. The fly has an obligatory pupal diapause in soil from November to March. However, techniques for predicting or determining the emergence of the adult have, thus far, not been well documented. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pre-diapause temperatures (8, 12, 16, and 20°C) and pupal body weight (five groups according to pupal weight: G-58, 55.0-61.0 mg; G-68, 65-71 mg; G-78, 75-81 mg; G-88, 85-91 mg; G-95, 92-98 mg) on pupal period (the indicator of diapause intensity). The pupal period of B. minax larvae pupated at 8°C was 193.41 d, which was significantly shorter than that of larvae incubated at higher temperatures, suggesting that there was a lower diapause intensity for larvae pupated at lower pre-diapause temperatures. There were also significant differences in the pupal periods at different pupal body weights. The pupal period of G-58 was significantly shorter than that of the heavier groups (G-88 and G-95), and the pupal period increased with increasing pupal body weight in the five groups. Moreover, the pupal period of B. minax significantly and positively correlated to pupal body weight. These findings demonstrate that the pre-diapause temperature and pupal body weight are suitable indicators for predicting the pupal period of overwintering individuals, and the results of this study will contribute to the development of new and effective strategies for predicting the occurrence and population dynamics of B. minax adult.


Asunto(s)
Diapausa de Insecto/fisiología , Temperatura Ambiental , Tephritidae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Peso Corporal , Pupa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pupa/fisiología , Tephritidae/fisiología
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 29(1): 165-172, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017478

RESUMEN

Conventional knowledge, resulting from observations and experience, maintains the conviction that there are gender differences in the acquisition, preparation and consumption of food. This review shows differences between the sexes in eating behavior, food choice and nutritional strategy which were conditioned by evolution and by intra-individual (biological or psychological) and extra-individual (socioeconomic and cultural) factors. Women manifest a more pronounced trust in healthy nutrition, greater engagement in controlling body weight, a higher tendency to eat in a group and in stressful situations, and they frequently experience frustration due to their own nutritional behaviors, which reflects higher social pressure and their attempts to reduce eating-related pleasure. On the other hand, men prefer fatty meals with a strong taste, and are directed mainly by the pleasure of consumption; they more frequently furtively eat sweet foods while watching television, use more dietary supplements and more frequently visit fast food restaurants. Nutritional behavior, styles of nutrition, dietary profiles, approach to nourishment, approach to the place of meal consumption, and the sources of nutritional knowledge all demonstrate associations with gender. Reciprocal interactions between gender and diet are conditioned by physiological, psychological and sociocultural factors. This system of reciprocal interactions includes feedback: biological sex and cultural gender shape one's diet and, reciprocally, one's diet affects the deepening or flattening of gender differences. The analysis of reciprocally interacting factors entangled in the formation of a nutritional model may also represent an important element of pro-health prophylaxis and should be used in medical and dietary practice. Males in particular should be informed and educated about health-promoting diets.


Asunto(s)
Características Culturales , Dieta , Conducta Alimentaria , Identidad de Género , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900512, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900973

RESUMEN

Velvet antler (VA) is crucial and precious nourishment in China and some countries in Southeast Asia and has excellent anti-fatigue effect. The incidence of fatigue syndrome has increased gradually. VA can be a potential source of anti-fatigue products. Therefore, we investigated the anti-fatigue activity of different sections (upper, middle, and basal section) of VA from different species (red deer and sika deer) via loading swimming test in mice. Furthermore, nucleosides are one kind of active components in VA which could considerably reduce fatigue in mice. In order to explore whether the nucleosides are correlated with anti-fatigue effect, the contents of eight nucleosides (uracil, cytidine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, and adenosine) were determined simultaneously using high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the swimming time in mice was increased from basal to upper section, which was consistent with the change trend of the total contents of eight nucleosides of VA. Therefore, we speculated that the contents of nucleosides in VA may affect its anti-fatigue effect. Furthermore, the contents of nucleosides were also used as a reference for evaluating the quality of different parts of VA obtained from red and sika deer.


Asunto(s)
Cuernos de Venado/metabolismo , Fatiga/tratamiento farmacológico , Nucleósidos/uso terapéutico , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Ciervos , Masculino , Ratones , Nucleósidos/análisis , Nucleósidos/farmacología , Condicionamiento Físico Animal
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 89, 2020 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902034

RESUMEN

Soybeans, as legumes, belong among food items that contribute most to the dietary intake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd). The consumption of soy-based foods may contribute significantly to Cd intake in vegetarians as probably the most frequent consumers of these foods. In this research, the weekly dietary intake of Cd from soy-based foods was investigated in 119 participants (including vegetarians, vegans, and non-vegetarians) in the Czech Republic by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) with personal assistance and the measurement of body weight. Cd content in soy-based foods available on the market was determined by means of atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. Tofu, as the most frequently consumed food item in the vegetarian/vegan group, contributed most to the total dietary Cd intake. It contained 7.6 ± 0.1 µg Cd/kg, while the highest Cd content was observed in tempeh (18.1 ± 0.4 µg/kg). The highest mean dietary Cd intake per week from soy-based foods was 0.4 µg/kg b.w. and was found in the vegan group. The consumption of soy-based foods was the lowest in the non-vegetarian group as was the dietary intake of Cd, which was 0.04 µg/kg b.w. per week.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/análisis , Exposición Dietética/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminación de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Alimentos de Soja/análisis , Soja/química , Peso Corporal , República Checa , Dieta , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fabaceae , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrofotometría Atómica , Verduras , Vegetarianos
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(4): 393-403, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999622

RESUMEN

Objective: A subset of normal-weight individuals appears predisposed to obesity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities. Studies of this metabolically obese, normal weight (MONW) phenotype in youth are scarce. We aimed to identify early environmental and genetic factors associated with MONW in children. Methods: Overall, 1475 normal-weight Chinese children aged 6-18 were recruited from the Beijing Children and Adolescents Metabolic Syndrome study cohort. Birthweight, childhood lifestyle, socio-economic factors, and 20 genetic variants previously shown to be associated with BMI or glucose metabolism in East Asian adults were examined for their association with the MONW phenotype. MONW was defined by exhibiting any metabolic syndrome component. Results: After adjusting for covariates including BMI, low birthweight and low levels of physical activity, fruit consumption, parental education and household income, as well as CDKAL1 rs2206734 genotype were independent predictors of the MONW phenotype (all P < 0.05). Moreover, rs2206734 interacted with birthweight to predict the MONW phenotype (Pinteraction = 0.0008). Among high (>75th percentile) birthweight individuals, each C allele at this locus was associated with a 62% reduced risk of MONW (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.26-0.58; P = 5.71 × 10-6), while no such genetic associations were found in intermediate or low birthweight individuals (P > 0.1). This CDKAL1-MONW relationship in high birthweight individuals was especially strong in the presence of favorable childhood environmental factors (high levels of physical activity, fruit consumption, parental education and household income) (Pinteraction = 0.013). Conclusions: Our findings provided the novel evidence that early environment (especially birthweight) and genetics, along with their interaction with one another, play important roles in predicting the MONW phenotype among children.


Asunto(s)
Peso Corporal , Ambiente , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Síndrome Metabólico , Obesidad Pediátrica , Adolescente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Niño , China , Dieta , Ejercicio , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Recién Nacido de Bajo Peso , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , ARNt Metiltransferasas/genética
16.
Life Sci ; 245: 117307, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954746

RESUMEN

AIM: To investigate whether a chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (i.e. Fluoxetine-FLX) exposure in young adult rats overfed during suckling period would modulate interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) mitochondria and browning agents in white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned into either a normofed group (n = 9 per group) or an overfed group (n = 3 per group) induced by litter size reduction at postnatal day 3 (PND3). Pharmacological manipulation was carried out between PND39 and PND59 and groups were assigned accordingly: Normofed + vehicle solution - NaCl 0.9% (NV group), normofed + FLX solution - 10 mg/kg b.w. (NF group), overfed + vehicle (OV group) and overfed + FLX (OF group). We evaluated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reactive species (RS) production, oxidative stress analyses (MDA concentration, carbonyl content, REDOX state [GSH/GSSG], global oxy score) in the iBAT, gene (leptin, Ucp1, Sirt1, Pgc1α and Prdm16) and protein (UCP1) expression in the iBAT and epididymal WAT (eWAT). KEY FINDINGS: OV group increased body weight gain, Lee index and oxidative stress in the iBAT. Both FLX-treated groups showed less weight gain compared to their controls. OF group showed different leptin expression in the WAT and iBAT; increased functional UCP1 content and mitochondrial activity with less oxidative stress in the iBAT and upregulation of browning genes in eWAT (Pgc1α, Prdm16 and Ucp1). CONCLUSION: Altogether our findings indicated that FLX treatment in young adult overfed animals improved the iBAT mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress and induced transcriptional activation of browning agents in white adipose tissue.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Pardo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/efectos de los fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacología , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Hipernutrición/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/farmacología , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 619-625, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992151

RESUMEN

The purpose was to identify classes of different developmental trajectories of BMI and testing them for differences in motor competence (MC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), in children and adolescents (4 to 13 years of age). This was a 5 years' longitudinal study with six cohorts. One hundred and forty-seven children (69 girls) divided into six cohorts participated. At baseline, the youngest and the oldest cohorts had 4 and 11 years of age, respectively. Height and weight were assessed, and BMI was calculated. MC was assessed with KTK and TGMD-2, and CRF was assessed with one-mile run/walk. Developmental trajectories of BMI were identified using latent class linear-mixed modelling. Latent class membership was explained according to covariates of MC and CRF. Two meaningful classes were identified. Class 1 (78.92% of the participants) showed lower initial BMI and a lower slope compared to class 2 (21.08% of the participants) (all ps < 0.001). Class membership only predicted trajectories in motor coordination, with children in class 1 having a better development.In conclusion, this study identified two meaningful trajectories for children based on their BMI development across five time points. In line with previous research, children with slower increasing BMI showed better motor coordination improvements.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Adolescente , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino
18.
Life Sci ; 243: 117251, 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904365

RESUMEN

AIMS: Heat shock protein 27 regulates homeostasis of skeletal and cardiac muscle proteins in various stressful states including diabetes and exercise. Aerobic exercise can inhibit or ameliorate cardiac structural abnormality and dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of HSP27 in aerobic exercise improving cardiac diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control, control + aerobic exercise, diabetic, and diabetic + aerobic exercise. Diabetes was induced by feeding with a high-fat high-sugar diet for 7-weeks followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg) in male rats. Moderate aerobic exercise training was performed on a treadmill for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes. KEY FINDINGS: Aerobic exercise increased left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, myocardial HSP27 protein expression, HSP27-S82 phosphorylation levels, pHSP27-titin binding and improved cardiac muscle fibre alignment in diabetic rats. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study indicates that moderate aerobic exercise increases HSP27 activation, improves cardiomyocyte fibre alignment and restores cardiac diastolic function.


Asunto(s)
Cardiomiopatías Diabéticas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/metabolismo , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicaciones , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Pruebas de Función Cardíaca , Humanos , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Miocardio/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina/administración & dosificación
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(3): 363-374, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961798

RESUMEN

Objective: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is a metalloproteinase that cleaves IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5. Human mutations in PAPPA2 result in short stature with a low percentage of free IGF-I. Little is known about PAPP-A2 levels and the regulation of free IGF-I throughout childhood. We examined PAPP-A2 and intact IGFBP-3 levels in childhood and explored associations between PAPP-A2, free and total IGF-I, and total and intact IGFBP-3 and their relationship to the percentage of free to total IGF-I and anthropometric factors. Design: Cross-sectional study at a single center. Methods: PAPP-A2, free IGF-I, and intact IGFBP-3 levels were measured in childhood (3-18 years old) and an evaluation of the relationship between these proteins and anthropometric factors. Results: In 838 children, PAPP-A2 consistently decreased throughout childhood. In contrast, free IGF-I increased. A pubertal peak in free IGF-I was present in females but was less evident in males. Intact and total IGFBP-3 increased throughout childhood; however, intact IGFBP-3 had a more marked rise than total IGFBP-3. Percent free IGF-I decreased with no distinct pubertal peak. PAPP-A2 levels positively correlated with the percent free IGF-I (Male, Female; r = 0.18, 0.38; P < 0.001) and negatively with intact IGFBP-3 (Male, Female; r = -0.58, -0.65; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This is the first study to describe serum PAPP-A2 and intact IGFBP-3 in children between 3 and 18 years of age. Our correlative findings suggest that PAPP-A2 is an important regulator of the percent free IGF-I which can be a marker of perturbations in the GH/IGF-I axis.


Asunto(s)
Proteína 3 de Unión a Factor de Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Proteína Plasmática A Asociada al Embarazo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Desarrollo del Adolescente , Antropometría , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pubertad/metabolismo , Valores de Referencia
20.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 54-61, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891669

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Studies have attempted to identify prognostic indicators for successful outcomes following bariatric surgery for obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the degree of obesity affects outcomes in patients who are morbidly obese (basal metabolic index, BMI, 40-49.9 kg/m2), super-obese (BMI 50-59.9 kg/m2) and super-super-obese (BMI greater than 60 kg/m2) undergoing restrictive or malabsorptive bypass procedures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was undertaken to include all consecutive laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands (LAGB), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) procedures since 2010. Patients with at least two years of follow-up were included. At each visit, the patient's weight, BMI, excess weight loss and comorbidity status were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 353 patients (75% women) were included in the analysis; 65 (18.4%) underwent LAGB; 70 (19.8%) LSG and 218 (61.8%) LRYGB. At presentation, the median BMI for the morbidly obese sub-group was 47.2 kg/m2 for LAGB, 46.4 kg/m2 for LSG and 46.6 kg/m2 for LRYGB (P = 0.625); for the super-obese sub-group it was 53.2 kg/m2 for LAGB, 52.9 kg/m2 for LSG and 52.4 kg/m2 for LRYGB (P = 0.481); and for the super-super-obese sub-group 66.9 kg/m2 for (LAGB, 66.7 kg/m2 for LSG and 61.5 kg/m2 for LRYGB (P = 0.169). Percentage of excess weight loss at the end of two years was significantly higher in the morbidly obese and super-morbidly obese sub-groups undergoing LRYGB (median 68.5% and 69.5%, respectively; P < 0.001) than in the sub-groups undergoing LAGB and LSG. This was also reflected in the reduction of BMI achieved with bypass in the two sub-groups (P < 0.001). Complete diabetes remission was significantly higher in the morbidly obese and super-morbidly obese sub-groups undergoing LRYGB treatment (P < 0.05). Sleep apnoea, asthma and exercise tolerance had significantly improved in the super-morbidly obese undergoing LRYGB (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in remission of hypertension; dyslipidaemia; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and depression in all three BMI sub-groups. CONCLUSION: The mid-term results for weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities is best achieved in super-obese patients undergoing LRYGB, without any significant increase in complications with this procedure as compared with LAGB and LSG.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica/métodos , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Laparoscopía/métodos , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Adulto , Cirugía Bariátrica/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Laparoscopía/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/etiología , Complicaciones Posoperatorias/cirugía , Estudios Prospectivos , Reoperación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología
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