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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249756, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345533

RESUMEN

Abstract Ri chicken is the most popular backyard chicken breed in Vietnam, but little is known about the growth curve of this breed. This study compared the performances of models with three parameters (Gompertz, Brody, and Logistic) and models containing four parameters (Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek) for describing the growth of Ri chicken. The bodyweight of Ri chicken was recorded weekly from week 1 to week 19. Growth models were fitted using minpack.lm package in R software and Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and root mean square error (RMSE) were used for model comparison. Based on these criteria, the models having four parameters showed better performance than the ones with three parameters, and the Richards model was the best one for males and females. The lowest and highest value of asymmetric weights (α) were obtained by Bridges and Brody models for each of sexes, respectively. Age and weight estimated by the Richard model were 8.46 and 7.51 weeks and 696.88 and 487.58 g for males and for females, respectively. Differences in the growth curves were observed between males and female chicken. Overall, the results suggested using the Richards model for describing the growth curve of Ri chickens. Further studies on the genetics and genomics of the obtained growth parameters are required before using them for the genetic improvement of Ri chickens.


Resumo O frango Ri é a raça de frango de quintal mais popular do Vietnã, mas pouco se sabe sobre a curva de crescimento dessa raça. Este estudo comparou o desempenho de modelos com três parâmetros (Gompertz, Brody e Logistic) e modelos contendo quatro parâmetros (Richards, Bridges e Janoschek) para descrever o crescimento do frango Ri. O peso corporal do frango Ri foi registrado semanalmente da semana 1 à semana 19. Os modelos de crescimento foram ajustados usando o pacote minpack.lm no software R e o critério de informação de Akaike (AIC); critério de informação bayesiano (BIC) e erro quadrático médio (RMSE) foram usados ​​para comparação de modelos. Com base nesses critérios, os modelos com quatro parâmetros apresentaram melhor desempenho do que os com três parâmetros, sendo o modelo de Richards o melhor para homens e mulheres. O menor e o maior valor dos pesos assimétricos (α) foram obtidos pelos modelos Bridges e Brody para cada um dos sexos, respectivamente. A idade e o peso estimados pelo modelo de Richard foram de 8,46 e 7,51 semanas e 696,88 e 487,58 g para homens e mulheres, respectivamente. Diferenças nas curvas de crescimento foram observadas entre frangos machos e fêmeas. No geral, os resultados sugeriram o uso do modelo de Richards para descrever a curva de crescimento de frangos Ri. Mais estudos sobre a genética e genômica dos parâmetros de crescimento obtidos são necessários antes de usá-los para o melhoramento genético de frangos Ri.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Pollos , Modelos Teóricos , Peso Corporal , Teorema de Bayes , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Modelos Biológicos
2.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 41(1): 21, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538562

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Japan, height and weight measurements, taken for all children at birth and 1.5- and 3-year health checks, are recorded in the Mother and Child Health (MCH) Handbook, as required by the law. The present population-based retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of height and weight records in the Handbook for predicting excessive adiposity in adolescents. METHODS: The source population consisted of 8th grade students (800 students aged 14 years) registered at two public junior high schools. Of these, we excluded students who were born at a gestational age < 37 weeks or > 42 weeks. The present analyses included 435 participants who provided complete information. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using height and weight records. Body fat mass at 14 years of age was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Diagnostic performance of BMI calculated from the MCH Handbook records to discriminate between the presence and absence of excessive adiposity at 14 years of age was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to quantify the diagnostic accuracy of BMI. RESULTS: With regard to the prediction of excessive fat at 14 years of age, AUCs and 95% confidence intervals for BMI at 1.5 and 3 years of age were greater than 0.5. Meanwhile, the AUC of BMI at birth was not significantly greater than 0.5. CONCLUSION: The present study findings indicate that BMI values calculated using MCH Handbook data have potential ability to distinguish between the presence and absence of excessive fat at 14 years of age.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo , Obesidad , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Obesidad/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 74(2): 237-245, 2022 Apr 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503071

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different types of exercise on intestinal mechanical barrier and related regulatory factors in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The model was established by high-fat diet feeding and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (STZ). The mice were divided into control group, model group (free exercise), resistance exercise group (tail load-bearing ladder climbing, 5 times a week), aerobic exercise group (non-load-bearing platform running, 5 times a week at a speed of 10-15 m/min), and combined exercise group (aerobic exercise was performed on the first, third and fifth days of each week, and resistance exercise on the second and fourth days of each week). After 8 weeks of intervention, the serum lipid levels and inflammatory cytokines were measured by corresponding kits. The pathological changes of ileum were detected by HE and PAS staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of tight junction-related proteins were detected by real-time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, the protein expression levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were detected by Western blot. The results showed that all three types of exercise decreased blood glucose and body weight compared to the model group. Aerobic exercise and combined exercise decreased serum lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) levels, up-regulated the expression levels of ileal tight junction-related proteins and HIF-1α, improved the intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, reduced serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and diamine oxidase (DAO) levels, and down-regulated MLCK protein expression level. These results suggest that all three types of exercise can reduce blood glucose and body weight of T2DM mice, and aerobic exercise and combined exercise can restore the damaged intestinal mechanical barrier by a mechanism involving HIF-1α-MLCK pathway.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animales , Glucemia , Peso Corporal , Lipopolisacáridos , Ratones
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(8): 2802-2817, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503625

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin vs. metformin monotherapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Embase databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin vs. metformin monotherapy in patients with T2DM published up to 30 February 2021. The Cochrane tool and Revman 5.3 software was used to assess the risk of bias and conducted the meta-analysis in the included RCTs. Evidence level was assessed by the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: A total of 11 RCTs and 8533 patients were included. For the efficacy, we found that combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin (dose of metformin ≥1500mg/d) had a significantly higher reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) [mean differences (MD)= -0.59, 95% CI (-0.28, -0.16), p<0.00001] and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level [MD= -0.82, 95% CI (-1.09, -0.56), p<0.00001] than combination therapy with vildagliptin and metformin (dose of metformin <1500 mg/d). Vildagliptin plus metformin as combination therapy reduced body weight loss ratio [MD=0.22, 95% CI (0.17, 0.27), p<0.00001] when compared with metformin monotherapy. In terms of safety, the vildagliptin plus metformin as combination therapy did not increase risk of total adverse events (AEs) [RR=0.98, 95% CI (0.94,1.02), p=0.29], however there were significant statistical difference and did not increase the risk of diarrhea [RR=0.55, 95% CI (0.40, 0.76), p=0.0003] and Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders [RR=0.72, 95% CI (0.58, 0.91), p=0.006], but significantly increased risk of dizziness [RR=1.41, 95% CI (1.06, 1.88), p=0.02] when compared with metformin monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with metformin, vildagliptin combined with metformin could significantly reduce FPG, HbA1c and body weight. When the dose of metformin in the combination group of vildagliptin and metformin is ≥1500mg/d, the results showed significant reduction in HbA1c and FPG. In addition, it had no risk of increase in total AEs, diarrhea, and GI disorders, but had significant risk of increase in dizziness. GRADE showed that the quality of evidence had high certainty in FPG and moderate certainty in HbA1c, body weight and all AEs.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Metformina , Glucemia , Peso Corporal , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Mareo/inducido químicamente , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/efectos adversos , Metformina/efectos adversos , Nitrilos/efectos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efectos adversos , Vildagliptina/uso terapéutico
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 37(2): e370204, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507968

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the protective effect of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. polysaccharides (PCCL) on 5-fluorouracil-(5-FU)-induced intestinal mucositis (IM) in mice. METHODS: PCCL was orally administered at a dose of 20 mg·kg-1 for 7 days and its protective effect on 5-FU-induced IM (5-FU, 50 mg·kg-1 for 5 days) was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, degree of diarrhea, levels of tissue inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1ß levels), apoptosis rates, and the expression levels of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. RESULTS: The severity of mucosal injury (as reflected by body weight changes, degree of diarrhea, height of villi, and damage to crypts) was significantly attenuated by PCCL administration. PCCL also reduced the levels of tissue inflammatory factors, the apoptosis rate, and the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: PCCL administration may be significantly protective against 5-FU-induced IM by inhibiting apoptosis and regulating the abnormal inflammation associated with it.


Asunto(s)
Cuscuta , Mucositis , Animales , Antimetabolitos Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Peso Corporal , Caspasa 3/metabolismo , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Diarrea/inducido químicamente , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Diarrea/patología , Fluorouracilo/efectos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Ratones , Mucositis/inducido químicamente , Mucositis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucositis/prevención & control , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Semillas , Proteína X Asociada a bcl-2/metabolismo
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 249, 2022 05 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513881

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a possibility that excess body fat affects bone mass gain and may compromise skeletal health in obese children. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in normal weight, overweight and obese children. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 6- to 11-year-old children who attended the hospital's outpatient clinic. They were apparently healthy and had no history of prematurity, low birth weight, or chronic diseases. Body mass index (BMI) was used to identify subjects as normal weight, overweight or obese. BMD and body composition were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values (total and lumbar spine) were compared between normal weight, overweight and obese children. Correlation coefficients were calculated, and multivariate models were performed. RESULTS: Forty-nine children were included: 16 with normal weight, 15 that were overweight and 18 with obesity; the mean age was 8.4 ± 1.7 years. All the participants had a normal BMD (> - 2 SD). BMD was higher in obese children and had a positive correlation with total and trunk lean mass in the three study groups (p < 0.001). In obese children, an inverse correlation of lumbar spine BMD (Z score) with total and trunk fat mass (p < 0.05) was identified. In the multivariate models (with the whole group), the total lean mass was the only significant variable that explained BMD variability. CONCLUSIONS: BMD in obese children was higher than that in normal weight children, which is explained by their greater lean mass and not by excess body fat. In obese children, a higher fat mass was related to a lower lumbar spine BMD. Lean mass had a direct correlation with BMD in the three study groups and was the most important predictor of BMD, reflecting the importance of strengthening the muscular system through performing physical activity and practicing a healthy lifestyle.


Asunto(s)
Densidad Ósea , Obesidad Pediátrica , Absorciometría de Fotón , Composición Corporal , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Sobrepeso
7.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(5): e34531, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522461

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As the global burden of chronic conditions increases, their effective management is a concern. Although the need for chronic disease management using mobile self-management health care apps is increasing, there are still many barriers to their practical application in the primary care field. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effectiveness of primary care services combining a mobile self-management health care app with human coaching for patients with chronic diseases in the current primary care system. METHODS: A total of 110 patients (mean age 53.2, SD 9.2 years; 64 of 110, 58.2% female) with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome who visited one of 17 participating primary care clinics from September to November 2020 were included in this study. All participants recorded data regarding changes in body weight, sleep conditions, quality of life, depression, anxiety, stress, BMI, waist circumference, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, and blood lipids levels. The app user group (n=65) used a mobile self-management health care app with human coaching for 12 weeks, and the control group (n=45) underwent conventional self-managed health care. RESULTS: Patients in the app user group reported significantly more weight loss than those in the control group-the body weight of the app user group decreased by 1.43 kg (95% CI -2.07 to -0.79) and that of the control group decreased by 0.13 kg (95% CI -0.67 to 0.41; P=.002). The weight loss was markedly greater after using the app for 9 weeks than that when used for 4 weeks or 5-8 weeks (P=.002). Patients in the app user group reported better sleep quality (P=.04) and duration (P=.004) than those in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of primary care clinics and a mobile self-management health care app with human coaching results in better management of chronic conditions. This study shows that the primary care services combining a mobile self-management health care app with human coaching are effective in the current primary care system. An implication of this study is the possibility that a mobile self-management health care app with human coaching is a treatment option in the current primary care system.


Asunto(s)
Tutoría , Aplicaciones Móviles , Telemedicina , Peso Corporal , Atención a la Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoría/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Pérdida de Peso
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 166, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524303

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) functional assessment has received considerable attention in veterinary medicine since various diseases, such as cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, and neoplastic disease, may affect RV function. Heart rate (HR) is an important factor that can influence RV function through changes in loading condition and contractility. However, no study has yet evaluated the association between HR and RV function in the same individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of elevated HR on RV function using right heart catheterization and echocardiography, and investigate the association between right heart catheterization and echocardiographic indices. RESULTS: Right atrial pacing was performed in eight dogs at 120, 140, 160, and 180 bpm. With an increase in HR, the RV systolic volume, RV diastolic volume, and stroke volume significantly decreased; however, the cardiac output, end-systolic elastance (Ees), and effective arterial elastance (Ea) significantly increased. Significant changes were not observed in RV pressure and Ees/Ea. The RV area normalized by body weight, RV fractional area change normalized by body weight (RV FACn), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion normalized by body weight (TAPSEn) significantly decreased with increased HR. Peak systolic myocardial velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus (RV s'), RV strain, and RV strain rate of only the RV free wall analysis (RV-SrL3seg) showed no significant changes with the increase in HR; however, there was an increase in the RV strain rate of the RV global analysis (RV-SrL6seg). Multiple regression analysis revealed that HR, RV FACn, and RV- SrL6seg had significant associations with the Ees, and the TAPSEn and RV-SrL3seg with Ees/Ea. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased venous return and shortened relaxation time decreased the RV FAC, TAPSE, RV s', and RV strain, and might underestimate the RV function. Ees increased with the increase in HR, reflecting the myocardial force-frequency relation; as a result, RV-SrL6seg could be a useful tool for Ees estimation. Additionally, the RV-SrL3seg could detect RV performance, reflecting the balance between RV contractility and RV afterload.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Disfunción Ventricular Derecha , Animales , Peso Corporal , Cateterismo Cardíaco/veterinaria , Perros , Ecocardiografía/veterinaria , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Ventrículos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagen , Volumen Sistólico , Disfunción Ventricular Derecha/diagnóstico por imagen , Disfunción Ventricular Derecha/veterinaria , Función Ventricular Derecha/fisiología
9.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 56(3): 239-253, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Correlation between type 2 diabetes and other abnormalities such as obesity with redox balance disturbance was analyzed in many reports. Nonetheless, antioxidants impact on parameters accompanying these conditions is still unknown. Currently the role of redox imbalance in the adipose tissue has gained a lot of attention. METHODS: We investigated the impact of α-lipoic acid (ALA) on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, oxidative stress and inflammation parameters in the subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue of high fat diet-fed (HFD) rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6) - control diet (CTRL), HFD and HFD with α-lipoic acid (HFD+ALA). RESULTS: HFD increased body weight, plasma insulin and glucose as well as leads to oxidative stress parameters in the adipose tissue. ALA supplementation reduced body weight and oxidative stress parameters more effectively in the visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissue of insulin resistant rats. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance led to increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, protein and lipid glycoxidation, nitrosative stress, and selected inflammatory parameters more in VAT than in SAT of insulin resistant rats. Moreover, ALA inhibited HFD consequences mainly in VAT mostly through glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistencia a la Insulina , Ácido Tióctico , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Ácido Tióctico/farmacología , Ácido Tióctico/uso terapéutico
11.
J Toxicol Sci ; 47(5): 193-199, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527007

RESUMEN

According to ICH S3A Q&A focusing on microsampling, its application should be avoided in main study animals for test drugs that could exacerbate hematological parameters with frequent blood sampling. However, no study has reported the effects of microsampling on toxicity parameters of drugs known to induce hematological toxicity. Therefore, we assessed the toxicological effects of serial microsampling on rats treated with phenacetin as a model drug. In a common 28-day study, 50 µL of microsampling was performed at 6-time points on days 1 to 2 and 7-time points on days 27 to 28 from the jugular vein of Sprague Dawley rats. The study was performed independently by two organizations. The toxicological influence of microsampling was evaluated on body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood clinical chemistry, urine parameters, organ weights, and tissue pathology. Phenacetin treatments induced significant changes of various hematological parameters (including hemoglobin and reticulocytes), some organ weights (including liver and spleen), and some hematology-related pathological parameters in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Meanwhile, serial microsampling exhibited minimal influence on the assessed parameters, although 20 parameters showed statistical differences mostly at one organization. The current results support the notion that serial 50 µL microsampling from the jugular vein had minimal impacts on overall toxicological profiles even in rats treated with a drug inducing hematological toxicity, but the potential adverse effect on certain parameters could not be fully excluded. Accordingly, this microsampling technique has possibility to be employed even for non-clinical rat toxicity studies using drugs with potentially hematological toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Muestras de Sangre , Fenacetina , Animales , Recolección de Muestras de Sangre/métodos , Peso Corporal , Venas Yugulares , Fenacetina/toxicidad , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Bazo
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7233997, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528154

RESUMEN

Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the antitumor effects of royal jelly (RJ) obtained from Apis mellifera compared with cyclophosphamide against the Ehrlich solid tumors (EST) in mice. Methods: Tumor growth inhibition, body weight, the serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen tumor (CAE), liver and kidney enzymes, tumor lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase enzyme (CAT), and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity (SOD)), tumor necrosis factor alpha level (TNF-α), and the apoptosis-regulatory genes expression were assessed in EST mice treated with RJ (200 and 400 mg/kg orally once a day for 2 weeks). Results: The results showed that treatment of EST-suffering mice with RJ at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg causes significant reduction in tumor volume and inhibition rate, body weight, tumor markers (AFP and CEA), serum level of liver and kidney, LPO and NO, TNF-α level, as well as the expression level of Bcl-2 in comparison with the EST mice receiving the normal saline; whereas RJ at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day significantly increased (p < 0.05) the level of antioxidant enzymes of GPx, CAT, and SOD and the expression level of caspase-3 and Bax genes. Conclusion: The findings revealed that oral administration of royal jelly especially at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited promising antitumor effects against EST in mice through induction of apoptosis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which suggest it as a novel anticancer agent against tumor; however, additional surveys especially in clinical setting are necessary to approve these findings.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Neoplasias , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Abejas , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Grasos , Ratones , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo
13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 410, 2022 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501751

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study was a randomized controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and safety of the usage of intravenous tranexamic acid during posterior operation of multilevel thoracic spine stenosis for controlling perioperative blood loss. METHODS: Sixty eight patients with multilevel thoracic spine stenosis were randomized into the tranexamic acid group receiving 15 mg/kg body weight before the skin incision was made and 1 mg/kg body weight per hour during operation or the control group receiving the same dose of placebo (0.9% sodium chloride solution) intravenously. Pedicle screw fixation, laminectomy and selective discectomy were performed. Intraoperative and perioperative total blood loss were compared. The necessity and amount for blood transfusion, blood coagulation function, durations of postoperative hospital stays were compared. The complications of tranexamic acid were also investigated such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, lower limb venous thrombosis. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, body mass index, ASA status, pathology required surgery, preoperative hemoglobin, operation time, laminectomy segments and discectomy segments between the tranexamic acid and control groups. The intraoperative blood loss (455.9 ± 206.6 ml vs 580.6 ± 224.3 ml, p < 0.05) and total blood loss (675.3 ± 170.3 ml vs 936.8 ± 306.4 ml, p < 0.01) in tranexamic acid group were significant lower than those in control group. The means of blood unit transfused (2.5 ± 1.0 vs 4.7 ± 2.4, p < 0.05) and Hb reduction in 48 h (22.5 ± 3.4 g/L vs 25.3 ± 3.9 g/L, p < 0.01) were significantly lower in tranexamic acid group than that in control group. There were no statistically significant differences in blood coagulation function pre-operation or 48 h post-operation between the tranexamic acid and the control groups. The requirements for patients to receive blood transfusion were fewer and durations of post-operational hospital stays were shorter in the tranexamic acid group, however, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. There was no significant difference in superficial or deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs or deterioration of neurological function between tranexamic acid group and control group. CONCLUSIONS: Application of intravenous tranexamic acid significantly reduces intraoperative and perioperative total blood loss without significant side effects in posterior operation of multilevel thoracic spine stenosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: At Chinese Clinal Trial Registry. http://www.chictr.org.cn/ , ChiCTR2100054221. Registered on 11/12/2021.


Asunto(s)
Antifibrinolíticos , Estenosis Espinal , Ácido Tranexámico , Peso Corporal , Constricción Patológica/inducido químicamente , Constricción Patológica/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Estenosis Espinal/cirugía , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
Wiad Lek ; 75(3): 685-690, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522879

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To investigate the effects of bioflavonoids (curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and quercetin) on nitro-oxidative stress and the functions of submandibular SGs in rats under alcohol exposure during SIR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The studies were conducted on 35 rats of the Wistar line weighing 205-220 g, divided into 5 groups of seven animals in each: the 1st group, control group I, included animals receiving isotonic sodium chloride solution intragastrically twice a day; the 2nd group, control group II, included rats exposed to alcohol (in a dose of 24 mg/kg intragastrically through gavage a twice a day) for last 2 weeks during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced SIR; the rats of the 3rd, 4th and 5th groups exposed to alcohol during LPS-induced SIR, which also received bioflavonoids. The bioflavonoids ("Sigma-Aldrich, Inc.", USA) were as following: curcumin (in a daily dose of 200 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (in a daily dose of 40 mg/kg), and quercetin (in a daily dose of 200 mg/kg), respectively. SIR was induced by intraperitoneal administration of Salmonella typhi LPS (during the first week a dose of 0.4 µg/kg of body weight was administered 3 times a week; during the next 7 weeks of the experiment rats received 0.4 µg/kg of body weight once a week. The formation of superoxide anion radical (О2 -), activity of NO-synthase - total (NOS), its constitutive and inducible isoforms (cNOS, iNOS), and concentration of peroxynitrites and S-nitrosothiols were evaluated spectrophotometrically. To assess the functional status of submandibular SGs in their homogenate we determined α-amylase activity (spectrophotometrically) and the aquaporin-5 concentration (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). through gav-age with orogastric cannul. RESULTS: Results: When applying bioflavonoids under the conditions of alcohol administration during SIR, NADH-induced .О2 - production decreased and yielded to the result in the control group II by 36.8% under administering curcumin, by 34.5% under administering epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and by 41.3% under administering quercetin. The total NOS activity in SGs tissues was inferior by 42.8% to the relevant data in the control group II (under curcumin administration), by 33.7% (under epigallocatechin-3-gallate administration) and by 46.6% (under quercetin administration); and the iNOS activity decreased by 47.0, 38.3 and 52.0%, respectively. Under the administration of bioflavonoids peroxynitrites concentration in the submandibular SGs tissues was inferior to the control group II by 35.6% (under curcumin administration), by 37.4% (under epigallocatechin-3-gallate administration), and by 39.3% (under quercetin administration); the content of S-nitrosothiols was lower by 34.5, 31.1 and 35.3%, respectively. The administration of bioflavonoids led to the changes in α-amylase activity in the submandibular SGs tissues: its values exceeded the relevant data in the control group II by 40.4% (under curcumin administration), by 38.2% (under epigallocatechin-3-gallate administration), and by 34.1% (under quercetin administration); under those conditions aquaporin-5 concentration grew in 2.66, 2.61 and 2.55 times, respectively. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The use of bioflavonoids (curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and quercetin) under the combined administration of 40% ethanol solution and LPS considerably limits the development of nitro-oxidative stress in the tissues of the submandibular SGs. The administration of the bioflavonoids increases the level of cNOS coupling, and improves the functional status of the submandibular SGs under the combined administration of alcohol and LPS enhancing the activity of α-amylase and concentration of aquaporin-5.


Asunto(s)
Curcumina , Flavonoides , Estrés Oxidativo , S-Nitrosotioles , Animales , Acuaporina 5 , Peso Corporal , Curcumina/farmacología , Etanol , Flavonoides/farmacología , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Ácido Peroxinitroso , Quercetina/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , S-Nitrosotioles/farmacología , Glándulas Salivales , Síndrome de Respuesta Inflamatoria Sistémica , alfa-Amilasas/farmacología
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 401, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525971

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure and glycemic control are associated with the management of depressive symptoms in patients with depression. Previous studies have demonstrated that both Tai Chi and aerobic exercise have positive effects on blood pressure and glycemic control. Few studies have compared the physiological effects of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise in older adults with depressive symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Tai Chi and aerobic exercise on weight, body mass index, blood pressure and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in older persons with mild to moderate-severe depressive symptoms. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was performed. The older persons (age ≥ 60 years old) with depressive symptoms were recruited. Then, participants were randomly allocated to the Tai Chi group and the aerobic exercise group received a 12-week 24-movement Yang's Tai Chi intervention and aerobic exercise, respectively. Data collection occurred at baseline and after completion of the interventions (week 12). RESULTS: A total of 238 participants with mild to moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms were included in the final analysis, including 120 in the Tai Chi group and 118 in the aerobic exercise group. The difference in weight and body mass index in the Tai Chi group was 2.0 kg (Z = -4.930, P < 0.001) and 0.77 kg/m2 (Z = -5.046, P < 0.001) higher than that in the aerobic exercise group, respectively. After the 12-week intervention, the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure in the Tai Chi group were 5.50 mmHg (Z = -2.282, P = 0.022) and 8.0 mmHg (Z = -3.360, P = 0.001) lower than that in the aerobic exercise group, respectively. The difference in HbA1c level in the Tai Chi group was 0.50% higher than that in the aerobic exercise group (Z = -4.446, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed that Tai Chi exercise was more effective in improving blood pressure and HbA1c level than general aerobic exercise. It suggested that Tai Chi might be an effective approach for the management of blood pressure and long-term glucose control in older persons with depressive symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ChiCTR, ChiCTR2100042534 . Registration date: 23/01/2021, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=120602 .


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Depresión , Ejercicio Físico , Control Glucémico , Tai Ji , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Depresión/terapia , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Humanos
16.
AAPS J ; 24(3): 67, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538161

RESUMEN

The objective of this study is to propose a unified, continuous, and bodyweight-only equation to quantify the changes of human basal metabolic rate (BMR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and drug clearance (CL) from infancy to adulthood. The BMR datasets were retrieved from a comprehensive historical database of male and female subjects (0.02 to 64 years). The CL datasets for 17 drugs and the GFR dataset were generated from published maturation and growth models with reported parameter values. A statistical approach was used to simulate the model-generated CL and GFR data for a hypothetical population with 26 age groups (from 0 to 20 years). A biphasic equation with two power-law functions of bodyweight was proposed and evaluated as a general model using nonlinear regression and dimensionless analysis. All datasets universally reveal biphasic curves with two distinct linear segments on log-log plots. The biphasic equation consists of two reciprocal allometric terms that asymptotically determine the overall curvature. The fitting results show a superlinear scaling phase (asymptotic exponent >1; ca. 1.5-3.5) and a sublinear scaling phase (asymptotic exponent <1; ca. 0.5-0.7), which are separated at the phase transition bodyweight ranging from 5 to 20 kg with a mean value of 10 kg (corresponding to 1 year of age). The dimensionless analysis generalizes and offers quantitative realization of the maturation and growth process. In conclusion, the proposed mixed-allometry equation is a generic model that quantitatively describes the phase transition in the human maturation process of diverse human functions.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Basal , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Vías de Eliminación de Fármacos , Femenino , Tasa de Filtración Glomerular , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Tasa de Depuración Metabólica , Adulto Joven
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(3): 177, 2022 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508820

RESUMEN

To provide the local goat population with an adequate breeding scheme under an arid environment, this study aimed to evaluate the use of alternative models attempting to dissect the additive genetic (AG) and permanent environmental (PE) components of direct and maternal effects on weights of kids up to weaning. Records of 903 local kids over a period of 16 years were used in this study. Data were split into four groups corresponding to four periods along weight recording. Periods 1/2/3/4 contained weights in an interval with upper-lower limits of 1-20/25-60/65-120/125-150 days of age. Models including or ignoring maternal genetic or permanent environmental effects were fitted for all traits. For all periods, the best models were those including the AG component for both direct and maternal effects and the direct PE effect. Heritability estimates of both the direct and maternal effects ranged from low (0.02 for maternal heritability in P1) to moderate (0.17 for direct and maternal heritability in P2 and P3). Period 1 showed the lowest values for heritability of both direct and maternal effects, with also the largest estimate of the ratio of residual to total variance (around 0.2) compared with the other periods, with decreasing ratios as age increased (from 0.13 for P2 to 0.07 for P4). Both direct and maternal estimated breeding values (EBVs) showed high correlations for models fitting direct AG and PE (DGP) effects. For direct EBVs (DEBVs), correlations were above 0.99, indicating that the same animals are expected to be selected under any model that includes those components, regardless of the maternal effects included. For maternal EBVs, correlations were also high, but slightly lower than for the DEBVs between models including DGP effects and maternal genetic effects. Overall, our recommendation for genetic evaluations of direct and maternal effects in this population raised in extensive and harsh conditions is to use weight records preferably collected during the period of high milk production of dams, for which direct and maternal effects are expected to show full expression. Complete pedigrees and several generations of dam-progeny recording are needed to obtain a proper separation of environmental and genetic components.


Asunto(s)
Cabras , Herencia Materna , Animales , Peso Corporal/genética , Cabras/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Destete
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1974): 20220330, 2022 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538786

RESUMEN

Detecting microevolutionary responses to natural selection by observing temporal changes in individual breeding values is challenging. The collection of suitable datasets can take many years and disentangling the contributions of the environment and genetics to phenotypic change is not trivial. Furthermore, pedigree-based methods of obtaining individual breeding values have known biases. Here, we apply a genomic prediction approach to estimate breeding values of adult weight in a 35-year dataset of Soay sheep (Ovis aries). Comparisons are made with a traditional pedigree-based approach. During the study period, adult body weight decreased, but the underlying genetic component of body weight increased, at a rate that is unlikely to be attributable to genetic drift. Thus cryptic microevolution of greater adult body weight has probably occurred. Genomic and pedigree-based approaches gave largely consistent results. Thus, using genomic prediction to study microevolution in wild populations can remove the requirement for pedigree data, potentially opening up new study systems for similar research.


Asunto(s)
Genoma , Genómica , Animales , Peso Corporal , Genotipo , Modelos Genéticos , Linaje , Fenotipo , Ovinos
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7393, 2022 May 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513541

RESUMEN

Sildenafil is widely used off-label in pediatric patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This study was conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sildenafil in term and preterm neonates with PAH, by developing a population PK model, and to suggest appropriate doses to achieve clinically effective concentrations. A population PK modelling analysis was performed using sildenafil and its metabolite N-desmethyl sildenafil (DMS) concentration data from 19 neonates with PAH, whose gestational ages ranged 24-41 weeks. They received sildenafil orally at a dose of 0.5-0.75 mg/kg, four times a day. To investigate the appropriate sildenafil dose, simulations were conducted according to body weight which was significant covariate for sildenafil clearance. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described the PKs of sildenafil and DMS. Sildenafil clearance was expected to increase rapidly with increasing body weight. In the simulation, sildenafil doses > 1 mg/kg was required to achieve and maintain target concentrations of sildenafil and to expect timely clinical effects in term and preterm infants. These results could be utilized for the safer and more effective use of sildenafil in term and preterm infants.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión Pulmonar , Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar , Peso Corporal , Niño , Hipertensión Pulmonar Primaria Familiar , Humanos , Hipertensión Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Citrato de Sildenafil/uso terapéutico
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 159, 2022 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501865

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure is thought to be a major contributor to living organism health deterioration, as evidenced by its impact on both cultured fish species and human health. Commercial fish diets are typically deficient in selenium (Se); hence, supplementation may be necessary to meet requirements during stress. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the protective role of selenium yeast (SY) supplementation for 60 days against the deleterious effects of glyphosate and or malathion chronic toxicity at sublethal concentrations in Oreochromis niloticus . METHODS: Two hundred and ten fish were divided into seven groups (n = 30/group) as follows: G1 (negative control); G2 (2 mg L- 1 glyphosate); G3 (0.5 mg L- 1 malathion); G4 (glyphosate 1.6 mg L- 1 and malathion 0.3 mg L- 1); G5 (glyphosate 2 mg L- 1 and SY 3.3 mg kg- 1); G6 (malathion 0.5 mg L- 1 and SY 3.3 mg kg- 1); and G7 (glyphosate 1.6 mg L- 1; malathion 0.3 mg L- 1 and SY 3.3 mg kg- 1). RESULTS: Results revealed significant alteration in growth performance parameters including feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER). G4 has the highest documented cumulative mortalities (40%), followed by G3 (30%). Additionally, the greatest impact was documented in G4, followed by G3 and then G2 as severe anemia with significant thrombocytopenia; leukocytosis; hypoproteinemia; increased Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, and creatinine, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Considering the previously mentioned parameters, selenium yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (3.3 mg kg- 1 available selenium) mitigated the negative impact of both the agrochemicals, whether exposed singly or in combination, in addition to their antioxidative action. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study found that organophosphorus agrochemicals, single or combined, had negative impacts on Oreochromis niloticus regarding growth performance, biochemical and hematological changes in the serum, as well as induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney tissues. Supplementation of SY at the rate of 3.3 mg kg- 1 diet (2.36 mg kg- 1 selenomethionine and 0.94 mg organic selenium) ameliorated the fish performance and health status adversely affected by organophosphorus agrochemical intoxication.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos , Selenio , Levadura Seca , Agroquímicos/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Malatión/toxicidad , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Selenio/metabolismo , Selenio/farmacología
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