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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526435

RESUMEN

We have been here before. In 430 BCE, a plague struck Athens, killing as much as 25% of the population. In 1347 CE, the bubonic plague afflicted western Europe for 4 years, killing as much as 50% of the population. The plague of Athens led to a collapse of their religion, cultural norms and democracy. In contrast, the bubonic plague led eventually to the Renaissance, a growth of art, science and humanism. As we contend with the COVID-19 global pandemic, will we become Athens or Florence?


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias/historia , Peste , Europa (Continente) , Antigua Grecia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Peste/historia , Peste/mortalidad , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 423-429, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476233

RESUMEN

In this article, I explore the historical resonances between China's 1911 pneumonic plague and our current situation with COVID-19. At the turn of the 20th century, China was labeled "the Sick Man of the Far East": a once-powerful country that had become burdened by opium addiction, infectious disease, and an ineffective government. In 1911, this weakened China faced an outbreak of pneumonic plague in Manchuria that killed more than 60 000 people. After the 1911 plague, a revolutionized China radically restructured its approach to public health to eliminate the stigma of being "the Sick Man." Ironically, given the US mishandling of the COVID pandemic, observers in today's China are now calling the United States "the Sick Man of the West": a country burdened by opioid addiction, infectious disease, and an ineffective government. The historical significance of the phrase "Sick Man"-and its potential to now be associated with the United States-highlights the continued links between epidemic control and international status in a changing world. This historical comparison also reveals that plagues bring not only tragedy but also the opportunity for change.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Política , COVID-19/psicología , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Epidemias , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Peste/psicología , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 347-348, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444749

RESUMEN

The article examines Genghis Khan's death from the historico-medical perspective. Although several etiologies have been proposed over the years, most of these at a closer look appear to be later inventions by historians. A reassessment of the available evidence suggests instead bubonic plague as the most likely clinical scenario. Genghis Khan's death is also a reflection on the impact of pandemic diseases on leadership in ancient times as well as nowadays.


Asunto(s)
Personajes , Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Causas de Muerte , China , Historia Medieval , Humanos
4.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 12 03.
Artículo en Holandés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332041

RESUMEN

The plague epidemics wiped out large parts of the city population from the 15th to the 17th century in the Netherlands. The plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) is transmitted to humans through infected rats and fleas and has been transferred from China to Europe via the trade routes over land and sea. Meetings were banned, plague victims were isolated at home or in pest houses, and ships quarantined. In the densely populated, poor neighborhoods of the cities, however, isolation and keeping distance were not feasible, which allowed the plague to rapidly spread. The lessons we have learned from the plague epidemics are timeless. Isolation, keeping your distance and quarantine were key principles and now apply again in the approach to the current Covid-19 pandemic. How effective these measures are depends on the social context in which they are applied.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Distanciamiento Físico , Peste , Cuarentena , Animales , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Vectores de Enfermedades , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Pandemias/historia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Peste/microbiología , Peste/prevención & control , Cuarentena/historia , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2 , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidad
5.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 74(2): 180-195, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112103

RESUMEN

Until the 19th century, the factor causing epidemics was not known, and the escape from a place where it occurred as well as isolation of patients was considered to be the only effective way to avoid illness and death. Quarantine in a sense similar to modern times was used in 1377 in Ragusa, today's Dubrovnik, during the plague epidemic. It was the first administratively imposed procedure in the world's history. It was later used in Venice and other rich port cities in the Mediterranean. On the territory of today's Poland, quarantine measures were used by the so-called Mayor of the Air - LukaszDrewno in 1623 during the plague epidemic in Warsaw. The quarantine left its mark on all areas of human activity. It affected all humanity in a way that is underestimated today. Throughout history, it has been described and presented visually. It is omnipresent in the world literature, art and philosophy. However, the isolation and closure of cities, limiting trade, had an impact on the economic balance, and the dilemma between the choice of inhabitants' health and the quality of existence, i.e. their wealth, has been the subject of discussions since the Middle Ages. Since the end of the 19th century, quarantine has lost its practical meaning. The discovery of bacteria and a huge development of medical and social sciences allowed limiting its range. In the 20th century isolation and quarantine no longer had a global range, because the ability to identify factors causing the epidemic, knowledge about the incubation period, carrier, infectiousness, enabled the rational determination of its duration and territorial range. The modern SARS COV 2 pandemic has resulted in a global quarantine on a scale unprecedented for at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the history of quarantine from its beginning to the present day, including its usefulness as an epidemiological tool.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Cuarentena/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Medieval , Humanos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27703-27711, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077604

RESUMEN

Historical records reveal the temporal patterns of a sequence of plague epidemics in London, United Kingdom, from the 14th to 17th centuries. Analysis of these records shows that later epidemics spread significantly faster ("accelerated"). Between the Black Death of 1348 and the later epidemics that culminated with the Great Plague of 1665, we estimate that the epidemic growth rate increased fourfold. Currently available data do not provide enough information to infer the mode of plague transmission in any given epidemic; nevertheless, order-of-magnitude estimates of epidemic parameters suggest that the observed slow growth rates in the 14th century are inconsistent with direct (pneumonic) transmission. We discuss the potential roles of demographic and ecological factors, such as climate change or human or rat population density, in driving the observed acceleration.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Londres , Peste/transmisión , Densidad de Población , Ratas
8.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1140): 633-638, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907877

RESUMEN

After the dramatic coronavirus outbreak at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on 11 March 2020, a pandemic was declared by the WHO. Most countries worldwide imposed a quarantine or lockdown to their citizens, in an attempt to prevent uncontrolled infection from spreading. Historically, quarantine is the 40-day period of forced isolation to prevent the spread of an infectious disease. In this educational paper, a historical overview from the sacred temples of ancient Greece-the cradle of medicine-to modern hospitals, along with the conceive of healthcare systems, is provided. A few foods for thought as to the conflict between ethics in medicine and shortage of personnel and financial resources in the coronavirus disease 2019 era are offered as well.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ética Médica/historia , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/ética , Hospitales/historia , Pandemias/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Cuarentena/historia , Betacoronavirus , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/historia , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Juramento Hipocrático , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Lepra/epidemiología , Lepra/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Asignación de Recursos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
9.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(8): 578-581, 2020 08 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894975

RESUMEN

In the past two centuries, several fatal infectious outbreaks have arisen in Iran. Presented here is a brief historical account of four fatal epidemics including cholera, plague, Spanish influenza of 1918 and smallpox between1796 and 1979. The lessons from these outbreaks could be helpful for better combatting other deadly epidemics including the present-day disastrous COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Cólera/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Epidemias/historia , Influenza Pandémica, 1918-1919/historia , Peste/historia , Viruela/historia , Cólera/epidemiología , Cólera/prevención & control , Epidemias/prevención & control , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/prevención & control , Viruela/epidemiología , Viruela/prevención & control
10.
Med Health Care Philos ; 23(4): 603-609, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761351

RESUMEN

The recent outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is posing many different challenges to local communities, directly affected by the pandemic, and to the global community, trying to find how to respond to this threat in a larger scale. The history of the Eyam Plague, read in light of Ross Upshur's Four Principles for the Justification of Public Health Intervention, and of the Siracusa Principles on the Limitation and Derogation Provisions in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, could provide useful guidance in navigating the complex ethical issues that arise when quarantine measures need to be put in place.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Peste/historia , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/historia , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XVII , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Londres/epidemiología , Peste/prevención & control , Salud Pública/ética , Cuarentena/ética
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(4): 450-455, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138569

RESUMEN

Resumen El Imperio Romano sufrió entre el siglo II y III dos grandes pestes, la Peste Antonina, de la cual existe bibliografía, y la Peste de Cipriano, que es menos conocida. Como una visión de conjunto, ambas pandemias se asemejan a la crisis que en el 2020 el coronavirus está generando en muchos aspectos de la vida humana. Este artículo se centra en el impacto que la peste de Cipriano tuvo en el contexto de la crisis del siglo III; su mortalidad se estima entre 10-20% de la población en los lugares afectados y finalmente sus efectos generaron varias de las condiciones necesarias para la transición del mundo antiguo al medieval. Se trata de comprender cómo el ciclo de pestes que va desde el siglo II al siglo III cambió la fisonomía del mundo romano y que lecciones nos entrega la historia 1700 años después.


Abstract Between the 2nd and 3rd centuries the Roman Empire suffered two great plagues, the Antonine Plague, of which there is a bibliography, and the lesser known Plague of Cyprian. As an overview, both pandemics resemble the crisis that in 2020 the Coronavirus is generating in many aspects of human life. This article focuses on the impact that the Cyprian plague had in the context of the crisis of the third century, its mortality is estimated between 10-20% of the population in the affected places, finally its effects generated several of the necessary conditions for the transition from the ancient to the medieval world. It is about understanding how the cycle of plagues that went from the 2nd century to the 3rd century changed the appearance of the Roman world and what lessons history gives us 1700 years later.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Peste/historia , Pandemias/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Mundo Romano , Historia Antigua
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