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1.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 234-235, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420956

RESUMEN

In western democracies, individual behaviour will be crucial to control the spread of COVID-19, as well as government actions [1] that unfortunately, except China, South Korea and Italy, followed by others,  seems to be generally unconvinced and, speculatively, late. Indeed human history has been marked by epidemics/pandemics which have affected, more or less, large geographical areas [2]. Italy, as well as the rest of Europe, has often been affected by these phenomena and, Lombardy, due to his position, was, as today by COVID-19, severely stroked in Italy that is, after China, the second most affected country [3]. This is also linked to the position of Lombardy and its capital, Milan, but this is beyond this brief comment. There are several differences between the past plagues and the actual COVID-19 pandemic and these must be sought in the increased ability to transmit diseases at-distance through the mobility of humans and goods [4], and in the catastrophic consequences of the breakdown of ecosystems, as told, a few years ago, by David Quammen in the book Spillover [5].


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XVII , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiología
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226420, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967994

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We analyze the influence of population movement on susceptibility to death and resilience during two epidemics occurring in Dijon soon after the Black Death. Using a specific program designed to propose links between entries in annual tax registers, we define tentative heads of household, the elapsed time since their first registration and their ties with other persons within the city. RESULTS: During the 1400 epidemic heads of household who were registered for 1-3 years die in large numbers, whereas during years without epidemics, their death rate is lower than that of heads of household who were registered longer. Recent registration is an epidemic vulnerability factor only in association with a low taxation status, which, when isolated, does not influence mortality. A lack of familial ties within Dijon is another vulnerability factor among the recently registered. This suggests that poor, recent emigrants are more affected by epidemic mortality. In contrast, the mortality of recently registered heads of household is indistinct during a later epidemic occurring after several years of major famine that may have selected the more resistant emigrants and/or excluded the more miserable of them from our analysis. In contrast to the first one, this second epidemic is followed by rapid demographic recovery. This latter recovery is fully explained by the contribution of poor, newly registered heads of household without ties in Dijon. CONCLUSION: Our results outline the interaction between population movement and low socioeconomic status on death susceptibility in historical plagues and show that poor recent emigrants may also be key players in the resilience of the population after an epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Demografía , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Peste/historia , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/mortalidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 69-78, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305020

RESUMEN

Plague, a devastating infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, has killed millions of people in the past and is still active in the natural foci of the world today. Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of plague outbreaks in history is critically important, as it may help to facilitate prevention and control of potential future outbreaks. In this study, we explored spatiotemporal clusters of human plague occurrences in China using a machine-learning clustering method and reconstructed the potential transmission pattern during the Third Pandemic (1772-1964). We succeeded in identifying 6 clusters in the space domain (2D) and 13 clusters in the spatiotemporal domain (3D). Our results suggest that there were several temporal outbreaks and transmissions of plague in different spatial clusters. Together with the spatiotemporal nearest neighbor approach (ST-NNA), this method could allow us to have a clearer look at the spatiotemporal patterns of plague.


Asunto(s)
Análisis por Conglomerados , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , China/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007761, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751348

RESUMEN

Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and is transmitted through the bites of infected rodent fleas. Plague is well known for causing 3 major human pandemics that have killed millions of people since 541 A.D. The aim of this Review is to provide an overview of the epidemiology and ecology of plague in Zimbabwe with special emphasis on its introduction, its potential reservoirs and vectors, and possible causes of its persistence and cyclic outbreaks. To achieve this, we carried out a search and document reported plague outbreaks in Zimbabwe. In the country, human plague cases have been reported in Hwange, Nkayi, and Lupane since 1974. The highest number of cases occurred in 1994 in the Nkayi district of Matabeleland North Province with a total of 329 confirmed human cases and 28 deaths. Plague is encountered in 2 different foci in the country, sylvatic and rural. Risk factors for contracting plague in the country include man-to-rodent contact, cultivation, hunting, cattle herding, handling of infected materials, camping in forests, and anthropic invasion of new areas. Plague is now enzootic in Zimbabwe, and the most recent case was reported in 2012, hence its effective control requires up-to-date information on the epidemiology and ecology of the disease. This can be achieved through continuous monitoring and awareness programs in plague-prone areas.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/transmisión , Yersinia pestis/fisiología , África Austral/epidemiología , Animales , Bovinos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Ecología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Peste/historia , Factores de Riesgo , Enfermedades de los Roedores/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/microbiología , Roedores , Microbiología del Suelo , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidad , Zimbabwe/epidemiología
8.
Bull Hist Med ; 93(2): 151-179, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303627

RESUMEN

Recent biomolecular evidence has proven that Yersinia pestis, the pathogen that causes bubonic plague, was infecting human hosts in Eurasia as early as the Bronze Age, far earlier than previously believed. It remains an open question, however, whether bubonic plague was affecting Mediterranean populations of classical antiquity. This article evaluates the textual evidence for bubonic plague in classical antiquity from medical sources and discusses methodologies for "retrospective diagnosis" in light of new developments in microbiology. A close study of Greek medical texts suggests that bubonic plague was unfamiliar to medical writers until sometime before the second century AD, when sources cited by Rufus of Ephesus report a disease that resembles bubonic plague. Rufus of Ephesus describes this disease around AD 100, and Aretaeus (fl. ca. AD 50 or 150) appears to describe the same disease as well. Intriguingly, the disease then disappears from our sources until late antiquity.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Mundo Griego , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/microbiología , Yersinia pestis
9.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218366, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199832

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Kazakhstan, a live plague vaccine EV 76 NIIEG has been used for plague prophylaxis since the mid-1930s. Vaccination is administered yearly among people living in plague-enzootic areas. Similar practices are used in other former Soviet Union countries. Yet, to this day, the effectiveness period of the vaccine is unknown. It is also not clear how different factors can affect the effectiveness of the vaccine over time. METHODS: We surveyed changes in antibody levels specific for F1 antigens of Yersinia pestis among vaccinated people 4, 8, and 12 months post- vaccination. Blood samples were taken from the participants of the study for producing sera, which was later analyzed using indirect hemagglutination reaction with antigenic erythrocyte assay (micromethod) for identifying antibodies to F1 Y.pestis. RESULTS: In first-time-receivers of the plague vaccine, antibody titer reached the highest level of antibody that represents a conditionally protective titer after 4 months, dropped drastically after 8 months, and dropped again after 12 months. Similar results were obtained among those who have been vaccinated previously. However, in that group, the percentage of people with a level of antibody that represents a conditionally protective titer remained statistically significant even after 8 and 12 months. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, we recommend initiating vaccination campaigns for the medical and veterinary staff, as well as the general population four months prior to the springtime epizootics of plague among wild rodents.


Asunto(s)
Vacuna contra la Peste/inmunología , Peste/prevención & control , Yersinia pestis/inmunología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Geografía , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Kazajstán/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , Peste/historia , Vacuna contra la Peste/administración & dosificación , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
10.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 198-211, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205047

RESUMEN

In past centuries, epidemics, the scourge of humankind, caused pain, anger, uncertainty of the future, social as well as economic disorder and a significant impact on their victims, involving also their spiritual sphere. The latter effect led to undoubted effects on participation in the religious and social life of communities. The custom of preparing artistic votive expressions has been lost in the mists of time and evidence of ex voto gifts, offered by believers to pagan gods, has been found in prehistoric archaeological sites. Furthermore, several finds from the Ancient Greek and Roman worlds may be observed in our museums. These remains are generally ceramic and metal artifacts, reproducing limbs and other body parts which had been healed. These elements, according to the belief of those making the offerings, had benefited from the miraculous intervention of a thaumaturgical deity. With the advent of Christianity, some pre-existing religious practices were endorsed by the new religion. Believers continued to demonstrate their gratitude in different ways either to miracle-working saints or to the Virgin Mary, because they thought that, thanks to an act of faith, their own health or that of a family member would benefit from the direct intervention of the divine entities to whom they had prayed. In the Ancient Greek world, it was believed that the god Asclepius could directly influence human events, as testified by the popularity of shrines and temples to the god, especially at Epidaurus. In the Christian world as well, particular places have been detected, often solitary and secluded in the countryside or in the mountains, where, according to tradition, direct contact was established between the faithful and Saints or the Virgin Mary Herself. Manifestations occurred by means of miracles and apparitions, thereby creating a direct link between the supernatural world and believers. Religious communities, in these extraordinary places, responded to the call through the building of shrines and promotion of the cult. Over time, the faithful reached these places of mystery, performing pilgrimages with the aim of strengthening their religious faith, but also with the purpose of seeking intercession and grace. In this case, the request for clemency assumed spiritual characteristics and also became a profession of faith. Accordingly, the shrines in the Christian world are places where supernatural events may occur. In these environments the believer resorted to faith, when medicine showed its limits in a tangible way. For the above reasons, while epidemics were occurring, the requests for clemency were numerous and such petitions were both individual and collective. In particular, by means of votive offerings (ex voto) the believers, both individually and collectively, gave the evidence of the received grace to the thaumaturgical Saint. Through the votive act, a perpetual link between the believer and the Saints or Holy Virgin was forged and a strong request for communion was transmitted. The aim of the present study is to describe the role played by votive tablets (ex voto) in the last 500-600 years, as visible evidence of human suffering. From this perspective, these votive expressions may assume the role of markers because, in accordance with the expressions of popular faith, they allow us to follow the most important outbreaks that have caused distress to Christian communities.


Asunto(s)
Curación por la Fe/historia , Medicina en las Artes/historia , Pinturas/historia , Peste/historia , Religión y Medicina , Cristianismo/historia , Mundo Griego/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Mundo Romano/historia , Simbolismo
11.
Intern Med J ; 49(5): 671-676, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083805

RESUMEN

There is a distinctive Venetian carnival mask with sinister overtones and historical significance to physicians because it belongs to the 'Doctor of the Plague'. The costume features a beaked white mask, black hat and waxed gown. This was worn by mediaeval Plague Doctors as protection according to the Miasma Theory of disease propagation. The plague (or Black Death), ravaged Europe over several centuries with each pandemic leaving millions of people dead. The cause of the contagion was not known, nor was there a cure, which added to the widespread desperation and fear. Venice was a major seaport, and each visitation of the plague (beginning in 1348) devastated the local population. In response, Venetians were among the first to establish the principles of quarantine and 'Lazarets' which we still use today. Plague outbreaks have occurred in Australia, notably in Sydney (1900-1925), and continue to flare up in poorer communities, most recently in Madagascar (2017). Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment, but there are concerns regarding the emergence of resistant pathogenic strains of Yersinia pestis, and their potential use in bio-terrorism.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Médicos/historia , Peste/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/terapia
12.
Bull Hist Med ; 93(1): 55-81, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956236

RESUMEN

Pestis minor is a pathological category that at the height of the third plague pandemic (1894-1959) fueled extensive debate and research among medical scientists. Referring to an attenuated or benign form of plague, evidence of pestis minor or pestis ambulans was produced in medical reports across the world so as to raise the question of whether the disease could survive measures against it by means of temporary transformation. Afflicting its victims only by the slightest lymphatic swellings, this theory went, the disease could thus lurk in the human body until conditions allowed it to break out again in its true, malignant form. This article draws for the first time a history of this contested pathology, the diagnostic and epidemiological questions raised by it, and the way in which it came to play a significant role in debates about the nature of plague at the turn of the nineteenth century.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Peste/diagnóstico , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/microbiología
13.
J Crohns Colitis ; 13(10): 1318-1322, 2019 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893422

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nucleotide Oligomerisation Domain 2 [NOD2] is a key gene of innate immunity which participates in the host defence against pathogens. Several loss-of-function NOD2 mutations are associated with Crohn's disease [CD]. Their high frequencies in populations of European ancestry suggest a model of balancing selection. Because NOD2 deficiency has been associated with a resistance to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in mice, we hypothesised that NOD2 mutations have been selected during past plague outbreaks due to the closely related bacterium Yersinia pestis. METHODS: Contemporary frequencies of the main CD-associated NOD2 mutations [R702W, G908R, and 1007fs], measured in healthy people from European and Mediterranean countries, were collected from 60 studies via a PubMed search. Plague exposure was calculated from a dataset providing outbreaks from 1346 to 1860 in Europe and the Mediterranean Bassin. A plague index was built to capture the intensity of plague exposure in the studied geographical areas. RESULTS: NOD2 mutation frequencies were associated with the past exposure to plague. Statistical significance was obtained for the most frequent mutation [R702W, p = 0.03] and for the pooled three mutations [p = 0.023]. The association remained significant when putative demographic biases were considered. CONCLUSIONS: This result argues for a selection of CD-associated NOD2 mutations by plague outbreaks and further questioned the role of exposure to enteropathogenic Yersinia species in CD.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Crohn/genética , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Inmunidad Innata/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Señalización NOD2/genética , Peste/genética , Enfermedad de Crohn/inmunología , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Frecuencia de los Genes/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/historia , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Mutación/genética , Peste/historia , Peste/inmunología
15.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | CUMED | ID: cum-73449

RESUMEN

Introducción: La peste bubónica afectó a gran parte del mundo en la primera mitad del siglo xx, causando desde pequeños brotes a grandes epidemias. En Cuba se presentó en dos oportunidades, en 1912 y en 1914, causando alguna morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Rescatar la historia de las epidemias de peste bubónica en Cuba. Metodología: Cualitativa, utilizando como métodos teóricos el histórico-lógico y el análisis documental. Se revisaron estadísticas en el Departamento de Estadísticas y Registros Médicos del Ministerio de Salud Pública, artículos de la época, directrices y planes de enfrentamiento a la epidemia orientados por el Departamento Nacional de Sanidad, de la Secretearía de Sanidad y Beneficencia, e informes redactados por los sanitaristas que trabajaron en su control. Resultados: En 1912 existieron brotes en La Habana, Santiago de Cuba y Pinar del Río, importada de las Islas Canarias. Durante la segunda epidemia en 1914, erradicada al año siguiente, se produjeron 68 casos y 23 fallecidos. Se diseñó una estrategia de lucha que incluyó, desde el ingreso y aislamiento de los sospechosos, vigilancia de los residentes en la zona, recogida de ratas, hasta desinfección, saneamiento y desratización de la zona afectada. Conclusiones: Las medidas tomadas fueron oportunas y eficientes, controlando la epidemia. No se produjeron más casos desde julio de 1915(AU)


Introduction: The bubonic plague affected much of the world in the first half of the twentieth century, causing from small outbreaks to large epidemics. In Cuba, it appeared twice in 1912 and in 1914 causing some morbidity and mortality. Objective: To rescue the history of bubonic plague's epidemics in Cuba. Methodology: Qualitative, using as theoretical methods the historical- logic and the documentary analysis. Statistics were reviewed in the Department of Statistics and Medical Records of the Ministry of Public Health, in articles of the time, in guidelines and plans to confront the epidemic established by the National Department of Health of the Secretariat of Health and Charity, and also reports written by the health workers who participated in the control strategies of this disease. Results: In 1912, there were outbreaks in Havana, Santiago de Cuba and Pinar del Rio imported from the Canary Islands. In the second epidemic in 1914 that was eradicated in 1915, there were 68 cases and 23 deaths. A control strategy was designed, which included the entry and isolation of the suspects, surveillance of the residents in the area, collection of rats, disinfection, sanitation and deratization of the affected area. Conclusions: The measures taken were timely and efficient for controlling the epidemic. No more cases have occurred since July, 1915(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/historia , Cuba
16.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 45(1)ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991126

RESUMEN

Introducción: La peste bubónica afectó a gran parte del mundo en la primera mitad del siglo xx, causando desde pequeños brotes a grandes epidemias. En Cuba se presentó en dos oportunidades, en 1912 y en 1914, causando alguna morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Rescatar la historia de las epidemias de peste bubónica en Cuba. Metodología: Cualitativa, utilizando como métodos teóricos el histórico-lógico y el análisis documental. Se revisaron estadísticas en el Departamento de Estadísticas y Registros Médicos del Ministerio de Salud Pública, artículos de la época, directrices y planes de enfrentamiento a la epidemia orientados por el Departamento Nacional de Sanidad, de la Secretearía de Sanidad y Beneficencia, e informes redactados por los sanitaristas que trabajaron en su control. Resultados: En 1912 existieron brotes en La Habana, Santiago de Cuba y Pinar del Río, importada de las Islas Canarias. Durante la segunda epidemia en 1914, erradicada al año siguiente, se produjeron 68 casos y 23 fallecidos. Se diseñó una estrategia de lucha que incluyó, desde el ingreso y aislamiento de los sospechosos, vigilancia de los residentes en la zona, recogida de ratas, hasta desinfección, saneamiento y desratización de la zona afectada. Conclusiones: Las medidas tomadas fueron oportunas y eficientes, controlando la epidemia. No se produjeron más casos desde julio de 1915(AU)


Introduction: The bubonic plague affected much of the world in the first half of the twentieth century, causing from small outbreaks to large epidemics. In Cuba, it appeared twice in 1912 and in 1914 causing some morbidity and mortality. Objective: To rescue the history of bubonic plague's epidemics in Cuba. Methodology: Qualitative, using as theoretical methods the historical- logic and the documentary analysis. Statistics were reviewed in the Department of Statistics and Medical Records of the Ministry of Public Health, in articles of the time, in guidelines and plans to confront the epidemic established by the National Department of Health of the Secretariat of Health and Charity, and also reports written by the health workers who participated in the control strategies of this disease. Results: In 1912, there were outbreaks in Havana, Santiago de Cuba and Pinar del Rio imported from the Canary Islands. In the second epidemic in 1914 that was eradicated in 1915, there were 68 cases and 23 deaths. A control strategy was designed, which included the entry and isolation of the suspects, surveillance of the residents in the area, collection of rats, disinfection, sanitation and deratization of the affected area. Conclusions: The measures taken were timely and efficient for controlling the epidemic. No more cases have occurred since July, 1915(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Peste/historia , Peste/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Cuba
17.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209478, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625164

RESUMEN

Yersinia pestis was introduced to Brazil during the third plague pandemic and currently exists in several recognized foci. There is currently limited available phylogeographic data regarding Y. pestis in Brazil. We generated whole genome sequences for 411 Y. pestis strains from six Brazilian foci to investigate the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Brazil; these strains were isolated from 1966 to 1997. All 411 strains were assigned to a single monophyletic clade within the 1.ORI population, indicating a single Y. pestis introduction was responsible for the successful establishment of endemic foci in Brazil. There was a moderate level of genomic diversity but little population structure among the 411 Brazilian Y. pestis strains, consistent with a radial expansion wherein Y. pestis spread rapidly from the coast to the interior of Brazil and became ecologically established. Overall, there were no strong spatial or temporal patterns among the Brazilian strains. However, strains from the same focus tended to be more closely related and strains isolated from foci closer to the coast tended to fall in more basal positions in the whole genome phylogeny than strains from more interior foci. Overall, the patterns observed in Brazil are similar to other locations affected during the 3rd plague pandemic such as in North America and Madagascar.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Peste/historia , Yersinia pestis/genética , Brasil/epidemiología , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Variación Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Peste/epidemiología , Peste/microbiología , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Yersinia pestis/clasificación , Yersinia pestis/aislamiento & purificación
18.
Nat Methods ; 16(2): 199-204, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664775

RESUMEN

We present a robust, computationally efficient method ( https://github.com/kussell-lab/mcorr ) for inferring the parameters of homologous recombination in bacteria, which can be applied in diverse datasets, from whole-genome sequencing to metagenomic shotgun sequencing data. Using correlation profiles of synonymous substitutions, we determine recombination rates and diversity levels of the shared gene pool that has contributed to a given sample. We validated the recombination parameters using data from laboratory experiments. We determined the recombination parameters for a wide range of bacterial species, and inferred the distribution of shared gene pools for global Helicobacter pylori isolates. Using metagenomics data of the infant gut microbiome, we measured the recombination parameters of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli ST131. Lastly, we analyzed ancient samples of bacterial DNA from the Copper Age 'Iceman' mummy and from 14th century victims of the Black Death, obtaining measurements of bacterial recombination rates and gene pool diversity of earlier eras.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , ADN Antiguo , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Metagenómica/métodos , Recombinación Genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Simulación por Computador , ADN Bacteriano , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Técnicas Genéticas , Variación Genética , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Mutación , Peste/historia , Peste/microbiología , Yersinia pestis/genética
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(2): 220-228, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666930

RESUMEN

Madagascar is more seriously affected by plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, than any other country. The Plague National Control Program was established in 1993 and includes human surveillance. During 1998-2016, a total of 13,234 suspected cases were recorded, mainly from the central highlands; 27% were confirmed cases, and 17% were presumptive cases. Patients with bubonic plague (median age 13 years) represented 93% of confirmed and presumptive cases, and patients with pneumonic plague (median age 29 years) represented 7%. Deaths were associated with delay of consultation, pneumonic form, contact with other cases, occurrence after 2009, and not reporting dead rats. A seasonal pattern was observed with recrudescence during September-March. Annual cases peaked in 2004 and decreased to the lowest incidence in 2016. This overall reduction occurred primarily for suspected cases and might be caused by improved adherence to case criteria during widespread implementation of the F1 rapid diagnostic test in 2002.


Asunto(s)
Peste/epidemiología , Yersinia pestis , Antígenos Bacterianos/inmunología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Análisis de Datos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Inmunoensayo , Madagascar/epidemiología , Peste/diagnóstico , Peste/historia , Peste/microbiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Yersinia pestis/inmunología
20.
Cell ; 176(1-2): 295-305.e10, 2019 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528431

RESUMEN

Between 5,000 and 6,000 years ago, many Neolithic societies declined throughout western Eurasia due to a combination of factors that are still largely debated. Here, we report the discovery and genome reconstruction of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, in Neolithic farmers in Sweden, pre-dating and basal to all modern and ancient known strains of this pathogen. We investigated the history of this strain by combining phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses of the bacterial genome, detailed archaeological information, and genomic analyses from infected individuals and hundreds of ancient human samples across Eurasia. These analyses revealed that multiple and independent lineages of Y. pestis branched and expanded across Eurasia during the Neolithic decline, spreading most likely through early trade networks rather than massive human migrations. Our results are consistent with the existence of a prehistoric plague pandemic that likely contributed to the decay of Neolithic populations in Europe.


Asunto(s)
Peste/historia , Yersinia pestis/clasificación , Yersinia pestis/patogenicidad , Evolución Biológica , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Europa (Continente) , Genoma Bacteriano , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia
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