Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.071
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802009

RESUMEN

Olfactory receptors (ORs) have diverse physiological roles in various cell types, beyond their function as odorant sensors in the olfactory epithelium. These previous findings have suggested that ORs could be diagnostic markers and promising therapeutic targets in several pathological conditions. In the current study, we sought to characterize the changes in the expression of ORs in the HaCaT human keratinocytes cell line exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light or inflammation, well-recognized stimulus for skin barrier disruption. We confirmed that major olfactory signaling components, including ORs, GNAL, Ric8b, and adenylate cyclase type 3, are highly expressed in HaCaT cells. We have also demonstrated that the 12 ectopic ORs detectable in HaCaT cells are more highly expressed in UV-irradiated or inflamed conditions than in normal conditions. We further assessed the specific OR-mediated biological responses of HaCaT cells in the presence of known odorant ligands of ORs and observed that specific ligand-activated ORs downregulate skin barrier genes in HaCaT cells. This study shows the potential of OR as a marker for skin barrier abnormalities. Further research is needed to explore how OR is implicated in the development and progression of barrier dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de la radiación , Inflamación/genética , Queratinocitos/efectos de la radiación , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Ultravioleta , Adenilil Ciclasas/genética , Adenilil Ciclasas/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Subunidades alfa de la Proteína de Unión al GTP/genética , Subunidades alfa de la Proteína de Unión al GTP/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de la Proteína de Unión al GTP Gs/genética , Subunidades alfa de la Proteína de Unión al GTP Gs/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamación/metabolismo , Queratinocitos/citología , Queratinocitos/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/genética , Transducción de Señal/efectos de la radiación , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669452

RESUMEN

Susceptibility to photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis is greater in male than in female humans and mice and is exacerbated in female estrogen receptor-beta knockout (ER-ß-/-) mice. We previously reported that the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D), applied topically protects against the ultraviolet radiation (UV) induction of cutaneous cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and the suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in female mice. Here, we compare these responses in female versus male Skh:hr1 mice, in ER-ß-/-/-- versus wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and in female ER-blockaded Skh:hr1 mice. The induction of CPDs was significantly greater in male than female Skh:hr1 mice and was more effectively reduced by 1,25(OH)2D in female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice than in male Skh:hr1 or ER-ß-/- mice, respectively. This correlated with the reduced sunburn inflammation due to 1,25(OH)2D in female but not male Skh:hr1 mice. Furthermore, although 1,25(OH)2D alone dose-dependently suppressed basal CHS responses in male Skh:hr1 and ER-ß-/- mice, UV-induced immunosuppression was universally observed. In female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, the immunosuppression was decreased by 1,25(OH)2D dose-dependently, but not in male Skh:hr1, ER-ß-/-, or ER-blockaded mice. These results reveal a sex bias in genetic, inflammatory, and immune photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D favoring female mice that is dependent on the presence of ER-ß.


Asunto(s)
Calcitriol/administración & dosificación , Receptor beta de Estrógeno/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de la radiación , Quemadura Solar/tratamiento farmacológico , Quemadura Solar/metabolismo , Protectores Solares/administración & dosificación , Rayos Ultravioleta , Administración Cutánea , Animales , Dermatitis por Contacto/tratamiento farmacológico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Receptor beta de Estrógeno/genética , Femenino , Tolerancia Inmunológica/efectos de los fármacos , Tolerancia Inmunológica/efectos de la radiación , Inmunohistoquímica , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Dímeros de Pirimidina/metabolismo , Dímeros de Pirimidina/efectos de la radiación , Factores Sexuales , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Neoplasias Cutáneas/prevención & control , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control
3.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672029

RESUMEN

Exposure to reactive oxygen species can easily result in serious diseases, such as hyperproliferative skin disorders or skin cancer. Herbal extracts are widely used as antioxidant sources in different compositions. The importance of antioxidant therapy in inflammatory conditions has increased. Innovative formulations can be used to improve the effects of these phytopharmacons. The bioactive compounds of Plantago lanceolata (PL) possess different effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and bactericidal pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to formulate novel liquid crystal (LC) compositions to protect Plantago lanceolata extract from hydrolysis and to improve its effect. Since safety is an important aspect of pharmaceutical formulations, the biological properties of applied excipients and blends were evaluated using assorted in vitro methods on HaCaT cells. According to the antecedent toxicity screening evaluation, three surfactants were selected (Gelucire 44/14, Labrasol, and Lauroglycol 90) for the formulation. The dissolution rate of PL from the PL-LC systems was evaluated using a Franz diffusion chamber apparatus. The antioxidant properties of the PL-LC systems were evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assessments. Our results suggest that these compositions use a nontraditional, rapid-permeation pathway for the delivery of drugs, as the applied penetration enhancers reversibly alter the barrier properties of the outer stratum corneum. These excipients can be safe and highly tolerable thus, they could improve the patient's experience and promote adherence.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos , Cristales Líquidos/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantago/química , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de la radiación , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de la radiación , Impedancia Eléctrica , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Humanos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de la radiación , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Permeabilidad , Picratos/química , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Ultravioleta
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670779

RESUMEN

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are conserved enzymes that remove acetyl groups from lysine side chains in histones and other proteins and play a crucial role in epigenetic regulation. Previously, we showed that histone acetylation is implicated in ultraviolet (UV)-induced inflammation and matrix impairment. To elucidate the histone acetylation status and specific HDACs involved in skin aging, we examined the changes in histone acetylation, global HDAC activity, and the expression of HDACs and sirtuins (SIRTs) in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated human skin in vivo. Following acute UV irradiation, the acetylated histone H3 (AcH3) level was increased, but HDAC activity and the expression levels of HDAC4, HDAC11, and SIRT4 were significantly decreased. In intrinsically aged skin, AcH3 levels were increased, but HDAC activity and the expression levels of HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC10, HDAC11, SIRT6, and SIRT7 were significantly decreased. However, histone acetylation and HDAC expression in photoaged skin were not significantly different from those in intrinsically aged skin. Collectively, HDAC4 and HDAC11 were decreased in both UV-irradiated and intrinsically aged skin, suggesting that they may play a universal role in increased histone acetylation associated with skin aging.


Asunto(s)
Histona Desacetilasas/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Ultravioleta , Acetilación/efectos de la radiación , Humanos , Proteínas Mitocondriales/metabolismo , Sirtuinas/metabolismo , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/efectos de la radiación
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670977

RESUMEN

The invention of systems enabling the emission of waves of a certain length and intensity has revolutionized many areas of life, including medicine. Currently, the use of devices emitting laser light is not only an indispensable but also a necessary element of many diagnostic procedures. It also contributed to the development of new techniques for the treatment of diseases that are difficult to heal. The use of lasers in industry and medicine may be associated with a higher incidence of excessive radiation exposure, which can lead to injury to the body. The most exposed to laser irradiation is the skin tissue. The low dose laser irradiation is currently used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Therefore appropriate knowledge of the effects of lasers irradiation on the dermal cells' metabolism is necessary. Here we present current knowledge on the clinical and molecular effects of irradiation of different wavelengths of light (ultraviolet (UV), blue, green, red, and infrared (IR) on the dermal cells. .


Asunto(s)
Rayos Láser , Luz , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Animales , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Rayos Ultravioleta
6.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009302, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444353

RESUMEN

Human skin is continuously exposed to environmental DNA damage leading to the accumulation of somatic mutations over the lifetime of an individual. Mutagenesis in human skin cells can be also caused by endogenous DNA damage and by DNA replication errors. The contributions of these processes to the somatic mutation load in the skin of healthy humans has so far not been accurately assessed because the low numbers of mutations from current sequencing methodologies preclude the distinction between sequencing errors and true somatic genome changes. In this work, we sequenced genomes of single cell-derived clonal lineages obtained from primary skin cells of a large cohort of healthy individuals across a wide range of ages. We report here the range of mutation load and a comprehensive view of the various somatic genome changes that accumulate in skin cells. We demonstrate that UV-induced base substitutions, insertions and deletions are prominent even in sun-shielded skin. In addition, we detect accumulation of mutations due to spontaneous deamination of methylated cytosines as well as insertions and deletions characteristic of DNA replication errors in these cells. The endogenously induced somatic mutations and indels also demonstrate a linear increase with age, while UV-induced mutation load is age-independent. Finally, we show that DNA replication stalling at common fragile sites are potent sources of gross chromosomal rearrangements in human cells. Thus, somatic mutations in skin of healthy individuals reflect the interplay of environmental and endogenous factors in facilitating genome instability and carcinogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN/efectos de la radiación , Metilación de ADN/genética , Replicación del ADN/genética , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Metilación de ADN/efectos de la radiación , Reparación del ADN/efectos de la radiación , Replicación del ADN/efectos de la radiación , Fibroblastos/efectos de la radiación , Genoma Humano/genética , Genoma Humano/efectos de la radiación , Inestabilidad Genómica/efectos de la radiación , Genómica/métodos , Humanos , Mutación INDEL/efectos de la radiación , Melanocitos/efectos de la radiación , Mutagénesis/genética , Mutagénesis/efectos de la radiación , Piel/metabolismo , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos
7.
Int J Pharm ; 595: 120242, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484919

RESUMEN

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is rich in cytokines and growth factors and is a novel approach for tissue regeneration. It can be used for skin rejuvenation but the large molecular size of the actives limits its topical application. In this study, low-fluence laser-facilitated PRP was delivered to evaluate its effect on absorption through the skin, infection-induced wound, and photoaging. The PRP permeation enhancement was compared for two ablative lasers: fractional (CO2) laser and fully-ablative (Er:YAG) laser. In the Franz cell experiment, pig skin was treated with lasers with superficial ablation followed by the application of recombinant cytokines, growth factors, or PRP. The transport of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was negligible in intact skin and stratum corneum (SC)-stripped skin. Both lasers significantly elevated skin deposition of IFN-γ and TNF-α from PRP, and fully-ablative laser showed a higher penetration enhancement. A similar tendency was found for vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Er:YAG laser-exposed skin displayed 1.8- and 3.9-fold higher skin deposition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 from PRP, respectively. According to the confocal images, both laser interventions led to an extensive and deep distribution of IFN-γ and PDGF-BB in the skin. In the in vivo methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection model, CO2 laser- and Er:YAG laser-assisted PRP delivery reduced bacterial load from 1.8 × 106 to 5.9 × 105 and 1.4 × 104 colony-forming units, respectively. The open wound induced by MRSA was closed by the laser-assisted PRP penetration. In the mouse photoaging model, elastin and collagen deposition were fully restored by combined PRP and full-ablative laser but not by PRP alone and PRP combined with fractional laser. Laser-facilitated PRP delivery even with a low fluence setting can be considered a promising strategy for treating some dermatological disorders.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Luz de Baja Intensidad/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de la radiación , Plasma Rico en Plaquetas/metabolismo , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de la radiación , Enfermedades de la Piel/terapia , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Infecciones Cutáneas Estafilocócicas/terapia , Administración Cutánea , Animales , Terapia Combinada , Citocinas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Péptidos y Proteínas de Señalización Intercelular/farmacocinética , Láseres de Gas/uso terapéutico , Láseres de Estado Sólido/uso terapéutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Ratones Desnudos , Piel/diagnóstico por imagen , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/metabolismo , Absorción Cutánea/efectos de la radiación , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Porcinos , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de la radiación
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 160, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420020

RESUMEN

We trained and validated risk prediction models for the three major types of skin cancer- basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma-on a cross-sectional and longitudinal dataset of 210,000 consented research participants who responded to an online survey covering personal and family history of skin cancer, skin susceptibility, and UV exposure. We developed a primary disease risk score (DRS) that combined all 32 identified genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Top percentile DRS was associated with an up to 13-fold increase (odds ratio per standard deviation increase >2.5) in the risk of developing skin cancer relative to the middle DRS percentile. To derive lifetime risk trajectories for the three skin cancers, we developed a second and age independent disease score, called DRSA. Using incident cases, we demonstrated that DRSA could be used in early detection programs for identifying high risk asymptotic individuals, and predicting when they are likely to develop skin cancer. High DRSA scores were not only associated with earlier disease diagnosis (by up to 14 years), but also with more severe and recurrent forms of skin cancer.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma Basocelular/epidemiología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiología , Melanoma/epidemiología , Modelos Estadísticos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/epidemiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiología , Carcinoma Basocelular/patología , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiología , Estudios Transversales , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Pruebas Dirigidas al Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/genética , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Incidencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Anamnesis , Melanoma/etiología , Melanoma/patología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/etiología , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/patología , Oportunidad Relativa , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo , Piel/patología , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Neoplasias Cutáneas/etiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos
9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(1): 337-344, 2021 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353308

RESUMEN

The sparsity of efficient commercial ultraviolet-A (UV-A) filters is a major challenge toward developing effective broadband sunscreens with minimal human- and eco-toxicity. To combat this, we have designed a new class of Meldrum-based phenolic UV-A filters. We explore the ultrafast photodynamics of coumaryl Meldrum, CMe, and sinapyl Meldrum (SMe), both in an industry-standard emollient and on a synthetic skin mimic, using femtosecond transient electronic and vibrational absorption spectroscopies and computational simulations. Upon photoexcitation to the lowest excited singlet state (S1), these Meldrum-based phenolics undergo fast and efficient nonradiative decay to repopulate the electronic ground state (S0). We propose an initial ultrafast twisted intramolecular charge-transfer mechanism as these systems evolve out of the Franck-Condon region toward an S1/S0 conical intersection, followed by internal conversion to S0 and subsequent vibrational cooling. Importantly, we correlate these findings to their long-term photostability upon irradiation with a solar simulator and conclude that these molecules surpass the basic requirements of an industry-standard UV filter.


Asunto(s)
Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Protectores contra Radiación/química , Piel , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformación Molecular , Piel/efectos de la radiación
10.
Environ Toxicol ; 36(4): 654-664, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314651

RESUMEN

Skin pigmentation is resulted from several processes, such as melanin synthesis transportation and abnormal melanin accumulation in keratinocytes. Various studies have suggested that seven traditional Chinese herbal extracts from Atractylodes macrocephala, Paeonia lactiflora, Bletilla striata, Poria cocos, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Ampelopsis japonica and Tribulus terrestris (which we collectively named ChiBai), show several protective effects toward skin-related diseases. Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a lactic acid bacterium, has been reported to treat skin inflammation and atopic dermatitis. In this study, the broth produced by the cofermentation of ChiBai with Lactobacillus rhamnosus was studied for its effects on skin pigmentation through in vitro and in vitro experiments. In the in vitro experiments, we found that the fermented broth of ChiBai (FB-ChiBai) suppressed alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis in B16F0 murine melanoma cells without any cytotoxicity at a concentration of 0.5%. FB-ChiBai significantly attenuated melanin production, tyrosinase activities and melanogenesis-related signaling pathways. Treatment with FB-ChiBai also reduced the nuclear translocation and promoter binding activities of MITF. In the in vivo experiments, FB-ChiBai was topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6J nude mice and concurrently irradiated with UVB, three times a week for 8 weeks. The results indicated that FB-ChiBai alleviated UVB-induced hyperpigmentation by reducing epidermal hyperplasia and inhibiting the CREB/MITF/tyrosinase pathway. In conclusion, our data indicated that the anti-melanogenic effects of FB-ChiBai are mediated by the inhibition of CREB/MITF/tyrosinase signaling pathway. The findings suggest that FB-ChiBai can protect against UV-B irradiation and that it might be used as an agent in cosmetic products to protect against UVB-induced hyperpigmentation.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Monofenol Monooxigenasa/metabolismo , Pigmentación de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Rayos Ultravioleta , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de la radiación , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/metabolismo , Fermentación , Humanos , Melaninas/biosíntesis , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Desnudos , Factor de Transcripción Asociado a Microftalmía/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Pigmentación de la Piel/efectos de la radiación , alfa-MSH/antagonistas & inhibidores
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111161, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360043

RESUMEN

Artificial sunscreens are already gaining traction in order to protect the skin from sunburns, photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. However, the efficacy and safety of most artificial sunscreen constituents are hindered by their photostability, toxicity and damage to marine ecosystems. Natural selection and evolution have ensured that plants and animals have developed effective protective mechanisms against the deleterious side effects of oxidative stress and ultraviolet radiation (UV). Hence, natural antioxidants such as sun blockers are drawing considerable attention. The exact mechanism by which natural components act as sunscreen molecules has not been clearly established. However, conjugated π system is reported to play an important role in protecting the vital genetic material within the organism. Compared to artificial sunscreens, natural sunscreens with strong UV absorptive capacities are largely limited by low specific extinction value and by their inability to spread in large-scale sunscreen cosmetic applications. Previous studies have documented that natural components exert their photoprotective effects (such as improved skin elasticity and hydration, skin texture, and wrinkles) through their antioxidant effects, and through the regulation of UV-induced skin inflammation, barrier impairment and aging. This review focuses on natural antioxidant topical formulations with sun protection factor (SPF). Lignin, melanin, silymarin and other ingredients have been added to high sun protection nature sunscreens without any physical or chemical UV filters. This paper also provides a reference for adopting novel technical measures (extracting high content components, changing the type of solution, optimizing formulation, applying Nano technology, et al) to design and prepare nature sunscreen formulations equated with commercial sunscreen formulations. Another strategy is to add natural antioxidants from plants, animals, microorganisms and marine organisms as special enhancer or modifier ingredients to reinforce SPF values. Although the photoprotective effects of natural components have been established, their deleterious side effects have not been elucidated.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/administración & dosificación , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Protectores Solares/administración & dosificación , Administración Cutánea , Animales , Antioxidantes/efectos adversos , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Plantas Medicinales , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/patología , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Quemadura Solar/etiología , Quemadura Solar/metabolismo , Quemadura Solar/patología , Protectores Solares/efectos adversos , Protectores Solares/aislamiento & purificación , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375127

RESUMEN

Excessive UV exposure contributes to several pathological conditions like skin burns, erythema, premature skin aging, photodermatoses, immunosuppression, and skin carcinogenesis. Effective protection from UV radiation may be achieved with the use of sunscreens containing UV filters. Currently used UV filters are characterized by some limitations including systemic absorption, endocrine disruption, skin allergy induction, and cytotoxicity. In the research centers all over the world new molecules are developed to improve the safety, photostability, solubility, and absorption profile of new derivatives. In our study, we designed and synthesized seventeen novel molecules by combining in the structures two chromophores: xanthone and (E)-cinnamoyl moiety. The ultraviolet spectroscopic properties of the tested compounds were confirmed in chloroform solutions. They acted as UVB or UVA/UVB absorbers. The most promising compound 9 (6-methoxy-9-oxo-9H-xanthen-2-yl)methyl (E)-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylate) absorbed UV radiation in the range 290-369 nm. Its photoprotective activity and functional photostability were further evaluated after wet milling and incorporation in the cream base. This tested formulation with compound 9 possessed very beneficial UV protection parameters (SPFin vitro of 19.69 ± 0.46 and UVA PF of 12.64 ± 0.32) which were similar as broad-spectrum UV filter tris-biphenyl triazine. Additionally, compound 9 was characterized by high values of critical wavelength (381 nm) and UVA/UVB ratio (0.830) thus it was a good candidate for broad-spectrum UV filter and it might protect skin against UVA-induced photoaging. Compound 9 were also shown to be photostable, non-cytotoxic at concentrations up to 50 µM when tested on five cell lines, and non-mutagenic in Ames test. It also possessed no estrogenic activity, according to the results of MCF-7 breast cancer model. Additionally, its favorable lipophilicity (miLogP = 5.62) does not predispose it to penetrate across the skin after topical application.


Asunto(s)
Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Protectores Solares/química , Rayos Ultravioleta , Xantonas/química , Humanos , Estructura Molecular , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de la radiación , Espectrofotometría Ultravioleta , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Protectores Solares/síntesis química , Protectores Solares/farmacología , Xantonas/farmacología
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6505-6511, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109590

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to investigate the bolus practice among Italian radiation oncologists. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 2018, a survey on bolus application was sent to all members of the Italian Association of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology. RESULTS: The survey was joined by 102 radiation oncologists. Not all respondents answered to every question. A 69.5% of 82 respondents used bolus in case of skin infiltration and 52 of 68 respondents (76.5%) applied it every day. Skin was included as part of chest wall Clinical Target Volume both in the absence or the presence of breast reconstruction. Five mm bolus was the most used. 3D Conformal radiotherapy was the most used technique, in 73.5% of cases. Acute RTOG G2-G3 skin toxicity was recorded by 93.9% physicians. CONCLUSION: There was heterogeneity in the use of bolus, though an agreement was found in some topics. The achievement of a National Consensus may represent an interesting future goal.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/radioterapia , Radioterapia Ayuvante/métodos , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Anciano , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Terapia Combinada , Relación Dosis-Respuesta en la Radiación , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Mamoplastia , Mastectomía , Oncología Médica/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina , Oncólogos de Radiación , Radioterapia Conformacional , Piel/patología , Pared Torácica/patología , Pared Torácica/efectos de la radiación
15.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 485-488, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972607

RESUMEN

Many factors affect the health and physiology of human skin, with some of them arising from outer space. This contribution explores four celestial influences on the skin: (1) the sun's ultraviolet light, which has both beneficial and deleterious dermatologic effects, (2) meteorite injuries, (3) possible lunar effects on the body's health, and (4) cosmic radiation as a risk factor for skin cancer and pregnancy-related complications. Some of these extraterrestrial influences on skin health have taken on added significance as human beings increasingly spend more time at higher altitudes in aircraft, spaceships, and space stations.


Asunto(s)
Radiación Cósmica/efectos adversos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/etiología , Piel/lesiones , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Luz Solar/efectos adversos , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Aeronaves , Altitud , Dermatitis por Contacto/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Meteoroides , Luna , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/etiología
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 257-283, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918223

RESUMEN

Nonmelanoma skin cancers including basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and BCC) represent a significant clinical problem due to their relatively high incidence, imposing an economic burden to healthcare systems around the world. It is accepted that ultraviolet radiation (UVR: λ = 290-400 nm) plays a crucial role in the initiation and promotion of BCC and SCC with UVB (λ = 290-320 nm) having a central role in this process. On the other hand, UVB is required for vitamin D3 (D3) production in the skin, which supplies >90% of the body's requirement for this prohormone. Prolonged exposure to UVB can also generate tachysterol and lumisterol. Vitamin D3 itself and its canonical (1,25(OH)2D3) and noncanonical (CYP11A1-intitated) D3 hydroxyderivatives show photoprotective functions in the skin. These include regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, induction of anti-oxidative responses, inhibition of DNA damage and induction of DNA repair mechanisms, and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies in animals have demonstrated that D3 hydroxyderivatives can attenuate UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancerogenesis and inhibit growth of SCC and BCC. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of action have been suggested. In addition, vitamin D3 itself inhibits hedgehog signaling pathways which have been implicated in many cancers. Silencing of the vitamin D receptor leads to increased propensity to develop UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancers. Other targets for vitamin D compounds include 1,25D3-MARRS, retinoic orphan receptors α and γ, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and Wnt signaling. Most recently, photoprotective effects of lumisterol hydroxyderivatives have been identified. Clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial role of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of actinic keratosis. In summary, recent advances in vitamin D biology and pharmacology open new exciting opportunities in chemoprevention and treatment of skin cancers.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cutáneas/etiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/prevención & control , Vitamina D/química , Animales , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Neoplasias Cutáneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacología , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacología
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 387-405, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918230

RESUMEN

Exposure to sunlight is a major source of vitamin D for most people. Yet public health advice has focused overwhelmingly on avoiding exposure of unprotected skin because of the risks of erythema and skin cancer. Given that there are also health risks associated with low vitamin D status, we explore the possibilities of achieving a range of targets associated with vitamin D and the accompanying erythema risk. We have calculated the exposure required to gain a number of proposed oral-equivalent doses of vitamin D, as functions of latitude, season, skin type and skin area exposed, together with the associated risk of erythema, expressed in minimum erythema doses. The model results show that a recommended daily intake of 400 IU is readily achievable through casual sun exposure in the midday lunch hour, with no risk of erythema, for all latitudes some of the year, and for all the year at some (low) latitudes. We also show that such daily, sub-erythemal doses at lunchtime during the summer months is sufficient to avoid winter-time vitamin D deficiency for the UK all-weather climate, provided that lower arms and legs are exposed in the warmer months. At the higher proposed vitamin D dose of 1000 IU, lunchtime sun exposure is still a viable route to the vitamin but requires the commitment to expose greater areas of skin and is effective for a shorter period of the year. The highest vitamin D requirement considered was 4000 IU per day. For much of the globe and much of the year, this is not achievable in a lunchtime hour and where it is possible large areas of skin must be exposed to prevent erythema. When the only variable considered was skin type, latitudinal and seasonal limits on adequate vitamin D production were more restrictive for skin type 5 than skin type 2.


Asunto(s)
Eritema/etiología , Piel/metabolismo , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Vitamina D/biosíntesis , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Piel/patología , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/prevención & control
18.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 10(6): e529-e537, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781247

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Historically, the standard of care for total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) delivered 30 to 36 Gy over 5 to 10 weeks. Given the high risk of relapse, a majority of patients require additional treatments. Therefore, attempts to use a shortened course of TSEBT have been investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a single-institution retrospective review to evaluate disease response, control, and toxicity using a low-dose, hypofractionated course of TSEBT (HTSEBT) in patients with mycosis fungoides. RESULTS: Forty patients received 57 courses of HTSEBT. Median dose (Gy)/fractionation was 12/3, spanning a median time of 2.4 weeks. Overall response rate of patients assessed (n = 54) was 100%. Thirty-one courses (57.4%) resulted in a complete response and 23 courses (42.6%) resulted in a partial response. Cumulative incidence of progressive skin disease at 3 months was 37.2%, at 6 months, 56.9%, and at 1 year, 81.5%. Of the 40 patients treated with a first course of HTSEBT, 31 received subsequent courses of radiotherapy. Cumulative incidence of subsequent treatment was 28.0% at 3 months, 46.8% at 6 months, and 70.0% at 1 year. Patients who underwent repeat courses of HTSEBT continued to have similar treatment responses to repeat courses without increased toxicities. Toxicities from all courses were acceptable with the exception of 1 patient, who experienced grade 4 skin toxicity (moist desquamation requiring hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose HTSEBT provides good palliation in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with a satisfactory response and toxicity profile. HTSEBT allows therapy to be completed in far fewer treatments. Low-dose HTSEBT is an appropriate treatment option for patients unable to come for daily treatment. HTSEBT provides a way to decrease exposure to other patients and staff during public health emergencies such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Linfoma Cutáneo de Células T/radioterapia , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Dosificación Radioterapéutica , Estudios Retrospectivos , Piel/patología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235948, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785216

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection is one of the most severe complications of surgical treatments. However, the optimal procedure to prevent such infections remains uninvestigated. Ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) with a short wavelength has a high bactericidal effect; however, it is cytotoxic. Nonetheless, given that UVC with a wavelength of 222 nm reaches only the stratum corneum, it does not affect the skin cells. This study aimed to investigate the safety of 222-nm UVC irradiation and to examine its skin sterilization effect in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This trial was conducted on 20 healthy volunteers. The back of the subject was irradiated with 222-nm UVC at 50-500 mJ/cm2, and the induced erythema (redness of skin) was evaluated. Subsequently, the back was irradiated with a maximum amount of UVC not causing erythema, and the skin swabs before and after the irradiation were cultured. The number of colonies formed after 24 hours was measured. In addition, cyclobutene pyrimidine dimer (CPD) as an indicator of DNA damage was measured using skin tissues of the nonirradiated and irradiated regions. RESULTS: All subjects experienced no erythema at all doses. The back of the subject was irradiated at 500 mJ/cm2, and the number of bacterial colonies in the skin swab culture was significantly decreased by 222-nm UVC irradiation. The CPD amount produced in the irradiated region was slightly but significantly higher than that of the non-irradiated region. CONCLUSION: A 222-nm UVC at 500 mJ/cm2 was a safe irradiation dose and possessed bactericidal effects. In the future, 222-nm UVC irradiation is expected to contribute to the prevention of perioperative infection.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN/efectos de la radiación , Microbiota/efectos de la radiación , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Esterilización/métodos , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Adulto , Dorso , Biopsia , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Eritema/diagnóstico , Eritema/etiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Dímeros de Pirimidina/análisis , Dímeros de Pirimidina/efectos de la radiación , Piel/microbiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/microbiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 695-705, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681870

RESUMEN

Wound healing is affected by several factors. Preexisting diagnoses may significantly alter, delay, or inhibit normal wound healing. This is most commonly seen with chronic disorders, such as diabetes and renal failure, but also occurs secondary to aging and substance abuse. Less commonly, genetic or inflammatory disorders are the cause of delayed wound healing. In some cases, it is not the illness, but the treatment that can inhibit wound healing. This is seen in patients getting chemotherapy, radiation, steroids, methotrexate, and a host of other medications. Understanding these processes may help treat or avoid wound healing problems.


Asunto(s)
Fallo Renal Crónico/fisiopatología , Cicatrización de Heridas/fisiología , Heridas y Traumatismos/fisiopatología , Factores de Edad , Antineoplásicos/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/complicaciones , Enfermedades Autoinmunes/fisiopatología , Enfermedad Crónica , Enfermedades Genéticas Congénitas/complicaciones , Enfermedades Genéticas Congénitas/fisiopatología , Humanos , Infecciones/complicaciones , Infecciones/fisiopatología , Fallo Renal Crónico/complicaciones , Trastornos Nutricionales/complicaciones , Trastornos Nutricionales/fisiopatología , Traumatismos por Radiación/complicaciones , Traumatismos por Radiación/fisiopatología , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Enfermedades de la Piel/complicaciones , Enfermedades de la Piel/fisiopatología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatología , Heridas y Traumatismos/complicaciones
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...