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1.
Mol Ecol ; 29(17): 3167-3169, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745298

RESUMEN

What happens when two emergent diseases infect the same host? In a From the Cover article in this issue of Molecular Ecology, McDonald et al. (2020) compare transcriptomic responses to co-infection by the two chytrid fungi in the skin, liver and spleen of Eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). Novel molecular tools, such as high-throughput DNA sequencing for genome discovery and transcriptomics, have revolutionized our understanding of host-pathogen interactions and disease ecology (Güimil et al. 2005; Rosenblum et al. 2012). For example, epidemiologists are using genomic data to track the spread of the emergent SARS-CoV-2 in real time, both locally and globally. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is routinely employed to study response to disease in humans, improving disease diagnostics, profiling and development of intervention strategies. Transcriptomic profiles may be particularly informative for emergent diseases, whose pathologies and effect on host phenotype are poorly known. Fungal pathogens increasingly threaten a variety of wild and domesticated organisms (Fisher et al. 2012), and two chytrid fungi attacking amphibians are causing one of the worst losses of vertebrate biodiversity ever recorded (Scheele et al. 2019).


Asunto(s)
Quitridiomicetos/inmunología , Micosis/veterinaria , Salamandridae/inmunología , Animales , Coinfección/inmunología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Hígado/microbiología , Micosis/inmunología , Micosis/microbiología , Salamandridae/genética , Salamandridae/microbiología , Piel/microbiología , Bazo/microbiología , Transcriptoma/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235948, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785216

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection is one of the most severe complications of surgical treatments. However, the optimal procedure to prevent such infections remains uninvestigated. Ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) with a short wavelength has a high bactericidal effect; however, it is cytotoxic. Nonetheless, given that UVC with a wavelength of 222 nm reaches only the stratum corneum, it does not affect the skin cells. This study aimed to investigate the safety of 222-nm UVC irradiation and to examine its skin sterilization effect in healthy volunteers. METHODS: This trial was conducted on 20 healthy volunteers. The back of the subject was irradiated with 222-nm UVC at 50-500 mJ/cm2, and the induced erythema (redness of skin) was evaluated. Subsequently, the back was irradiated with a maximum amount of UVC not causing erythema, and the skin swabs before and after the irradiation were cultured. The number of colonies formed after 24 hours was measured. In addition, cyclobutene pyrimidine dimer (CPD) as an indicator of DNA damage was measured using skin tissues of the nonirradiated and irradiated regions. RESULTS: All subjects experienced no erythema at all doses. The back of the subject was irradiated at 500 mJ/cm2, and the number of bacterial colonies in the skin swab culture was significantly decreased by 222-nm UVC irradiation. The CPD amount produced in the irradiated region was slightly but significantly higher than that of the non-irradiated region. CONCLUSION: A 222-nm UVC at 500 mJ/cm2 was a safe irradiation dose and possessed bactericidal effects. In the future, 222-nm UVC irradiation is expected to contribute to the prevention of perioperative infection.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN/efectos de la radiación , Microbiota/efectos de la radiación , Piel/efectos de la radiación , Esterilización/métodos , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Adulto , Dorso , Biopsia , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Eritema/diagnóstico , Eritema/etiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Dímeros de Pirimidina/análisis , Dímeros de Pirimidina/efectos de la radiación , Piel/microbiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/microbiología , Infección de la Herida Quirúrgica/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 187-199, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761577

RESUMEN

Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins, including the most abundant fibrous proteins in the skin, as keratins, collagen and elastin. Sagging and wrinkled skin are features of chronic sun-damaged and aged uncared skin, and they are mainly associated with the deterioration of collagen and elastic fibers. The maintenance of skin structures by self-repair processes is essential to skin health. Thus, amino acids significantly impact the appearance of the skin. Amino acids are important nutrients required for (a) wound healing promotion and repair of the damaged skin; (b) acid-base balance and water retention in cellular layers, such as stratum corneum; (c) protection against sunlight damage; (d) maintenance of an appropriate skin microbiome. This review highlights the contribution of all proteinogenic amino acids and some related metabolites to the skin structures as constituents of the main cutaneous proteins or as signaling molecules for the regulation and determination of skin physiology.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Piel/metabolismo , Colágeno , Elastina , Humanos , Queratinas , Piel/citología , Piel/microbiología , Envejecimiento de la Piel
5.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609438

RESUMEN

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive real-time imaging technique that has been widely used for the diagnosis of skin cancer. More recently, it has been reported as a useful tool for the diagnosis and management of several inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. This article provides an overview of the current available applications of RCM use in cutaneous infections and infestations. PubMed was used to search the following terms in various combinations: reflectance confocal microscopy, skin, hair, nail, infection, parasitosis, mycosis, virus, bacteria. All papers were accordingly reviewed. In most cutaneous infections or infestations, the main alterations are found in the epidermis and upper dermis, where the accuracy of confocal microscopy is nearly similar to that of histopathology. The high resolution of this technique allows the visualization of most skin parasites, fungi, and a few bacteria. Although viruses cannot be identified because of their small size, viral cytopathic effects can be observed on keratinocytes. In addition, RCM can be used to monitor the response to treatment, thereby reducing unnecessary treatments.


Asunto(s)
Microscopía Confocal/métodos , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Piel/diagnóstico por imagen , Piel/microbiología , Piel/parasitología , Piel/patología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Infecciosas/patología , Enfermedades Cutáneas Parasitarias/patología
6.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 52-56, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600208

RESUMEN

AIMS: Of growing concern in arthroplasty is the emergence of atypical infections, particularly Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) sp. infections. Currently, the dermal colonization rate of Cutibacterium about the hip is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate colonization rates of Cutibacterium sp. at locations approximating anterior and posterolateral approaches to the hip joint. METHODS: For this non-randomized non-blinded study, 101 adult patients scheduled for hip or knee surgery were recruited. For each, four 3 mm dermal punch biopsies were collected after administration of anaesthesia, but prior to antibiotics. Prebiopsy skin preparation consisted of a standardized preoperative 2% chlorhexidine skin cleansing protocol and an additional 70% isopropyl alcohol mechanical skin scrub immediately prior to biopsy collection. Two skin samples 10 cm apart were collected from a location approximating a standard direct anterior skin incision, and two samples 10 cm apart were collected from a lateral skin incision (suitable for posterior, direct-lateral, or anterolateral approaches). Samples were cultured for two weeks using a protocol optimized for Cutibacterium. RESULTS: A total of 23 out of 404 cultures (collected from 101 patients) were positive for a microorganism, with a total of 22 patients having a positive culture (22%). Overall, 15 of the cultures in 14 patients were positive for Cutibacterium sp. (65%), of which Cutibacterium acnes comprised the majority (n = 13; 87%). Other isolated microorganisms include coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (n = 6), Clostridium (n = 1), and Corynebacterium (n = 1). Of all positive cultures, 15 were obtained from the anterior location (65%), of which seven (60%) were from the most proximal biopsy location. However, these findings were not statistically significant (anterior vs lateral, p = 0.076; proximal vs distal, p =0.238). CONCLUSION: Approximately 14% (14/101) of the patients demonstrated a positive Cutibacterium colonization about the hip, the majority anteriorly. Given the high colonization rate of Cutibacterium, alternative skin preparations for total hip arthroplasty should be considered. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):52-56.


Asunto(s)
Cadera/microbiología , Propionibacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Piel/microbiología , Muslo/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Artroplastia de Reemplazo de Cadera , Biopsia , Clostridium/aislamiento & purificación , Corynebacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Staphylococcus/aislamiento & purificación
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16465-16474, 2020 07 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601220

RESUMEN

Under steady-state conditions, the immune system is poised to sense and respond to the microbiota. As such, immunity to the microbiota, including T cell responses, is expected to precede any inflammatory trigger. How this pool of preformed microbiota-specific T cells contributes to tissue pathologies remains unclear. Here, using an experimental model of psoriasis, we show that recall responses to commensal skin fungi can significantly aggravate tissue inflammation. Enhanced pathology caused by fungi preexposure depends on Th17 responses and neutrophil extracellular traps and recapitulates features of the transcriptional landscape of human lesional psoriatic skin. Together, our results propose that recall responses directed to skin fungi can directly promote skin inflammation and that exploration of tissue inflammation should be assessed in the context of recall responses to the microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Arthrodermataceae/fisiología , Microbiota , Psoriasis/inmunología , Piel/microbiología , Animales , Arthrodermataceae/clasificación , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/aislamiento & purificación , Trampas Extracelulares/inmunología , Trampas Extracelulares/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunidad , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Psoriasis/microbiología , Psoriasis/patología , Piel/inmunología , Piel/patología , Simbiosis , Células Th17/inmunología
8.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(4)2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621684

RESUMEN

Non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria are nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) capable of producing disease. We report a case of tattoo-associated NTM infection with a novel species: Mycobacterium mageritense. A 48-year-old man presented with a two-week history of a papulopustular eruption on the shaded areas of a tattoo that had been placed five weeks prior while in the Philippines. Histopathology from punch biopsies revealed suppurative granulomatous dermatitis with acid fast bacilli present. Subsequent matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer identified the bacteria as Mycobacterium margeritense. After consultation with infectious disease specialists and culture susceptibilities, the patient was treated with three months of dual antibiotic therapy with minocycline and moxifloxacin. The patient experienced a slow but complete resolution of clinical skin findings after the course of treatment. Since discovery in 1997, M. mageritense infection has been demonstrated in a wide spectrum of disease, predominantly skin and soft tissue infections. The species has not been previously implicated in tattoo-associated NTM infections. M. mageritense should be considered as a specific type of mycobacteria in the differential diagnosis for tattoo-associated NTM infections owing to differences in antibiotic susceptibilities compared to other NTM species.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Micobacterias no Tuberculosas/aislamiento & purificación , Tatuaje/efectos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/microbiología , Infecciones por Mycobacterium no Tuberculosas/patología , Piel/microbiología , Piel/patología , Espectrometría de Masa por Láser de Matriz Asistida de Ionización Desorción
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 411, 2020 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532220

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug resistant pathogens known as the ESKAPE pathogens, along with C. difficile, are the leading causes of HAIs. Interactions between patients, healthcare workers, and environmental conditions impact disease transmission. Studying pathogen transfer under varying contact scenarios in a controlled manner is critical for understanding transmission and disinfectant strategies. In lieu of human subject research, this method has the potential to contribute to modeling the routes of pathogen transmission in healthcare settings. METHODS: To overcome these challenges, we have developed a method that utilizes a synthetic skin surrogate to model both direct (skin-to-skin) and indirect (skin-to fomite-to skin) pathogen transfer between infected patients and healthy healthcare workers. This surrogate material includes a background microbiome community simulating typical human skin flora to more accurately mimic the effects of natural flora during transmission events. RESULTS: We demonstrate the ability to modulate individual bacterial concentrations within this microbial community to mimic bacterial concentrations previously reported on the hands of human subjects. We also explore the effect of various decontamination approaches on pathogen transfer between human subjects, such as the use of handwashing or surface disinfectants. Using this method, we identify a potential outlier, S. aureus, that may persist and retain viability in specific transfer conditions better than the overall microbial community during decontamination events. CONCLUSIONS: Our work describes the development of an in vitro method that uses a synthetic skin surrogate with a defined background microbiota to simulate skin-to-skin and skin-to fomite-to skin contact scenarios. These results illustrate the value of simulating a holistic microbial community for transfer studies by elucidating differences in different pathogen transmission rates and resistance to common decontamination practices. We believe this method will contribute to improvements in pathogen transmission modeling in healthcare settings and increase our ability to assess the risk associated with HAIs, although additional research is required to establish the degree of correlation of pathogen transmission by skin or synthetic alternatives.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Modelos Biológicos , Clostridium difficile , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Descontaminación/métodos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Fómites/microbiología , Humanos , Viabilidad Microbiana , Microbiota , Piel/microbiología , Especificidad de la Especie
10.
J Water Health ; 18(3): 314-330, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589618

RESUMEN

Cyanobacteria are ancient photosynthetic microorganisms that shaped today's atmosphere. Anthropocentric and irresponsible activities are changing the atmosphere which favor the frequent occurrence and mass development of cyanobacteria. Extensive cyanobacterial blooming causes numerous problems, including negative effects on human skin. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, and the increased ultraviolet radiation also affect the skin and lead to more frequent occurrence of skin cancer. This research, for the first time, attempts to establish a connection between these two factors, or whether, in addition to ultraviolet radiation, cyanobacteria can influence the incidence of melanoma. With this objective in mind, an epidemiological investigation was conducted in Vojvodina, Serbia. It was observed that the incidence of melanoma was higher in municipalities where water bodies used for recreation, irrigation and fishing are blooming; however, results could be considered as inconclusive, because of the restrictions in the cancer database. Nevertheless, results gathered from the reviewed literature support the hypothesis that cyanobacteria could be a new potential risk factor for melanoma, while climate change could be a catalyst that converts these potential risk factors into cofactors, which act synergistically with the main risk factor - ultraviolet radiation - and induce an increase of melanoma incidence.


Asunto(s)
Cianobacterias , Piel/microbiología , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Incidencia , Ozono , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Rayos Ultravioleta
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15884-15894, 2020 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576698

RESUMEN

The skin of humans and animals is colonized by commensal and pathogenic fungi and bacteria that share this ecological niche and have established microbial interactions. Malassezia are the most abundant fungal skin inhabitant of warm-blooded animals and have been implicated in skin diseases and systemic disorders, including Crohn's disease and pancreatic cancer. Flavohemoglobin is a key enzyme involved in microbial nitrosative stress resistance and nitric oxide degradation. Comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses within the Malassezia genus revealed that flavohemoglobin-encoding genes were acquired through independent horizontal gene transfer events from different donor bacteria that are part of the mammalian microbiome. Through targeted gene deletion and functional complementation in Malassezia sympodialis, we demonstrated that bacterially derived flavohemoglobins are cytoplasmic proteins required for nitric oxide detoxification and nitrosative stress resistance under aerobic conditions. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that endogenous accumulation of nitric oxide resulted in up-regulation of genes involved in stress response and down-regulation of the MalaS7 allergen-encoding genes. Solution of the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of Malassezia flavohemoglobin revealed features conserved with both bacterial and fungal flavohemoglobins. In vivo pathogenesis is independent of Malassezia flavohemoglobin. Lastly, we identified an additional 30 genus- and species-specific horizontal gene transfer candidates that might have contributed to the evolution of this genus as the most common inhabitants of animal skin.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/genética , Hemoproteínas/genética , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/fisiología , Malassezia/genética , Malassezia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Piel/microbiología , Animales , Bacterias/metabolismo , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Ergosterol/biosíntesis , Evolución Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Eliminación de Gen , Regulación Fúngica de la Expresión Génica , Transferencia de Gen Horizontal , Hemoproteínas/química , Hemoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Malassezia/clasificación , Modelos Moleculares , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Estrés Oxidativo/fisiología , Filogenia , Piel/metabolismo , Simbiosis
12.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(9): 1274-1281, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568824

RESUMEN

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum that has been of public health concern for centuries. In the United States, it is currently a reportable disease and one which is recently generating increasing case numbers especially in at risk populations of immune deficiency and men who have sex with men. The present series examines biopsies from 13 patients collected over a 12-year period from a general hospital network in north suburban Cook County, Illinois. There were 13 patients (11 male: 2 female) with varied presentations, including primary ulcerated anogenital chancres, mucosal lesions, peculiar rashes, and alopecia. The reason(s) for biopsy were not clear from the clinical record, as a clinical consideration of syphilis was recorded in only 3 cases. Histologic examination of the mucocutaneous lesions encompassed a spectrum of findings including ulceration, psoriasiform hyperplasia, intense mixed band-like inflammation at the dermal-epidermal junction with a prominent plasma cell component. The contemporary availability of an effective immunostain is a valuable diagnostic adjunct. The organisms generally parallel the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate but the distribution may vary and rarely, organisms may be absent despite serologic confirmation. Previous corkscrew morphology of the organism described ultrastructurally is reflected in the immunostained representation. Although the diagnosis of syphilis remains a clinical one in most cases, some patients will have unusual presentations and biopsies will be done. The awareness of the pathologist will facilitate prompt and effective treatment.


Asunto(s)
Chancro/patología , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Mucosa Bucal/patología , Recto/patología , Piel/patología , Sífilis Cutánea/patología , Treponema pallidum/patogenicidad , Adulto , Alopecia/microbiología , Biopsia , Chancro/microbiología , Femenino , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Illinois , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucosa Bucal/microbiología , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Recto/microbiología , Piel/microbiología , Sífilis Cutánea/microbiología , Adulto Joven
13.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(2): 152-159, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513396

RESUMEN

Nocardiosis is caused by Gram-positive aerobic bacilli of the Nocardia genus, which are saprophytes living in the soil. It is a rare and opportunist disease with a localized or disseminated infection. When occurring in patients who are immunocompromised, involvement is usually systemic, most commonly represented by pulmonary disease. It can also be acquired through direct inoculation, entailing primary skin and subcutaneous tissue infections, frequently presenting as a localized nodular process. Cutaneous nocardiosis can manifest as a lymphocutaneous infection, actinomycetoma, superficial skin infection, or secondary infection from hematogenic dissemination. Diagnosis is made by identification of the organism in the culture of a clinical sample. Staining for acid-alcohol-resistant bacteria and, especially, Gram staining, is particularly relevant to obtain a rapid and presumptive diagnosis, while awaiting culture results. First-line medication is sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, which may be used with other antimicrobials, if necessary. Nocardiosis may be considered a major mimicker of several cutaneous diseases that present difficult, and often, delayed diagnoses.


Asunto(s)
Nocardiosis/diagnóstico , Nocardiosis/patología , Piel/patología , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Violeta de Genciana , Humanos , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Nocardia/aislamiento & purificación , Nocardiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Nocardiosis/microbiología , Fenazinas , Piel/microbiología , Combinación Trimetoprim y Sulfametoxazol/uso terapéutico
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(5): 721-727, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369006

RESUMEN

Introduction. Human skin microbial communities represent a tremendous source of genetic diversity that evolves as a function of human age. Microbiota differs between regions of oily and moist skin, and appears to stabilize with age.Aim. We have a minimal understanding of the time frame required for the stabilization of skin microbiota, and the role played by gender. In the current study, we examined the microbiota present in the navel region of college-attending young adults in the age group of 18-25 years and investigated if diversity is associated with gender (male and female).Method. The study involved 16 female and six male subjects. Isolated DNA samples from navel swabs were processed using the Nextera XT library preparation kit and sequenced using the MiSeq platform. Data were analysed using QIIME and statistical analysis performed in R.Results. Microbiota of navel skin is dominated by Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus and includes opportunistic pathogens like Clostridium and Pseudomonas. Also present as the major component of the flora were the organisms normally associated with the gastrointestinal tract such as Acinetobacter, Campylobacter, Klebsiella and organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae and Moraxellaceae families. Comparison of alpha and beta diversity of the microbiota in the male and female navel regions suggests that the flora is not statistically different (P>0.05). However, pairwise comparison suggests that the abundance of 12 specific genera varied with gender, including higher abundance of Klebsiella and Enterobacter in females.Conclusion. Our findings indicate that the navel skin microbiota of young adults has a core microbiota of Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus. We also noted the presence of a significant number of opportunistic pathogens. A minor gender difference in the abundance of individual organisms was also observed.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Piel/microbiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Perforación del Cuerpo , Análisis por Conglomerados , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenómica/métodos , Infecciones Oportunistas/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 408-415, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360942

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Children aged <5 years are the group most affected by infectious diseases, more specifically in underdeveloped countries. A study was performed to assess the effects of daily soap use on the incidence of diarrhoea, fever, respiratory infection, and the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria on the skin. METHODS: Soap was distributed to the population of the village of Ndiop (test) for use in their daily hygiene but not to the population of the village of Dielmo (control). Fieldworkers daily recorded the clinical events in the two villages and encouraged the use of soap in Ndiop. RESULTS: A total of 638 people participated in the study. The incidence rates of cough, runny nose and fever significantly decreased in 2016 compared with 2015, unlike that of diarrhoea. In 2016, significant reductions in the incidence rates of cough, runny nose and fever were observed in children aged <15 years in Ndiop. The prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in the palms of the hands significantly dropped in Ndiop. CONCLUSION: Using soap reduces the incidence of respiratory infections, fevers and the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria on the skin. However, for diarrhoea, additional strategies are needed to improve outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre/prevención & control , Microbiota , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/prevención & control , Piel/microbiología , Jabones/uso terapéutico , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/prevención & control , Femenino , Fiebre/epidemiología , Fiebre/microbiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Senegal/epidemiología
16.
Mycotoxin Res ; 36(3): 311-318, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372256

RESUMEN

Fusarium infections have been reported in aquatic animals, but are still poorly investigated in wild salmonids. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the fungi and their toxins on the health status of brown trout (Salmo trutta morpha trutta) migrating from the Baltic Sea to the freshwater. Individuals from the wild brown trout population exhibiting ulcerative skin lesions were collected from the Slupia River in Poland and subjected to microbiological, histopathological, and hematological examinations, as well as toxicological analysis for a presence of mycotoxins. The results of microflora isolation from the brown trout skin samples revealed the presence of conditionally pathogenic bacteria and fungi classified by molecular techniques as Fusarium spp. Toxicological analysis allowed for detection of zearalenone (ZEN) in the liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract of the fish. In several cases, there was α-zearalenone (α-ZEL) identified at trace levels in the liver, as well as sterigmatocystin and enniatin B at low levels in the kidney and the liver. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of fungal hyphae disrupting the epidermis and penetrating into the necrotic dermis and hypodermis. The decreased values of the blood parameters, i.e., hemoglobin concentration (HGB), packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and white blood cell count (WBC), were indicative of osmoregulation failure being a consequence of the skin damage. The results of the study provide new information regarding Fusarium sp. infection in brown trout and serve as the basis for further research on the potential impact of the fungi and their mycotoxins on the Baltic salmonid population, including their role in ulcerative dermal necrosis.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces/microbiología , Fusarium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/toxicidad , Necrosis/veterinaria , Enfermedades de la Piel/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de los Peces/patología , Fusarium/química , Micotoxinas/análisis , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Necrosis/microbiología , Necrosis/patología , Polonia , Piel/microbiología , Enfermedades de la Piel/microbiología , Enfermedades de la Piel/patología , Trucha/microbiología
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0007732, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310955

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is a necrotising infection of skin and soft tissue caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans). Buruli ulcer most often occurs on limbs, and it is hypothesized this is explained by direct exposure to the environment. However, even on exposed areas Buruli ulcer is not randomly distributed. M. ulcerans prefers an in vitro temperature of 30-33°C and growth is inhibited at higher temperatures. This study investigated whether variations in skin surface temperature distribution in healthy volunteers could partly account for Buruli ulcer lesion distribution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this observational study, a thermal camera (FLIR E8) was used to measure skin surface temperature at the sternal notch and at 44 predetermined locations on the limbs of 18 human participants. Body locations of high, middle and low Buruli ulcer incidence were identified from existing density maps of lesion distribution. Skin temperature of the three incidence location groups were compared, and differences in age and sex groups were also analysed. We found an inverse relationship between skin temperature and lesion distribution, where high incidence locations were significantly cooler and low incidence locations significantly warmer (Kruskal-Wallis test p<0.0001). Linear mixed effects regression analysis estimated that skin surface temperature accounts for 22.0% of the variance in Buruli ulcer lesion distribution (marginal R-squared = 0.219) in the anterior location group, and 0.6% in the posterior group (marginal R-squared 0.006). Men had warmer upper and lower limbs than females (Mann-Whitney U test p = 0.0003 and p<0.0001 respectively). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have found an inverse relationship between skin temperature and Buruli ulcer lesion distribution, however this association is weak. Additional unknown factors are likely to be involved that explain the majority of the variation in Buruli lesion distribution.


Asunto(s)
Úlcera de Buruli/patología , Mycobacterium ulcerans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Piel/patología , Temperatura , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Piel/microbiología , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231268, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275691

RESUMEN

Despite increasing research on the gut-skin axis, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on the improvement of skin health through the regulation of the intestinal condition in humans. In this study, we investigated the benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 (HY7714) consumption on skin health through its modulatory effects on the intestine and ensuing immune responses. HY7714 consumption led to differences in bacterial abundances from phylum to genus level, including increases in Actinobacteria followed by Bifidobacterium and a decrease in Proteobacteria. Additionally, HY7714 significantly ameliorated inflammation by reducing matrix metallopeptidases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), zonulin, and calprotectin in plasma, all of which are related to skin and intestinal permeability. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis revealed its efficacy at restoring the integrity of the gut barrier by regulating gene expression associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity. This was evident by the upregulation of IGFBP5, SERPINE1, EFEMP1, COL6A3, and SEMA3B and downregulation of MT2A, MT1E, MT1X, MT1G, and MT1F between TNF- α and TNF- α plus HY7714 treated Caco-2 cells. These results propose the potential mechanistic role of HY7714 on skin health by the regulation of the gut condition.


Asunto(s)
Intestinos/microbiología , Lactobacillus plantarum/fisiología , Piel/microbiología , Adulto , Anciano , Biodiversidad , Biomarcadores/sangre , Células CACO-2 , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Ontología de Genes , Humanos , Inflamación/patología , Lactobacillus plantarum/efectos de los fármacos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/farmacología , Adulto Joven
20.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 45(6): 722-726, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304588

RESUMEN

Symptomatic cutaneous metastases are associated with discharge, malodour, pruritus and pain, all of which may negatively impact quality of life and cutaneous health. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients referred to the Dermatology Service at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between August 2006 and June 2015, and characterized the microbial flora and antimicrobial management of cutaneous metastases in 64 patients. We detected pathogenic and/or opportunistic bacteria in 50% of skin lesions. The most commonly isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Patients treated with oral antibiotics, alone or in combination with topical agents, had a statistically significant better improvement in infectious symptoms than those treated without oral antibiotics. Our findings suggest that the normal skin microbial flora is disrupted in patients with symptomatic skin metastases. Oral antibiotics may provide benefit when used as first-line therapy for infected skin lesions in patients with symptomatic cutaneous metastases.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Bacterias Gramnegativas/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias Grampositivas/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/microbiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/secundario , Piel/microbiología , Administración Oral , Administración Tópica , Aspergillus flavus/aislamiento & purificación , Quimioterapia Combinada , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Enfermedades Cutáneas Bacterianas/etiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/complicaciones
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