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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 172, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838654

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Leaf color is an important trait in breeding of leafy vegetables. Y-05, a pakchoi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) cultivar, displays yellow inner (YIN) and green outer leaves (GOU) after cold acclimation. However, the mechanism of this special phenotype remains elusive. RESULTS: We assumed that the yellow leaf phenotype of Y-05 maybe caused by low chlorophyll content. Pigments measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the yellow phenotype is closely related with decreased chlorophyll content and undeveloped thylakoids in chloroplast. Transcriptomes and metabolomes sequencing were next performed on YIN and GOU. The transcriptomes data showed that 4887 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the YIN and GOU leaves were mostly enriched in the chloroplast- and chlorophyll-related categories, indicating that the chlorophyll biosynthesis is mainly affected during cold acclimation. Together with metabolomes data, the inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis is contributed by blocked 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis in yellow inner leaves, which is further verified by complementary and inhibitory experiments of ALA. Furthermore, we found that the blocked ALA is closely associated with increased BrFLU expression, which is indirectly altered by cold acclimation. In BrFLU-silenced pakchoi Y-05, cold-acclimated leaves still showed green phenotype and higher chlorophyll content compared with control, meaning silencing of BrFLU can rescue the leaf yellowing induced by cold acclimation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that cold acclimation can indirectly promote the expression of BrFLU in inner leaves of Y-05 to block ALA synthesis, resulting in decreased chlorophyll content and leaf yellowing. This study revealed the underlying mechanisms of leaves color change in cold-acclimated Y-05.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación , Brassica rapa/fisiología , Clorofila/biosíntesis , Frío , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Color , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Pigmentación/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/ultraestructura
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804065

RESUMEN

Seed coat color is an important agronomic trait of edible seed pumpkin in Cucurbita maxima. In this study, the development pattern of seed coat was detected in yellow and white seed coat accessions Wuminglv and Agol. Genetic analysis suggested that a single recessive gene white seed coat (wsc) is involved in seed coat color regulation in Cucurbita maxima. An F2 segregating population including 2798 plants was used for fine mapping and a candidate region containing nine genes was identified. Analysis of 54 inbred accessions revealed four main Insertion/Deletion sites in the promoter of CmaCh15G005270 encoding an MYB transcription factor were co-segregated with the phenotype of seed coat color. RNA-seq analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that some genes involved in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid metabolism pathway displayed remarkable distinction in Wuminglv and Agol during the seed coat development. The flanking InDel marker S1548 was developed to predict the seed coat color in the MAS breeding with an accuracy of 100%. The results may provide valuable information for further studies in seed coat color formation and structure development in Cucurbitaceae crops and help the molecular breeding of Cucurbita maxima.


Asunto(s)
Cucurbita/genética , Pigmentación/genética , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , Semillas/genética , Mapeo Cromosómico , Cucurbita/anatomía & histología , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Genotipo , Fenotipo , Fitomejoramiento , Semillas/anatomía & histología
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847553

RESUMEN

A novel Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, gliding, rod-shaped and carotenoid-pigmented bacterium, designated A20-9T, was isolated from a microbial consortium of polyethylene terephthalate enriched from a deep-sea sediment sample from the Western Pacific. Growth was observed at salinities of 1-8 %, at pH 6.5-8 and at temperatures of 10-40 °C. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on the genome indicated that A20-9T formed a monophyletic branch affiliated to the family Schleiferiaceae, and the 16S rRNA gene sequences exhibited the maximum sequence similarity of 93.8 % with Owenweeksia hongkongensis DSM 17368T, followed by similarities of 90.4, 90.1 and 88.8 % with Phaeocystidibacter luteus MCCC 1F01079T, Vicingus serpentipes DSM 103558T and Salibacter halophilus MCCC 1K02288T, respectively. Its complete genome size was 4 035 598 bp, the genomic DNA G+C content was 43.2 mol%. Whole genome comparisons indicated that A20-9T and O. hongkongensis DSM 17368T shared 67.8 % average nucleotide identity, 62.7 % average amino acid identity value, 46.6% of conserved proteins and 17.8 % digital DNA-DNA hybridization identity. A20-9T contained MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone. Its major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phospatidylcholine; and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (37.5 %), iso-C16 : 0 3-OH (12.4 %), and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c /C16 : 1ω6c, 11.6 %). Combining the genotypic and phenotypic data, A20-9T could be distinguished from the members of other genera within the family Schleiferiaceae and represents a novel genus, for which the name Croceimicrobium hydrocarbonivorans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A20-9T (=MCCC 1A17358T =KCTC 72878T).


Asunto(s)
Flavobacteriaceae/clasificación , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Consorcios Microbianos , Filogenia , Tereftalatos Polietilenos/metabolismo , Agua de Mar/microbiología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Océano Pacífico , Fosfolípidos/química , Pigmentación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847555

RESUMEN

A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultative aerobic and rod-shaped bacterium, designated as MKL-01T and isolated from the blood of immunocompromised patient, was genotypically and phenotypically characterized. The colonies were found to be creamy yellow and convex. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and whole-genome sequences revealed that strain MKL-01T was most closely related to Cupriavidus gilardii LMG 5886T, present within a large cluster in the genus Cupriavidus. The genome sequence of strain MKL-01T showed the highest average nucleotide identity value of 92.1 % and digital DNA-DNA hybridization value of 44.8 % with the closely related species C. gilardii LMG 5886T. The genome size of the isolate was 5 750 268 bp, with a G+C content of 67.87 mol%. The strain could grow at 10-45 °C (optimum, 37-40 °C), in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5%) and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). Strain MKL-01T was positive for catalase and negative for oxidase. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c/C16 : 1 ω7c) and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified polar lipid. Moreover, strain MKL-01T contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the sole respiratory quinone. Based on its molecular, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strain MKL-01T represents a novel species of the genus Cupriavidus; the name Cupriavidus cauae sp. nov. is proposed for this strain. The type strain is MKL-01T.


Asunto(s)
Sangre/microbiología , Cupriavidus/clasificación , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Filogenia , Adulto , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , Cupriavidus/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Femenino , Humanos , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolípidos/química , Pigmentación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , República de Corea , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Ubiquinona/química
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847556

RESUMEN

A novel bacterial strain, EJ-4T, isolated from stream water collected at Seo-ho in Suwon, Republic of Korea, was characterized based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain EJ-4T belonged to the genus Comamonas. The isolate is Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic, rod-shaped and forms pale yellow colonies on trypticase soy agar. The optimal growth of this strain was observed aerobically at 30 °C, pH 7 and 0.5 % NaCl. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c; 39.7 %) and C16 : 0 (32.0 %). The G+C content of strain EJ-4T was 58.4mol %. The average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain EJ-4T and Comamoas testosteroni were 91.8 and 31.2 %, respectively. The major polar lipids detected in the isolate were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-8. Based on the results of polyphasic taxonomic analysis of strain EJ-4T, we describe a novel species of the genus Comamonas, for which the name Comamonas suwonensis sp. nov. has been proposed, with EJ-4T (=KCTC 82074T=JCM 34179T=KEMB 1602-279T) as the type strain.


Asunto(s)
Comamonas/clasificación , Filogenia , Ríos/microbiología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , Comamonas/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolípidos/química , Pigmentación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , República de Corea , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Ubiquinona/química
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835912

RESUMEN

Soybean pods, separated and enclosed from the outside environment, are considered a suitable place to find new microbes. A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium, bacterial strain (YB22T) was isolated from the pod of Glycine max (soybean) collected from a rural area in Republic of Korea and characterized by using polyphasic taxonomy. Cells of the strain were rod-shaped (approximately 0.4-0.6 µm wide and 4.0-5.0 µm long), non-flagellated and formed silver-yellow colonies. Cells grew at 25-35 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C), at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and with 0-2.0% NaCl (optimum, 0 % NaCl). 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain YB22T was phylogenetically closest to the genus Elizabethkingia, and showed highest similarities to Elizabethkingia occulta G4070T (96.7 %), Elizabethkingia meningoseptica ATCC 13253T (96.7 %), Elizabethkingia miricola DSM 14571T (96.6 %), Elizabethkingia bruuniana G0146T (96.5 %), Elizabethkingia ursingii G4122T (96.4 %) and Elizabethkingia anophelis R26T (96.2 %). Average amino acid identity values between strain YB22T and other taxa in the genus Elizabethkingia were all above the threshold range of genus determination. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YB22T and other phylogenetic relatives were all found to be below the threshold range for species determination. The respiratory quinone of strain YB22T was menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (47.8 %) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH (18.5 %). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified polar lipids. The phylogenetic analysis and physiological and biochemical data showed that strain YB22T should represent a novel species in the genus Elizabethkingia, for which the name Elizabethkingia argenteiflava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain for this novel species is YB22T (=KCCM 43263T=JCM 32097T).


Asunto(s)
Flavobacteriaceae/clasificación , Filogenia , Soja/microbiología , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/aislamiento & purificación , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , República de Corea , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672083

RESUMEN

Sweet pepper is one of the most important economic fruits with nutritional attributes. In this sense, the nutraceutical value of consumed products is a major concern nowadays so the content of some bioactive compounds and antioxidants (phenols, ascorbic acid, lycopene, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and antioxidant activity) was monitored in 18 sweet pepper landraces at two maturity stages (green and red). All the traits except chlorophylls significantly increased in red fruits (between 1.5- and 2.3-fold for phenols, ascorbic acid, and 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition activity, 4.8-fold for carotenoid and 27.4-fold for lycopene content), which suggests that ripening is key for obtaining desired fruit quality. Among landraces, P-44 in green fruits is highlighted for its content in carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenols, and ascorbic acid, and P-46 for its antioxidant capacity and lycopene content. Upon maturity, P-48, P-44, and P-41 presented higher levels of phenols and lycopene, and P-39 of phenols, carotenoid, and DPPH. This work reflects a wide variability in the 18 pepper landraces at bioactive compounds concentration and in relation to fruit ripeness. The importance of traditional landraces in terms of organoleptic properties is emphasized as they are the main source of agricultural biodiversity today and could be helpful for breeders to develop new functional pepper varieties.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Capsicum/química , Ecotipo , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Clorofila/análisis , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Frutas/química , Licopeno/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Pigmentación , Análisis de Componente Principal
8.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673263

RESUMEN

The current research is focused on studying the biological efficacy of flexirubin, a pigment extracted from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497.Different methods such as DPPH, H2O2, NO•, O2•-, •OH, lipid peroxidation inhibition by FTC and TBA, ferric reducing and ferrous chelating activity were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flexirubin. Molecular docking was also carried out, seeking the molecular interactions of flexirubin and a standard antioxidant compound with SOD enzyme to figure out the possible flexirubin activity mechanism. The new findings revealed that the highest level of flexirubin exhibited similar antioxidant activity as that of the standard compound according to the H2O2, •OH, O2•-, FTC and TBA methods. On the other hand, flexirubin at the highest level has shown lower antioxidant activity than the positive control according to the DPPH and NO• and even much lower when measured by the FRAP method. Molecular docking showed that the interaction of flexirubin was in the binding cavity of the SOD enzyme and did not affect its metal-binding site. These results revealed that flexirubin has antioxidant properties and can be a useful therapeutic compound in preventing or treating free radical-related diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Polienos/química , Superóxido Dismutasa/química , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Chryseobacterium/química , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/química , Picratos/química , Pigmentación/efectos de los fármacos
9.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645574

RESUMEN

The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, is an emerging model system for studies in development and evolution. The existence of eyed surface (surface fish) and blind cave (cave fish) morphs in this species presents an opportunity to interrogate the mechanisms underlying morphological and behavioral evolution. Cave fish have evolved novel constructive and regressive traits. The constructive changes include increases in taste buds and jaws, lateral line sensory organs, and body fat. The regressive changes include loss or reduction of eyes. melanin pigmentation, schooling behavior, aggression, and sleep. To experimentally interrogate these changes, it is crucial to obtain large numbers of spawned embryos. Since the original A. mexicanus surface fish and cave fish were collected in Texas and Mexico in the 1990s, their descendants have been routinely stimulated to breed and spawn large numbers of embryos bimonthly in the Jeffery laboratory. Although breeding is controlled by food abundance and quality, light-dark cycles, and temperature, we have found that incremental temperature changes play a key role in stimulating maximal spawning. The gradual increase of temperature from 72 °F to 78 °F in the first three days of a breeding week provides two-three consecutive spawning days with maximal numbers of high-quality embryos, which is then followed by a gradual decrease of temperature from 78 °F to 72 °F during the last three days of the spawning week. The procedures shown in this video outline the workflow before and during a laboratory breeding week for incremental temperature stimulated spawning.


Asunto(s)
Cruzamiento , Characidae/fisiología , Temperatura , Animales , Cuevas , Pigmentación/fisiología
10.
Yi Chuan ; 43(2): 118-133, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724215

RESUMEN

The various coat colorations exhibited in different mammalian groups is an attractive biological phenomenon, and is also one of the excellent models for studying and understanding mammalian adaptive evolution. Coat color polymorphism in mammals plays an important role in avoiding predator, predation, courtship, and protection against UV radiation. The coloration of hair or coat in mammal is determined by the quantity, quality and distribution of melanin in the body. Pigmentation in cells is a complicated cell process, including the differentiation and maturation of melanocytes, the morphogenesis of melanosome, the anabolism of melanin and the transportation of melanin in melanocytes. Every stage or phase of pigmentation in cells can always proceed with the participation of some important functional genes. The complex regulatory network formed through interactions between these genes has greatly led to different coat colors. With the coat color polymorphisms, mammals can adapt to various environments. Revealing the genetic basis of different coat colors in mammals has been an important research focus in genetics and evolutionary biology. In this review, we summarize the main advance in molecular mechanisms of pigmentation in cells and the genetic basis of coloration-related adaptations in mammals. Our review is expected to provide new clues for molecular mechanism studies on coat color polymorphism and adaptive evolutions in mammals.


Asunto(s)
Melaninas , Melanocitos , Animales , Color , Color del Cabello/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Melaninas/genética , Pigmentación/genética
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1261: 175-181, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783739

RESUMEN

Actinobacteria is the phylum that has the biggest genome in the Bacteria domain and includes many colored species. Their pigment analysis revealed that structurally diverse carotenoids are responsible for their pigmentation. This chapter reviews the biosynthesis of the diverse carotenoids of Actinobacteria. Its carotenoids belong to three different types: 1) carotenoid of C50 chain length, 2) carotenoids with aromatic end groups, and 3) keto carotenoid like canthaxanthin (ß,ß-carotene-4,4'-dione) or monocyclic keto-γ-carotene derivatives. Species from the genus Rhodococcus are the only known Actinobacteria with a simultaneous pathway to aromatic and to keto carotenoids.


Asunto(s)
Actinobacteria , Carotenoides , Actinobacteria/genética , Bacterias , Pigmentación
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1261: 165-174, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33783738

RESUMEN

Haloarchaea are halophilic microorganisms belonging to the Archaea domain that inhabit salty environments (mainly soils and water) all around the world. Most of the genera included in this group are able to produce carotenoids at significant concentrations (even wild-type strains). The major carotenoid produced by the cells is bacterioruberin (and its derivatives), which is only produced by this kind of microbes. Nevertheless, the understanding of carotenoid metabolism in haloarchaea, its regulation, and the roles of carotenoid derivatives in this group of extreme microorganisms remains mostly unrevealed. Besides, potential biotechnological uses of haloarchaeal pigments are poorly explored. This work summarizes what it has been described so far about carotenoid production by haloarchaea, haloarchaeal carotenoid production at large scale, as well as the potential uses of haloarchaeal pigments in biotechnology and biomedicine.


Asunto(s)
Archaea , Carotenoides , Archaea/genética , Biotecnología , Pigmentación
13.
Science ; 371(6536)2021 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766854

RESUMEN

Behavioral isolation can catalyze speciation and permit the slow accumulation of additional reproductive barriers between co-occurring organisms. We illustrate how this process occurs by examining the genomic and behavioral bases of pre-mating isolation between two bird species (Sporophila hypoxantha and the recently discovered S. iberaensis) that belong to the southern capuchino seedeaters, a recent, rapid radiation characterized by variation in male plumage coloration and song. Although these two species co-occur without obvious ecological barriers to reproduction, we document behaviors indicating species recognition by song and plumage traits and strong assortative mating associated with genomic regions underlying male plumage patterning. Plumage differentiation likely originated through the reassembly of standing genetic variation, indicating how novel sexual signals may quickly arise and maintain species boundaries.


Asunto(s)
Especiación Genética , Preferencia en el Apareamiento Animal , Passeriformes/genética , Passeriformes/fisiología , Aislamiento Reproductivo , Animales , Argentina , Evolución Biológica , Femenino , Variación Genética , Genoma , Haplotipos , Masculino , Mutación , Pigmentación/genética , Simpatría , Vocalización Animal
14.
Plant Sci ; 306: 110848, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775373

RESUMEN

Red-fleshed apple fruits are popular because of their high flavonoid content. Although MdMYB10 and its homologs have been identified as crucial regulators of the fruit coloring process, other transcription factors (TFs) contributing to the differences in flesh coloration have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of MdWRKY41 on anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) synthesis in red-fleshed apples. The overexpression of MdWRKY41 in red-fleshed apple calli inhibited anthocyanin and PA accumulation by downregulating the expression of a MYB TF gene (MdMYB12) and specific structural genes (MdLAR, MdUFGT, and MdANR). Furthermore, MdWRKY41 was shown to interact with MdMYB16 to form a complex that can further suppress MdANR and MdUFGT expression. Interestingly, MdWRKY41 was targeted by the photoresponse factor MdHY5 and inhibited its transcription. Overall, our findings provide insights into a novel MdHY5-MdWRKY41-MdMYB regulatory module influencing anthocyanin and PA synthesis in red-fleshed apple fruits.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/biosíntesis , Antocianinas/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/biosíntesis , Proantocianidinas/genética , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Quimera , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Productos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Pigmentación/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1350, 2021 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649298

RESUMEN

Sexual selection drives rapid phenotypic diversification of mating traits. However, we know little about the causative genes underlying divergence in sexually selected traits. Here, we investigate the genetic basis of male mating trait diversification in the medaka fishes (genus Oryzias) from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Using linkage mapping, transcriptome analysis, and genome editing, we identify csf1 as a causative gene for red pectoral fins that are unique to male Oryzias woworae. A cis-regulatory mutation enables androgen-induced expression of csf1 in male fins. csf1-knockout males have reduced red coloration and require longer for mating, suggesting that coloration can contribute to male reproductive success. Contrary to expectations, non-red males are more attractive to a predatory fish than are red males. Our results demonstrate that integrating genomics with genome editing enables us to identify causative genes underlying sexually selected traits and provides a new avenue for testing theories of sexual selection.


Asunto(s)
Edición Génica , Aptitud Genética , Oryzias/genética , Caracteres Sexuales , Aletas de Animales/anatomía & histología , Animales , Femenino , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Indonesia , Factor Estimulante de Colonias de Macrófagos/genética , Masculino , Mutación/genética , Filogenia , Pigmentación/genética , Conducta Predatoria , Sitios de Carácter Cuantitativo/genética , Conducta Sexual Animal
16.
Zootaxa ; 4948(1): zootaxa.4948.1.4, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757035

RESUMEN

Larval ontogeny of the long-whiskered catfish Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes, 1840 is described, providing useful characters for identification and determining the growth pattern throughout its development. Eighty-nine larvae classified in three stages (preflexion, flexion and postflexion) and 30 juveniles were analyzed, totaling 119 individuals. The specimens were collected monthly from January 2013 to May 2019 in the lower Amazon river. A suite of morphological, morphometric, and meristic data was used to describe the stages of development. Three analytical regression models were used: simple linear, quadratic and piecewise regressions. The larvae are characterized by small to moderate eyes, subinferior mouth, and long barbels (maxillary larger than the mental barbels), triangular-shaped adipose fin, and the final part of the intestine reaching half the body. Pigmentation consists of dendritic chromatophores distributed irregularly in the body, ventral region and head, intensifying in the flanks and dorsal region throughout development. The total number of myomeres has a mode of 42 muscle bundles, ranging from 40 to 42 (15 to 16 pre-and 25 to 26 post-anal) and the number of fin segments corresponded to: pectoral = I + 9, pelvic = 6, dorsal = I + 6 and anal = 11-12. All body variables showed discontinuous isometric growth, indicating a deceleration in the structural modeling of the body, between the flexion/post-flexion stages and acceleration in post-flexion/early juvenile period. Precisely when the formation of the fin rays, muscles and organs of the digestive system and ossification are observed, suggesting low morphological variation during ontogenetic development. Pimelodus blochii differs from other congeneric species in the lower Amazon river by meristic characters, which helps to correctly identify individuals in early stages of development.


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Animales , Larva , Músculos , Pigmentación , Ríos
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 728-737, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518126

RESUMEN

Goose meat is increasingly popular among consumers because of its good quality. The fiber characteristics have been well demonstrated to be key contributing factors of meat quality, and the marketable ages are also closely related to meat quality. However, little is known about the effect of different marketable ages on the quality of goose meat through its fiber characteristics. Here, fiber characteristics of Yangzhou geese of different marketable ages (70, 90, and 120 d) and their effect on meat quality were investigated. The results showed that only fast-twitch fibers were present in breast muscle, irrespective of age, and that few slow-twitch fibers could be identified in leg muscle, especially in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus. Fiber diameter in breast muscle increased rapidly from age 70 d to 90 d, from 19.88 to 26.27 µm, and remained stable for 90 d thereafter. The diameter and cross-sectional area of muscle fiber continue to grow with day increasing in leg muscle. In addition, we measured the proximate composition and physical properties at different ages. Among the 3 marketable ages investigated, the 120-day-old geese had higher intramuscular fat and protein content, as well as lower moisture content, both in breast and leg meat. Greater lightness and pressing loss, with lower redness and shear force, were observed in the breast and leg meat of 70-day-old geese when compared with 90- or 120-day-old geese. Taken together, although older marketable age hardly affected muscle fiber type in geese, it would contribute to larger muscle fiber area, higher intramuscular fat and protein content, as well as redder and chewier meat. As a result, the reasonable marketable age should be taken into account to improve quality in goose meat production, and the marketable age of 90 or 120 d was recommended and it could potentially improve meat quality in goose meat production.


Asunto(s)
Fibras de la Dieta/normas , Gansos , Carne/normas , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiología , Factores de Edad , Alimentación Animal/normas , Animales , Femenino , Gansos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Inmunohistoquímica/veterinaria , Extremidad Inferior/anatomía & histología , Carne/análisis , Fibras Musculares de Contracción Rápida/fisiología , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/clasificación , Músculo Esquelético/anatomía & histología , Cadenas Pesadas de Miosina/clasificación , Músculos Pectorales/anatomía & histología , Músculos Pectorales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pigmentación
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540857

RESUMEN

Yellow peel will adversely affect the appearance quality of cucumber fruit, but the metabolites and the molecular mechanism of pigment accumulation in cucumber peel remain unclear. Flavonoid metabolome and transcriptome analyses were carried out on the young peel and old peel of the color mutant L19 and the near-isogenic line L14. The results showed that there were 165 differential flavonoid metabolites in the old peel between L14 and L19. The total content of representative flavonoid metabolites in the old peel of L14 was 95 times that of L19, and 35 times that of young peel of L14, respectively. This might explain the difference of pigment accumulation in yellow peel. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis showed that there were 3396 and 1115 differentially expressed genes in the yellow color difference group (Young L14 vs. Old L14 and Old L14 vs. Old L19), respectively. These differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in the MAPK signaling pathway-plant, plant-pathogen interaction, flavonoid biosynthesis and cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis pathways. By analyzing the correlation between differential metabolites and differentially expressed genes, six candidate genes related to the synthesis of glycitein, kaempferol and homoeriodictyol are potentially important. In addition, four key transcription factors that belong to R2R3-MYB, bHLH51 and WRKY23 might be the major drivers of transcriptional changes in the peel between L14 and L19. Then, the expression patterns of these important genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR. These results suggested that the biosynthesis pathway of homoeriodictyol was a novel way to affect the yellowing of cucumber peel. Together, the results of this study provide a research basis for the biosynthesis and regulation of flavonoids in cucumber peel and form a significant step towards identifying the molecular mechanism of cucumber peel yellowing.


Asunto(s)
Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Metaboloma , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Epidermis de la Planta/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/genética , ADN de Plantas/genética , Flavonas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Ontología de Genes , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Pigmentación , Fitomejoramiento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , ARN de Planta/genética , ARN de Planta/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573075

RESUMEN

Anthocyanins with various functions in nature are one of the most important sources of colours in plants. They are based on anthocyanidins or 3-deoxyanthocyanidins having in common a C15-skeleton and are unique in terms of how each anthocyanidin is involved in a network of equilibria between different forms exhibiting their own properties including colour. Sphagnorubin C (1) isolated from the cell wall of peat moss (Sphagnum sp.) was in fairly acidic and neutral dimethyl sulfoxide characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption techniques. At equilibrium, the network of 1 behaved as a two-component colour system involving the reddish flavylium cationic and the yellow trans-chalcone forms. The additional D- and E-rings connected to the common C15-skeleton extend the π-conjugation within the molecule and provide both bathochromic shifts in the absorption spectra of the various forms as well as a low isomerization barrier between the cis- and trans-chalcone forms. The hemiketal and cis-chalcone forms were thus not observed experimentally by NMR due to their short lives. The stable, reversible network of 1 with good colour contrast between its two components has previously not been reported for other natural anthocyanins and might thus have potential in future photochromic systems. This is the first full structural characterization of any naturally occurring anthocyanin chalcone form.


Asunto(s)
Antocianinas/química , Chalcona/química , Sphagnopsida/química , Antocianinas/genética , Color , Isomerismo , Cinética , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Estructura Molecular , Pigmentación/genética , Sphagnopsida/genética
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1125, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602923

RESUMEN

Conditional gene inactivation is a powerful tool to determine gene function when constitutive mutations result in detrimental effects. The most commonly used technique to achieve conditional gene inactivation employs the Cre/loxP system and its ability to delete DNA sequences flanked by two loxP sites. However, targeting a gene with two loxP sites is time and labor consuming. Here, we show Cre-Controlled CRISPR (3C) mutagenesis to circumvent these issues. 3C relies on gRNA and Cre-dependent Cas9-GFP expression from the same transgene. Exogenous or transgenic supply of Cre results in Cas9-GFP expression and subsequent mutagenesis of the gene of interest. The recombined cells become fluorescently visible enabling their isolation and subjection to various omics techniques. Hence, 3C mutagenesis provides a valuable alternative to the production of loxP-flanked alleles. It might even enable the conditional inactivation of multiple genes simultaneously and should be applicable to other model organisms amenable to single integration transgenesis.


Asunto(s)
Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas/genética , Silenciador del Gen , Integrasas/metabolismo , Mutagénesis/genética , Pez Cebra/genética , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Ojo/embriología , Ojo/metabolismo , Proteínas Fluorescentes Verdes/metabolismo , Monofenol Monooxigenasa/genética , Pigmentación/genética , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo , Transgenes
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