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1.
Orv Hetil ; 162(3): 83-90, 2021 01 17.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459608

RESUMEN

Összefoglaló. A dohányzás káros hatásainak vizsgálata hosszú ideje az orvostudomány egyik legintenzívebben kutatott területe. A nagy tudományos érdeklodésnek köszönhetoen ma már meggyozo evidenciák állnak rendelkezésre a hagyományos cigaretta használatának számos negatív hatásáról. Ezzel ellentétben a sokkal késobb bevezetett helyettesíto termékek veszélyeirol lényegesen kevesebbet tudunk. E körbe tartozik a manapság egyre népszerubb elektromos cigaretta is, amelyre egyre több, egészségügyi kockázatot felméro munka fókuszál. Ugyanakkor a több évszázados múltra visszatekinto és a világ bizonyos helyein sokáig népszeru vízipipa érdekes esetnek számít, mivel használóinak száma a nyugati világban az utóbbi idoben megugrott, de az emberre gyakorolt hatása számos ponton még vita tárgyát képezi. A jelen munka célja, hogy a hazai és a nemzetközi szakirodalom alapján feltérképezze a hagyományos cigaretta, az elektromos cigaretta és a vízipipa fontosabb egészségügyi hatásait, és rámutasson azokra a kapcsolódó területekre, ahol további kutatások szükségesek. A szakirodalmi áttekintés során a különbözo publikációs adatbázisokban fellelheto tudományos cikkeket elemeztük. A megvizsgált szakirodalom alapján a tartós dohányzásnak bizonyítottan a szív-ér rendszert és a légzorendszert károsító hatása van, de növekvo számú bizonyíték utal a neurológiai káros hatásokra és a gasztroenterológiai hatásokra is. Ugyanakkor az elektromos cigaretta és a vízipipa esetében a bizonyított akut hatások mellett a hosszú távú hatásokat illetoen további intenzív kutatásokra van szükség. Az elektromos cigaretta és a vízipipa esetében a hosszú távú hatások kapcsán a meggyozo evidencia hiánya semmiképpen nem jelenti azt, hogy ezen termékeket kockázatmentesnek kellene tekinteni, sot a pulmonológusoknak és a döntéshozóknak mindent meg kell tenniük annak érdekében, hogy valamennyi dohánytermék törvényi szabályozása azok használatának visszaszorítását célozza. A kérdés fontosságának a COVID-19-pandémia különös aktualitást ad. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(3): 83-90. Summary. Revealing the health effects associated with smoking has been in the focus of intense research for decades. Due to these research efforts, there is a convincing evidence regarding the negative effects of conventional cigarettes. However, much less is known about the replacement products such as electronic cigarettes. Moreover, the effects of waterpipes are also not fully explored, in spite of their long history. The scope of the present work is to survey the open literature to map the knowledge related to the health effects of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes and waterpipes. The analysis of the related scientific literature was performed based on papers retrieved in large publication repositories. Based on the reviewed literature, long-term smoking has demonstrated adverse effects on the respiratory as well as the heart and circulatory systems. In addition, the correlation between cigarette smoking and some gastroenterological and neurological diseases is also increasingly evident. By the same token, though the acute effects of e-cigarette and waterpipe are well documented, the protracted effects are still to be explored. The lack of pertinent information regarding the late effects of e-cigarette and hookah does not imply that there is no health risk associated with their consumption. On the contrary, in addition to the regular antismoke measures, pulmonologists and policy makers should do everything to lower the consumption of these alternative products. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(3): 83-90.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Pipas de Agua , Productos de Tabaco , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Humanos
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-47941

RESUMEN

Modismo entre os jovens, o Narguilé e o cigarro eletrônico podem ser mais atrativos, mas os riscos também são altos para a saúde


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Productos de Tabaco , Riesgo a la Salud
3.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 546-551, 2020 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880570

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hookah pipe (HP) smoking has become popular globally, especially among young adults and adolescents. There are misperceptions regarding the safety of HP smoking, relative to cigarettes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of HP use in grade 8 and 12 students and the factors associated with use in the different age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in grade 8 and 12 high-school students from six randomly selected public schools in Johannesburg, South Africa. A self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by students after consent had been obtained from parents and students. The questionnaire focused on knowledge and awareness of HP smoking. Data were analysed using Stata/SE version 15. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 347 grade 8 and 232 grade 12 students participated in the study. Of the sample, 26% in grade 8 and 70% in grade 12 had ever smoked an HP. In both grades a higher proportion of males smoked. Eleven percent of students in grade 8 and 37% in grade 12 were currently smoking the HP. Approximately 47% and 51% of grade 8 and grade 12 students, respectively, first started smoking at parties. The mean age of initiation was 8 and 12 years in grade 8 and 12, respectively. Grade 12 students had greater awareness of the risks of HP smoking. Having a family member who smoked an HP was significantly related to HP use in grade 8 students. Overall, factors associated with increased odds of smoking the HP were being in grade 12, not being aware of health effects, and seeing the health warnings on hookah tobacco package labels. CONCLUSIONS: HP smoking increased significantly between grades 8 and 12. Increasing knowledge and awareness of the risks involved in HP smoking in children at an early age is recommended. One of the factors influencing uptake of HP smoking in young students was having a family member smoking it; adult anti-smoking and anti-HP campaigns are therefore also important.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234516, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559253

RESUMEN

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increased worldwide. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has become a global trend of tobacco consumption and is as common as cigarette smoking. In this study, the effect of waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) on the development of metabolic syndrome in rats was evaluated. Adult Wistar rats were exposed for 19 weeks to either fresh air (control) or WTS for 1 hour daily/ 5 days per week (WTS). Central obesity, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose hemostasis and levels of leptin and adiponectin were evaluated. The WTS exposure increased body weight, abdominal circumference, systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose compared to control animals (P<0.05), consistent with inducing metabolic syndrome. The retroperitoneal fat, lipid profile and levels of insulin, leptin and adiponectin were not affected by WTS exposure (P>0.05). In conclusion, exposure to WTS has detrimental health effects leading to the development of metabolic syndrome in experimental animals.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/metabolismo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos , Tabaco para Pipas de Agua/efectos adversos , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólico/inducido químicamente , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/fisiopatología , Ratas , Pipas de Agua
5.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 195-202, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359049

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There has been a growth in popularity of hookah (or waterpipes) among American college students, despite the health risks. This study investigated factors that predict hookah susceptibility and whether hookah susceptibility predicts hookah initiation and continued use. METHOD: The study established a cohort of 529 incoming college freshmen (51.6% female) who completed an online survey approximately 1 week before their arrival to a large U.S. university. Students were sent four follow-up surveys throughout the 2016-2017 academic year; 90.5% completed at least one follow-up survey. RESULTS: A total of 13.2% of the sample had used hookah at baseline and 9.9% initiated hookah use over the course of their freshman year. Among the nonusers who had no hookah susceptibility at baseline, 30.0% came to indicate some susceptibility. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that the personality construct conscientiousness was protective against becoming susceptible, whereas coming from a rural part of the state was a risk factor. Susceptibility predicted both continued use among the baseline ever-users and initiation among the baseline never-users. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of susceptibility in the trajectory of hookah use among U.S. college students.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Fumar/psicología , Fumar/tendencias , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades/tendencias , Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva/diagnóstico , Conducta Adictiva/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Tabaco para Pipas de Agua
6.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(5): 376-388, 2020 May.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334968

RESUMEN

In France, shisha (narghile) smoking is increasingly popular among adolescents and young adults and is generally thought to be less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. This systematic review of data on carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in active or passive shisha tobacco smokers selected 17 studies. Sixteen case reports, including 39 patients (mean age: 22.3 years; males: 51.3%), described acute carbon monoxide poisoning in active shisha smokers. The most common symptoms were dizziness, headache, and nausea. Loss of consciousness occurred in 43.6% of patients. Two patients had an epileptic seizure. The mean carboxy-haemoglobin (HbCO) blood level was 17.3%. Electrocardiographic changes were present in five patients. Most patients were treated with normobaric oxygen therapy while only four received hyperbaric oxygen therapy; two of whom were non tobacco smokers exposed to shisha smoke during their work. The outcome was favourable in all patients. Shisha use must be suspected in cases of CO poisoning, especially in adolescents and young adults. Practitioners must help shisha users to stop their consumption.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiología , Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/etiología , Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar/epidemiología , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Fumar/efectos adversos , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/efectos adversos , Adulto Joven
7.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 74-78, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228822

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe smoking has become a serious public health threat worldwide. In order to raise awareness of adverse effects and transmission of bacteria via water-pipe smoking, we aimed to identify the bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance profiles that colonize different parts of waterpipes. METHODS: We examined totally 182 water pipes from 7 lounges (in Turkey) used in public places and we collected 728 culture samples in total by microbiological methods. We used disposable sterile swabs to sample the inside and outside of the mouthpiece, and the handling piece and sterile injectors were used to collect 5 mL of water from the water pipe bowl. RESULTS: There was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in microbial contamination (growth/presence of bacteria and fungi) among the parts of the water pipes sampled. There was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in the number of bacteria growing (microbial load) among the parts of the water pipes. Only one narghile lounge out of seven, which had 13 water pipes, had a hygiene procedure. The water jars are often contaminated with Gram-negative bacteria. CONCLUSION: Water pipes, especially the interior and outer part of the mouthpieces and the handle, are colonized by microbes and pose a risk of infection. Procedures for water pipe hygiene should be developed, periods should be defined, and the owners and employees of establishments and water-pipe smokers should be educated in this regard. Water-pipe smoking is a threat to public health and should be regulated by the state.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones/epidemiología , Pipas de Agua/microbiología , Fumar en Pipa de Agua/efectos adversos , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Turquia/epidemiología
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(12): 14100-14107, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037494

RESUMEN

To evaluate the proportions of current cigarette smokers (CCS) and current narghile smokers (CNS) as well as previous cigarette smokers (PCS) and previous narghile smokers (PNS) and to assess smoking knowledge and attitudes toward supporting smoking ban or cessation among previous compared with current smokers. This cross-sectional study took place between May and December 2018, and enrolled a sample of 1598 exclusive cigarette smokers (ECS) and 2091 exclusive narghile smokers (ENS), representative of all Lebanese governorates. A questionnaire designed specifically for this study was used to collect data. Among ECS, 45.2% were CCS and 54.8% were PCS. Among ENS, 83.5% were CNS and 16.5% were PNS. Higher age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.02 (1.01; 1.03)), higher knowledge (1.05 (1.02; 1.08)), and attitude scores (1.11(1.09; 1.13)) were significantly associated with higher odds of being PCS. Higher age (1.02 (1.01; 1.03)), being employed (1.32 (1.004; 1.72)), higher knowledge (1.04 (1.02; 1.07)), and attitude scores (1.09 (1.07; 1.12)) were significantly associated with higher odds of being PNS. Previous smokers have higher knowledge and better attitude toward supporting smoking cessation compared with current smokers. A better knowledge along with effective interventions, might lead to a positive attitude toward supporting smoking ban or smoking cessation among the general population.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Líbano , Fumadores , Fumar
9.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(1): 116-121, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043554

RESUMEN

Background: Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco consumption but other methods have grown in popularity. In the United Arab Emirates and other Gulf countries, smoking dokha, a form of tobacco mixed with herbs and spices in a midwakh pipe, is common. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of midwakh use in school students in Lebanon and factors associated with its use. Methods: Data on tobacco use from the Lebanon Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), 2017 were analysed, including current midwakh use (defined as midwakh use at least once in the 30 days before the survey). The survey includes school students in grades 7-12 (12-18 years). Current midwakh use was analysed according to sociodemographic and tobacco-related variables using bivariate and logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 5590 students included in the analysis, 4.6% were current midwakh users. Current midwakh use was significantly more prevalent in students 13 years and older and in male students (P < 0.01). Current use was also statistically significantly more prevalent in students in public than private schools. Current cigarette smoking (OR = 15.22; 95% CI: 11.08-20.90), ever use of a waterpipe (OR = 9.61; 95% CI: 6.66-13.86) and parental smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.05-2.31) were also significantly associated with current midwakh use. Conclusion: Although midwakh use is low in Lebanon, the patterns of association of midwakh use are similar to those of cigarette and waterpipe smoking in young people. Further research is needed to understand the context of midwakh use and prevent it from spreading.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Tabaco para Pipas de Agua , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Salud Global , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiología , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
10.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(2): 335-349, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941383

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem. Among cardiovascular disease's risk factors, tobacco smoking is considered the single most preventable cause of death, with thrombosis being the main mechanism of cardiovascular disease mortality in smokers. While tobacco smoking has been on the decline, the use of waterpipes/hookah has been rising, mainly due to the perception that they are less harmful than regular cigarettes. Strikingly, there are few studies on the negative effects of waterpipes on the cardiovascular system, and none regarding their direct contribution to thrombus formation. Approach and Results: We used a waterpipe whole-body exposure protocol that mimics real-life human exposure scenarios and investigated its effects, relative to clean air, on platelet function, hemostasis, and thrombogenesis. We found that waterpipe smoke (WPS)-exposed mice exhibited both shortened thrombus occlusion and bleeding times. Further, our results show that platelets from WPS-exposed mice are hyperactive, with enhanced agonist-induced aggregation, dense and α-granule secretion, αIIbß3 integrin activation, phosphatidylserine expression, and platelet spreading, when compared with clean air-exposed platelets. Finally, at the molecular level, it was found that Akt (protein kinase B) and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) phosphorylation are enhanced in the WPS and in nicotine-treated platelets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that WPS exposure directly modulates hemostasis and increases the risk of thrombosis and that this is mediated, in part, via a state of platelet hyperactivity. The negative health impact of WPS/hookah, therefore, should not be underestimated. Moreover, this study should also help in raising public awareness of the toxic effects of waterpipe/hookah.


Asunto(s)
Plaquetas/efectos de los fármacos , Arterias Carótidas/efectos de los fármacos , Activación Plaquetaria/fisiología , Pipas de Agua , Fumar/efectos adversos , Trombosis/metabolismo , Animales , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Arterias Carótidas/patología , Cotinina/toxicidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Citometría de Flujo , Estudios de Seguimiento , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Nicotina/toxicidad , Recuento de Plaquetas , Humo/efectos adversos , Trombosis/inducido químicamente , Factores de Tiempo
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(5): 848-852, 2020 04 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339211

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A diverse class of products, "e-cigarettes" present surveillance and regulatory challenges because of nonstandard terminology used to describe subtypes, especially among young adults, where occasional e-cig use is most prevalent. METHODS: Young adults (n = 3364) in wave 9 (Spring 2016) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort were randomized to see two of five photos of common e-cig products (three varieties of first-generation e-cigs and one variety each of second- and third-generation e-cigs). Qualitative responses were coded into nine classifications: "e-cigarette, e-hookah, vape-related, mod, other or more than one kind of e-cig, marijuana-related, non-e-cig tobacco product, misidentified, and don't know." We characterized the sample and survey responses and conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify participant characteristics associated with correctly identifying the devices as e-cigs. Data were weighted to represent the young adult population in the United States in 2016. RESULTS: The majority of participants identified the pictured devices as some type of e-cig (57.7%-83.6%). The white first-generation e-cig, as well as the second- and third-generation e-cigs caused the greatest confusion, with a large proportion of individuals responding "don't know" (12.2%-25.1%, depending on device) or misidentifying the e-cig as a non-nicotine product (3.4%-16.1%, depending on device) or non-e-cig tobacco product (1.4%-14.6%, depending on device). CONCLUSIONS: Accurate surveillance and analyses of the effect of e-cigs on health behavior and outcomes depend on accurate data collection on users' subtype of e-cig. Carefully chosen images in surveys may improve reporting of e-cig use in population studies. IMPLICATIONS: Survey researchers using images to cue respondents, especially young adult respondents, should consider avoiding use of white or colorful first-generation e-cigs, which were commonly misidentified in this research, in preference for black or dark colored first-generation e-cigs, such as the blu brand e-cig. Given the sizable proportion of respondents who classified second- and third-generation e-cigs with terminology related to vaping, surveys specifically aimed at assessing use of these types of e-cigs should include the term "vape" when describing this subclass of devices.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/clasificación , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Vapeo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3440-3448, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845251

RESUMEN

Compared to cigarettes, water pipe is misconceived as being less addictive and containing less nicotine. This study aimed at constructing and validating a water pipe harm perception scale among a sample of the Lebanese population. A cross-sectional study was carried out between February and December 2017 using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese adults (492 participants). The water pipe harm scale items converged over a solution of one factor that had an eigenvalue over 1, explaining a total of 66.75% of the variance. The model used was adequate (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure = 0.862 and Bartlett's test of sphericity p < 0.001). The reliability of all scale's items was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.896). Higher cigarette dependence (LCD score) was significantly associated with higher water pipe harm perception scores, whereas exclusive water pipe smokers (Beta = - 2.142) and dual water pipe and cigarette smokers (Beta = -2.142) compared to nonsmokers, as well as those with high monthly income compared to a low one (Beta = -0.614), were significantly associated with lower water pipe harm perception scores. We constructed the first scale for measuring water pipe harm perception: the WHPS-6. The results of the present study demonstrate that the WHPS-6 can be used in clinical practice and research to assess the harm perception induced by water pipe smoking.


Asunto(s)
Pipas de Agua , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Fumar
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1655, 2019 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hookah consumption has been on the increase in Iran over the past two decades. This rate is higher among women than men in the south of Iran than other geographical areas. The purpose of this study was to explain the determinants of hookah consumption among indigenous women of Bandar Abbas city, southern Iran. METHODS: This is the first qualitative study with the conventional content analysis approach that has examined the factors affecting the consumption of hookah at all ecological levels in 2018-2019. Participants, with a maximum variation in terms of age, education, occupation, hookah consumption and geographical areas of the city, were selected purposefully to take part in a semi-structured interview. The data were recorded, typed and analyzed according to the framework of the ecological model of health promotion at five levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, social and political). The interview continued until data saturation. MAXQDA software version 10 was used for data management. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 56 participants (21 female hookah smokers, 15 female ex- smokers, and 20 experienced experts). A total of eight main categories were extracted from the data including; positive attitude towards hookah consumption, psychosocial needs, sensory charms of hookah, individual factors, family factors, cultural-environmental backgrounds, social-political backgrounds, and economic challenges. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated the extensive influence of internal and external factors on the consumption of hookah. In order to successfully reduce the consumption of hookah, it is essential to consider intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, social and political factors.


Asunto(s)
Fumar en Pipa de Agua/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Investigación Cualitativa , Factores de Riesgo , Pipas de Agua , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877722

RESUMEN

Usage of waterpipes is growing in popularity around the world. Limited waterpipe natural environment topography data reduces the ability of the research community to accurately assess emissions and user exposure to toxicants. A portable ergonomic waterpipe monitor was provided to study participants to use every time they smoked their own waterpipe during a one-week monitoring period in conjunction with their own choice shisha tobacco. Users provided demographic information and logged their product use to supplement electronic monitor data. A total of 44 prospective study participants were invited to an intake appointment following an on-line pre-screening survey. Of these, 34 individuals were invited to participate in the study and data for 24 individuals who completed all aspects of the 1-week monitoring protocol is presented. 7493 puffs were observed during 74 waterpipe sessions accumulating over 48 h of waterpipe usage. The 95% CI on mean puff flow rate, duration, volume and interval are presented, yielding grand means of 243 [mL/s], 3.5 [s], 850 [mL], and 28 [s] respectively. The middle 95% of puff flow rates ranged between 62 to 408 [mL/s], durations from 0.8 to 6.8 [s], and puff volumes from 87 to 1762 [mL]. A waterpipe emissions topography protocol consisting of 13 flow conditions is proposed to reflect 93% of the observed range of puff flow rate, puff duration and puff volume with representative inter-puff interval, cumulative session time and aerosol volumes.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Exposición por Inhalación/análisis , Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Fumar en Pipa de Agua , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto Joven
15.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(6): 1235-1240, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709723

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The hypothesis is that self-rated peri-implant oral symptoms (OS) and clinical (plaque index [PI] and probing depth [PD]) and radiographic (crestal bone loss [CBL]) are higher in (cigarette-smokers [CS]) and (waterpipe-users) than (nonsmokers [NS]). The aim was to relate peri-implant self-perceived OS with clinico-radiographic parameters among CS, waterpipe-users, and NS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on self-reported CS, waterpipe-users, and NS with peri-implantitis. A questionnaire was used to record peri-implant self-perceived OS (pain in gums, bleeding gums, bad breath, and loose implant) and demographic data (age, sex, duration of smoking and waterpipe usage, duration of implants in function, duration since diagnosis of peri-implantitis). Clinico-radiographic parameters (CBL, PD, PI, and bleeding on probing [BOP]) were also measured; and compared with the self-perceived OS. Group comparisons were done for perceived OS and clinico-radiographic variables, and significant differences were deemed when P-values were under .05. RESULTS: One hundred male participants (35 CS, 33 waterpipe-users, and 32 NS) with peri-implantitis were included. Pain in gums (P < .05) and bad breath (P < .05) were more frequently perceived by CS and waterpipe-users than NS. There was no significant difference in perceived bleeding gums around the implant or loose implant among all groups. The CBL (P < .01), PI (P < .001), and PD (P < .01) were significantly high in CS and waterpipe-users than NS. NS (P < .05) had significantly higher BOP than waterpipe-users and CS. There was no significant difference in CBL, PI, PD, and BOP among waterpipe-users and CS. CONCLUSION: Tobacco-smokers present with worse peri-implant perceived OS and clinicoradiograhic parameters than nonsmokers with peri-implantitis.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Periimplantitis , Fumadores , Pipas de Agua , Humanos , Masculino , No Fumadores
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107686, 2019 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706253

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is disproportionately high among adults with two or more psychiatric disorders (psychiatric comorbidities), yet research on non-cigarette tobacco use among this population is scant. Additionally, most studies on tobacco use this among this population rely on psychiatric diagnoses rather than individual symptoms, potentially excluding individuals with symptom-specific issues that increase their risk for tobacco use but do not meet the criteria for diagnosis. The objectives of this study were to identify unique classes of individuals based on symptoms of psychiatric disorders and to assess differences in demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviors between classes. METHODS: This study used data from Wave 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study adult dataset. Latent class analysis was used to classify individuals based on internalizing, externalizing and substance use problems. Bivariate and multivariable models examined the association between latent class membership and current use of cigarettes, cigar products, electronic nicotine delivery systems, pipe, hookah and smokeless tobacco products. Poly tobacco use was also examined. RESULTS: Three latent classes were identified. The "normative" class reported low prevalence of all symptoms, the "severe internalizing and non-violent externalizing" class reported severe internalizing problems and non-violent externalizing problems and the "severe" class reported high prevalence of all symptoms. Tobacco use was highest for the "severe" class and lowest for the "normative" class across products. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in the "severe" class may be at elevated risk of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality and would likely benefit from targeted tobacco control interventions.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de Clases Latentes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/psicología , Estudios de Cohortes , Comorbilidad , Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Pipas de Agua , Productos de Tabaco , Tabaco sin Humo , Adulto Joven
17.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e6, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although there has been an exponential growth in hookah use on a global scale, research within the context of South Africa is very limited. While hookah use is known internationally to be a health and addiction risk, the focus is on university students and not on families. AIM: This study aims to compare the family functioning and family satisfaction among hookah users and non-users. SETTING: This study was conducted in low or middle-high class socio-economic status areas of Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: A quantitative method was employed to test for significant differences with a sample of 1193 participants, in which each participant represented a family. An independent t-test was used to test for significant differences between hookah users and non-users. RESULTS: One-third (34%) of the participants indicated that they smoked hookah pipe, with the general age of onset being 16.5 years. In trying to understand the family context, it was found that 28% of hookah users indicated that the hookah pipe was used as a means of socialising with others in the family, and 24% of parents indicated that they were more accepting of family members smoking the hookah pipe. Findings also suggest that families of hookah users have less cohesion, expressiveness and family satisfaction, and more conflict and permissiveness than families of non-users. CONCLUSION: This study provides and extends knowledge regarding the family in hookah pipe use. This information could assist in reducing hookah pipe use, and building healthier and more resilient communities by formulating prevention and intervention strategies to reduce hookah use.


Asunto(s)
Familia/psicología , Pipas de Agua , Conducta Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica , Adulto Joven
18.
Life Sci ; 239: 117076, 2019 Dec 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751578

RESUMEN

Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WP) is associated with a vast range of detrimental health effects, including memory impairment and anti-oxidative scavenging dysfunction. Forced swimming exercise (FSE) is known to improve cognitive function and general wellbeing. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of FSE on memory impairment induced by exposure to WP in the rat model. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: fresh air (control), WP exposure, FSE, and WP/FSE. Animals were exposed to WP for 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. At the same time, animals were forced to swim 1 h/day as 5 min swimming followed by 5 min rest, 5 days/ week for 4 weeks. Spatial learning and memory was assessed using Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM). Additionally, hippocampal oxidative stress biomarkers including reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase, and TBARS were analyzed. Key findings: this study showed that WP exposure impaired both short- and long-term memory (P < 0.05). On the other hand, FSE prevented memory impairment induced by WP exposure (P < 0.05). Moreover, WP exposure reduced activity of catalase, GPx, and GSH/GSSG ratio (P < 0.05) in the hippocampus, which were also normalized by FSE. However, no changes were detected in GSH and TBARS levels in WP exposure and/or FSE groups. In conclusion, WP exposure induced both short- and long- term memory impairments, which was prevented by FSE. This improvement in memory function might be attributed to oxidative stress biomarkers pathways.


Asunto(s)
Memoria/efectos de los fármacos , Esfuerzo Físico/efectos de los fármacos , Tabaco para Pipas de Agua/efectos adversos , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Glutatión/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Trastornos de la Memoria/tratamiento farmacológico , Memoria a Largo Plazo/efectos de los fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Pipas de Agua , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Natación/fisiología , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos
19.
Bull Cancer ; 106(12): 1132-1143, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732122

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The use of electronic cigarettes has become relatively popular in France since 2010, including among adolescents. However, its use in relation to smoking and other factors is not well understood today. METHODS: The data come from the ESCAPAD 2017 survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey taking place at a 1-day session of civic and military information compulsory for all French nationals around 17 (39,115 respondents). Descriptive analyses and multivariate regressions were undertaken to describe the recent use of e-cigarette at 17 and its associated factors. RESULTS: e-cigarettes were experimented by 52.4 % of 17 year-olds, and used by 16.8 % in the preceding month, 1.9 % daily. Most recent users were also daily smokers (62.5 %), and only 7.6 % had never experimented cigarettes before. Among those who experimented with both products, only 13.3 % tried e-cigarettes before cigarettes. The associated uses of other products were the most striking factors: daily smoking (relative risk [RR]=2.73), ever use of hookah (RR=2.31), cannabis use in the last year (RR=1.60), regular alcohol drinking (RR=1.20) and ever use of another illicit drug (RR=1.11). Recent vapers that were also daily smokers had a more pronounced sociodemographic profile and a higher level of other drugs consumptions than recent vapers only. DISCUSSION: Although a majority of French adolescents experiment with vaping, they are fewer to use it regularly and its current use is frequently associated with daily smoking. Future trends and the relationship between smoking and vaping among adolescents will have to be further investigated, including the motivations of its use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Análisis de Regresión , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiología , Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vapeo/epidemiología
20.
Health Educ Behav ; 46(2_suppl): 97-105, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742460

RESUMEN

Background. Hookah is one of the most commonly used tobacco products among U.S. young adults due in part to widespread misperceptions that it is not harmful or addictive. There is growing evidence that hookah tobacco is associated with health harms and can lead to addiction. Research on interventions to address these misperceptions by communicating the harms and addictiveness of hookah use is needed. Aims. This study developed and pretested mobile multimedia message service (MMS) message content communicating the risks of hookah tobacco use to young adult hookah smokers. Method. Message content, delivery, and pretesting were tailored to participants' risk beliefs, hookah use frequency, and responses to simulated text message prompts. Participants viewed 4 of 12 core MMS messages randomized within-subjects and completed postexposure measures of message receptivity and emotional response (e.g., worry). Results. The sample included 156 young adult (age 18-30 years) hookah smokers; 31% smoked hookah monthly and 69% weekly/daily. Prior to viewing messages, a majority endorsed beliefs reflecting misperceptions about the risks of hookah tobacco. Postexposure measures showed participants were receptive to the messages and the messages evoked emotional response. As anticipated, messages produced similar receptivity and there were few differences in emotional response between the messages tested. Discussion. Young adult hookah tobacco smokers were receptive to tailored mobile MMS messages and messages evoked emotional response, two critical precursors to behavior change. Conclusion. Findings indicate that research testing the efficacy of tailored MMS messaging as a strategy for reducing hookah tobacco use in young adults is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Multimedia , Pipas de Agua , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
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