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1.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20200787, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008792

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To define the subgingival microbial profile associated with Stage II generalized periodontitis using next-generation sequencing and to determine the relative abundance of novel periodontal pathogens and bacterial complexes. METHODOLOGY: Subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 80 subjects diagnosed with Stage II generalized periodontitis. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and 16S rRNA-based bacterial profiling via next-generation sequencing was carried out. The bacterial composition and diversity of microbial communities based on the age and sex of the patients were analyzed. The bacterial species were organized into groups: bacterial complexes (red, orange, purple, yellow, and green), novel periodontal pathogens, periodontal health-related species, and unclassified periodontal species. The results were analyzed and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: The highest number of bacteria belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. In terms of relative abundance, the orange complex represented 18.99%, novel bacterial species (Fretibacterium spp. and Saccharibacteria spp.) comprised 17.34%, periodontal health-related species accounted for 16.75% and unclassified periodontal species represented (Leptotrichia spp. and Selenomonas spp.) 15.61%. Novel periodontal pathogens had outweighed the periodontal disease-related red complex (5.3%). The one-sample z-test performed was statistically significant at p<0.05. The Beta diversity based on the unweighted UniFrac distance at the species level demonstrated a total variance of 15.77% based on age and 39.19% on sex, which was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The bacterial species corresponding to the disease-related orange complex and novel periodontal pathogens are predominant in Stage II generalized periodontitis.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Periodontitis , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
2.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 229-233, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829720

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of a 40% miswak compared to a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients aged 20-55 years who attended the Periodontics Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq, were allocated into 2 groups to use either 40% miswak mouthwash or 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate Kin Gingival (Laboratorios KIN) twice daily for 2 months. Gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices were assessed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the effectiveness of miswak and chlorhexidine mouthwashes in terms of gingivitis. The means of gingival, bleeding, and plaque indices using miswak mouthwash were 1.2, 0.4, and 0.53, respectively, i.e. indicating lower effectiveness, than when 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash was used (0.87, 0.43, 0.23, respectively). CONCLUSION: Miswak mouthwash is a good oral hygiene agent especially for long-term use even if its efficacy is lower than chlorhexidine mouthwash.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos Locales , Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adulto , Antiinfecciosos Locales/uso terapéutico , Clorhexidina/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Antisépticos Bucales/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 396-407, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799170

RESUMEN

The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether canine gingival margin (GM) plaque is a reliable surrogate for subgingival (SG) plaque from a microbial community (microbiota) perspective. SG and GM plaque samples were collected from 381 dogs visiting pet hospitals in the USA, China and Thailand. Dogs with clinically healthy gingivae through to early periodontitis were included in the study. The samples were subject to next generation Illumina sequence analysis to allow microbiota comparisons to be made between the two plaque sources. Overall, the SG and GM samples indicated commonality via the majority community that were shared between them; health associations led to the identification of some significant taxa-specific differences. GM microbiota exhibited lower variability and diversity and were shown to reflect a sub-population of those associated with SG plaque. Both plaque niches, however, demonstrated similar changes in microbial signatures with health and early periodontal disease and did not indicate divergent trends. The key, most abundant microbiota of GM plaque strongly reflect those observed with SG plaque across health and early periodontitis. Microbiota in plaque from above the gum line may therefore be employed as a biomarker of oral health. This opens up the potential to use plaque, sampled from conscious dogs, to define oral health status and improve the diagnosis, treatments and interventions for periodontal disease.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Placa Dental/veterinaria , Enfermedades de los Perros/microbiología , Encía/microbiología , Microbiota , Enfermedades Periodontales/veterinaria , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Biodiversidad , China , Estudios de Cohortes , Placa Dental/microbiología , Perros , Femenino , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/veterinaria , Masculino , Enfermedades Periodontales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Periodontales/microbiología , Tailandia
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819337

RESUMEN

Keratinized mucosa (KM) is regarded as a key factor in peri-implant health. A lack of KM has been associated with discomfort, higher plaque accumulation, and mucosal inflammation. Persistent inflammation might lead to progressive peri-implant bone loss. Several approaches to manage peri-implantitis have been advocated. Despite the effectiveness shown by surgical therapeutic modalities, soft tissue conditioning seems pivotal for long-term peri-implant health and stability. Free epithelial grafts have been demonstrated to efficiently augment the band of KM. Nevertheless, morbidity, dynamic soft tissue changes, and longer healing periods are shortcomings to be considered. The purpose of this technical note is to provide an alternative therapeutic modality for the surgical management of peri-implantitis combined with simultaneous soft tissue conditioning by means of pedicle flaps. Three main clinical scenarios are provided to conceive pedicle epithelial or connective tissue flaps, combined or not with collagen matrices, as predictable approaches to augment KM in the surgical therapy of peri-implantitis.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Placa Dental , Periimplantitis , Tejido Conectivo , Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Humanos , Periimplantitis/cirugía , Colgajos Quirúrgicos
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 194, 2021 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853594

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Interdental brushes (IDB) are according to the actual evidence the first choice for cleaning interdental areas (IDR). Their size should be chosen individually according to the IDR morphology. However, interdental rubber picks (IRP) are appreciated better by the patients and are hence becoming more and more popular but the evidence regarding their efficacy is still limited. The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the experimental cleaning efficacy (ECE) and force (ECF) during the use of interdental brushes versus newer wireless types with rubber filaments (IRP), both fitted and non-fitted for different IDR. METHODS: The medium size of a conical IRP (regular, ISO 2) with elastomeric fingers versus four sizes (ISO 1, 2, 3, 4) of cylindric IDB with nylon filaments (all Sunstar Suisse SA, Etoy, Switzerland) were tested. Interdental tooth surfaces were reproduced by a 3D-printer (Form 2, Formlabs Sommerville, MA, USA) according to human teeth and matched to morphologically equivalent pairs (isosceles triangle, concave, convex) fitting to three different gap sizes (1.0 mm, 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm). The pre-/post brushing situations at IDR (standardized, computer aided ten cycles) were photographically recorded and quantified by digital image subtraction to calculate ECE [%]. ECF were registered with a load cell [N]. RESULTS: Overall, a higher ECE was recorded for IDB compared to IRP (58.3 ± 14.9% versus 18.4 ± 10.1%; p < 0.001). ECE significantly depended on the fitting of the IDB. ECE was significant higher in isosceles triangle compared to concave and convex IDR for both IDB and IRP (p ≤ 0.001). ECF was lower for IDB (0.6 ± 0.4N) compared to IRP (0.8 ± 0.5N; p ≤ 0.001). ECE in relation to ECF increases with smaller IDB. For IRP highest values of ECF were found in the smallest IDR. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of an in vitro study, size fitted IDB cleaned more effectively at lower forces compared to conical IRP.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Placa Dental , Humanos , Goma , Suiza , Cepillado Dental
6.
Community Dent Health ; 38(2): 112-118, 2021 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848405

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic autoimmune disease that frequently affects the oral mucosa. Patients with OLP tend to present with plaque accumulation which may further exacerbate the lichenoid lesion, thus plaque control may improve the quality of life of patients. The aim of this review was to test the effect of plaque control on OLP with gingival manifestations. METHODS: Systematic review following the PRISMA checklist. A search was conducted through Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library Database up to March 2020 and complemented by a manual search in some relevant journals. Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) reporting plaque interventions and their effects in populations with gingival manifestations of OLP, with a follow-up period of at least 3 months were included. Risk of Bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Tool in Randomised Trials. RESULTS: The initial search generated 89 sources, resulting in final inclusion of three RCTs following full-text reading. The control groups were asked to continue their regular oral hygiene routine, while test groups received additional tailored oral hygiene advice as the intervention. Two of the included papers had sufficiently similar design to be included in meta-analysis. The oral hygiene intervention was associated with improvements in clinical disease status (Escudier index) and patient-reported outcomes (OHIP-14) from baseline compared with the control group. Differences in visual analogue scores for pain between groups were not statistically different between test and control groups. Two studies were judged to have low risk of bias, while one (not included in meta-analysis) had high risk of bias. CONCLUSION: Improvements in disease and patient-reported outcomes can occur as a result of oral hygiene instruction in patients with gingival manifestations of OLP.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Liquen Plano Oral , Atención Odontológica , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Liquen Plano Oral/complicaciones , Higiene Bucal
7.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(1): 19-23, jan.-abr. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1148162

RESUMEN

O tratamento periodontal consiste na remoção do biofilme patogênico, através da raspagem e alisamento radicular. O desbridamento ultrassônico de boca toda promove uma instrumentação mais conservadora, porém eficiente da superfície radicular, em sessão única. Evitando a translocação bacteriana de uma região tratada para outra que já foi. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi realizar uma comparação entre a eficácia da raspagem manual e a ultrassônica dentro do protocolo da FMD, através de um relato de caso clínico. Houve uma melhora nos parâmetros clínicos periodontais em todos os quadrantes, porém resultados superiores foram observados com o desbridamento com ultrassom e irrigação com clorexidina. A instrumentação com ultrassom associada a clorexidina no tratamento da periodontite estágio III grau C generalizada, reduz com eficácia o tempo de tratamento, otimizando o tempo do paciente e profissional(AU)


Periodontal treatment consists of removing the pathogenic biofilm, by scaling and root planing. Ultrasonic debridement of the entire mouth promotes more conservative, yet efficient instrumentation of the root surface, in a single session. Avoiding bacterial translocation from one treated region to another that has already been. The objective of the present study was to make a comparison between the effectiveness of manual and ultrasonic scraping within the FMD protocol, through a clinical case report. There was an improvement in periodontal clinical parameters in all quadrants, but superior results were observed with debridement with ultrasound and irrigation with chlorhexidine. Instrumentation with ultrasound associated with chlorhexidine in the treatment of generalized stage III grade C periodontitis, effectively reduces treatment time, optimizing patient and professional time(AU)


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis , Raspado Dental , Desbridamiento Periodontal , Terapia por Ultrasonido , Clorhexidina , Placa Dental
8.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 100(2): 50-54, 2021.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874661

RESUMEN

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of parodontax Comprehensive Protection (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK) toothpaste in the complex therapy of chronic gingivitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 119 volunteers; group 1 (n=59, age range 18 to 32 years) and group 2 (n=60, age range 20 to 35 years) with a diagnosis of chronic gingivitis (K05.1). The criterion for inclusion in the study was sulcus bleeding index (SBI) more than 1 point. Dental examination included SBI, papillary-marginal-alveolar index (PMA), and Green-Vermillion oral hygiene index (OHI-S). After determining the indices, all patients underwent professional oral hygiene and controlled tooth cleaning. Patients in group 1 (parodontax) were prescribed parodontax Comprehensive Protection toothpaste (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK), patients in group 2 - a toothpaste that did not contain sodium bicarbonate. Repeated clinical examinations with the determination of the SBI, PMA, OHI-S were carried out after week 2 and 4. RESULTS: After 4 weeks, SBI scores in group 1 were 63% lower than at baseline, and in group 2 - by 30%. PMA values at 4 weeks in group 1 were 58% and in group 2 30% lower, compared to baseline levels. The results of the analysis of the OHI-S index showed a statistically significant decrease in group 1 by 75%, while in group 2 by only 8% from the initial values. The difference in all index values between groups at 4 weeks of the study was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The use of parodontax Comprehensive Protection Toothpaste (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK) has been shown to reduce the clinical signs of biofilm-associated gingivitis and effectively maintain optimal oral hygiene in patients.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sodio , Pastas de Dientes , Adulto Joven
9.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 88(1): 29-34, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875049

RESUMEN

Purpose: To evaluate the oral health status of children who require in-home medical care, their oral hygiene and eating habits, and the association between oral health status and medical conditions.
Methods: Legal guardians of children who need in-home medical care were interviewed regarding their socioeconomic level and their children's medical and dental history, as well as their oral hygiene habits. An oral exam assessed the children's plaque level, caries experience, and periodontal disease. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed.
Results: Fifty-six children participated. Almost 61 percent had never received dental care and 58.9 percent had fair or poor oral hygiene. The most observed oral problems were gingival hyperplasia (46.4 percent), calculus (46.4 percent), and gingivitis (30.3 percent). The use of anticonvulsants and type of food were factors that correlated to calculus, gingivitis, or hyperplasia (P <0.05).
Conclusion: A significant number of children who require in-home medical care presented with deficient oral hygiene and periodontal problems, which were correlated with the use of anticonvulsants and gastrostomy feeding.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Niño , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Salud Bucal , Higiene Bucal
10.
J Clin Periodontol ; 48(6): 834-842, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751652

RESUMEN

AIMS: To evaluate the correlation between bacterial dental plaque accumulation and gingival health in subjects with history of periodontitis attending a maintenance programme including personal oral hygiene measures (pOH) at short and extended intervals. This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two subjects were randomized into groups performing pOH at 12-, 24- or 48-h intervals. The Plaque Index (PlI), Gingival Index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BoP) were recorded at baseline, 30 and 90 days. For the analysis, pOH groups were collapsed into subjects performing pOH at daily (G12/24) or extended (G48) intervals. Summary statistics and Spearman correlations between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation are presented. RESULTS: G12/24 and G48 subjects showed significant increases in plaque scores and percentage sites with gingival inflammation over the course of study. At 90 days, G48 subjects showed significantly greater GI and BoP scores than G12/24 subjects. While PlI/GI correlations were not affected by pOH interval, PlI/BoP correlations remained unchanged with short to increase with extended pOH intervals. CONCLUSION: pOH interval influences the correlation between bacterial dental plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Subjects using extended pOH intervals exhibit an increased correlation allowing accumulation of bacterial dental plaque to the detriment of gingival health. (ClinicalTrials.gov: 50208115.9.0000.5346). Clinical Trials: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02684682.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Índice Periodontal
11.
Clin Oral Implants Res ; 32(6): 756-766, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715254

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the long-term effect of plaque formation on implant abutments with an antibacterial coating and the ensuing host response in peri-implant tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four implants were installed in each mandibular premolar region following tooth extraction in six dogs. Three months later, two test abutments with a titanium-bismuth-gallium (Ti-Bi-Ga) coating and two control titanium abutments were connected to the implants on each side of the mandible. After 2 months, ligatures were placed around the implants in one side of the mandible and plaque formation was allowed until the end of the experiment. The ligatures were removed after 4 weeks. Radiographs and microbiological samples were obtained from each implant site during the plaque formation period. Biopsies were obtained 8 months after abutment connection and prepared for histological analysis. RESULTS: The analysis did not reveal any statistically significant differences in bone loss, bacterial growth and size of inflammatory lesions between implant units with and without the Ti-Bi-Ga coating. Implant sites exposed to the short period of ligature-induced breakdown demonstrated more pronounced bone loss and bacterial growth than non-ligature sites. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that a Ti-Bi-Ga coating does not prevent biofilm formation on the implant device and does not influence the ensuing host response in the adjacent peri-implant mucosa.


Asunto(s)
Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar , Implantes Dentales , Placa Dental , Biopelículas , Pilares Dentales , Humanos , Titanio
12.
Periodontol 2000 ; 86(1): 32-56, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690911

RESUMEN

The extracellular matrix is a critical component of microbial biofilms, such as dental plaque, maintaining the spatial arrangement of cells and coordinating cellular functions throughout the structure. The extracellular polymeric substances that comprise the matrix include carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, which are frequently organized into macromolecular complexes and/or are associated with the surfaces of microbial cells within the biofilm. Cariogenic dental plaque is rich in glucan and fructan polysaccharides derived from extracellular microbial metabolism of dietary sucrose. By contrast, the matrix of subgingival dental plaque is a complex mixture of macromolecules that is still not well understood. Components of the matrix escape from microbial cells during lysis by active secretion or through the shedding of vesicles and serve to anchor microbial cells to the tooth surface. By maintaining the biofilm in close association with host tissues, the matrix facilitates interactions between microorganisms and the host. The outcome of these interactions may be the maintenance of health or the development of dental disease, such as caries or periodontitis. The matrix affords microbial cells protection against chemical and physical insults and hinders the eradication of pathogenic dental plaque. Therefore, strategies to control the matrix are critical to maintain oral health. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the composition, origins, and function of the dental plaque matrix, with a focus on subgingival dental plaque. New strategies to control subgingival dental plaque based on targeting the biofilm matrix are also considered.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Placa Dental , Periodontitis , Biopelículas , Matriz Extracelular de Sustancias Poliméricas , Humanos
13.
Periodontol 2000 ; 86(1): 97-112, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690940

RESUMEN

Ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scale in understanding structure-function relationships among communities of organisms within their environment. Here, we review historical and contemporary studies of dental plaque community structure in the context of three distinct scales: the micro (1-10 µm), meso (10-100 µm) and macroscale (100 µm to ≥1 cm). Within this framework, we analyze the compositional nature of dental plaque at the macroscale, the molecular interactions of microbes at the microscale, and the emergent properties of dental plaque biofilms at the mesoscale. Throughout our analysis of dental plaque across spatial scales, we draw attention to disease and health-associated structure-function relationships and include a discussion of host immune involvement in the mesoscale structure of periodontal disease-associated biofilms. We end with a discussion of two filamentous organisms, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Corynebacterium matruchotii, and their relevant contributions in structuring dental plaque biofilms.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Microbiota , Biopelículas , Corynebacterium , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Humanos
14.
Periodontol 2000 ; 86(1): 8-13, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690952

RESUMEN

The central theme of this volume of Periodontology 2000 is that the microbial dental plaque biofilm, specifically the subgingival dental plaque biofilm, mimics a human tissue in both structure and function. As a basis for this assertion we use the definition of a tissue as an aggregate of similar cells and cell products forming a defined structure with a specific function, in a multicellular organism. Accordingly, we propose that the dental plaque biofilm represents an acquired human tissue largely of bacterial origin that maintains the health of gingival tissue. Furthermore, we acknowledge that disease can be defined as a deviation from the normal structure or an interruption to the function of any body part, organ, or system, and that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs whose etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown. Therefore, in this volume we present the concept that periodontitis is a disruption of the normal function of the healthy subgingival plaque biofilm with concomitant disruption to its functional properties in relation to innate defense surveillance and tissue maintenance, leading to excessive, deregulated inflammation and tissue destruction.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Periodontitis , Biopelículas , Encía , Humanos
15.
Swiss Dent J ; 131(3): 229-234, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666383

RESUMEN

«Guided Biofilm Therapy¼ (GBT) represents a systematic, risk and demand-oriented prophylaxis and treatment concept. A significant difference to conventional methods is - above all - the reduced, tissue-friendly and targeted use of ultrasound and hand instruments. The biofilm is consistently shown with suitable color solutions, the oral hygiene instruction and professional tooth cleaning is optimized. The use of suitable powders guarantees a tissue-conserving and targeted removal of biofilm. While individual treatments, techniques and materials have already been well investigated and described, little data is available on patient acceptance. The aim of the present study was to gain an impression of the acceptance of this method in comparison to the conservative-classical recall care mainly based on hand and ultrasound devices in a survey of 100 consecutive patients from the clinic's internal recall system. The overall results were very positive. The powder jet device showed the best acceptance. The aspect fear before/during the recall session was also interesting: At a low level (10%), an additional reduction to 4% occurred, since hand instruments were probably used much less and only very specifically. mConclusion: The use of plaque elevators makes the work in the recall session more efficient, more effective and guarantees ma higher quality control, which is also highly appreciated by patients.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Biopelículas , Atención Odontológica , Humanos
16.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(1): e2119248, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759964

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare three teaching methods' time and personnel requirements, and their effects on plaque and gingival indices. METHODS: This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial on fixed orthodontic appliance candidates (n = 90), assigned into a control group (n = 30) and two different study groups (n = 30 each). The control group received standard printed educational material and was assisted with verbal information. The study groups either received video-assisted or hands-on training about fixed orthodontic appliance and oral hygiene. The time requirements for all three educational interventions was recorded during the initial visit. The adequacy of oral hygiene was documented through plaque and gingival indices during the initial visit and eighth week of the treatment. The continuous variables were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA. Tukey HSD and Student t-tests were used for post-hoc comparisons (α?#8197;= 0.05). Also, a chi-square test was used for the analysis of categorical variables. RESULTS: Standard education failed to maintain the plaque and gingival indices at the eighth week of the treatment. Although both video-assisted and hands-on training took a considerable amount of time, they served well in preserving both of the indices at the eighth week. The longer the educational intervention was, the better the preservation of the plaque and gingival indices. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention, either with video-assisted or hands-on programs, provided better results in oral hygiene depending on the time and personnel constraints of the orthodontist.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Higiene Bucal , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Índice de Placa Dental , Humanos , Aparatos Ortodóncicos , Índice Periodontal , Método Simple Ciego
17.
J Int Med Res ; 49(3): 3000605211002695, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745336

RESUMEN

Over the past several decades, studies have demonstrated the existence of bi-directional relationships between periodontal disease and systemic conditions. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial and multifactorial disease involving both host and environmental factors. Tissue destruction is primarily associated with hyperresponsiveness of the host resulting in release of inflammatory mediators. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a major role in bacterial stimulation and tissue destruction. In addition, these cytokines are thought to underlie the associations between periodontitis and systemic conditions. Current research suggests that increased release of cytokines from host cells, referred to as the cytokine storm, is associated with disease progression in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An intersection between periodontitis and pulmonary disease is biologically plausible. Hence, we reviewed the evidence linking COVID-19, cytokines, and periodontal disease. Plaque control is essential to prevent exchange of bacteria between the mouth and the lungs, reducing the risk of lung disease. Understanding these associations may help identify individuals at high risk and deliver appropriate care at early stages.


Asunto(s)
/inmunología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/inmunología , Placa Dental/inmunología , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/inmunología , Periodontitis/inmunología , Estrés Psicológico/inmunología , /complicaciones , /virología , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/complicaciones , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/genética , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/virología , Placa Dental/complicaciones , Placa Dental/genética , Placa Dental/virología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Interferón gamma/genética , Interferón gamma/inmunología , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/inmunología , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Pulmón/inmunología , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Patrón Molecular Asociado a Patógenos/inmunología , Patrón Molecular Asociado a Patógenos/metabolismo , Periodontitis/complicaciones , Periodontitis/genética , Periodontitis/virología , Transducción de Señal , Estrés Psicológico/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico/genética , Estrés Psicológico/virología , Diente/inmunología , Diente/patología , Diente/virología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/inmunología
18.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 42(2): e5-e9, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740382

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque efficacy of a novel bioavailable stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice to a negative control. METHODS: This was a 12-week randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-treatment, parallel group clinical study. One hundred generally healthy adults with evidence of plaque and gingivitis were enrolled into the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two dentifrice treatments: (1) novel SnF2 dentifrice containing the amino acid glycine as a stabilizing chelant (Procter and Gamble) or (2) a negative control sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice. Gingivitis was assessed using the Löe-Silness Gingivitis Index (LSGI) at baseline, Week 1, and Week 12 while plaque was evaluated according to the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at baseline and Week 12. RESULTS: One hundred subjects completed the trial. Subjects using the novel SnF2 dentifrice demonstrated statistically significantly fewer bleeding sites and a lower LSGI score versus those using the negative control as early as Week 1 (P less than .001). The benefit increased throughout the study, with the SnF2 dentifrice showing 33.4% fewer bleeding sites and a 16.5% lower LSGI score versus the negative control at Week 12 (P less than .001). Subjects with localized or generalized gingivitis (≥10% bleeding sites) had 6 times better odds of transitioning to generally healthy (less than 10% bleeding sites) after using the SnF2 dentifrice for 12 weeks versus the negative control. Plaque scores for the SnF2 dentifrice were also statistically significantly lower (P less than .001) than those for the negative control at Week 12. CONCLUSION: The novel SnF2 dentifrice with the amino acid glycine produced statistically significant improvements in gingival health that were seen as early as 1 week and numerically increased throughout the study.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Dentífricos , Gingivitis , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dental , Dentífricos/uso terapéutico , Método Doble Ciego , Gingivitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Gingivitis/prevención & control , Humanos , Fluoruros de Estaño/uso terapéutico
19.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 159(6): 808-815, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773855

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: This research aimed to investigate the effect of Nano-Bio Fusion Gingival Gel ([NBFG] NanoCureTech, Gangdong-gu, Seoul, Korea) as an aid along with oral hygiene advice and routine scaling in patients with malocclusion to control treatment-induced gingivitis and periodontitis in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A split-mouth design, prospective analysis after application of NBFG in 32 subjects with fixed orthodontic treatment-induced gingivitis was conducted. Patients applied NBFG to their gingiva twice daily, after brushing, for 90 consecutive days. Outcomes measured included: the plaque index (PI), papillary bleeding gingival index (PBI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment loss using standard assessment. PI, PBI, PD, and clinical attachment loss were measured at baseline, on the seventh day of gel application, at the next visit at the orthodontic clinic (28th day), and after 90 days. RESULTS: From baseline to the seventh day to the 90th day, the treatment group showed significant improvement in PI, PBI, and PD over time compared with the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: NBFG showed positive clinical effects in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Clinical outcomes were measured in a comparatively short period.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Índice de Placa Dental , Gingivitis/etiología , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , República de Corea
20.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 55, 2021 02 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557820

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: None of the past studies that had showed a linked between oral and mental health among adolescents was conducted in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine the association between gingivitis and depression among adolescents in Ile-Ife, South-West Nigeria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected data through a household survey conducted between December 2018 and January 2019. Adolescents aged 10 to 19 years old were identified using multistage sampling. The study outcome measure was gingivitis, measured by the Löe and Silness gingival index. The explanatory variable was depression, measured by the Patient Health Questionnair. Confounders considered were age, sex, socioeconomic status, frequency of daily tooth brushing, oral hygiene status (measured by the plaque index), consumption of refined carbohydrates in-between meals, use of dental floss, and history of dental service utilization in the past 12 months. A logistic regression model was constructed to determine risk indicators for moderate/severe gingivitis. Additionally, modification of associations between dependent variables and the significant risk indicators of depression was assessed. RESULTS: Mean plaque index for the 1,087 adolescent participants enrolled in the study was 0.80. We found a prevalence of 8.5% for moderate/severe gingivitis and 7.9% for depression. In adjusted regression, there were significant associations between the presence of moderate/severe gingivitis and consumption of refined carbohydrates in-between meals (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.14, 3.28) and plaque index (OR 16.56, 95% CI 10.03, 27.33). Depression also significantly modified the association between plaque index and the presence of moderate/severe gingivitis (P < 0.0001), with a stronger association observed with mild depression (OR 24.75, 95% CI 3.33, 184.00) compared with no depression (OR 15.47, 95% CI 9.31, 25.69), with no significant modification for the association with frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Although there was no significant association between gingivitis and depression among our adolescent Nigerian cohort, depression significantly modified the association between plaque index score and moderate/severe gingivitis.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental , Gingivitis , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Placa Dental/epidemiología , Índice de Placa Dental , Depresión/epidemiología , Gingivitis/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Nigeria/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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