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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459586

RESUMEN

Introduction. Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microbe.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. The potential characteristics of S. mutans isolates from site-specific dental plaque are still not clear.Aim. This study aimed to investigate the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of S. mutans isolates from site-specific dental plaque in China.Methodology. We used S. mutans isolated from children with early-childhood caries (ECC) and caries-free children to compare the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of S. mutans from site-specific dental plaque samples. The ECC subjects presented two sites: a cavitated lesion and a sound surface. The caries-free subjects presented one sound surface. Growth pattern, biofilm, decrease in pH, extracellular polysaccharide, expression levels of virulence-related genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic trees were evaluated among these three sites.Results. The phenotypes detected between the cavitated and sound surfaces of ECC children were similar. However, the capacity for biofilm formation, pH drop and expression levels of genes (gtfB and spaP) of S. mutans in the caries-free group were lower compared with those of the ECC group. We identified 44 new alleles and 77 new sequence types. More than 90 % of the children with ECC shared an identical sequence type. The distribution of sequence types among different subjects showed diversity, and child-to-child transmission was detected.Conclusions. This is the first report of MLST on site-specific dental plaques in a single subject, and indicates that S. mutans isolated from site-specific dental plaque of a single subject showed similar phenotypes as a result of the isolates were closely related.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Caries Dental/microbiología , Placa Dental/microbiología , Streptococcus mutans/genética , Virulencia/genética , Niño , China/epidemiología , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Placa Dental/epidemiología , Humanos , Fenotipo
2.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(2): 69-81, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920608

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in periodontal status and maxillary buccal bone by considering clinical and tomographic parameters during the first year of orthodontic expansion with Invisalign® aligners. Upper first (1PM) and upper second (2PM) premolars of 19 patients with orthodontic expansion requirement treated with Invisalign® aligners were evaluated. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and cone beam tomographic (CBCT) records were collected at 76 sites before starting treatment (T0) and at 12 months (T1). Bone height was measured from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the crest cortical bone (CC). Bone thickness was measured at two levels: 4 mm (CEJ+4) and 6 mm (CEJ+6) apical to the CEJ. A descriptive analysis was made of the variations of bone thickness and height in a series of cases. The average expansion was 1.93 mm for 1PM and 167 mm for 2PM. Arithmetic mean of distance CEJ-CC in 1PM was 3.05 mm at T0, and remained at 3.05 mm at T1. Arithmetic mean of distance CEJ-CC in 2PM was 2.06 mm at T0 and 2.31 at T1. Post-expansion, most of the analyzed sites (86%) exhibited a bone thickness of ≥0.5 mm. The greatest variations between T0 and T1 were observed at the level of 1PM CEJ+ 4 and 2PM CEJ+ 6. The minimal changes in the clinical records (GI, PI, PPD and CAL) between T0 and T1 were compatible with the maintenance of gingivalperiodontal health. Invisalign® for expansion movements did not produce substantial changes in the evaluated periodontal clinical parameters or in the bone measurements. Removable appliances reduce plaque retentive factors and favor adequate oral hygiene.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/etiología , Maloclusión/terapia , Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagen , Salud Bucal , Aparatos Ortodóncicos Removibles/efectos adversos , Técnicas de Movimiento Dental/efectos adversos , Tomografía Computarizada de Haz Cónico , Placa Dental/microbiología , Índice de Placa Dental , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Técnicas de Movimiento Dental/instrumentación
3.
Rev. cient. odontol ; 8(2): e017-e017, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1119286

RESUMEN

Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la contaminación bacteriana de los conos de gutapercha de tipo beta (ß) en los tiempos 0, 24, 47 y 72 horas de las diferentes proveedurías de la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad Científica del Sur (Lima, 2020). Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvo 16 conos de gutapercha tipo beta (ß) de empaques cerrados bajo medidas asépticas, los cuales fueron colocados en viales con 2 ml de caldo BHI y, posteriormente, fueron sembrados en agar BHI, así como en medios selectivos agar manitol salado y agar MacConkey. Pasadas las 24 horas de incubación a 37 °C, se realizó la lectura de las placas y el conteo de UFC. El mismo procedimiento se realizó para los tiempos 24, 48 y 72 horas, lo que dio un total de 64 conos de gutapercha tipo ß. Resultados: Se observó que el nivel de contaminación bacteriana fue el mismo tanto entre las distintas proveedurías como a las 0, 24, 48 y 72 horas. Solo se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p = 0,044) entre los distintos tiempos de la proveeduría número 5. Finalmente, todas las muestras sometidas a la prueba de la coagulasa arrojaron resultados negativos. Conclusión: Los conos de gutapercha de tipo beta (ß) se contaminaron por igual producto de su almacenamiento y manipulación, independientemente de la proveeduría en la que permanecieron. (AU)


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determinate the bacterial contamination of Beta (ß) gutta-percha cones at 0, 24, 47 and 72 hours of the different supplies of the Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima 2020. Materials and Methods: 16 ß-type gutta-percha cones were obtained of sealed packages under aseptic measurements, they were placed in vials with 2ml BHI and subsequently planted in BHI agar plates as well as in selective medias as Salted mannitol agar and MacConkey agar after 24 hours of incubation at 37 ° the plates were read and count in CFU, the same procedure was performed for the other times evaluated 24, 48 and 72 hours, giving a total of 64 ß-type gutta-percha cones. Results: It was observed that the level of bacterial contamination was the same among the different supplies in all the establish times of in this study 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Therefore, there were no significant differences in the level of bacterial contamination between the supplies. On the other hand, only statistically significant differences (p = 0.044) were found between the different times of the supply number 5. Finally, all the samples submitted to the coagulase test had a negative result. Conclusion: The gutta-percha cones of type ß were contaminated equally regardless of the supply in which they were stored or manipulated. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas , Coagulasa , Placa Dental/microbiología , Gutapercha
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(7): 957-964, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620725

RESUMEN

Aim: The aims of this study were to evaluate the surface morphology and surface roughness of restorative materials containing glass ionomer, analyze Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on the surface of materials, and determine the correlation between surface roughness and biofilm. Materials and Methods: Four restorative materials: resin-modified glass ionomer; giomer; amalgomer; and glass carbomer were used and for each material, 6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness disc-shaped specimens were prepared to evaluate the surface morphology (n = 3), surface roughness (n = 16), and biofilm (n = 20). Surface morphology was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness was evaluated via an atomic force microscope. The biofilm was evaluated by counting the colony-forming units. Surface roughness measurements were evaluated using a one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test. Biofilm parameters were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U test. Pearson's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between surface roughness and biofilm. Results: While the highest roughness values were obtained for amalgomer and glass carbomer, the lowest roughness values belonged to giomer and resin-modified glass ionomer. Statistically significant differences in the number of adherent bacteria were observed between the materials only on day 1. No statistically significant correlation was determined between surface roughness and biofilm. Conclusions: The resin content and small filler particle size of material positively affect surface roughness. However, there is no direct relationship between surface roughness and biofilm.


Asunto(s)
Apatitas/química , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Resinas Compuestas/farmacología , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Cementos de Ionómero Vitreo/química , Streptococcus mutans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Resinas Acrílicas , Resinas Compuestas/química , Placa Dental/microbiología , Restauración Dental Permanente , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Dióxido de Silicio , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Propiedades de Superficie
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4098-4104, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539911

RESUMEN

A new α-haemolytic streptococcal strain has been isolated from the dental plaque of a teenager with Down syndrome. Genetic and taxonomic analyses place this Streptococcus within the oralis group. It is a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming spherical alpha-haemolytic coccus arranged in chains, and it ferments a large number of monosaccharides and disaccharides, as well as polymeric carbohydrates. It differs biochemically from closely related species of Streptococcus due to its production of α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase and by the absence of arginine dihydrolase deiminase and IgA1-protease. It grows in a temperature range of 25 to 40 °C (optimal growth temperature at 37 °C) and in a pH range of 4.5 to 8 (optimal pH at 7.0). A phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences placed it close to Streptococcus dentisani CECT 7747T. The ANIb and ANIm values were 93.19 and 93.61 %, respectively, both below the accepted threshold to designate it as a new species of bacteria. A phylogenetic tree based on its core genome placed it close to Streptococcus oralis subsp. dentisani strain CECT 7747T with a distance in the expanded core phylogeny of 0.1298. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value was 52.2 % with respect to the closest species, S. oralis subsp. dentisani CECT 7747T. Based on these data, a new species of bacteria within the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae and order Lactobacillales is described, for which the name of Streptococcus downii sp. nov. is proposed (type strain CECT 9732T=CCUG 73139T).


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/microbiología , Síndrome de Down , Boca/microbiología , Filogenia , Streptococcus/clasificación , Adolescente , Técnicas de Tipificación Bacteriana , Composición de Base , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Grasos/química , Humanos , Hibridación de Ácido Nucleico , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 23S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Streptococcus/aislamiento & purificación
6.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 162, 2020 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493365

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilms adhere to all tissues and surfaces in the oral cavity. Oral biofilms are responsible for the decay of human dental structures and the inflammatory degeneration of the alveolar bone. Moreover, oral biofilms on artificial materials influence the lifespan of dental prostheses and restoratives. METHODS: To investigate in vivo oral biofilm formation and growth, five different dental restorative materials were analyzed and compared to human enamel. The roughness of the materials and the human enamel control probe were measured at the start of the study. The dental restorative materials and the human enamel control probe were placed in dental splints and worn for 3 h, 24 h and 72 h. RESULTS: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed major differences between oral biofilm formation and growth on the materials compared to those on human enamel. Microbiological analyses showed that bacterial strains differed between the materials. Significant differences were observed in the roughness of the dental materials. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that material roughness affects biofilm formation on dental surfaces and restoratives, but other factors, such as surface charge, surface energy and material composition, may also have an influence.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión Bacteriana/fisiología , Biopelículas , Implantes Dentales/microbiología , Materiales Dentales , Boca/microbiología , Esmalte Dental/microbiología , Placa Dental/microbiología , Humanos , Propiedades de Superficie
7.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 151, 2020 05 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action of silver diammine fluoride (SDF) on plaque micro-ecology is seldom studied. This study investigated micro-ecological changes in dental plaque on extensive caries of deciduous teeth after topical SDF treatment. METHODS: Deciduous teeth with extensive caries freshly removed from school children were collected in clinic. Unstimulated saliva collection and initial plaque sampling were done before tooth extraction, then each caries was topically treated with 38% SDF in vitro. After intervention, each tooth was stored respectively in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Repeated plaque collections were done at 24 h and 1 week post-intervention. Post-intervention micro-ecological changes including microbial diversity, microbial metabolism function as well as species correlations were analyzed and compared after pyrosequencing of the DNA from the plaque sample using Illumina MiSeq platform. RESULTS: After SDF application, microbial diversity decreased (P > 0.05), although not statistically significant. Microbial community composition post-intervention was noticeably different from that of supragingival and pre-intervention plaque as well as saliva. At 1 week post-intervention, the relative content of Pseudomonas, Fusobacterium and Pseudoramibacter were higher than before, while most of the other bacteria were reduced, although the changes were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The inter-microbial associations became more complex, much more positive associations among survived bacteria were observed than negative ones. COG function classification diagram showed carbohydrate transportation and metabolic functions in the plaque were significantly reduced at 24 h and 1 week post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: SDF has extensive antimicrobial effect on dental plaque, which may reduce carbohydrate metabolism in dental plaque and help promote new balance of the plaque flora.


Asunto(s)
Amoníaco/uso terapéutico , Caries Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Placa Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Fluoruros Tópicos/uso terapéutico , Compuestos de Plata/uso terapéutico , Niño , Placa Dental/microbiología , Humanos , Compuestos de Amonio Cuaternario , Diente Primario
8.
Int J Oral Sci ; 12(1): 15, 2020 05 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385260

RESUMEN

The oral microbial community is widely regarded as a latent reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. This study assessed the molecular epidemiology, susceptibility profile, and resistance mechanisms of 35 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains isolated from the dental plaque of a healthy human population. Broth microdilution minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) revealed that all the isolates were nonsusceptible to oxacillin and penicillin G. Most of them were also resistant to trimethoprim (65.7%) and erythromycin (54.3%). The resistance to multiple antibiotics was found to be largely due to the acquisition of plasmid-borne genes. The mecA and dfrA genes were found in all the isolates, mostly dfrG (80%), aacA-aphD (20%), aadD (28.6%), aphA3 (22.9%), msrA (5.7%), and the ermC gene (14.3%). Classical mutational mechanisms found in these isolates were mainly efflux pumps such as qacA (31.4%), qacC (25.7%), tetK (17.1%), and norA (8.6%). Multilocus sequence type analysis revealed that sequence type 59 (ST59) strains comprised 71.43% of the typed isolates, and the eBURST algorithm clustered STs into the clonal complex 2-II(CC2-II). The staphyloccoccal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type results showed that 25 (71.43%) were assigned to type IV. Moreover, 88.66% of the isolates were found to harbor six or more biofilm-associated genes. The aap, atlE, embp, sdrF, and IS256 genes were detected in all 35 isolates. This research demonstrates that biofilm-positive multiple-antibiotic-resistant ST59-SCCmec IV S. epidermidis strains exist in the dental plaque of healthy people and may be a potential risk for the transmission of antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/microbiología , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus epidermidis/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Meticilina
9.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(14)2020 07 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414800

RESUMEN

Due to the complex microecology and microenvironment of dental plaque, novel caries prevention strategies require modulating the microbial communities ecologically and reducing the cariogenic properties effectively. Antimicrobial peptide GH12 reduced the lactic acid production and exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis of a Streptococcus mutans biofilm and a three-species biofilm in vitro in previous studies. However, the anticaries effects and microecological effects of GH12 remained to be investigated in a complex biofilm model in vitro and an animal caries model in vivo In the present study, GH12 at 64 mg/liter showed the most effective inhibition of lactic acid production, EPS synthesis, pH decline, and biofilm integrity of human dental plaque-derived multispecies biofilms in vitro, and GH12 at 64 mg/liter was therefore chosen for use in subsequent in vitro and in vivo assays. When treated with 64-mg/liter GH12, the dental plaque-derived multispecies biofilms sampled from healthy volunteers maintained its microbial diversity and showed a microbial community structure similar to that of the control group. In the rat caries model with a caries-promoting diet, 64-mg/liter GH12 regulated the microbiota of dental plaque, in which the abundance of caries-associated bacteria was decreased and the abundance of commensal bacteria was increased. In addition, 64-mg/liter GH12 significantly reduced the caries scores of sulcal and smooth surface caries in all locations. In conclusion, GH12 inhibited the cariogenic properties of dental plaque without perturbing the dental plaque microbiota of healthy individuals and GH12 regulated the dysbiotic microbial ecology and arrested caries development under cariogenic conditions.IMPORTANCE The anticaries effects and microecological regulation effects of the antimicrobial peptide GH12 were evaluated systematically in vitro and in vivo GH12 inhibited the cariogenic virulence of dental plaque without overintervening in the microbial ecology of healthy individuals in vitro GH12 regulated the microbial ecology of dental plaque to a certain extent in vivo under cariogenic conditions, increased the proportion of commensal bacteria, and decreased the abundance of caries-associated bacteria. GH12 significantly suppressed the incidence and severity of dental caries in vivo This study thus describes an alternative antimicrobial therapy for dental caries.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Péptidos Catiónicos Antimicrobianos/farmacología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Placa Dental/microbiología , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Animales , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Caries Dental/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Organismos Libres de Patógenos Específicos , Adulto Joven
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 123, 2020 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321490

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This pilot study was part of a larger study which compared the effect of subgingival air-polishing using trehalose powder with sonic scaling on clinical parameters during supportive periodontal therapy. Within this microbiological part of the investigation subgingival samples were taken from 10 participants to analyze the survival of different bacterial species after the two different treatments as a proof of principle. METHODS: In 10 participants two non-adjacent, single-root teeth requiring treatment (PD =5 mm with bleeding on probing (BOP) or > 5 mm) were selected following a split-mouth design and were treated either with a sonic scaler or air-polishing device and trehalose powder. For persistent pockets (PD =4 mm and BOP or > 4 mm), treatment was repeated after 3 months. Subgingival biofilm samples were taken at baseline (BL), subsequently and three and six months after treatment. After determination of the bacterial counts (TBL), isolated bacteria were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. If unsuccessful, PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed. RESULTS: In both treatment groups, TBL decreased immediately after treatment remaining at a lower level. This confirms the findings of the larger study regarding clinical parameters showing a comparable effect on PD, BOP and CAL. Immediately after treatment, the diversity of detected species decreased significantly more than in the sonic group (p = 0.03). After 3 months, the proportion of Gram-positive anaerobic rods was lower in the air-polishing group (powder/ sonic 7%/ 25.9%, p = 0.025). Also, there was a greater reduction of Gram-negative aerobic rods for this group at this time (air-polishing/ sonic - 0.91 / -0.23 Log10 cfu/ ml, p = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this study air-polishing and sonic treatment seem to have a comparable effect on the subgingival oral biofilm during supportive periodontal treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in an international trial register (German Clinical Trial Register number DRKS 00006296) on 10th of June 2015. HTML&TRIAL_ID = DRKS00006296.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Placa Dental/terapia , Raspado Dental/instrumentación , Bolsa Periodontal/tratamiento farmacológico , Trehalosa/farmacología , Adulto , Anciano , Placa Dental/microbiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Evaluación de Procesos y Resultados en Atención de Salud , Bolsa Periodontal/prevención & control , Proyectos Piloto , Polvos , Trehalosa/uso terapéutico
12.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 92, 2020 03 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To assess long-term results of implants (XiVE/Frialit-2 Synchro) in a private periodontal practice according to survival and success rates (biological and technical complications) and to detect possible influencing factors, retrospectively. METHODS: Implant placement of at least one implant took place 10 years ±6 months before clinical and radiographic re-examination. Incidence of implant loss as main and incidence of mucositis/ peri-implantitis as secondary outcome were detected. Also, patient-related and implant-related influencing factors were determined by regression analyses. RESULTS: 100 patients (59.0% female) with 242 implants were included into analysis. Survival rate was 94.0% (XiVE: 97.7%; Frialit-2-Synchro: 66.7%). Mucositis was found in 77.6% of all patients, moderate/severe peri-implantitis in 16.3%. In logistic regression analyses statistically significant influencing factors for implant loss was implant type (p < 0.001), for mucositis a wider implant diameter (p = 0.0438) and a high modified Plaque Index (p = 0.0253), for peri-implantits number of implants per patient (p = 0.0075) and a wider implant diameter (p = 0.0079). Technical complications were found in 47 implants (19.4%). CONCLUSIONS: XiVE implants showed a high survival rate over a 10-year follow-up, on the other hand Frialit-2 Synchro implants had worse survival rates. Success rates regarding biological complications are in line with other implant systems.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales/efectos adversos , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental/estadística & datos numéricos , Mucositis/epidemiología , Mucositis/cirugía , Periimplantitis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pérdida de Hueso Alveolar/epidemiología , Placa Dental/microbiología , Índice de Placa Dental , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucositis/etiología , Periimplantitis/etiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Análisis de Supervivencia
13.
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(1): 21-26, ene.-abr. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-192996

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las anomalías dentomaxilares corresponden a un grupo de alteraciones que dificultan el desarrollo armónico de los maxilares, donde encontramos las anomalías transversales. La expansión rápida del maxilar (ERM) se utiliza como tratamiento de anomalías transversales, su objetivo es aumentar la distancia transversal por la separación de ambas hemiarcadas a nivel de la sutura palatina, utilizando un aparato expansor fijo y rígido. Los disyuntores más utilizados son los expansores Hass, Hyrax y de McNamara. OBJETIVO: El objetivo de la presente revisión es identificar los riesgos de la RME reportados en la literatura relacionados con disyuntores Hass, Hyrax y Mc Namara. METODOLOGÍA: Se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Trip Database y Google Acadèmico utilizando los tèrminos: "Rapid Maxillary Expansion", "Risks", "Child", "Maxillary Expansion", "RME", "Palatal Expansion", "Hyrax", "Hass". Se incluyeron estudios en inglès y español, sin límites en el año de publicación o tipo de estudio. Como criterios de exclusión consideramos la expansión quirúrgica, expansión lenta u otro tratamiento simultáneo durante la fase de expansión activa. RESULTADOS: De los artículos encontrados, veinte cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Dentro de los riesgos se encuentran: deglución accidental del dispositivo de activación del expansor, bacteremia transitoria, desviación del septum nasal, reabsorción radicular, compromiso periodontal, cambio posicional de los cóndilos, cambios faciales de tejido blando y cambios esqueletales. CONCLUSIÓN: La ERM es un procedimiento ortopèdico eficaz, sus indicaciones en el tratamiento precoz han aumentado debido a resultados positivos. De acuerdo con la bibliografía encontrada los beneficios superan considerablemente a los efectos negativos


INTRODUCTION: The dentomaxillary anomalies correspond to a group of alterations that hinder the harmonic development of the jaws, where we find the transversal anomalies. Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) is used as a treatment for transverse anomalies, its objective is to increase the transversal distance by separating both hemiarchies at the level of the palatal suture, using a fixed and rigid expander. The most used are the Hass, Hyrax and McNamara expanders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to identify the EMR risks reported in the literature related to Hass, Hyrax and Mc Namara expander. METHODOLOGY: A search was made in PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Trip Database and Google Scholar using the terms: "Rapid Maxillary Expansion", "Risks", "Child", "Maxillary Expansion", "RME", "Palatal Expansion", "Hyrax", "Hass". Studies in English and Spanish were included, without limits in the year of publication or type of study. As exclusion criteria, we consider surgical expansion, slow expansion or other simultaneous treatment during the active expansion phase. RESULTS: Of the articles found, twenty met the inclusion criteria. Among the risks are: accidental swallowing of the expander activation device, transient bacteremia, deviation of the nasal septum, root resorption, periodontal involvement, positional change of the condyles, soft tissue facial changes and skeletal changes. CONCLUSION: RME is an effective orthopedic procedure, its indications in early treatment have increased due to positive results. According to the bibliography found, the benefits considerably outweigh the negative effects


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Técnica de Expansión Palatina/efectos adversos , Anomalías Maxilomandibulares/terapia , Técnica de Expansión Palatina/instrumentación , Factores de Riesgo , Aparatos Ortopédicos , Bacteriemia/complicaciones , Placa Dental/microbiología , Placa Dental/prevención & control , Tabique Nasal/anomalías , Resorción Radicular
14.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(2): e240-e251, mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-196254

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is considered as one of the most significant global health problem over the world. Dental caries initiates from bacterial shifts within the supragingival biofilm, then a polymicrobial biofilm is formed on the surface of tooth, and finally various bacterial species aggregate in a complex-organized manner. The exploiting variability in 16S rRNA gene sequence has been considered as a cost-efficient high-throughput characterization approach in human oral microbiome investigations. The aim of this study is to characterize bacterial species associated with superficial dental biofilm, underlying carious dentine and root caries lesion by16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Herein, the bacterial communities in carious dentin lesion, biofilm and root canal samples of 30 subjects (aged 4-76 years) admitted to a clinic in Tehran during 2017 were investigated using a culture independent approach. Total genomic DNA of each tissue was subjected to metagenomic identification of bacteria using a nested PCR assay and 16S rRNA library construction method. RESULTS: 31 samples collected from 30 consenting patients (29 samples from 29 patients ant two biofilm samples from one patient). Bioinformatics analyses of a-800bp sequences of the second step of Nested-PCR revealed presence of 156 bacterial isolates in carious (n = 45), biofilm (n = 81) and root canal (n = 30) specimens. Prevotella spp., Lactobacillus vaginalis, and streptococcus spp. showed higher prevalence in carious dentin, root and biofilm samples, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Exploring the dental microbiota and comparing them in health or diseased conditions is critical step in the determination of human general health. The method applied in this study could identify bacteria related to the three dental lesions. However, due to lack of data for comparison in Genbank or because of the sequence similarity lower than 98% for most identified bacteria, the use of more powerful approaches like NGS platforms or typing of multiple loci (MLST) in future studies is recommended


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Caries Dental/microbiología , Placa Dental/epidemiología , Placa Dental/microbiología , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Transversales , Metagenómica , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Factores Socioeconómicos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Bacteriano/genética , Irán/epidemiología
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5658212, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076608

RESUMEN

Dental caries is the most common oral disease. The bacteriological aetiology of dental caries promotes the use of antibiotics or antimicrobial agents to prevent this type of oral infectious disease. Antibiotics have been developed for more than 80 years since Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, and systemic antibiotics have been used to treat dental caries for a long time. However, new types of antimicrobial agents have been developed to fight against dental caries. The purpose of this review is to focus on the application of systemic antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents with respect to their clinical use to date, including the history of their development, and their side effects, uses, structure types, and molecular mechanisms to promote a better understanding of the importance of microbial interactions in dental plaque and combinational treatments.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Caries Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/clasificación , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Placa Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Placa Dental/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Humanos , Interacciones Microbianas , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Remineralización Dental
16.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054468

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the randomized double-blinded clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of tooth brushing with Salvadora persica (miswak) sticks on Streptococcus mutans count and the mean plaque score relative to brushing with fluoridated tooth paste (FTP). METHODS: Our sample included 94 healthy, high caries-risk, 8 to 9-year-old students recruited from a government school, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between February and April 2016. Subjects were randomly grouped into test (provided with miswak sticks) and control groups (provided with FTP and soft brushes). Both groups were introduced to a preparatory period (PPP) of 3 weeks. Plaque score and saliva sampling were conducted prior to the PPP and in follow-up visits by a single, calibrated and blinded dentist. RESULTS: Both groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the mean plaque score across the study (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001, respectively). In addition, subjects in the test group with abundant S. sanguinis increased from zero to six after 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Salvadora Persica (miswak) and brushing with FTP significantly reduced plaque scores among school children. In addition, Salvadora persica was found to change the proportions of salivary bacteria in favor of species with less risk of inducing caries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID #: NCT04137393.


Asunto(s)
Placa Dental/tratamiento farmacológico , Placa Dental/microbiología , Fitoterapia/instrumentación , Salvadoraceae , Streptococcus mutans/efectos de los fármacos , Cepillado Dental/instrumentación , Niño , Dispositivos para el Autocuidado Bucal , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/microbiología , Arabia Saudita
17.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(10): 2303-2314, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942654

RESUMEN

Dental plaque is a structurally organized biofilm which consists of diverse microbial colonies and extracellular matrix. Its composition may change when pathogenic microorganisms become dominating. Therefore, dental biofilm or plaque has been frequently investigated in the context of oral health and disease. Furthermore, its potential as an alternative matrix for analytical purposes has also been recognized in other disciplines like archeology, food sciences, and forensics. Thus, a careful in-depth characterization of dental plaque is worthwhile. Most of the conducted studies focused on the screening of microbial populations in dental plaque. Their lipid membranes, on the other hand, may significantly impact substance (metabolite) exchange within microbial colonies as well as xenobiotics uptake and incorporation into teeth. Under this umbrella, a comprehensive lipidomic profiling for determination of lipid compositions of in vivo dental plaque samples and of in vitro cultivated biofilm as surrogate matrix to be used for analytical purposes has been performed in this work. An untargeted lipidomics workflow utilizing a ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-quadrupole-time-of-flight (QTOF) platform together with comprehensive SWATH (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra) acquisition and compatible software (MS-DIAL) that comprises a vast lipid library has been adopted to establish an extensive lipidomic fingerprint of dental plaque. The main lipid components in dental plaque were identified as triacylglycerols, followed by cholesterol, cholesteryl esters as well as diacylglycerols, and various phospholipid classes. In vivo plaque is a rare matrix which is usually available in very low amounts. When higher quantities for specific research assays are required, efficient ways to produce an appropriate surrogate matrix are mandatory. A potential surrogate matrix substituting dental plaque was prepared by cultivation of in vitro biofilm from saliva and similarities and differences in the lipidomics profile to in vivo plaque were mapped by statistical evaluation post-analysis. It was discovered that most lipid classes were highly elevated in the in vitro biofilm samples, in particular diacylglycerols, phosphatidylglycerols, and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). Furthermore, an overall shift from even-chain lipid species to odd-chain lipids was observed in the cultivated biofilms. On the other hand, even-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs), lysoPCs, cholesteryl esters, and cholesterol-sulfate were shown to be specifically increased in plaque samples. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Placa Dental/química , Lipidómica/métodos , Lípidos/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Placa Dental/microbiología , Humanos , Saliva/química , Saliva/microbiología , Programas Informáticos , Triglicéridos
18.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 76(Pt 1): 8-13, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929180

RESUMEN

PitA is the putative tip adhesin of the pilus islet 2 (PI-2)-encoded sortase-dependent pilus in the Gram-positive Streptococcus oralis, an opportunistic pathogen that often flourishes within the diseased human oral cavity. Early colonization by S. oralis and its interaction with Actinomyces oris seeds the development of oral biofilm or dental plaque. Here, the PI-2 pilus plays a vital role in mediating adherence to host surfaces and other bacteria. A recombinant form of the PitA adhesin has now been produced and crystallized. Owing to the large size (∼100 kDa), flexibility and complicated folding of PitA, obtaining diffraction-quality crystals has been a challenge. However, by the use of limited proteolysis with α-chymotrypsin, the diffraction quality of the PitA crystals was considerably enhanced to 2.16 Šresolution. These crystals belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.48, b = 70.87, c = 82.46 Å, α = 80.08, ß = 87.02, γ = 87.70°. The anomalous signal from the terbium derivative of α-chymotrypsin-treated PitA crystals prepared with terbium crystallophore (Tb-Xo4) was sufficient to obtain an interpretable electron-density map via terbium SAD phasing.


Asunto(s)
Adhesinas Bacterianas/química , Placa Dental/química , Fimbrias Bacterianas/química , Streptococcus oralis/química , Actinomyces , Adhesinas Bacterianas/genética , Adhesinas Bacterianas/aislamiento & purificación , Adhesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Biopelículas , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Cristalización , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Placa Dental/metabolismo , Placa Dental/microbiología , Escherichia coli , Fimbrias Bacterianas/genética , Expresión Génica/genética , Humanos , Streptococcus oralis/patogenicidad , Difracción de Rayos X
19.
Microbiol Immunol ; 64(2): 99-112, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793046

RESUMEN

Periodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss in adults that initially results from dental plaque. Subgingival plaque pathogenesis is affected by both community composition and plaque structures, although limited data are available concerning the latter. To bridge this knowledge gap, subgingival plaques were obtained using filter paper (the fourth layer) and curette (the first-third layers) sequentially and the phylogenetic differences between the first-third layers and the fourth layer were characterized by sequencing the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA. A total of 11 phyla, 148 genera, and 308 species were obtained by bioinformatic analysis, and no significant differences between the operational taxonomic unit numbers were observed for these groups. In both groups, the most abundant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus intermedius, and Prevotella intermedia possessed relatively high proportions in the first-third layers; while in the fourth layer, both traditional pathogens (Treponema denticola and Campylobacter rectus) and novel pathobionts (Eubacterium saphenum, Filifactor alocis, Treponema sp. HOT238) were prominent. Network analysis showed that either of them exhibited a scale-free property and was constructed by two negatively correlated components (the pathogen component and the nonpathogen component), while the synergy in the nonpathogen component was lower in the first-third layers than that in the fourth layer. After merging these two parts into a whole plaque group, the negative/positive correlation ratio increased. With potential connections, the first-third layers and the fourth layer showed characteristic key nodes in bacterial networks.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Placa Dental/microbiología , Microbiota , Periodontitis/microbiología , Actinobacteria/clasificación , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/aislamiento & purificación , Actinomyces/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Clasificación , Femenino , Fusobacterias/clasificación , Fusobacterias/genética , Fusobacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Fusobacterium/aislamiento & purificación , Fusobacterium nucleatum/aislamiento & purificación , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenómica , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/aislamiento & purificación , Prevotella intermedia/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Spirochaetales/clasificación , Spirochaetales/genética , Spirochaetales/aislamiento & purificación , Streptococcus intermedius/aislamiento & purificación , Treponema/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto Joven
20.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(3)2020 01 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757829

RESUMEN

Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), the quorum-sensing (QS) signals produced by a range of Gram-negative bacteria, are involved in biofilm formation in many pathogenic and environmental bacteria. Nevertheless, the current paradigm excludes a role of AHLs in dental plaque formation, while other QS signals, such as AI-2 and autoinducer peptides, have been demonstrated to play an important role in biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in oral pathogens. In the present work, we have explored the effect of externally added AHLs on in vitro oral biofilm models for commensal, cariogenic, and periodontal dental plaque. While little effect on bacterial growth was observed, some AHLs specifically affected the lactic acid production and protease activity of the biofilms. Most importantly, the analysis of bacterial diversity in the biofilms showed that the addition of C6-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) results in a shift toward a periodontal bacterial composition profile by increasing the relative presence of the orange-complex bacteria Peptostreptococcus and Prevotella These results point to a relevant role of AHL-mediated QS in dental plaque formation and might be involved in the development of dysbiosis, the mechanism of which should be further investigated. This finding potentially opens new opportunities for the prevention or treatment of the periodontal disease.IMPORTANCE Dental plaque is omnipresent in healthy oral cavities and part of our commensal microbial colonization. At the same time, dental plaque is the cause of the most common human diseases, caries and gum disease. Dental plaque consists of billions of microbes attached to the surface of your teeth. Communication among these microbes is pivotal for development of these complex communities yet poorly studied in dental plaque. In the present study, we show that a specific communication molecule induces changes within the community related to the development of gum disease. This finding suggests that interfering with microbial communication may represent an interesting novel strategy to prevent gum disease that should be further investigated.


Asunto(s)
Acil-Butirolactonas/farmacología , Bacterias/patogenicidad , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cariogénicos/farmacología , Placa Dental/microbiología , Percepción de Quorum , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Virulencia/genética
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