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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248842, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339343

RESUMEN

Abstract Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity levels can be used as an indicator for AChE inhibition due to pesticide poisoning in bird species. We assessed the comparative brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity level of five bird species inhabiting pesticide exposed croplands and Protected Area i.e. Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber by using a spectrophotometric method. AChE activity levels ranged from 56.3 to 85.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing DVNP. However, AChE activity levels ranged from 27.6 to 79.9 µmol/min/g of brain tissue of birds representing croplands. AChE activity levels observed in Jungle babbler, Common babbler, and Red-vented bulbul showed significant differences (P < 0.05) at two sites. However, White wagtail and Black drongo demonstrated non-significant differences (P > 0.05). Maximum inhibition was recorded in Jungle babbler (53%) followed by Common babbler (35%), Red-vented bulbul (18%), White wagtail (15%), and Black drongo (7%). The brain cholinesterase inhibition levels under-protected ecosystems (DVNP, Bhimber) and agricultural landscape suggest insecticidal contamination and its impact on avifauna diversity. The study also emphasizes on the importance of pesticide-free zones to protect the biodiversity of birds.


Resumo Os níveis de atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) podem ser usados ​​como um indicador para a inibição da AChE devido ao envenenamento por pesticidas em espécies de aves. Avaliamos o nível de atividade comparativa da colinesterase cerebral (AChE) de cinco espécies de aves que habitam áreas cultivadas expostas a pesticidas e Área Protegida, ou seja, Deva Vatala National Park (DVNP), Bhimber, usando um método espectrofotométrico. Os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 56,3 a 85,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando DVNP. No entanto, os níveis de atividade da AChE variaram de 27,6 a 79,9 µmol / min / g de tecido cerebral de aves representando áreas de cultivo. Os níveis de atividade de AChE observados no tagarela da selva, tagarela comum e bulbul vermelho exalado mostraram diferenças significativas (P < 0,05) em dois locais. No entanto, alvéola branca e drongo preto demonstraram diferenças não significativas (P > 0,05). A inibição máxima foi registrada no tagarela da selva (53%), seguido pelo tagarela comum (35%), bulbul vermelho (18%), alvéola branca (15%) e drongo preto (7%). Os níveis de inibição da colinesterase cerebral nos ecossistemas subprotegidos (DVNP, Bhimber) e na paisagem agrícola sugerem contaminação por inseticida e seu impacto na diversidade da avifauna. O estudo também enfatiza a importância das zonas livres de pesticidas para proteger a biodiversidade das aves.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Pakistán , Acetilcolinesterasa , Aves , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/toxicidad , Ecosistema , Productos Agrícolas
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248910, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339342

RESUMEN

Abstract This study determines the associations among serum lipid profiles, risk of cardiovascular disease, and persistent organic pollutants. Using Gas chromatography technique, the intensity of toxic pollutant residues in serum samples of Hypertensive patients were measured. Based on statistical analysis, the effects of different covariates namely pesticides, age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lipid profile duration was checked using the logistic regression model. Statistical computation was performed on SPSS 22.0. The P-values of F-Statistic for each lipid profile class are greater than 0.01 (1%), therefore we cannot reject the null hypothesis for all cases. The estimated coefficients, their standard errors, Wald Statistic, and odds ratio of the binary logistic regression model for different lipid profile parameters indicate if pesticides increase then the logit value of different lipid profile parameters changes from -0.46 to -0.246 except LDL which increases by 0.135. The study reports a significantly increased threat of cardiovascular disease with increased concentrations of toxic pollutants.


Resumo Este estudo determina as associações entre o perfil lipídico sérico, o risco de doença cardiovascular e os poluentes orgânicos persistentes. Por meio da técnica de cromatografia gasosa, mediu-se a intensidade dos resíduos de poluentes tóxicos em amostras de soro de pacientes hipertensos. Com base na análise estatística, os efeitos de diferentes covariáveis ​​- ou seja, pesticidas, idade, pressão arterial sistólica, pressão arterial diastólica e duração do perfil lipídico - foram verificados usando o modelo de regressão logística. O cálculo estatístico foi realizado no SPSS 22.0. Os valores P da estatística F para cada classe de perfil lipídico são maiores que 0,01 (1%), portanto não podemos rejeitar a hipótese nula para todos os casos. Os coeficientes estimados, seus erros padrão, estatística de Wald e odds ratio do modelo de regressão logística binária para diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico indicam se os pesticidas aumentam, então o valor logit de diferentes parâmetros do perfil lipídico muda de -0,46 para -0,246, exceto LDL, que aumenta em 0,135. O estudo relata um aumento significativo da ameaça de doença cardiovascular com aumento das concentrações de poluentes tóxicos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Orgánicos Persistentes , Lípidos , Lipoproteínas
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13525, 2022 Aug 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941193

RESUMEN

The Central Andes of Peru are a region of great concern regarding pesticide risk to the health of local communities. Therefore, we conducted an observational study to assess the level of pesticide contamination among Andean people. Analytical chemistry methods were used to measure the concentrations of 170 pesticide-related compounds in hair samples from 50 adult Andean subjects living in rural and urban areas. As part of the study, a questionnaire was administered to the subjects to collect information regarding factors that increase the risk of pesticide exposure. Our results indicate that Andean people are strongly exposed to agrochemicals, being contaminated with a wide array of pesticide-related compounds at high concentration levels. Multivariate analyses and geostatistical modeling identified sociodemographic factors associated with rurality and food origin that increase pesticide exposure risk. The present study represents the first comprehensive investigation of pesticide-related compounds detected in body samples collected from people living in the Central Andes of Peru. Our findings pinpoint an alarming environmental situation that threatens human health in the region and provide a rationale for improving public policies to protect local communities.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Adulto , Agroquímicos/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Perú , Plaguicidas/análisis
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2203604119, 2022 Aug 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917352

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic organophosphorus compounds (AOPCs), such as phosphotriesters, are used extensively as plasticizers, flame retardants, nerve agents, and pesticides. To date, only a handful of soil bacteria bearing a phosphotriesterase (PTE), the key enzyme in the AOPC degradation pathway, have been identified. Therefore, the extent to which bacteria are capable of utilizing AOPCs as a phosphorus source, and how widespread this adaptation may be, remains unclear. Marine environments with phosphorus limitation and increasing levels of pollution by AOPCs may drive the emergence of PTE activity. Here, we report the utilization of diverse AOPCs by four model marine bacteria and 17 bacterial isolates from the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. To unravel the details of AOPC utilization, two PTEs from marine bacteria were isolated and characterized, with one of the enzymes belonging to a protein family that, to our knowledge, has never before been associated with PTE activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli with a phosphodiesterase, a PTE isolated from a marine bacterium enabled growth on a pesticide analog as the sole phosphorus source. Utilization of AOPCs may provide bacteria a source of phosphorus in depleted environments and offers a prospect for the bioremediation of a pervasive class of anthropogenic pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Plaguicidas , Hidrolasas de Triéster Fosfórico , Bacterias/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Compuestos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Hidrolasas de Triéster Fosfórico/genética , Hidrolasas de Triéster Fosfórico/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1221: 340148, 2022 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934378

RESUMEN

Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA that can specifically bind to a target substance with high affinity. Pesticides have obvious biological effects and are very harmful to the human body and the environment. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be combined with aptamer for the rapid detection of pesticide residues because of its simple operation and high sensitivity. However, a single analysis method has certain limitations and can't satisfy the research of complex system. In this study, SERS and electrochemical were used to prove the specific recognition of malathion by aptamer. The biochemical sensor directly detected the SERS spectra of the aptamer, malathion, and aptamer-malathion through the SERS method. Malathion could also be verified the specific recognition of aptamer by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Based on the peak difference before and after the combination of malathion and aptamer, a detection method for the specific recognition of malathion in a complex system was established. The identification mechanism was discussed. Then, the practical detection of malathion demonstrated the practicability of the method. The method was applied for the detection of malathion in spiked apple and bell pepper samples. The recoveries were in the range of 89.80%-106.50%, and the relative standard deviations were from 2.51%-6.92%. The use of aptamers for the specific detection of pesticides will have the potential for broad applications in the future.


Asunto(s)
Aptámeros de Nucleótidos , Técnicas Biosensibles , Plaguicidas , Aptámeros de Nucleótidos/química , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Electroquímica , Frutas/química , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Malatión/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Espectrometría Raman/métodos , Verduras
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(8): 85001, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many pesticide products are mixtures of multiple chemicals. These include active ingredients intended to kill pests, and so-called inert ingredients intended to improve the physical characteristics of the product. In addition, shortly before applying a pesticide product, applicators often mix adjuvants into the sprayer tank. Adjuvants are products designed to improve the performance or physical properties of a pesticide spray mixture. Manufacturers may use a particular chemical compound both as an inert ingredient within pesticide products and as a component of adjuvant products. Nonetheless, regulations dictate that data on use are publicly available only for the portion used in adjuvants. Adjuvants are exempt from federal registration, but are defined as pesticides in California. Based on that definition, California has identified α-(p-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) (APNOHO) as the most widely used pesticide in the state, applied to more than 10 million acres annually. That quantified use includes only agricultural acres treated with adjuvants containing APNOHO. Total APNOHO use is likely higher because manufacturers also use the chemical as an inert ingredient within pesticide products, although data on such use are shielded by regulation. OBJECTIVES: We use APNOHO as a case study to demonstrate that the use of adjuvants and inert ingredients is difficult to track because relevant information is not publicly available. We synthesize information that suggests widespread agricultural use of alkylphenol ethoxylates, such as APNOHO, may pose significant human and environmental health risks. We then make recommendations for future research and policy. METHODS: We used information from California's pesticide use reporting system and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to estimate use of APNOHO. We used U.S. EPA and European databases, as well as published research, to identify human and environmental health hazards of APNOHO. We focused on research showing that APNOHO is an endocrine-disrupting chemical. DISCUSSION: Within California, APNOHO is applied in more than 150 adjuvant products. Nationwide, it is used as an inert ingredient in at least 650 pesticide products. Exposure to APNOHO is associated with endocrine disruption, birth defects, and aquatic toxicity. We suggest that the case of APNOHO illustrates the larger problem of a lack of publicly available data on use and toxicity of many adjuvants and pesticide inert ingredients. We recommend that researchers and regulators include adjuvants and inert ingredients when evaluating pesticide hazards, including endocrine disruption. We also recommend regulatory requirements to identify all ingredients on product labels. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10634.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Agricultura , California , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(8): 567, 2022 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792964

RESUMEN

The Jundiaí-Potengi Estuary (EJP) is located on the semi-arid coast of northeastern Brazil and is influenced by multiple sources of contamination. The sediment quality of EJP was assessed by using a multi-geochemical approach during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, hormones (natural and synthetic), and sterols. The results were integrated by multivariate methods. The sediment was altered by the presence of contaminants from anthropogenic and natural sources. The middle and lower estuarine areas were considered more degraded in both seasons. In these regions, metals, hormones, sterols, and PAHs were found, indicating that these regions are severely affected by industrial, sanitary and aquaculture effluents, combustion of fossil fuels, and oil spills. The upstream region was contaminated by pesticides. The contamination pattern along the EJP shows the prevalence of local sources which continuously release the chemicals into the estuary. Worse conditions occurred during the rainy season, when the runoff from urban and rural areas is more intense and carries a greater load of contaminants to the EJP.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estuarios , Sedimentos Geológicos , Hormonas , Metales/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Esteroles , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 363: 110029, 2022 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779611

RESUMEN

Epidemiological evidence suggests that people chronically exposed to organophosphorus pesticides are at increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. Covalently linked amyloid beta dimers have been isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's patients. The toxic forms of amyloid beta are amyloid dimers that spontaneously oligomerize. In the present report we treated recombinant and synthetic amyloid beta (1-42) with 1 mM chlorpyrifos oxon or 1 mM paraoxon. The trypsin-digested samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on an Orbitrap Fusion Lumos mass spectrometer. Data were searched with Protein Prospector software. We found two new types of crosslinks in amyloid dimers. An isopeptide Asp-Asp link occurred between the N-terminal amine of Asp 1 in one peptide and the beta carboxyl group of Asp 1 in another peptide. An Asp-Arg link occurred between the guanidino group of Arg 5 in one peptide and the beta carboxyl group of Asp 1 in another peptide. These results show that the active metabolites of the pesticides chlorpyrifos and parathion catalyze the crosslinking of amyloid beta (1-42) into toxic dimers. It was concluded that the increased risk of neurodegenerative disease in people exposed to organophosphorus pesticides could be explained by the crosslinking activity of these chemicals. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD034163.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Cloropirifos , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Plaguicidas , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/inducido químicamente , Péptidos beta-Amiloides , Cloropirifos/análogos & derivados , Cloropirifos/metabolismo , Humanos , Compuestos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Péptidos , Plaguicidas/toxicidad
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(8): 578, 2022 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819550

RESUMEN

For pesticide registrations in the USA under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as implemented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, drinking water risk assessments for groundwater sources are based on standard scenario modeling concentration estimates. The conceptual model for the drinking water protection goals is defined in terms of (1) a rural well in or near a relatively high pesticide use area, a shallow well (4-10 m); (2) long-term, single-station weather data; (3) soils characterized as highly leachable; (4) upper-end or surrogate, worst-case environmental fate parameters; and (5) maximum, annual use rates repeated every year. To date, monitoring data have not been quantitatively incorporated into FIFRA drinking water risk assessment; even though considerable, US national-scale temporal and spatial data for some chemistries exists. Investigations into drinking water monitoring data development have historically focused on single-source efforts that may not represent wide geographies and/or time periods, whereas Safe Drinking Water Act groundwater monitoring data are focused on a community-level scale rather than an individual, shallow, rural well. In the current case study, US national-scale, rural well data for the herbicide atrazine was collected, quality controlled, and combined into a single database from mixed sources (termed the atrazine rural well database) to (1) characterize differences between exposure estimates from standard EPA modeling approaches for specific characterization, (2) evaluate monitoring data toward direct use in US drinking water risk assessments to compliment or supersede standard modeling approaches to define risk, and (3) evaluate monitoring trends a function of time relative to label changes implemented as part of the registration review process. Of the 75,665 drinking water samples collected from groundwater, atrazine was only detected in 3185, a 4% detection rate.


Asunto(s)
Atrazina , Agua Potable , Agua Subterránea , Plaguicidas , Atrazina/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plaguicidas/análisis , Estados Unidos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11887, 2022 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831449

RESUMEN

Hearing loss (HL) is a highly prevalent public health concern. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely used environmental pollutants harmful to human health. Studies investigating the effects of OCPs exposure on the auditory system in the general population are rare. To explore the association between OCPs exposure and HL in adults, 366 adults aged 20-69 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2003-2004) were investigated. HL was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) ≥ 20 dB in the better ear. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the association of four selected serum OCPs with PTAs and the risk of HL. In participants aged < 60 years, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE) exposure was positively associated with low- and speech-frequency PTAs, and with low-frequency HL, respectively. Risk of HL increased in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile of serum HCB and p, p'-DDE (odds ratio [OR]: 4.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-19.80; OR: 16.66, 95% CI: 2.64-105.09, respectively). In this study of US adults aged < 60 years, HCB and p, p'-DDE exposure was positively associated with HL. HCB and p, p'-DDE may be potential risk factors for HL.


Asunto(s)
Sordera , Contaminantes Ambientales , Hidrocarburos Clorados , Plaguicidas , Adulto , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Hexaclorobenceno/análisis , Humanos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/efectos adversos , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Encuestas Nutricionales , Plaguicidas/análisis , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11590, 2022 Jul 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803990

RESUMEN

While endocrine disruptors are emerging as a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), little is known about the link between NAFLD and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), one of the endocrine disruptors. We retrospectively analyzed the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 and compared the baseline demographics in individuals according to the presence of NAFLD (fatty liver index [FLI] ≥ 60). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether OCP concentration affected NAFLD prevalence and subgroup analyses regarding NAFLD-related variables and advanced hepatic fibrosis (FIB-4 ≥ 2.67) were performed. Of the 1515 individuals, 579 (38.2%) had NAFLD. Oxychlordane showed concentration-dependent risk for NAFLD (OR 3.471 in fourth quartile [Q4]; 95% CI 1.865-6.458; P = 0.007). p,p'-DDE and trans-nonachlor showed similar trends without statistical significance. Conversely, mirex showed the lowest risk for NAFLD in the highest concentration quartile (OR 0.29 in Q4; 95% CI 0.175-0.483; P < 0.001). Oxychlordane showed the most pronounced association with the levels of each component of FLI and liver enzymes. None of the OCPs were significantly associated with advanced fibrosis. In conclusion, among OCPs, exposure to oxychlordane showed the most prominent impact associated with NAFLD.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Plaguicidas , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno , Humanos , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología , Encuestas Nutricionales , Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807567

RESUMEN

Pesticides are among the most important contaminants worldwide due to their wide use, persistence, and toxicity. Their presence in soils is not only important from an environmental point of view, but also for food safety issues, since such residues can migrate from soils to food. However, soils are extremely complex matrices, which present a challenge to any analytical chemist, since the extraction of a wide range of compounds with diverse physicochemical properties, such as pesticides, at trace levels is not an easy task. In this context, the QuEChERS method (standing for quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) has become one of the most green and sustainable alternatives in this field due to its inherent advantages, such as fast sample preparation, the minimal use of hazardous reagents and solvents, simplicity, and low cost. This review is aimed at providing a critical revision of the most relevant modifications of the QuEChERS method (including the extraction and clean-up steps of the method) for pesticide-residue analysis in soils.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Suelo , Solventes/química
14.
Water Sci Technol ; 86(1): 142-151, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838288

RESUMEN

Carbendazim is a pesticide commonly used in Ethiopian flower farms and has harmful effects on aquatic, invertebrate, and mammalian life. Previous studies have explored ways to remedy carbendazim toxicity; however, the use of constructed wetland (CW) systems for carbendazim removal from farm water runoff has not been explored in depth. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a CW system for carbendazim removal from wastewater runoff. A two-stage pilot CW was built and tested for its efficacy of carbendazim removal under saturated conditions and varying hydraulic loading rates. The influent was pumped into the first vertical-flow mesocosm. The drained water was then pumped into the second mesocosm. The collected effluent was tested for carbendazim removal. Carbendazim removal efficiencies up to 91.80% (with a hydraulic loading rate of 100 Ld-1 and influent carbendazim concentration of 10 µg L-1) were observed. Statistical analysis indicated that the removal of carbendazim was not correlated with the initial carbendazim concentration but was negatively correlated with the hydraulic loading rate used. Two pesticide removal mechanisms were briefly probed to determine their participation in carbendazim removal. Substrate sorption accounted for 18% of total carbendazim removal; furthermore, plant uptake also played an active role.


Asunto(s)
Plaguicidas , Humedales , Etiopía , Horticultura , Plaguicidas/análisis , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Agua/análisis
15.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(4): 232-238, 2022 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809283

RESUMEN

Acute organophosphate poisoning kills tens of thousands of people annually around the world. These substances are widely used as insecticides in homes, industry, and agricultural environments. Due to the ease of access, they can cause accidental or intentional risks of exposure through the skin or respiratory contact. This study aimed to evaluate the serum levels of hs-CRP, Vitronectin, and NT-proBNP and their relationship with the extent and severity of cardiac complications in patients with organophosphate pesticide poisoning. In this descriptive-comparative study, 160 patients were studied with acute organophosphate poisoning. Also, for better comparison, 40 healthy individuals participated in this study. Diagnosis of organophosphate poisoning was based on clinical findings of serum butyrylcholinesterase levels. The hs-CRP measurement was performed by an autoanalyzer (Abbott, model Alcyon 300, USA) with the ELISA hs-CRP kit (The apDia Company, Belgium). Vitronectin (VN) measurements were performed by ELISA method and Glory science human VN kit with Catalog No: 11668. NT-ProBNP serum levels were analyzed by ProBNP assay kit (Roche, Germany) by ECLIA method using Elecsys 2010 Analyzer. The most important variables studied in this study were the electrical activity and conduction system of the heart, PR distance, QTC interval, and T-wave changes. In this study, most of the patients were women and girls (60.78%). The highest percentage of organophosphate poisoning was in the age group of 15-24 years (37.25%). In most cases (78.43%), poisoning was intentional or suicidal. Evaluation of electrophysiological abnormalities of the heart showed that 89 patients (55.62%) had long QTC interval (>450 msec), 43 cases (26.87%) had possible long QTC (431-450 msec), and 28 cases (17.5%) had normal QTC (<430 msec). Only 9.37% of cases (n = 15) showed an increase in P-R distance, which is characteristic of the first-degree ventricular atrial block. Sinus bradycardia occurred in 57 cases (35.62%) and sinus tachycardia in 43 cases (26.87%); in 60 cases (37.5%), the pulse rate was normal. Smooth T-wave changes were observed in 9.8% of patients and reverse T-wave was observed in 17.6%. A long T-wave was not reported in any case. In only two cases (1.25%) was grade 1 ventricular atrial block and grade 2 and 3 blocks were not observed. In general, there was a significant difference in the hs-CRP, vitronectin, and NT-proBNP serum levels between the patient and control groups in all studied variables. These parameters were also related to the extent and severity of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías , Insecticidas , Intoxicación por Organofosfatos , Plaguicidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Arritmias Cardíacas , Biomarcadores , Butirilcolinesterasa , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Péptido Natriurético Encefálico , Organofosfatos , Fragmentos de Péptidos , Vitronectina , Adulto Joven
16.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(8): 274, 2022 07 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804247

RESUMEN

A novel, green, and effective strategy employing Fe3O4-modified carbon nanofibers (CNFs) combined with deep eutectic solvent (DES) is proposed as an extraction agent to extract five pesticides in edible oil samples via dual microextraction modes, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination. The Fe3O4@CNFs nanomaterial and a sequence of hydrophilic DES were prepared at first and then characterized by multiple techniques. Subsequently, the extraction performance of DES and Fe3O4@CNFs-DES was compared and Fe3O4@CNFs-DES exhibited better extraction ability. After that, several influencing parameters such as the composition of DES, the amount of Fe3O4@CNFs-DES, the dispersion methods, and the extraction time were investigated and optimized. Eventually, Fe3O4@CNFs as the solid adsorbent combined with tetrabutylammonium chloride-lactic acid-based DES as the extraction solvent were selected to extract target pesticides from oil samples. The established method received good linearity in the range 25-1000 ng·g-1. The limits of detection for all analytes were in the range 2.25-7.50 ng·mL-1. Satisfactory recoveries of target pesticides were obtained (ranging from 82 to 117%) with a relative standard deviation of 0.26-9.46%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the rapid detection of target pesticides in oil samples, demonstrating its great potential for quick screening and analysis.


Asunto(s)
Microextracción en Fase Líquida , Nanofibras , Plaguicidas , Carbono , Disolventes Eutécticos Profundos , Microextracción en Fase Líquida/métodos , Plaguicidas/análisis , Solventes/química
17.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 31(2): e2021424, 2022.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830062

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the spatial distribution of pesticide poisoning cases and analyze the temporal trend in the incidence rate and case fatality ratio of this event in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a time series study of confirmed cases of pesticide poisoning registered on the Notifiable Health Conditions Information System (SINAN) between 2007 and 2016. Incidence rates were presented in thematic maps. Scatter plots were used to show the incidence and case fatality ratio of cases. RESULTS: There was an increasing incidence rate of poisoning in the period regarding the total number of cases, by sex and age group - except for those aged 70 years and over. There was a decreasing case fatality ratio until 2012, with a subsequent increase. Eight municipalities presented the highest notification rates (30 to 46 new cases/100,000 inhabitants). CONCLUSION: There was an increase in the incidence of notifications in the period. There was a decrease in case fatality ratio until 2012, subsequently followed by an increase.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista , Plaguicidas , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Humanos , Incidencia
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(8): 570, 2022 Jul 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796789

RESUMEN

Residue analyses were conducted for 283 pesticide active ingredients on pepper samples collected from the local markets (between April and November) of Çanakkale province of Turkey by using QuEChERS method and LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS devices. In present pepper samples, 35 different pesticide residues were detected. About 25.0% (27 samples) of present samples had single residue and 43.5% (47 samples) had multiple residues. Of the detected pesticides, acetamiprid, triadimenol, imidacloprid, boscalid, pirimiphos-methyl, tebuconazole, and metalaxyl were the most common ones, while carbendazim/benomyl, fenpropathrin, and thiram were the banned ones. Moreover, 24 of the pesticide residues detected were above the MRL values, 19 pesticides were in the "moderately hazardous (II)," and two pesticides were in the "extremely hazardous (Ib)" class (WHO). Present findings revealed that consumer health may be in danger despite all legal measures by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Turkey, thus greater emphasis should be put on monitoring of pesticide use and residues.


Asunto(s)
Residuos de Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Turquia , Verduras/química
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805806

RESUMEN

Prenatal organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) exposure has been associated with child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in agricultural communities and those that are exposed to residentially applied insecticides. To examine this association in populations that are exposed primarily through diet, we estimate the associations between prenatal OPP exposure and preschool ADHD in the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), and describe modification by paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene variants. We used participants from the MoBa Preschool ADHD Sub-study (n = 259 cases) and a random sample of MoBa sub-cohort participants (n = 547) with birth years from 2004 to 2008. Prenatal urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (total diethylphosphate [∑DEP] and total dimethylphosphate [∑DMP]) were measured by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight system and summed by molar concentration. Maternal DNA was genotyped for coding variants of PON1 (Q192R and L55M). We used a multivariable logistic regression to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for maternal education, parity, income dependency, age, marital status, ADHD-like symptoms, pesticide use, produce consumption, and season. We found no associations between DAP metabolite concentrations and preschool ADHD. The adjusted ORs for exposure quartiles 2-4 relative to 1 were slightly inverse. No monotonic trends were observed, and the estimates lacked precision, likely due to the small sample size and variation in the population. We found no evidence of modification by PON1 SNP variation or child sex. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations were not associated with preschool ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Plaguicidas , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Arildialquilfosfatasa/genética , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/genética , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Padre , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Compuestos Organofosforados , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/genética
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805859

RESUMEN

This is a preliminary study conducted to analyze the presence and concentration of pesticides in honey obtained from honey bee colonies located in two regions with managed ecosystems that differ in the intensity and technification of agricultural practices. Fourteen pesticides at variable concentrations were detected in 63% of the samples analyzed. The pesticides most frequently found at higher concentrations were insecticides (neonicotinoids, followed by organophosphates), herbicides, and fungicides. The number, frequency, and concentration of pesticides were higher in samples collected from hives located where intensive and highly-technified agriculture is practiced. Forty-three percent of the samples from that zone had residues of imidacloprid, compared with only 13% of the samples from the less-technified zone. Furthermore, 87.5% of those samples had imidacloprid concentrations that were above sublethal doses for honey bees (>0.25 ng/g) but that are not considered hazardous to human health by the European Commission. The results of this study suggest that honey can be used as a bioindicator of environmental contamination by pesticides, which highlights the need to continue monitoring contaminants in this product to determine the risks of pesticide impacts on pollinator health, on ecosystems, and on their potential implications to human health and other non-target organisms.


Asunto(s)
Insecticidas , Plaguicidas , Agricultura , Animales , Abejas , Ecosistema , Humanos , Insecticidas/análisis , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Neonicotinoides
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