Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.255
Filtrar
1.
Am J Nurs ; 120(2): 61-67, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977424

RESUMEN

The Fuego volcano eruption near Guatemala City, Guatemala, on June 3, 2018, left more than 150 dead and hundreds more injured or missing. Local officials quickly identified a need for burn care among the injured and asked the international community for assistance. By the morning of June 4, members of the U.S. Army's Burn Flight Team were placed on high alert in preparation for an evacuation mission to bring injured Guatemalans to the United States for specialized burn care. The mission required seven RNs, three respiratory therapists, a burn surgeon, two intensivists, an anesthesiologist, and an operations officer in order to successfully evacuate six critically injured pediatric burn patients to the Shriners Hospitals for Children-Galveston in Galveston, Texas. This article describes details of each stage of the mission and includes a discussion of key aspects of logistics and patient care posed by such evacuations.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Transporte de Pacientes/métodos , Erupciones Volcánicas/efectos adversos , Quemaduras/terapia , Niño , Guatemala , Humanos , Personal Militar , Estados Unidos
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1877-1883, 2020 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932437

RESUMEN

Extreme sea levels are a significant threat to life, property, and the environment. These threats are managed by coastal planers through the implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Central to such strategies is knowledge of extreme event probabilities. Typically, these probabilities are estimated by fitting a suitable distribution to the observed extreme data. Estimates, however, are often uncertain due to the small number of extreme events in the tide gauge record and are only available at gauged locations. This restricts our ability to implement cost-effective mitigation. A remarkable fact about sea-level extremes is the existence of spatial dependences, yet the vast majority of studies to date have analyzed extremes on a site-by-site basis. Here we demonstrate that spatial dependences can be exploited to address the limitations posed by the spatiotemporal sparseness of the observational record. We achieve this by pooling all of the tide gauge data together through a Bayesian hierarchical model that describes how the distribution of surge extremes varies in time and space. Our approach has two highly desirable advantages: 1) it enables sharing of information across data sites, with a consequent drastic reduction in estimation uncertainty; 2) it permits interpolation of both the extreme values and the extreme distribution parameters at any arbitrary ungauged location. Using our model, we produce an observation-based probabilistic reanalysis of surge extremes covering the entire Atlantic and North Sea coasts of Europe for the period 1960-2013.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Inundaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Oceanografía/métodos , Océanos y Mares , Reología/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Simulación por Computador , Europa (Continente)
4.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(5): 385-401, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736045

RESUMEN

Situated in Yogyakarta's northern region, Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Surrounded by densely populated farming communities, Merapi has had 68 eruptions since 1548. Merapi's 2010 eruption was marked by bursts of ash clouds, subsidence of its top-most layer, inundation of rivers and soils by lava currents, and the alteration of its surrounding natural landscapes. Local communities depend on the natural resources on Merapi's slope for farming, livelihood, and subsistence. The eruption had sizable impacts on community lives in terms of living conditions, livelihood, and social and political structures. The dynamics of community life in response to Merapi's volcanic activities are highlighted. Using a particular focus on farming communities as the case study, the article discusses community user groups' adaptive management capacity to dynamic natural landscape frequently marked by volcanic eruptions. The discussions support local government in fostering community resilience and social cohesion in response to Merapi's activities. Empirical findings suggest that social institutions and local rules come into play and the people practice collective disaster management on behalf of the community. These social institutions take the form of neighborly ties, reciprocity, collective identity, and social and ecological responsibilities. Merapi's pasture is not free access, but dynamically governed by local and informal rules to maintain its benefits for the safety of the community.


Asunto(s)
Creación de Capacidad , Participación de la Comunidad , Conducta Cooperativa , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Desastres , Erupciones Volcánicas/efectos adversos , Humanos , Indonesia , Resiliencia Psicológica
5.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(10): 629-637, 2019.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708563

RESUMEN

Objectives Improvement in the quality of meals provided after a disaster is an important issue. We reanalyzed the data obtained from the dietary survey of emergency shelters in Miyagi Prefecture 2 and 3 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 to improve the quality of meals at emergency shelters.Methods We performed a secondary analysis of the data from the dietary survey conducted by the Miyagi prefectural government. Two hundred and forty-one and 49 emergency shelters participated in the 1-day dietary survey in May 2011 and June 2011, respectively. We targeted emergency shelters that had no missing data and provided 3 meals a day. As a result, we targeted 216 emergency shelters in May and 49 in June. We examined the amounts of nutrients (i.e. energy, protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin C) and food groups (i.e. cereal, potatoes, meat, seafood, eggs, dairy, vegetables, fruits, and fats) in meal portions provided in lunch boxes, rationing, and mass feeding.Results We found significant differences in the amounts of energy and nutrients in the meals provided at the emergency shelters 2 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake but found no significant differences 3 months after the disaster. The amounts of energy, protein, seafood, and fats were high, and those of vitamins B1 and C, potatoes, and vegetables were low, at the emergency shelters where lunch boxes were provided. The amounts of potatoes, meat, and vegetables were high at the emergency shelters where mass feeding was conducted.Conclusion Two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, the provision of lunch boxes at emergency shelters may have increased the amounts of energy, protein, and seafood in meals served to survivors, whereas the amounts of vitamins B1 and C have remained low. These results indicate that providing lunch boxes at an early stage in the event of a disaster can improve energy and protein supply. We believe a combination of lunch box and mass feeding will improve the nutrient supply at emergency shelters.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Terremotos , Refugio de Emergencia , Ingestión de Energía , Métodos de Alimentación , Almuerzo , Nutrientes/administración & dosificación , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Humanos , Japón , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Health Phys ; 117(5): 549-557, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593978

RESUMEN

A preliminary dose assessment for an emergency response exercise using unsealed radioactive sources was performed based on conservative calculation methods. The assessment was broken into four parts: activation, distribution, exercise participation, and post-exercise monitoring. The computer code MicroShield was used to determine external exposure from the source during and after distribution. Internal exposure via inhalation and ingestion was estimated by assuming fractional intakes of activity and converting to dose using annual limits on intake and dose coefficients. It was determined from the dose assessment that a radionuclide-dependent range of 37 MBq to 1.5 GBq can be used to achieve detectable dose rates during the exercise without exceeding assumed administrative dose limits. Of the identified radionuclides, Tc results in the lowest dose and is recommended from a radiological safety standpoint. However, the choice of which radionuclide and what activity to use for an exercise should be made based on budget and the logistics of the actual exercise.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Socorristas/educación , Monitoreo de Radiación/métodos , Protección Radiológica/normas , Ceniza Radiactiva/análisis , Liberación de Radiactividad Peligrosa/prevención & control , Humanos
8.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(2): 89-95, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637689

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Search and rescue after mass casualty incidents relies on robust data infrastructure. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA's) Task Force 1 (TF1) trains its volunteers to locate and virtually tag scene incidents using a global positioning satellite (GPS) device programmed with markers for each incident (Iron Sights). The authors performed a pilot study comparing Iron Sights™ to a Wi-Fi-based real-time incident geolocation and virtual tagging dashboard (Panacea™) in creating a dynamic common operating picture. DESIGN: Twenty-nine stations were placed at a predefined scene incident, each featuring a set of varying waypoint markers using standard FEMA/TF1 nomenclature. Two volunteers performed the experiment for both the Iron Sights and Panacea systems, digitally tagging all station waypoints. SETTING: TF1 simulation training field. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Metrics compared included GPS location precision, marker accuracy, and delay between scene sweep and common operational picture (COP) generation. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-one waypoints were digitally tagged after excluding three stations for missing data. The average GPS location difference for all waypoints between Iron Sights and Panacea was 3.65 m. Marker tagging accuracy between Iron Sights and Panacea was equivalent and not statistically different (78.8 percent vs 66.2 percent, respectively, p = 0.11). Waypoints were tagged in 26.59 minutes and 10.55 minutes on average, respectively. Time from scene sweep to virtual COP generation was 7.97 minutes for Iron Sights after complete scene sweep and 37 seconds for Panacea for each waypoint posting in real-time. CONCLUSIONS: Panacea generated the COP in real-time compared to a delay with Iron Sights while maintaining the same location precision and marker accuracy. This pilot trial successfully demonstrated the ability to provide real-time actionable intelligence to incident commanders during mass casualty search and rescue missions. Larger field trials are recommended to refine the system and broaden its capabilities.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Catalogación , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426513

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nepal was hit by two devastating earthquakes in 2015 that disrupted its socio-economic system and shattered many lives, resulting in increased mental health issues during the post-earthquake phase. Disasters can have severe mental health impacts on the affected population, making it necessary to enhance resilience within communities and to help them to adapt well in the face of adversities. From these earthquakes, this study looks to identify measures needed to develop community mental resilience for disaster preparedness in Nepal. METHOD: We conducted this research using the qualitative case study method and thematic analysis (TA). RESULT: Several activities were carried out by organizations to support the psycho-social aspects of communities, but were challenged by existing barriers. After considering the present context, this study presents five recommendations for mental resilience and also suggests the utilization of existing resources, such as faith-based organizations and teachers in the communities. Despite the considerable impact, communities demonstrate their own resilience, to some extent, through the culture of sharing and helping each other. CONCLUSIONS: A firm commitment is required from the government to enhance resilience by mainstreaming mental health in all areas of disaster management and planning.


Asunto(s)
Terremotos , Resiliencia Psicológica , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Humanos , Salud Mental , Nepal/epidemiología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430997

RESUMEN

In order to solve the optimization problem of emergency logistics system, this paper provides an environmental protection point of view and combines with the overall optimization idea of emergency logistics system, where a fuzzy low-carbon open location-routing problem (FLCOLRP) model in emergency logistics is constructed with the multi-objective function, which includes the minimum delivery time, total costs and carbon emissions. Taking into account the uncertainty of the needs of the disaster area, this article illustrates a triangular fuzzy function to gain fuzzy requirements. This model is tackled by a hybrid two-stage algorithm: Particle swarm optimization is adopted to obtain the initial optimal solution, which is further optimized by tabu search, due to its global optimization capability. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by the classic database in LRP. What's more, an example of a post-earthquake rescue is used in the model for acquiring reliable conclusions, and the application of the model is tested by setting different target weight values. According to these results, some constructive proposals are propounded for the government to manage emergency logistics and for the public to aware and measure environmental emergency after disasters.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/economía , Algoritmos , Carbono/economía , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/economía , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Planificación en Desastres/economía , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Urgencias Médicas
11.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 424: 1-20, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463536

RESUMEN

Predicting which pathogen will confer the highest global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR) of a pandemic is a difficult task. Many approaches are retrospective and premised on prior pandemics; however, such an approach may fail to appreciate novel threats that do not have exact historical precedent. In this paper, based on a study and project we undertook, a new paradigm for pandemic preparedness is presented. This paradigm seeks to root pandemic risk in actual attributes possessed by specific classes of microbial organisms and leads to specific recommendations to augment preparedness activities.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Microbiología , Pandemias , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
12.
Crit Care Clin ; 35(4): 575-589, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445606

RESUMEN

This review provides an overview of triaging critically ill or injured patients during mass casualty incidents due to events such as disasters, pandemics, or terrorist incidents. Questions clinicians commonly have, including "what is triage?," "when to triage?," "what are the types of disaster triage?," "how to triage?," "what are the ethics of triage?," "how to govern triage?," and "what research is required on triage?," are addressed.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Triaje , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Desastres , Humanos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Triaje/métodos , Triaje/organización & administración
13.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(1): 5-8, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441023

RESUMEN

The Center for Domestic Preparedness (CDP) in partnership with the US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response is using a multiagency/organization, targeted, collaborative approach to adjust existing courses and develop responsive new courses to provide best practices education and experiential learning techniques in healthcare facility emergency resilience, preparedness, response, and recovery applicable to all first receivers. The CDP in Anniston, AL, is a Federal Emergency Management Agency training facility for the Nation's state, local, tribal, and territorial first responders and healthcare professionals. The Center's role has rapidly evolved to provide healthcare emergency preparedness, response, and management training. Through the integration of its Noble Training Facility, a former military hospital, the training courses replicate disaster and mass casualty emergency situations. Patient simulators enable triage and assessment of treatment for mass casualty surge skills application while an isolation ward serves as a training laboratory for the care of patients with infectious diseases of specific concern. Ambulance simulators and an eight-bay treatment area add authenticity to an integrated capstone event accompanying select classes.


Asunto(s)
Defensa Civil , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Socorristas/educación , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Simulación de Paciente
14.
Plast Surg Nurs ; 39(3): 81-86, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441787

RESUMEN

Hurricane Irma made landfall in Southwest Florida on September 10, 2017, causing significant property damage, flooding, and power outages that lasted days to weeks during high heat and humidity. This created significant challenges for residents and businesses, as well as office-based surgical facilities in the area. Preparations in advance of hurricanes and other natural disasters for businesses should focus on staff, surroundings, space, systems, structure, and service. In the aftermath of a hurricane, assessment of the extent of the damage and the ability to perform restoration and mold remediation postflooding are the immediate goals. With the return of utility services, additional cleanup and assessment of equipment, medications, and sterile supplies with subsequent repair/recertification, replacement and reprocessing, as required, are necessary to bring operations back to normal.


Asunto(s)
Tormentas Ciclónicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Planificación de Instituciones de Salud/métodos , Planificación en Desastres/tendencias , Florida , Planificación de Instituciones de Salud/tendencias , Humanos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370366

RESUMEN

The social network has emerged as an essential component in group decision making (GDM) problems. Thus, this paper investigates the social network GDM (SNGDM) problem and assumes that decision makers offer their preferences utilizing additive preference relations (also called fuzzy preference relations). An optimization-based approach is devised to generate the weights of decision makers by combining two reliable resources: in-degree centrality indexes and consistency indexes. Based on the obtained weights of decision makers, the individual additive preference relations are aggregated into a collective additive preference relation. Further, the alternatives are ranked from best to worst according to the obtained collective additive preference relation. Moreover, earthquakes have occurred frequently around the world in recent years, causing great loss of life and property. Earthquake shelters offer safety, security, climate protection, and resistance to disease and ill health and are thus vital for disaster-affected people. Selection of a suitable site for locating shelters from potential alternatives is of critical importance, which can be seen as a GDM problem. When selecting a suitable earthquake shelter-site, the social trust relationships among disaster management experts should not be ignored. To this end, the proposed SNGDM model is applied to evaluate and select earthquake shelter-sites to show its effectiveness. In summary, this paper constructs a novel GDM framework by taking the social trust relationship into account, which can provide a scientific basis for public emergency management in the major disasters field.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Planificación en Desastres , Terremotos , Refugio de Emergencia , Procesos de Grupo , Red Social , Consenso , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Refugio de Emergencia/métodos , Refugio de Emergencia/organización & administración , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Confianza
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311142

RESUMEN

Humanitarian radio has been used in humanitarian aid efforts and after natural disasters over the last 15 years. However, the effects have barely been evaluated, and there are few scientific reports on the impact of radio as a disaster health response intervention. Therefore, this study aimed to provide an overview of the use and impact of humanitarian radio in natural disasters from a health perspective. A literature review of 13 scientific papers and grey literature resources was conducted. The results show that humanitarian radio could be used to promote both physical and psychosocial wellbeing by providing health-related information, advice and psychosocial support in natural disasters. Community resilience can be enhanced by the promotion of community engagement and can strengthen self-efficacy and community efficacy. Radio also has the potential to cost-effectively reach a large number of affected people in areas with severely damaged infrastructure. Radio could, therefore, contribute to health recovery and wellbeing from both individual and community perspectives. As such, health professionals; crises communication professionals, including radio journalists; and disaster-managing stakeholders should be prepared and trained to use humanitarian radio as an integrated part of the disaster health response in natural disasters.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Desastres Naturales , Radio , Sistemas de Socorro , Resiliencia Psicológica , Altruismo , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Educación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Apoyo Social
19.
Disasters ; 43(4): 840-866, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294489

RESUMEN

A landslide occurred in the region of Zanskar in the Indian Himalayas in 2015, damming the Tsarap River, creating a lake that effectively became a ticking time bomb, threatening villagers downstream. During the period between the discovery of the natural dam and the bursting of the lake, the state's approach to disaster management plunged the local population into a situation where 'technocratic time' ruled, as government experts handled the impending disaster at a rhythm dictated by the production of studies and reports. Analysis of the temporality of disaster mitigation and preparedness measures during this anticipated flood, as well as of the factors that surrounded the events, reveals how attitudes towards the state shaped people's perceptions of these interventions. In Zanskar, the technocratic pace and the state's lack of transparency were seen as a form of oppression that further marginalised the region, in particular by subjecting its population to the process of waiting.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Desastres , Inundaciones , Gobierno , Humanos , India , Lagos , Tiempo
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277357

RESUMEN

Measurement is a community endeavor that can enhance the ability to anticipate, withstand, and recover from a disaster, as well as foster learning and adaptation. This project's purpose was to develop a self-assessment toolkit-manifesting a bottom-up, participatory approach-that enables people to envision community resilience as a concrete, desirable, and obtainable goal; organize a cross-sector effort to evaluate and enhance factors that influence resilience; and spur adoption of interventions that, in a disaster, would lessen impacts, preserve community functioning, and prompt a more rapid recovery. In 2016-2018, we engaged in a process of literature review, instrument development, stakeholder engagement, and local field-testing, to produce a self-assessment toolkit (or "rubric") built on the Composite of Post-Event Well-being (COPEWELL) model that predicts post-disaster community functioning and resilience. Co-developing the rubric with community-based users, we generated self-assessment instruments and process guides that localities can more readily absorb and adapt. Applied in three field tests, the Social Capital and Cohesion materials equip users to assess this domain at different geo-scales. Chronicling the rubric's implementation, this account sheds further light on tensions between community resilience assessment research and practice, and potential reasons why few of the many current measurement systems have been applied.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Desastres/prevención & control , Resiliencia Psicológica , Autoevaluación , Capital Social , Humanos
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA