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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255916, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364509

RESUMEN

This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds.


Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica L. e A. indica A. Juss. O maior número de espécies foi usado para curar distúrbios gastrointestinais. O maior nível de fidelidade (68,18%) foi de E. helioscopia para cura de distúrbios gastrointestinais. Os usos máximos em fresco (17) foram relatados por C. dactylon (L.) Pars. enquanto o maior número de espécies relatando usos frescos em número semelhante foi de 13. Neste estudo, cinco novas plantas estão sendo relatadas pela primeira vez no Paquistão por seu valor etnomedicinal. Nossos dados refletem o uso exclusivo das plantas medicinais na área de estudo. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas no estudo mostraram-se úteis para apontar as plantas mais importantes e específicas da categoria de doença. Plantas de alto valor de uso e as novas plantas medicinais relatadas podem ser uma importante fonte de isolamento de compostos farmacologicamente ativos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Plantas Medicinales , Bosques , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales , Pueblos Indígenas , Medicina Tradicional , Pakistán
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

RESUMEN

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Raíces de Plantas , Panax , Antiinfecciosos , Antioxidantes
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252676, 2024. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364501

RESUMEN

Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is the foremost reason of progressive hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis, with an elevated risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Medicinal plants have been used for human health benefits for several years, but their therapeutic potential needs to be explored. The main objective of this study was to figure out the in vitro antiviral and anticancer characteristics of total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and HCC. Total crude protein of Iberis gibraltarica was isolated and quantified. The level of cytotoxicity was measured against the HepG2 cell line and it shows no significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 504µg/ml. The anti-HCV effect was determined by absolute quantification via real time RT-PCR method and viral titer was reduced up to 66% in a dose dependent manner against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica. The anticancer potential of Iberis gibraltarica was also examined through mRNA expression studies of AFP and GPC3 genes against the total protein of Iberis gibraltarica-treated HepG2 cells. The results show up to 90% of the down-regulation expression of AFP and GPC3. The obtained results indicate the therapeutic potential of total protein of Iberis gibraltarica against HCV and hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro.


A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é a principal causa de fibrose hepática progressiva e cirrose, com risco elevado de desenvolvimento de carcinoma hepatocelular (HCC). As plantas medicinais vêm sendo utilizadas para benefícios à saúde humana há vários anos, mas seu potencial terapêutico precisa ser explorado. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir as características antivirais e anticancerígenas in vitro da proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e HCC. A proteína bruta total de Iberis gibraltarica foi isolada e quantificada. O nível de citotoxicidade foi medido contra a linha celular HepG2 e não apresenta citotoxicidade significativa na concentração de 504µg/ml. O efeito anti-HCV foi determinado por quantificação absoluta através do método RT-PCR em tempo real e o título viral foi reduzido em até 66% de forma dose-dependente contra a proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica. O potencial anticancerígeno de Iberis gibraltarica também foi examinado através de estudos de expressão de mRNA dos genes AFP e GPC3 contra a proteína total de células HepG2 tratadas com Iberis gibraltarica. Os resultados mostram até 90% da expressão de regulação negativa de AFP e GPC3. Os resultados obtidos indicam o potencial terapêutico da proteína total de Iberis gibraltarica contra HCV e carcinoma hepatocelular in vitro.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Terapéutica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamiento farmacológico , Cirrosis Hepática/tratamiento farmacológico
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257074, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360211

RESUMEN

The study of biologically active substances-secondary metabolites of plants that exhibit geroprotective properties is an actual and popular direction in medicine to prevent early aging. This work aims to select the cultivation parameters for obtaining in vitro cell cultures of meadowsweet containing the largest amount of biologically active substances (BAS) for their further extraction as candidate substances for geroprotectors. To specify the effectiveness of the selected cell culture cultivation parameters, biomass growth for callus and root cultures, growth index, specific growth rate, and viability for suspension cultures was carried out. The study results made it possible to select the nutrient media for the cultivation of cell cultures of meadowsweet. It has been found that the greater the antioxidant activity of the extracts, the greater the antimicrobial properties it exhibits. In this study, cell cultures in vitro and alcohol extracts from the plant Filipendula ulmaria were considered as raw materials rich in candidate substances for geroprotectors. According to the data obtained, the plant is rich in hydroxybenzoic and salicylic acids, spireoside, avicularin, and hyperoside.


O estudo de substâncias biologicamente ativas - metabólitos secundários de plantas que apresentam propriedades geroprotetoras - é uma tendência atual e popular no campo da medicina para a prevenção do envelhecimento precoce. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar os parâmetros de cultivo para obtenção de culturas celulares in vitro de Ulmária contendo a maior quantidade de substâncias biologicamente ativas (SBA), para sua posterior extração como substâncias candidatas a serem geroprotetoras. Para especificar a eficácia dos parâmetros selecionados de cultivo em cultura de células, foi realizada a análise de crescimento de biomassa para culturas de calos e raízes, índice de crescimento, taxa de crescimento específica e viabilidade para culturas em suspensão. Os resultados do estudo possibilitaram a seleção do meio nutriente para o cultivo de células de Ulmária. Verificou-se que, quanto maior a atividade antioxidante dos extratos, maiores eram as propriedades antimicrobianas exibidas. Neste estudo, culturas celulares in vitro e extratos alcoólicos da planta Filipendula ulmaria foram considerados matérias-primas ricas em substâncias candidatas a serem geroprotetoras. De acordo com os dados obtidos, a planta é rica em ácidos hidroxibenzoico e salicílico, espirosídeo, avicularina e hiperosídeo.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales/genética , Envejecimiento , Envejecimiento Prematuro , Antioxidantes
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254174, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360213

RESUMEN

Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis is a vine species native to Brazil that is considered an unconventional food plant and a medicinal species whose phenolic compounds exert antioxidant activity. Since the production of metabolites is determined by environmental factors and leaf maturity, it is important to track these changes in order to determine the best time to harvest. This study aimed to verify whether leaf phenology and seasonality cause variations in the amount of phenolic compounds and in the antioxidant activity of this species. The leaves were collected in different seasons between September 2018 and April 2019, and separated according to maturity: young, mature, and senescent. Daily atmospheric temperature and rainfall data were used to characterize the collection period. The total phenolic content (TPC), determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was significantly higher in the young leaves collected in winter, a season of lower temperatures. These leaves showed 54.4 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry matter (mg GAE 100 g-1DM). Other results averaged 25.6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. The highest antioxidant activity, assessed via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, regardless of leaf phenology, was observed in leaves harvested in autumn (73.7%) and winter (71.1%), seasons with lower rainfall. Leaves harvested in summer and spring had lower antioxidant action rates (54.3 e 37.5%, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Thus, the phenolic composition of A. cordifolia, and consequently its activity on free radicals, varies seasonally in response to temperature and rainfall, and may or may not interact with the age of the leaves.


Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis é uma trepadeira nativa do Brasil considerada uma planta alimentícia não convencional e uma espécie medicinal, cujos compostos fenólicos exercem ação antioxidante. Como a produção de metabólitos é determinada por fatores ambientais e pela maturidade das folhas, é importante acompanhar essas mudanças a fim de determinar a época de colheita. Neste estudo objetivou-se verificar se a fenologia foliar e a sazonalidade ocasionam variação na quantidade de compostos fenólicos e na ação antioxidante dessa espécie. As folhas foram coletadas em diferentes estações, entre setembro de 2018 e abril de 2019, e separadas conforme a maturidade: jovens, maduras e senescentes. Os dados diários de temperatura atmosférica e pluviosidade foram usados para caracterizar o período de coleta. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais (TPC), determinado pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, foi significativamente maior nas folhas jovens coletadas no inverno, período caracterizado por temperaturas mais baixas. Estas folhas apresentaram 54,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico por 100 g de matéria seca (mg GAE 100 g-1DM) . A média dos outros resultados foi de 25,6 mg GAE 100 g-1DM. A maior ação antioxidante, avaliada pelo método do radical livre 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), foi observada em folhas colhidas no outono (73,7%) e inverno (71,1%), independentemente da fenologia foliar. Nestes períodos a pluviosidade foi menor. Folhas colhidas no verão e na primavera apresentaram menores percentuais de ação antioxidante (54,3 e 37,5%, respectivamente). Não houve correlação significativa entre o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante. Conclui-se que a composição fenólica de A. cordifolia e, consequentemente, sua ação sobre radicais livres, varia sazonalmente em resposta à temperatura e pluviosidade, podendo ou não interagir com a idade das folhas.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Estaciones del Año , Compuestos Fenólicos , Antioxidantes
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

RESUMEN

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Plantas Medicinales , Helechos , Tracheophyta , Pakistán , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt B): 115921, 2023 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36403741

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The traditional medical system plays a major role in healthcare in Kachin State, Myanmar, where long-term political instability persists and conventional healthcare facilities are inadequate. A knowledge of the traditional medicinal plants therefore benefits the Kachin people, yet documentation and records of the uses of these plants are rare. In this study, we attempt to answer the questions on what medicinal plants and how they are used by the Kachin people. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to document knowledge of the traditional medicinal plants and to identify those most frequently used by the Kachin people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two informants from eight villages in three townships were interviewed, and their knowledge of medicinal plants was recorded. The reported ailments were classified to the standard categories of the International Classification of Primary Care-2 (ICPC-2) system. Use reports (UR) were employed to evaluate the knowledge consensus of the informants. RESULTS: We recorded a total of 117 species used as medicinal plants, of which 22 are newly recorded medicinal plant species for Myanmar. The plants belonged to 103 genera in 52 families, and were used to treat a total of 72 ailments from 17 ICPC-2 disease categories. Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most highly represented families of medicinal plants, with eleven and eight species used, respectively. The most cited species based on URs were Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook.f. & Thomson (URs = 39), Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz (URs = 28), Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (URs = 26), Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (URs = 24), and Chloranthus elatior Link. (URs = 22). Digestive system disorder was the most prevalent disease category, and was treated with 47 different medicinal plants (URs = 142). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part; decoction was the dominant method of preparation; and oral consumption was the most frequent method of administration. CONCLUSION: Our study documented a list of 117 medicinal plants and their uses in traditional medicine based on the local knowledge of the Kachin people. The study also identified the five most frequently cited species and found that the plants investigated are used to treat a total of 72 diseases. The 642 therapeutic reports we collected showcase a rich and diverse living knowledge of medicinal plant use by the Kachin people. Moreover, we present 22 new medicinal records, enriching the list of known medicinal plants in Myanmar. This exploratory study has enabled us to assemble the local knowledge of the Kachin people into solid dataset that will allow further scientific validation and will potentially contribute to better integration of medicinal plants into the healthcare provision for Kachin people in Myanmar.


Asunto(s)
Bignoniaceae , Lamiaceae , Plantas Medicinales , Humanos , Mianmar , Medicina Tradicional
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 302(Pt A): 115888, 2023 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332762

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a country with a highly diverse ecosystem, containing over 5000 confirmed taxa of vascular plants. The traditional medicinal use of plants has always played a crucial role and gained in importance in the time of war in the 1990s due to a lack of medical facilities. Still nowadays, the health care system is poorly developed, which altogether makes the region interesting for ethnopharmacological researches. AIM OF THE STUDY: Focusing on the area of Zavidovici Municipality in the central part of the country, we aimed to document the diversity of the used medicinal plants and the knowledge of their therapeutic usages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data was collected in individual open and semi-structured interviews. Therapeutic uses were classified into 14 disease categories following the International Classification of Primary Care-2 (ICPC-2), a classification system recognized by the World Health Organization's Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC). Use reports have been used to evaluate the acquired knowledge. RESULTS: The findings revealed a total of 113 species belonging to 46 families. 14 informants well respected for their knowledge in the area listed 77 therapeutic uses for the indicated plants. Based on a comparison with other ethnobotanical surveys of BiH and to other important relating literature, three taxa have not been previously reported in BiH and for 19 species, new medicinal uses were stated. Based on use reports, oral application of remedies is far more common (76,7%) than external application (23,3%), the dominant mode of preparation thereby is an infusion. Usages of most concern were digestive, urological and respiratory diseases, their consensus factor ranging between 0,63 and 0,71. CONCLUSION: These results summarize the usage of traditional plants among people who are highly valued in their community of Zavidovici Municipality for their knowledge and thereby aim to preserve the indigenous knowledge associated with the medicinal plants of the area.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinales , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Ecosistema , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Fitoterapia , Etnobotánica/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
9.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154501, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders, such as ischemic stroke, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and glioblastoma often lead to long-term disability and death. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides, known to participate in both normal and pathological development, making them ideal therapeutic targets for clinical intervention. Several recent studies have suggested that plant-derived bioactive compounds (PDBCs) can have anti-atherosclerosis, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects by regulating miRNAs. Thus, miRNAs are novel targets for the action of PDBCs. PURPOSE: The aim of this review was to evaluate the current status of PDBCs targeted miRNAs by dissecting their development status through a literature review. METHODS: A manual and electronic search was performed for English articles available from inception up to June 2022 reporting PDBCs and their regulating relationship with miRNAs for the therapeutic potential of neurological disorders. Information was retrieved from scientific databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Chemical Abstracts Services. Keywords used for the search engines were "miRNAs" AND "Plant-derived bioactive compounds" in conjunction with "(native weeds OR alien invasive)" AND "traditional herbal medicine". RESULTS: A total of 37 articles were retrieved on PDBCs and their related miRNAs in neurological disorders. These PDBCs from traditional herbal medicine may play a therapeutic role in neurological disorders in a variety of mechanisms by regulating the corresponding miRNAs. These mechanisms mainly include inhibiting oxidative stress, anti-neuroinflammation, anti-autophagy, and anti-apoptosis. PDBC are a group of chemically distinct compounds derived from medicinal plants, some of which have therapeutic effects on neurological disorders. CONCLUSION: The emergence of miRNAs as pathological regulatory factors provides a new direction for the study of bioactive compounds in Traditional Chinese medicine and the elucidating of their epigenetic effects. Elucidating the regulatory relationship between bioactive compounds and miRNAs may help to identify new therapeutic targets and promoting the application of these compounds in precision medicine through their targeted molecular activity.


Asunto(s)
MicroARNs , Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas , Plantas Medicinales , Etnofarmacología , MicroARNs/genética , Medicina Tradicional , Plantas Medicinales/química
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

RESUMEN

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Plantas Medicinales , Pakistán , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Hojas de la Planta , Etnobotánica , Fitoterapia , Medicina Tradicional
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249209, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339360

RESUMEN

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Resumo Alo vera é um remédio centenário usado para pequenas feridas e queimaduras, mas seu mecanismo de cicatrização de feridas não foi conhecido desde então. Este artigo avaliará e reunirá evidências da eficácia e segurança do uso de aloe vera no tratamento de queimaduras. Realizada revisão Sistemática nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, nos últimos 7 anos, com os descritores: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". Foram encontrados 16 trabalhos. Após utilizarmos os critérios de exclusão; pesquisa em nao humanos e revisão da literatura ; foram selecionados 5 artigos. O artigo Teplick et al. (2018) realizou um experimento clinico in vitro em solução de A. Vera, e demonstrou que houve proliferação e migração celular de fibroblastos e queratinócitos de pele humana, além de ser protetor na morte de queratonócitos. Ou seja, acelera a cicatrização das feridas. Já Muangman et al. (2016), avaliou 50 pacientes com 20% do total da área superficial corporal queimada com queimaduras de segundo grau, entre 18-60 anos, tendo metade do grupo como controle recebendo curativos de gaze com parafina mole contendo 0,5% acetado de clorexidina e a outra metade recebendo curativos com poliéster contendo extratos de plantas medicinais principalmente Aloe Vera. Teve resultados positivos, uma maior velocidade de cicatrização e menor tempo de internação comparado ao grupo controle. Já Hwang et al. (2015) investigou os efeitos antioxidante de diferentes extratos de 2,4,6,8,12 meses da Aloe Vera. E o extrato com 6 meses concentrado de 0,25 mg/mL teve maior teor de flavanóides (9,750 mg equivalente catequina / g extrato) e polifenóis (23,375 mg equivalente ácido gálico / g extrato) e o maior poder antioxidante redutor férrico (0,047 mM de sulfato ferroso equivalente / extrato mg), ou seja, maior potencial de eliminação de radicais livres e também efeito proteror contra o estresse oxidativo induzido por hidroperóxido de terc-butila (t-BHP), sugerindo indícios de um potencial bioativo da A. vera. Porém, no artigo Kolacz et al. (2014) sugeriu como tratamento alternativo o uso do curativo com Aloe Vera em conjunto de mel, lanolina, azeite de oliva, óleo de gérmen de trigo, raiz de marshmallow, absinto, raiz de confrei, casca de carvalho branco, lobelia inflata, glicerina vegetal, cera de abelha e mirra, não obtendo resultados significativos e conclusivos que permitam subsidiar o tratamento convencional das queimaduras. Por fim, no artigo de Zurita and Gallegos (2017), realizou um estudo descritivo transversal com 321 pessoas, ambos os sexos entre 17-76 anos, de natureza indutiva, explorando a vivência dessa população e suas atitudes comportamentais quanto ao tratamento de dermatoses. Aloe vera teve 13,8% citada pelos indivíduos no tratamento de acne e 33,6% no tratamento de queimaduras. Mesmo tendo evidências que sugerem a eficácia no tratamento de queimaduras com o uso do extrato da Aloe Vera, sugere-se mais ensaios clínicos com espaço amostral maior sobre o uso de curativos de Aloe vera em médio queimados para maiores conclusões.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Plantas Medicinales , Quemaduras/tratamiento farmacológico , Aloe , Cicatrización de Heridas , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Estudios Transversales
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115739, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126784

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arnebia euchroma (Royle) I.M.Johnst. (AE) is a Chinese medicinal herb that is traditionally used to treat various circulatory diseases. It exhibits certain effects, such as the promotion of blood circulation and cooling, rash clearance, and detoxification. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to explore the hepatoprotective and hemostatic effects of the ethyl acetate extract of AE in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were treated via oral gavage with different doses of the ethyl acetate extract of AE (3.5, 7, or 14 g kg-1·day-1) for 14 consecutive days, following which hemostatic and liver function tests were conducted. For the hemostatic tests, the platelet count, blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, platelet factor 4 (PF-4) secretion from blood platelets, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen levels were measured at the end of the treatment period. For the liver function tests, 0.25 mL/200 g (1.25 mL kg-1·day-1) of olive oil was injected into the abdominal cavity of the control rats, whereas 15% CCl4 plus olive oil (prescription: 7.5 mL CCl4 + 42.5 olive oil) was injected into that of the treated rats at 1 h after extract administration on day 6, 13, and 20. Additionally, food and water were withheld from all the animals. On the following day, the rats were anesthetized and their albumin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels among the groups were determined using a one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The platelet count and blood platelet aggregation, blood platelet adhesion to fibrinogen and PF-4 secretion levels were significantly increased in the (3.5 g kg-1 day-1) AE group as compared to those in the control group (all p < 0.001; for the 7 and 14 g kg-1 day-1 AE groups, all p > 0.05, respectively). Although the PT and aPTT were not affected by the AE extract (all p > 0.05), the TT was reduced and the FIB levels were significantly increased in all AE groups (p < 0.05). Liver function tests showed that CCl4 caused significant liver damage, thereby decreasing the albumin, SOD, CAT, GSH, GST, GR, and GPx levels, while increasing the AST, ALT, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ROS, and MDA levels (all p < 0.001). By contrast, treatment with the different doses of AE extract reversed the CCl4 effects on all these parameters. Compared with the levels in the CCl4 group, the GSH and GR levels in the three AE groups (3.5, 7, and 14 g kg-1·day-1) were significantly higher (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively), whereas the differences in the other parameters for these three groups were all at the significance levels of p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: AE extracts administered orally exhibited hepatoprotective activity by affecting platelet production and blood coagulation and ameliorating liver function-damaging modifications. Specifically, a dosage of 3.5 g kg-1·day-1 resulted in the most optimal effects.


Asunto(s)
Boraginaceae , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Hemostáticos , Plantas Medicinales , Acetatos , Alanina Transaminasa , Albúminas/farmacología , Aldehídos , Fosfatasa Alcalina , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Aspartato Aminotransferasas , Tetracloruro de Carbono/farmacología , Catalasa , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Fibrinógeno , Glutatión/farmacología , Glutatión Peroxidasa , Glutatión Reductasa , Glutatión Transferasa , Hemostáticos/farmacología , Lactato Deshidrogenasas , Hígado , Metano/farmacología , Aceite de Oliva , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Factor Plaquetario 4/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno , Superóxido Dismutasa , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115745, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162548

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan is an endemic tree to South America and different parts of it are used by the population for the treatment of various diseases, as well as in indigenous rituals. This species has high pharmacological potential but may present toxic potential due to the presence of psychotropic compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: To review published studies with the species A. colubrina regarding ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects, as well as discuss perspectives for new research and protection of this species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed by accessing published articles on databases such as: PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, Taylor and Francis online, Springer Link, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ACS Publications, Chemspider and Google Scholar. The keywords used were: "Anadenanthera colubrina" or "Mimosa colubrina" or "Piptadenia colubrina" or "Piptadenia macrocarpa" or "Piptadenia grata" or "Anadenanthera macrocarpa" and "medicinal plants" or "pharmacological" or "phytochemicals" or "traditional use" or "toxicological" or "ethnobotanical" or "pre-clinical trial" or "clinical". Articles found by database searches and search engines were screened at four stages: (i) title screening, (ii) locality screening, (iii) abstract screening, and (iv) full text. Other articles found through supplementary searches were screened in the full text whenever available. Each article was assessed by three reviewers at the title and abstract screening stages, except for those found in Portuguese databases that were assessed by the native reviewer. RESULTS: This robust tree has been popularly useful for agroeconomic, medicinal and as a hallucinogen in religious rituals. According to the published studies, the main parts of the plant are the bark and seeds that are mostly used for respiratory conditions and as entheogens, respectively. It is a rich traditional herbal medicine with many pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antidiarrheal, wound healing, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antioxidant, antiaddictive, insecticide and allelopathic that were described in in vitro and in vivo assays, and approximately 56 compounds were identified, suggesting a therapeutic potential for this species. Although most relate to medicinal uses, these are preliminaries and do not show the mechanism of action. The phytochemical assays showed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, triterpenes, steroids and alkaloids. Some of the compounds are anadanthoflavone, which is exclusive to this species, and no pharmacological or toxicological studies have yet demonstrated this compound. Another important compound is bufotenine which was isolated from seeds and is related to hallucinogenic and antiviral activity. The extracts made from leaves, bark, gum, and fruits appear to be safe, according to both in vivo and in vitro toxicology testing, which all shown low toxicity. Due to the presence of bufotenine in the seeds, it can be toxic, however, it was not found in toxicological assays with the seed extracts. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, part of the studies confirms the popular use of A. colubrina, however, more assays with isolated compounds and with the different extracts are necessary to corroborate other uses and the mechanism of action of their pharmacological effects needs to discuss in more detail. Therefore, the present review would be identified the gaps and suggests further studies oriented to validate the popular use. Thus, it must be noted that the use of this species must be controlled in order to minimize the environmental impact, as most of the pharmacological potential was shown with the bark and seeds. Due to its wide use in folk medicine, it is part of the Brazilian medicinal species with priority for conservation.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Colubrina , Fabaceae , Alucinógenos , Insecticidas , Plantas Medicinales , Triterpenos , Analgésicos , Antiinflamatorios , Antidiarreicos , Antioxidantes , Antivirales , Brasil , Bufotenina , Etnofarmacología , Flavonoides , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Fitoquímicos/toxicidad , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115738, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165961

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The bark of Matayba oppositifolia (A. Rich.) Britton (commonly known as "huaya" or "palo huacax") is commonly utilized in traditional Mayan medicine for treating diarrhea and for canker and other sores. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of M. oppositifolia bark extracts against drug-susceptible and -resistant ESKAPE-E pathogens. In addition, the phytochemical composition of the best antibacterial extract was analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bark extracts were prepared with different solvents, including water, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. These were tested against ESKAPE-E (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp., including Escherichia coli) strains using Resazurin Microtiter Assay. In addition, the composition of the most active extract was analyzed by GC-MS. RESULTS: The aqueous and organic bark extracts showed activity on drug-susceptible and -resistant ESKAPE-E microbes (MIC = 1000-31.25 µg/mL). The n-hexane bark extract was more active against the superbugs carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (MIC = 500-31.25 µg/mL) and A. baumannii (MIC = 250-125 µg/mL). The GC-MS analysis of this extract allowed the identification of 12 phytochemicals as the potential antibacterial compounds. The major compounds identified were palmitic acid (1), friedelan-3-one (2) and 7-dehydrodiosgenin (3). CONCLUSION: The present study reveals the strong in-vitro antibacterial activity of the n-hexane extract from the bark of M. oppositifolia and demonstrates the potential of natural products as a source of antibacterial compounds or phytomedicines that are specifically effective against drug-resistant ESKAPE-E bugs. Additionally, our investigation contributes to the ethnopharmacological knowledge and reappraisal of Mayan medicinal flora, as well as supports the traditional use of the bark of the medicinal plant M. oppositifolia for the treatment of infectious diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Plantas Medicinales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias , Carbapenémicos/farmacología , Escherichia coli , Hexanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Metanol/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Ácido Palmítico , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Sapindaceae , Solventes/farmacología , Agua/farmacología
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115714, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113678

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Swertia chirayita (Roxb.) H. Karst. is a traditionally used, well-recognized medicinal plant of the family Gentianaceae with significant therapeutic potential. It has been traditionally used to cure various ailments such as fever, vomiting, jaundice, digestive disorders, heart diseases, diabetes, malaria, scorpion bite, and skin diseases. AIM OF REVIEW: The present review emphasized the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, chemical profiling, and structural identification of isolated compounds by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. This review demonstrates the possibility of advanced ethnopharmacological research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature on S. chirayita was obtained from bibliographic databases like Web of Science, PubMed, Science-Direct, American Chemical Society (ACS), Google Scholar, and SciFinder. The compiled review is covered up until March 2022. RESULTS: Approximately, 123 specialized metabolites including xanthones, seco-iridoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids have been isolated and characterized from S. chirayita. The extract and isolated compounds exhibited a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antimalarial, and antibacterial offering scientific evidence for traditional claims of this medicinal plant. In addition, various analytical methods using HPTLC, UPLC, HPLC, LC-MS, and GC-MS have also been documented to determine the phytochemicals of S. chirayita. CONCLUSION: The current article provides information on traditional usage, phytochemistry, chemical profiling, structure elucidation, pharmacological efficacy, toxicity, and future prospects of S. chirayita. This plant has long been traditionally used in a variety of ways by indigenous people. Numerous phytoconstituents and several pharmacological activities have been reported in S. chirayita. However, there are still some scientific gaps such as identification of bioactive compounds, structure-activity relationship and mechanistic action of isolated bioactive compounds, development of effective analytical methods for comprehensive quality control, and safety profiles that need to be addressed.


Asunto(s)
Antimaláricos , Plantas Medicinales , Swertia , Xantonas , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes , Antivirales , Etnofarmacología , Flavonoides , Humanos , Iridoides , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Terpenos
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2575: 153-179, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301475

RESUMEN

Plants possess a plethora of important secondary metabolites, which are unique sources of natural pigments, pharmaceutical compounds, food additives, natural pesticides, and other industrial components. The commercial significance of such metabolites/compounds has directed the research toward their production and exploration of methods for enhancement of production. Biotechnological tools are critical in selecting, integrating, multiplying, improving, and analyzing medicinal plants for secondary metabolite production. Out of many techniques that are being explored to enhance secondary metabolite production, "plant cell transfection" is the latest tool to achieve maximum output from the plant source. It is based upon the introduction of foreign DNA into the plant cell relying on physical treatment such as electroporation, cell squeezing, sonoporation, optical transfection nanoparticles, magnetofection, and chemical treatment or biological treatment that depends upon carrier. One of the promising tools that have been exploited is CRISPR-Cas9. Overall, the abovementioned tools focus on the stable transfection of desired gene transcripts. Since the integration and continuous expression of transfected gene of particular trait represents stable transfection of host cell genome, resulting from transfer of required trait to daughter cells ultimately leading to enhanced production of secondary metabolites of interest. This chapter will review a set of biotechnological tools that are candidates for achieving the enhanced bioactive compound production indicated here to be used for drug discovery.


Asunto(s)
Células Vegetales , Plantas Medicinales , Transfección , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo , Biotecnología , Electroporación
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115698, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174808

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: African traditional medicine is one of the oldest and most diverse practices for treating ailments and numerous natural products have been recommended for gastric ulcer treatment. Helicobacter pylori is the main causative organism implicated in several diseases, most notably in causing inflammation and the onset of gastric ulcers. Current H. pylori treatment methods are losing efficacy as H. pylori rapidly gains resistance to antibiotics. Hence, a search into natural products and their historical traditional efficacy for the treatment of gastric ulcers is of interest. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aimed to summarise the African use of natural products, including medicinal plants noted in ethnobotanical reviews, used traditionally to treat gastric ulcers, and highlights the investigations into the anti-H. pylori activity of medicinal plants and bee products found in Africa. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review was carried out to identify natural products, including those used traditionally in Africa to treat gastric ulcers, and to correlate this with scientific investigations into the anti-H. pylori activity of natural products used in Africa. RESULTS: A total of 107 literature sources describing the traditional use of medicinal plants in gastric ulcer treatment were found, from which 360 medicinal plants were identified. Of the plants used traditionally for gastric ulcer treatment, 11% were investigated either in vitro or in vivo for anti-ulcer and anti-H. pylori activity. Of the 122 medicinal plants eliciting antimicrobial or anti-ulcer activity, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx extract and Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. root extract were found to have the most noteworthy antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.01 mg/mL and 0.03 mg/mL respectively. The essential oils of Piper longum L. and Pachira aquatica Aubl. displayed the most notable in vitro anti-H. pylori activity (MIC of 0.01 mg/mL and 0.02 mg/mL). Several in vivo studies found medicinal plant extracts effective in reducing the H. pylori load along the gastric mucosa. The South African honey variants, Pure Honey and Champagne Royal Train (common names given by supplier) were the most antimicrobially effective (MIC of 0.01-10.0%, 0.63-10.00% v/v) in inhibiting H. pylori when assessed in vitro. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the potential of natural products to inhibit H. pylori growth and serve as a possible stepping-stone in understanding the management of ulcers. Furthermore, effective natural product treatment or prophylactic use for preventing H. pylori growth may provide a more affordable option for African populations.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos , Productos Biológicos , Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Plantas Medicinales , Úlcera Gástrica , Abejas , Animales , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamiento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevención & control , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Infecciones por Helicobacter/tratamiento farmacológico
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115770, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191661

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Heart failure (HF), as the terminal stage of many cardiovascular diseases, has brought a heavy burden to the global medical system. Microvascular rarefaction (decreased myocardial capillary density) with reduced coronary flow reserve is a hallmark of HF and therapeutic myocardial angiogenesis is now emerging as a promising approach for the prevention and treatment in HF. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has made remarkable achievements in the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence have shown that their protective effect in HF is closely related to therapeutic angiogenesis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review is to enlighten the therapeutic effect and pro-angiogenic mechanism of TCM in HF, and provide valuable hints for the development of pro-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of HF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information about cardioprotective TCM was collected from electronic scientific databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). RESULTS: The studies showed that TCM formulas, extracts, and compounds from herbal medicines can provide therapeutic effect in HF with their pro-angiogenic activity. Their actions are achieved mainly by regulating the key angiogenesis factors particularly VEGF, as well as related regulators including signal molecules and pathways, non-coding miRNAs and stem cells. CONCLUSION: TCM and their active components might be promising in therapeutic angiogenesis for the treatment of HF.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Plantas Medicinales , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional China , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/tratamiento farmacológico , China , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115780, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202163

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sarawak is located in one of the world's most biodiverse regions and is home to more than 40 sub-ethnic groups that each have their own distinct culture, language and lifestyle. This has given rise to numerous, unique ethnobotanical systems. However, due to rapid urbanization, this traditional knowledge is at a risk of extinction. Yet, ethnobotanical studies in Sarawak are almost non-existent, especially among Orang Ulu communities like the Kenyah. AIM OF STUDY: Therefore, this study was conducted to document the ethnomedicinal knowledge of the Kenyah community. The main objectives of this study are: 1) To determine and document the diversity of medicinal plants used by the Kenyah community, 2) To determine whether the availability of modern medicine has affected Kenyah traditional medicine, and 3) To identify plants which have not been previously cited or used for previously unreported medical uses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted repeated interviews and field surveys at the Asap-Koyan Resettlement Area, Belaga Sarawak. A total of 24 respondents from four Kenyah longhouses were interviewed in this study. Individuals possessing extensive traditional medicinal knowledge were identified via preliminary interviews or by viva voce. Translators were employed to ensure that there was no miscommunication. The results were evaluated based on the plant's total use-reports and number of respondents citing the plant. The data was also evaluated based on use-reports by ailment category. RESULTS: Over 95% of the respondents were 40 years and older (58.21 years old ± 11.21). This was due to the younger members of the community (40 years old and below) admitting that they had almost no knowledge regarding traditional medicine, as they preferred relying on modern medicine. A total of 61 plant species were mentioned by the 24 respondents Seven plants had five or more respondents citing it, which was more than 20% of the respondents. These plants were Piper betle, Homalomena cordata, Senna alata, Annona muricata, Derris elliptica, Blumea balsamifera and Coscinium fenestratum. CONCLUSION: Almost all of the cited plants had been previously recorded to be used in either Ayurvedic, Chinese herbal medicine, Malay traditional medicine or other Asian ethnomedicinal systems. However, there were four highly cited species that were used for treatments that were scarcely reported in past literature. These were piper betle (used by Kenyah to treat fever), Sauropus andrognus (used by Kenyah to treat fever), Derris elliptica (used by Kenyah to treat fever and influenza) and Coscinuim fenestratum (used by Kenyah to treat toxic effects from non-medical substances).


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Borneo , Fitoterapia/métodos , Etnobotánica/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115778, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36202165

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Several medicinal plants, including the endemic herb Cirsum ehrenbergii (Asteraceae), have been documented in manuscripts, medical and botanical books written in Mexico since the XVI century until the present. This unique circumstance is a real window in the time that allows to investigate historical and contemporary ethnopharmacological knowledge. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the persistence, disappearance, and transformation of ethnomedicinal knowledge of C. ehrenbergii along time. Also, to investigate the chemistry and pharmacology of this species in relation to its historical and present day main ethnomedical applications related to Central Nervous System and inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough review was performed of written sources of medicinal plants from XVI and onwards. For the pharmacological studies, the organic extracts were tested in mice models to assess its antidepressant and anti-inflammatory properties. The active extracts were studied chemically. The isolated compounds were identified by 1H, 13C NMR, or characterized by GC-MS. RESULTS: Cirsum ehrenbergii was illustrated for the first time (1552) in the Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Booklet of Medicinal Plants of the Indians) and named in the Nahuatl native language as huitzquilitl (edible thistle). It was there recommended as nigris sanguinis remedium (remedy for black blood), and for the treatment of illnesses with an inflammatory component. Nigris sanguinis was well known in the European medicine of that time and currently it has been interpreted as "depression". At the present time, peasants and native population in Mexico mainly name C. ehrenbergii in Spanish as cardo Santo (holy thistle). Its original Nahuatl name has been almost forgotten. However, these communities use this species, among other maladies, to heal "nervios" (anxiety and/or depression) and for anti-inflammatory purposes. These ailments and treatments resemble those recorded in the Libellus and in several medicinal plant books along centuries. The ethanol extract of C. ehrenbergii roots showed antidepressant-like activity in mice administered at 300 mg/kg, as indicated by the forced swim test (FST). The glycosylated flavonoid linarin was identified as antidepressant principle and was active at the doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg in the FST. Regarding to anti-inflammatory activity, the most active was the methylene chloride extract of the aerial parts, which contains taraxasterol, pseudotaraxasterol, ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol. CONCLUSIONS: Cirsium ehrenbergii extracts possess antidepressant-like (roots, EtOH) and anti-inflammatory (aerial parts, CH2Cl2) properties, containing active compounds. Our results sustain historical and present day ethnomedical applications of this species documented along five centuries.


Asunto(s)
Asteraceae , Cirsium , Plantas Medicinales , Ratones , Animales , Centaurea benedicta , México , Medicina Tradicional/historia , Etnofarmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Fitoterapia
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