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1.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9632034, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602868

RESUMEN

The world is currently grappling with the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The infection can cause fever, a dry cough, fatigue, severe pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome, and in some cases death. There is currently no effective antiviral SARS-CoV-2 drug. To reduce the number of infections and deaths, it is critical to focus on strengthening immunity. This review aims to conduct a comprehensive search on the previous studies using Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus for the collection of research papers based on the role of zinc in the immune system, the antiviral activity of zinc, the effect of zinc supplementation in respiratory infections, the therapeutic approaches against viral infections based on medicinal plants, and the role of plants' bioactive molecules in fighting viral infections. In conclusion, we highlighted the pivotal role of zinc in antiviral immunity and we suggested the bioactive molecules derived from medicinal plants as a search matrix for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , Zinc/farmacología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4150-4156, 2021 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467727

RESUMEN

The current study aims to rapidly and comprehensively profile the chemical composition of Cistanche salsa using direct infusion coupled with MS/MS~(ALL)(DI-MS/MS~(ALL)). The C. salsa extract was directly imported into electrospray ionization(ESI) source of quadrupole time-of-flight(Q-TOF) mass spectrometer with an infusion pump at a flow rate of 10 µL·min~(-1). Acquisition program was applied under negative ionization polarity to collect one MS~1 spectrum(m/z 50-1 200), followed by 1 150 MS~2 spectra with precursor isolation window(m/z 1) amongst mass range m/z 50-1 200. After each MS~2 spectrum was matched to its precursor ion, putative identification was conducted through matching mass spectral data with literature and database. A total of 31 components were identified from C. salsa, including 9 phenylethanoid glycosides, 2 iridoids, 4 saccharides, 9 organic acids, and 7 other compounds, similar to those from C. tubulosa and C. deserticola. In conclusion, DI-MS/MS~(ALL), a facile and reliable analytical tool, can be employed for qualitative analysis of chemical constituents in C. salsa. The research offers a promising strategy to achieve rapid chemome profiling of herbal medicine and provides an alternative source of Cistanches Herba.


Asunto(s)
Cistanche , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Plantas Medicinales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Glicósidos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246803, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495160

RESUMEN

Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Etnobotánica , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán , Fitoterapia , Hojas de la Planta , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6649-6668, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468803

RESUMEN

Medicinal plants have been used by mankind since ancient times, and many bioactive plant secondary metabolites are applied nowadays both directly as drugs, and as raw materials for semi-synthetic modifications. However, the structural complexity often thwarts cost-efficient chemical synthesis, and the usually low content in the native plant necessitates the processing of large amounts of field-cultivated raw material. The biotechnological manufacturing of such compounds offers a number of advantages like predictable, stable, and year-round sustainable production, scalability, and easier extraction and purification. Plant cell and tissue culture represents one possible alternative to the extraction of phytochemicals from plant material. Although a broad commercialization of such processes has not yet occurred, ongoing research indicates that plant in vitro systems such as cell suspension cultures, organ cultures, and transgenic hairy roots hold a promising potential as sources for bioactive compounds. Progress in the areas of biosynthetic pathway elucidation and genetic manipulation has expanded the possibilities to utilize plant metabolic engineering and heterologous production in microorganisms. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the in vitro production of high-value plant secondary metabolites of medicinal importance.Key points• Bioactive plant secondary metabolites are important for current and future use in medicine• In vitro production is a sustainable alternative to extraction from plants or costly chemical synthesis• Current research addresses plant cell and tissue culture, metabolic engineering, and heterologous production.


Asunto(s)
Raíces de Plantas , Plantas Medicinales , Biotecnología , Fitoquímicos , Células Vegetales
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 414, 2021 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503445

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adventitious root formation is considered a major developmental step during the propagation of difficult to root plants, especially in horticultural crops. Recently, adventitious roots induced through plant tissue culture methods have also been used for production of phytochemicals such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthraquinones. It is rather well understood which horticultural species will easily form adventitious roots, but the factors affecting this process at molecular level or regulating the induction process in in vitro conditions are far less known. The present study was conducted to identify transcripts involved in in vitro induction and formation of adventitious roots using Arnebia euchroma leaves at different time points (intact leaf (control), 3 h, 12 h, 24 h, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d and 15 d). A. euchroma is an endangered medicinal Himalayan herb whose root contains red naphthoquinone pigments. These phytoconstituents are widely used as an herbal ingredient in Asian traditional medicine as well as natural colouring agent in food and cosmetics. RESULTS: A total of 137.93 to 293.76 million raw reads were generated and assembled to 54,587 transcripts with average length of 1512.27 bps and N50 of 2193 bps, respectively. In addition, 50,107 differentially expressed genes were identified and found to be involved in plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification and wound induced mitogen activated protein kinase signalling. The data exhibited dominance of auxin responsive (AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8, IAA13, GRETCHEN HAGEN3.1) and sucrose translocation (BETA-31 FRUCTOFURANOSIDASE and MONOSACCHARIDE-SENSING protein1) genes during induction phase. In the initiation phase, the expression of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16, EXPANSIN-B15, ENDOGLUCANASE25 and LEUCINE-rich repeat EXTENSION-like proteins was increased. During the expression phase, the same transcripts, with exception of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 were identified. Overall, the transcriptomic analysis revealed a similar patterns of genes, however, their expression level varied in subsequent phases of in vitro adventitious root formation in A. euchroma. CONCLUSION: The results presented here will be helpful in understanding key regulators of in vitro adventitious root development in Arnebia species, which may be deployed in the future for phytochemical production at a commercial scale.


Asunto(s)
Boraginaceae/genética , Hojas de la Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Boraginaceae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Indoles/farmacología , Anotación de Secuencia Molecular , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Plantas Medicinales/genética , Plantas Medicinales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Técnicas de Cultivo de Tejidos/métodos
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249209, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550291

RESUMEN

Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Aloe , Quemaduras , Plantas Medicinales , Quemaduras/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Cicatrización de Heridas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257165, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550994

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru has led to people seeking alternative treatments as preventives and treatment options such as medicinal plants. This study aimed to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants as preventive or treatment of respiratory symptom related to COVID-19 during the pandemic in Cusco, Peru. METHOD: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on general public (20- to 70-year-old) from August 31 to September 20, 2020. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire via Google Forms, it consisted of an 11-item questionnaire that was developed and validated by expert judgment using Aiken's V (Aiken's V > 0.9). Both descriptive statistics and bivariate followed by multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with the use of medicinal plants for COVID-19 prevention and respiratory symptom treatment during the pandemic. Prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI), and a P-value of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 1,747 respondents participated in the study, 80.2% reported that they used medicinal plants as preventives, while 71% reported that they used them to treat respiratory symptoms. At least, 24% of respondents used medicinal plants when presenting with two or more respiratory symptoms, while at least 11% used plants for malaise. For treatment or prevention, the multivariate analysis showed that most respondents used eucalyptus (p < 0.001 for both), ginger (p < 0.022 for both), spiked pepper (p < 0.003 for both), garlic (p = 0.023 for prevention), and chamomile (p = 0.011 for treatment). The respondents with COVID-19 (p < 0.001), at older ages (p = 0.046), and with a family member or friend who had COVID-19 (p < 0.001) used more plants for prevention. However, the respondents with technical or higher education used less plants for treatment (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There was a significant use of medicinal plants for both prevention and treatment, which was associated with several population characteristics and whether respondents had COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/prevención & control , Plantas Medicinales , Sistema Respiratorio/efectos de los fármacos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Perú/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5508, 2021 09 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535649

RESUMEN

Perilla is a young allotetraploid Lamiaceae species widely used in East Asia as herb and oil plant. Here, we report the high-quality, chromosome-scale genomes of the tetraploid (Perilla frutescens) and the AA diploid progenitor (Perilla citriodora). Comparative analyses suggest post Neolithic allotetraploidization within 10,000 years, and nucleotide mutation in tetraploid is 10% more than in diploid, both of which are dominated by G:C → A:T transitions. Incipient diploidization is characterized by balanced swaps of homeologous segments, and subsequent homeologous exchanges are enriched towards telomeres, with excess of replacements of AA genes by fractionated BB homeologs. Population analyses suggest that the crispa lines are close to the nascent tetraploid, and involvement of acyl-CoA: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase gene for high α-linolenic acid content of seed oil is revealed by GWAS. These resources and findings provide insights into incipient diploidization and basis for breeding improvement of this medicinal plant.


Asunto(s)
Diploidia , Perilla/genética , Plantas Medicinales/genética , Secuencia de Bases , Evolución Biológica , Genes de Plantas , Genética de Población , Genoma de Planta , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Nucleótidos/genética , Pigmentación/genética , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Poliploidía
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 431, 2021 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551721

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alpinia species are widely used as medicinal herbs. To understand the taxonomic classification and plastome evolution of the medicinal Alpinia species and correctly identify medicinal products derived from Alpinia species, we systematically analyzed the plastome sequences from five Alpinia species. Four of the Alpinia species: Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Alpinia hainanensis K.Schum., Alpinia officinarum Hance, and Alpinia oxyphylla Miq., are listed in the Chinese pharmacopeia. The other one, Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt, is well known for its medicinal values. RESULTS: The four Alpinia species: A. galanga, A. nigra, A. officinarum, and A. oxyphylla, were sequenced using the Next-generation sequencing technology. The plastomes were assembled using Novoplasty and annotated using CPGAVAS2. The sizes of the four plastomes range from 160,590 bp for A. galanga to 164,294 bp for A. nigra, and display a conserved quadripartite structure. Each of the plastomes encodes a total of 111 unique genes, including 79 protein-coding, 28 tRNA, and four rRNA genes. In addition, 293-296 SSRs were detected in the four plastomes, of which the majority are mononucleotides Adenine/Thymine and are found in the noncoding regions. The long repeat analysis shows all types of repeats are contained in the plastomes, of which palindromic repeats occur most frequently. The comparative genomic analyses revealed that the pair of the inverted repeats were less divergent than the single-copy region. Analysis of sequence divergence on protein-coding genes showed that two genes (accD and ycf1) had undergone positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis based on coding sequence of 77 shared plastome genes resolves the molecular phylogeny of 20 species from Zingiberaceae. In particular, molecular phylogeny of four sequenced Alpinia species (A. galanga, A. nigra, A. officinarum, and A. oxyphylla) based on the plastome and nuclear sequences showed congruency. Furthermore, a comparison of the four newly sequenced Alpinia plastomes and one previously reported Alpinia plastomes (accession number: NC_048461) reveals 59 highly divergent intergenic spacer regions. We developed and validated two molecular markers Alpp and Alpr, based on two regions: petN-psbM and psaJ-rpl33, respectively. The discrimination success rate was 100 % in validation experiments. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study will be invaluable for ensuring the effective and safe uses of Alpinia medicinal products and for the exploration of novel Alpinia species to improve human health.


Asunto(s)
Alpinia/clasificación , Alpinia/genética , ADN de Cloroplastos/genética , Evolución Molecular , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma del Cloroplasto , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Variación Genética , Genotipo , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , Plantas Medicinales/genética
10.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113607, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467864

RESUMEN

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has wide application and important functions in curing many diseases, but a great number of herb residues are usually generated after its manufacture and usage. Without proper and timely treatment, these traditional Chinese medicinal herb (TCMH) residues will cause some environmental pollution. In addition to treatment, bioresources utilization of TCMH residues is also important for its great potential as a suitable feedstock for the production of energy, materials, and chemicals. In this situation, advanced and well-designed solid waste management is important to make the TCM industry environmentally friendly and economically attractive. In this review article, the recent progress focusing on various methods for TCMH residues treatment and bioresources utilization are introduced in detail. In particular, the technologies for thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion of TCMH residues are mainly focused on in order to show how to fulfill effective and efficient bioresources utilization. Besides, some other technologies which are suitable for the treatment and bioresources utilization of TCMH residues are presented as well. Finally, some industrial prospects are given from the economic, operational, and environmental aspects for the further development of treatment and bioresources utilization of TCMH residues. Overall, this work can provide some systematical and comprehensive information for the development of technologies that help sustainably manage the herb residues generated in the TCM industry.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , China , Medicina China Tradicional
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(19): 7201-7213, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519854

RESUMEN

Due to their interesting properties for human health, medicinal plants are of worldwide interest, including Iran. More has yet to be investigated and analyzed on the use of methods affecting medicinal plant growth and biochemical properties under stress. The important question about medicinal plants is the purpose of their plantation, determining their growth conditions. The present review article is about the effects of salinity stress on the growth and production of secondary metabolites (SM) in medicinal plants. In stressful conditions including salinity, while the growth of medicinal plants decreases, the production of secondary metabolites (SM) may increase significantly affecting plant medicinal properties. SMs are self-protective substances that medicinal plants quickly accumulate to resist changes in the external environment. Although previous research has indicated the effects of salt stress on the growth and yield of medicinal plants, more has yet to be indicated on how the use of biological methods including plant growth regulators (PGR) and soil microbes (mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, PGPR) may affect the physiology of medicinal plants and the subsequent production of SM in salt stress conditions. The use of modern omics has become significantly important for the identification and characterization of new SM, transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics of medicinal plants, as well as for the high production of plant-derived medicines. Accordingly, the possible biological mechanisms, which may affect such properties, have been presented. Future research perspectives for the production of medicinal plants in saline fields, using biological methods, have been suggested. KEY POINTS: • The important question about medicinal plants is the purpose of their plantation. • Secondary metabolites (SM) may significantly increase under salinity stress. • Biological methods, affecting the production of SM by stressed medicinal plants.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Genómica , Humanos , Proteómica , Estrés Salino
12.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577194

RESUMEN

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which initially appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Elderly individuals and those with comorbid conditions may be more vulnerable to this disease. Consequently, several research laboratories continue to focus on developing drugs to treat this infection because this disease has developed into a global pandemic with an extremely limited number of specific treatments available. Natural herbal remedies have long been used to treat illnesses in a variety of cultures. Modern medicine has achieved success due to the effectiveness of traditional medicines, which are derived from medicinal plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether components of natural origin from Iranian medicinal plants have an antiviral effect that can prevent humans from this coronavirus infection using the most reliable molecular docking method; in our case, we focused on the main protease (Mpro) and a receptor-binding domain (RBD). The results of molecular docking showed that among 169 molecules of natural origin from common Iranian medicinal plants, 20 molecules (chelidimerine, rutin, fumariline, catechin gallate, adlumidine, astragalin, somniferine, etc.) can be proposed as inhibitors against this coronavirus based on the binding free energy and type of interactions between these molecules and the studied proteins. Moreover, a molecular dynamics simulation study revealed that the chelidimerine-Mpro and somniferine-RBD complexes were stable for up to 50 ns below 0.5 nm. Our results provide valuable insights into this mechanism, which sheds light on future structure-based designs of high-potency inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Proteasa Viral/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Irán , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Péptido Hidrolasas/química , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinales/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteasas/química , Inhibidores de Proteasas/farmacología , Unión Proteica , Receptores Virales/química , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/efectos de los fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Termodinámica , Inhibidores de Proteasa Viral/metabolismo , Inhibidores de Proteasa Viral/farmacología
13.
Nat Plants ; 7(9): 1239-1253, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475528

RESUMEN

Aristolochia, a genus in the magnoliid order Piperales, has been famous for centuries for its highly specialized flowers and wide medicinal applications. Here, we present a new, high-quality genome sequence of Aristolochia fimbriata, a species that, similar to Amborella trichopoda, lacks further whole-genome duplications since the origin of extant angiosperms. As such, the A. fimbriata genome is an excellent reference for inferences of angiosperm genome evolution, enabling detection of two novel whole-genome duplications in Piperales and dating of previously reported whole-genome duplications in other magnoliids. Genomic comparisons between A. fimbriata and other angiosperms facilitated the identification of ancient genomic rearrangements suggesting the placement of magnoliids as sister to monocots, whereas phylogenetic inferences based on sequence data we compiled yielded ambiguous relationships. By identifying associated homologues and investigating their evolutionary histories and expression patterns, we revealed highly conserved floral developmental genes and their distinct downstream regulatory network that may contribute to the complex flower morphology in A. fimbriata. Finally, we elucidated the genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of terpenoids and aristolochic acids in A. fimbriata.


Asunto(s)
Aristolochia/crecimiento & desarrollo , Aristolochia/genética , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/biosíntesis , Evolución Biológica , Flores/crecimiento & desarrollo , Flores/genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/genética , Variación Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genotipo , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinales/genética , Plantas Medicinales/crecimiento & desarrollo
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112724, 2021 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509162

RESUMEN

Compared to other soil remediation technologies, Cd-contaminated farmland soil with low cadmium accumulation (LCA) plant-based safe utilization is more catered to developing countries with food in high demand. Hormesis, which describes the fortification of plant growth performance by a low level of environmental stress, can be innovatively used to achieve increases in crop yield and plant functional components, thus amplifying the safe utilization efficiency of low Cd-contaminated soil by LCA plants. In the present study, the growth and physiological responses of Polygonatum sibiricum, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, were investigated under laboratory conditions of gradient Cd dosage concentrations and times. As a result, the growth performance of P. sibiricum reached the peak of an inverse U-shaped curve of hormesis under e0 mg kg-1 and 9 months of Cd stress, with elevations in tuber biomass (medicinal part), plant height and polysaccharide content (medicinal components) of 143%, 25% and 90%, respectively. Meanwhile, trace Cd accumulation (0.41 mg kg-1) in the tuber guaranteed medicinal edible safety. In addition, Cd-induced hormesis in P. sibiricum was verified to be overcompensated by antioxidation systems. In conclusion, such 'win-win' results, including low Cd accumulation and enhancement of plant pharmaceutical value, provided medicinal herbs with a possibility for safe soil utilization.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio/análisis , Cadmio/toxicidad , Granjas , Hormesis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4134713, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540993

RESUMEN

Previous work stated that Khaya senegalensis, Anacardium ouest L., Pterocarpus erinaceus, Diospyros mespiliformis, Ocimum gratissimum, Manihot esculenta, Vernonia amygdalina Delile, and Daniellia oliveri have a great potential for the fight against infectious diarrhea. However, data on their antibacterial activity on strains of bacteria responsible for infectious diarrhea are not available. This study is aimed at elucidating the mechanism of action of the antibacterial effect of these plants on some bacterial strains responsible for diarrheal infections. The design of the study included first evaluating the degree of sensitivity of Salmonella typhimurium 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Shigella spp., and Salmonella spp. strains to aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of each plant, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and antibiotic power (Pa). This screening was completed with the evaluation of the possible mode of action of the extracts by testing the membrane permeability of these bacterial strains. The data collected indicate that the bacterial strains tested were sensitive to the extracts to varying degrees, except Cassia sieberiana DC and Pseudocedrela kotschyi extracts. For the active extracts, inhibition diameters ranged from 18.33 mm to 7 mm. With the exception of Escherichia coli, all strains were sensitive to the aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Anacardium occidentale. MICs vary between 3.37 and 25 mg/ml. Membrane permeability test data show that all active extracts affect the bacterial strains tested by attacking the stability of their outer membrane. For all active extracts, the high percentage of membrane destabilization of the bacteria is significantly (p < 0.05) better than that of cefixime used as a reference. Thus, it appears that these extracts can destroy Gram-negative bacteria and increase the fluidity and permeability of their cytoplasmic membrane. The knowledge of the mechanism of action of these extracts is an interesting contribution to the fundamental knowledge on the alternative that medicinal plants represent to antibiotics. These extracts can be used in the management of infectious diarrhea.


Asunto(s)
Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Disentería/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , África Occidental , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/metabolismo , Diarrea/tratamiento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Africana/métodos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Plantas Medicinales , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Shigella/efectos de los fármacos
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9910365, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541000

RESUMEN

Medicinal plants are the chief components in the different oriental formulations in different traditional medical systems worldwide. As a thriving source of medicine, the medicinal plants with antituberculosis (TB) properties inspire the pharmacists to develop new drugs based on their active components or semimetabolites. In the present review, the anti-TB medicinal plants were screened from the scientific literatures, based on the botanical classification and the anti-TB activity. The obtained anti-TB medicinal plants were categorized into three different categories, viz., 159 plants critically examined with a total 335 isolated compounds, 131 plants with their crude extracts showing anti-TB activity, and 27 plants in literature with the prescribed formula by the traditional healers. Our systemic analysis on the medicinal plants can assist the discovery of novel and more efficacious anti-TB drugs.


Asunto(s)
Antituberculosos/farmacología , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4344-4359, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581037

RESUMEN

The Solanaceae plants distributed in China belong to 105 species and 35 varietas of 24 genera. Some medicinal plants of Solanaceae are rich in tropane alkaloids(TAs), which have significant pharmacological activities. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, pharmacological activities, and biosynthetic pathways of TAs in Solanaceous plants were summarized. Besides, the phylogeny of medicinal plants belonging to Solanaceae was visualized by network diagram. Fourteen genera of Solanaceae plants in China contain TAs and have medical records. TAs mainly exist in Datura, Anisodus, Atropa, Physochlaina, and Hyoscyamus. The TAs-containing species were mainly concentrated in Southwest China, and the content of TAs was closely related to plant distribution area and altitude. The Solanaceae plants containing TAs mainly have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, and antitussive effects. Modern pharmacological studies have proved the central sedative, pupil dilating, glandular secretion-inhibiting, and anti-asthma activities of TAs. These pharmacological activities provide a reasonable explanation for the traditional therapeutic efficacy of tropane drugs. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, and modern pharmacological activities of TAs-containing species in Solanaceae were analyzed for the first time. Based on these data, the genetic relationship of TAs-containing Solanaceae species was preliminarily discussed, which provided a scientific basis for the basic research on TAs-containing solanaceous species and was of great significance for the development of natural medicinal plant resources containing TAs.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Solanaceae , Vías Biosintéticas , Filogenia , Solanaceae/genética , Tropanos
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4389-4394, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581041

RESUMEN

This paper explored the ecologically suitable areas for growing Scutellaria baicalensis using Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plants(GMPGIS), to figure out the resource distribution of S. baicalensis worldwide and provide a scientific basis for its scientific introduction. A total of 349 S. baicalensis sampling sites were selected all over the world for GMPGIS-based analy-sis of the ecologically suitable areas with six ecological factors including annual average temperature, average temperature during the coldest season, average temperature during the warmest season, average annual precipitation, average annual relative humidity, and annual average illumination and soil type as the ecological indexes. The results demonstrated that the ecologically suitable areas for growing S. baicalensis were mostly located in the Northern hemisphere, and the suitable areas in the United States, China, and Russia accounted for 19.25%, 18.66%, and 13.15% of the total area worldwide, respectively. In China, the Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang province, and Yunnan province occupied the largest proportions of the total area, namely 14.28%, 8.72%, and 6.18%, respectively. As revealed by ecological factors of each sampling site, S. baicalensis was resistant to low temperature but not to high temperature. The adaptive range of average annual precipitation is narrower than that of average annual air humidity. The suitable soils were mainly inceptisol, alfisol, and fluvisol. High temperature and rainy climate or excessively high soil bulk density was not conducive to the growth of S. baicalensis. The adoption of GMPGIS enabled to obtain areas with the greatest ecological similarity for S. baicalensis, which were reliable data supporting the exploration of resource distribution and reasonable introduction of S. baicalensis.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Scutellaria baicalensis , China , Clima , Suelo
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4689-4696, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581077

RESUMEN

The sustainable use of medicinal plants is the foundation of the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and the acquisition of information on medicinal plants is the basis for the development of TCM. The traditional methods of investigating medicinal plant resources are disadvantageous in strong subjectivity and poor timeliness, making it difficult to real-time monitor medicinal plant resources. In recent years, remote sensing technology has become an important means of obtaining information on medicinal plants. The application of this technology has made up for the shortcomings of traditional methods. The open-access remote sensing data with medium spatial resolution satellites provide an opportunity for extracting information on medicinal plant resources. This study firstly introduced the principles of remote sensing technology, summarized the satellites and the parameters commonly used in the field of medicinal plant resources, and compared the survey methods of remote sensing technology with traditional methods. Secondly, it reviewed the applications of remote sensing technology in the extraction of information on the cultivation of medicinal plants and the common methods for extracting the planting structure information of medicinal plants based on remote sensing technology. Thirdly, the applications of remote sensing technology in the investigation and monitoring of medicinal plants were further analyzed with the research objects divided into wild and cultivated medicinal plants according to the characteristics of the habitats. Finally, it pointed out the key unsolved technical problems in the remote sensing monitoring of medicinal plant resources, and proposed solutions for the intelligent information processing of medicinal plants based on remote sensing big data, which is expected to provide references for the development of remote sensing technology in derivative application in medicinal plant resources.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Medicina China Tradicional , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371961

RESUMEN

Here we present an extensive narrative review of the broadly understood modifications to the lifestyles of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The PubMed database was analyzed, combining PCOS entries with causes, diseases, diet supplementation, lifestyle, physical activity, and use of herbs. The metabolic pathways leading to disturbances in lipid, carbohydrate, and hormonal metabolism in targeted patients are described. The article refers to sleep disorders, changes in mental health parameters, and causes of oxidative stress and inflammation. These conditions consistently lead to the occurrence of severe diseases in patients suffering from diabetes, the fatty degeneration of internal organs, infertility, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, dysbiosis, and cancer. The modification of lifestyles, diet patterns and proper selection of nutrients, pharmacological and natural supplementation in the form of herbs, and physical activity have been proposed. The progress and consequences of PCOS are largely modifiable and depend on the patient's approach, although we have to take into account also the genetic determinants.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/terapia , Suplementos Dietéticos , Disbiosis/complicaciones , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Plantas Medicinales , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/fisiopatología , Sueño
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