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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249802, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345550

Asunto(s)
Plantas , Brasil , Ecosistema
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255485, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350312

RESUMEN

Abstract The current focus is on the overall pattern of seed storage present in the fragments of the soil of piedmont and alluvial landscapes of the environment. The present study predicted the seed banks of both soils of alluvial and piedmont zones in different ecological conditions and evaluate the potential of seeds in the restoration of both environments. The composition of the seed bank of soil is mainly affected by the alluvial environment and the structure of cleared area shows that more species of germinating annual grasses and growable seeds with the higher total number. Extant vegetation structures have an important role in the diversity of soil seed reservoirs, whose composition corresponded with the openness of the site. When in situ soil seed bank is recruited, it helps to restore only some components of the plant community in an alluvial environment. In our current research, it was confirmed that seed richness was higher in number at lower elevation (alluvial) than that at high elevation (piedmont). Seed richness showed a significant negative correlation with anions, cations, while significantly positive with altitude that suggests the richness pattern of the overall seed bank of the area is influenced by various environmental factors.


Resumo O foco atual está no padrão geral de armazenamento de sementes presente nos fragmentos de solo do Piemonte e nas paisagens aluviais do meio ambiente. O presente estudo previu os bancos de sementes de ambos os solos das zonas aluvial e piemontesa em diferentes condições ecológicas e avaliou o potencial das sementes na restauração de ambos os ambientes. A composição do banco de sementes do solo é afetada principalmente pelo ambiente aluvial e a estrutura da área desmatada mostra que mais espécies de gramíneas anuais em germinação e sementes cultiváveis ​​apresentam o maior número total. As estruturas da vegetação existente têm um papel importante na diversidade dos reservatórios de sementes do solo, cuja composição correspondeu à abertura do local. Quando o banco de sementes do solo in situ é recrutado, o mesmo ajuda a restaurar apenas alguns componentes da comunidade de plantas em um ambiente aluvial. Em nossa pesquisa atual, foi confirmado que a riqueza de sementes era maior em número em altitudes mais baixas (aluviais) do que em altitudes elevadas (Piemonte). A riqueza de sementes mostrou uma correlação negativa significativa com ânions, cátions, enquanto significativamente positiva com a altitude, o que sugere que o padrão de riqueza do banco geral de sementes da área é influenciado por vários fatores ambientais.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Banco de Semillas , Pakistán , Plantas , Semillas , Ecosistema , Poaceae
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245862, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339337

RESUMEN

Abstract Except for a few stick insects that are economically valuable, most species be considered to be forest pests, so it is extremely important to obtain plant host-use information of more stick insects. In this paper, the plant hosts of three species of stick insects were recorded for the first time. We also discovered these stick insects can feed upon the flowers or leaves of plants. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Hypericum choisianum Wall. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) attacked Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) and Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) attacked Debregeasia orientalis C. J. Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finally, we were lucky enough to also obtain photographs of them mating and feeding.


Resumo Exceto por alguns insetos-pau que são economicamente valiosos, a maioria das espécies pode ser considerada praga florestal, por isso é extremamente importante obter informações sobre o uso de hospedeiros de plantas de mais insetos-pau. Neste artigo, as plantas hospedeiras de três espécies de bicho-pau foram registradas pela primeira vez. Também descobrimos que esses bichos-pau podem se alimentar de flores ou folhas de plantas. Lopaphus unidentatus (Chen & He, 1995) (Phasmida: Lonchodidae) atacou a parede de Hypericum choisianum. ex N. Robson, 1973 (Hypericaceae), Leurophasma dolichocercum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Aschiphasmatidae) atacou Antenoron filiforme (Thunb.) Roberty & Vautier, 1964 (Polygonaceae) e Megalophasma granulatum Bi, 1995 (Phasmida: Lonchodidae orientaled) atacou Chen, 1991 (Urticaceae). Finalmente, tivemos a sorte de também obter fotos deles se acasalando e se alimentando.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Plantas , Insectos , Tibet , Hojas de la Planta , Flores
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244732, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278538

RESUMEN

Abstract Some studies report the positive effect of organic residues from ant nests on soil properties and on the structure of the adjacent plant community in field experiments, but there is a gap about the effect on individual species. The purpose of the present study was to compare the soil nutrient content and the development of Turnera subulata Smith, an ornamental species, in the presence of the nest refuse (basically composed of fragments of grass leaves and the symbiotic fungus) produced by the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) or in control soil through a greenhouse pot experiment. The experiment was carried out with two treatments: control soil and soil with 25% of nest refuse. The plants were kept in 1L pots for 90 days. We evaluated the parameters: plant height, stem diameter, root length, number of leaves, dry weight of the root, dry and fresh aboveground biomass. Additionally, the relative chlorophyll content and leaf nutrients were used as nutritional parameters. As a result, plants that grew in the soil with nest refuse showed significant higher values of all parameters evaluated when compared to the control treatment (p < 0.001). We conclude that this biofertilizer contributed to the production of more vigorous plants, being able to act on the local dynamics of nutrients in the ecosystems where A. balzani occurs. As it is relatively abundant and easy to collect, the refuse of A. balzani has the potential to be used as an alternative substrate in the production of shortlife cycle plants.


Resumo Alguns estudos relatam o efeito positivo de resíduos orgânicos de formigueiros nas propriedades do solo e na estrutura da comunidade de plantas adjacentes em experimentos de campo, mas há uma lacuna sobre o efeito em espécies individuais. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desenvolvimento de Turnera subulata Smith, uma espécie ornamental, na presença do substrato de descarte (SD) de formigueiros produzido pela formiga cortadeira Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890) por meio de experimento em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido com dois tratamentos: solo controle e solo com 25% de SD. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de 1L por 90 dias. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, comprimento da raiz, número de folhas, massa seca da raiz, biomassa seca e fresca da parte aérea. Além disso, o conteúdo relativo de clorofila e os nutrientes foliares foram usados como parâmetros fisiológicos. Como resultado, as plantas que cresceram no solo com SD apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de todos os parâmetros avaliados quando comparadas ao tratamento controle (p < 0.001). Concluímos que esse biofertilizante contribuiu para a produção de plantas mais vigorosas, podendo atuar na dinâmica local de nutrientes nos ecossistemas onde A. balzani ocorre. Além disso, por ser relativamente abundante e fácil de coletar, o SD de A. balzani tem potencial para ser utilizado como biofertilizante na produção de plantas de ciclo de vida curta.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Hormigas , Turnera , Plantas , Suelo , Simbiosis , Ecosistema , Hojas de la Planta
5.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 222-228, 2022 02 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864970

RESUMEN

The invasive spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula, (White Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) continues to spread throughout the Eastern United States. This species exhibits a broad host range, with tree of heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, commonly referred to as the preferred host. Here, we evaluated 2-wk survivorship of early nymphal instars, late nymphal instars, and adult L. delicatula on single diets of ten wild and cultivated hosts: tree of heaven; apple, Malus domestica; peach, Prunus persica; black cherry, P. serotina Ehrh; black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia L.; black walnut, Juglans nigra L.; common hackberry Celtis occidentalis L.; mulberry Morus alba L.; sugar maple Acer saccharum Marshall; white oak, Quercus alba L.. Among them, early and late instars had significantly greater survivorship on tree of heaven and black walnut and adults had greatest survivorship on tree of heaven. Additionally, we evaluated development and survivorship of L. delicatula from newly hatched nymphs to adulthood on single diets of tree of heaven, black walnut, grapevine, apple, and peach, and mixed diets of tree of heaven plus one other host. Single host diets that supported L. delicatula development to adulthood were tree of heaven and black walnut. Interestingly, mixed diets also supported development, and reduced development time to adults by up to 12% compared with the single tree of heaven diet. Our results suggest that within agroecosystems and across landscapes, L. delicatula can develop on single hosts such as tree of heaven, but also on multiple host plants, yielding adults earlier in the growing season.


Asunto(s)
Ailanthus , Hemípteros , Animales , Ninfa , Plantas , Supervivencia
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 878-886, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543037

RESUMEN

Grasslands in Qilian Mountains plays an important role in maintaining the ecological security of western China. To understand soil physical and chemical properties and the distribution characteristics of vegetation, as well as their correlation in different types of grasslands in Qilian Mountains, we measured soil moisture, nutrient content, bulk density, particle composition, and vegetation characteristics in seven types of grassland in Qilian Mountains. The fractal dimension of soil particles, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus storages in 0-40 cm soil layer, and plant diversity index were calculated. The results showed that there were significant differences in soil physical and chemical properties and vegetation characteristics among different grassland types. Compared with other types of grassland, alpine meadow had higher soil water, nutrient and clay content, but lower bulk density and sand content. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus storages in 0-40 cm layer ranged from 3084 to 45247, 164 to 2358 and 100 to 319 g·m-2, respectively, with high contents of organic carbon and total nitrogen and low content of total phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between soil total phosphorus storage and plant diversity index, indicating that soil total phosphorus content was the key factor affec-ting grassland plant diversity in Qilian Mountains. Compared with other grassland types, alpine meadow in Qilian Mountains had better vegetation status, soil moisture, and nutrient conditions.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Suelo , Carbono/análisis , China , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo , Plantas , Suelo/química
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 887-893, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543038

RESUMEN

An indoor potted experiment was carried out to study the application effects of water-based waste drilling mud (WBDM) and drill cuttings combined with humic acid and woody peat in aeolian sandy soil.We analyze their effects on the growth of spinach, in order to provide a reference for the resource utilization of drilling waste and the improvement of aeolian sandy soil. A total of three individual experiments were set up: 4 treatments in the basic group, taking aeolian sandy soil as the control (CK), mixing aeolian sandy soil and drill cuttings at a mass ratio of 1:1, then added with 0, 2%, and 4% WBDM (dry basis) respectively. The basic group treatment was added with 1% humic acid, 1% humic acid+3% woody peat mixture respectively, as the humic acid group and woody peat group. The results showed that in the basic group, drilling waste application significantly increased soil organic matter content (SOM), pH and electrical conductivity, the 2% WBDM significantly promoted the growth of spinach. Humic acid and woody peat reduced soil pH and increased SOM content and electrical conductivity. Plant growth indicators such as plant height, total leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of the humic acid group were higher than the corresponding treatments in the basic group. The mixed addition of humic acid and woody peat did not affect plant growth. The treatment with the best performance was to add 2% WBDM to the humic acid group, and the SOM was 13.1 g·kg-1, spinach's plant height, total leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight significantly increased by 49.7%, 93.4%, 83.3%, and 34.6% than CK after 40 days of sowing. The application of drilling waste with organic matter could significantly increase SOM content and promote spinach growth. Aeolian sandy soil + drill cuttings + WBDM (2%) + humic acid (1%) was the best combination mode.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Sustancias Húmicas , Plantas , Arena , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Spinacia oleracea
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 981-987, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543050

RESUMEN

Potassium (K) is the second most abundant nutrient in plant leaves after nitrogen (N) and the most abundant cation in plant cells. It plays an important role in plant growth regulation, homeostasis maintenance, and stress response. Previous studies on the effects of N input on plant nutrient status mainly focus on N and phosphorus (P), but less on K and its stoichiometry. We examined the effects of N input and mowing on K content and N:K at both plant functional group and community levels. We analyzed the relative contribution of changes in functional groups and community composition to changes of community level nutrition status. The results showed that N input increased N content of each plant functional group and increased K content of rhizomatous grasses and legumes. Mowing reduced N content of rhizomatous grasses and bunchgrass, but did not affect K content and N:K of all functional groups. Nitrogen input significantly increased plant N and K contents at the community level, while mowing significantly increased plant N content. Both N input and mowing did not affect plant N:K at functional group and community levels. The contribution of nutritional changes in plant functional groups to the variation at the community level was greater than that of changes in community composition. For all the three examined nutritional traits, the contribution of nutrients at functional group level and that of community composition showed negative covariation. Our results indicated that plant N:K had high homeostasis in meadow steppe and that plants could regulate N and K balance, which was of great significance for maintaining N:K stoichiometry under the background of increasing N deposition.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Nitrógeno , China , Ecosistema , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo , Plantas , Poaceae , Potasio , Suelo
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(4): 988-994, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543051

RESUMEN

We examined the effects of different regulation measures (spring rest grazing, spring rest grazing-cutting turf, spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization, spring rest grazing-cutting turf-sowing, spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization-sowing) on vegetation, soil physical and chemical properties, and soil microbial biomass in mode-rately degraded alpine meadow in Qilian Mountain. The results showed that all the regulation measures significantly increased plant coverage and aboveground and underground biomass of degraded alpine meadows. Plant species richness increased significantly under the two measures of spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization and spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization-sowing. The dominant species of spring rest grazing-cutting turf-sowing and spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization-sowing was Poa pratensis cv. Qinghai. Soil pH and bulk density in moderately degraded alpine meadow (control) were significantly higher than those of all regulation measures. Soil water content, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total potassium, carbon-nitrogen ratio and nitrogen-phosphorus ratio of spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization-sowing measures were the highest, which were 21.3%, 22.30 g·kg-1, 2.77 g·kg-1, 19.93 g·kg-1, 8.3 and 3.5, respectively. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen and phosphorus (104.98 and 40.74 mg·kg-1) of degraded meadows under spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization-sowing measures were significantly higher than those of other measures, while soil microbial biomass carbon (240.72 mg·kg-1) of degraded meadows under spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization measures was significantly higher than that of other measures. The results of radar map showed that the regulation measures affected the characteristics of degra-ded meadow vegetation (aboveground and underground biomass), soil physical and chemical properties (water content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium) and soil microbial biomass (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus). Spring rest grazing-cutting turf-fertilization-sowing measures had the best performance in restoraing degraded meadows in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Suelo , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , China , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/química , Plantas , Potasio , Suelo/química , Agua
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(6): 401, 2022 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505172

RESUMEN

Plant invasion is recognized as the second most severe threat to biodiversity, following habitat loss. As one of the world's worst invasive alien plant species, Prosopis juliflora (Mesquite) has severely affected the majority of the Earth's dry ecosystems. Hence, this study attempted to identify the distribution, dominance, and changes in the vegetation characteristics of Mesquite-invaded regions along a series of coastal ecosystems in Southern Iran. Mesquite and other tree/shrub types were successfully classified using a temporarily-median-filtered Landsat 8-OLI image with acceptable kappa coefficient and overall accuracy values of 80.66 and 84.75, respectively. The multi-resolution segmentation was used to divide the region into spectrally homogenous parcels, then calculating the percentage cover (dominance) of Mesquite relative to other tree/shrub types. Analysis of MODIS NDVI products in highly invaded parcels showed a steady increase in NDVI values from 0.27 to 0.53 during 2000-2020 with a significant difference (z = -3.12, 0.183, sig ≤ .05, 2-tailed) from that of the low-invaded regions whose NDVI values oscillated constantly in a range between 0.15 and 0.28. Mesquite distribution also showed a local invasion pattern from areas with a steady or saturated status to neighboring parcels. In regions susceptible to Mesquite invasion, constant investigation of uncommon changes in NDVI whose vegetation characteristics differ significantly from that expected in poor dry vegetation covers of southern Iran can be considered as a conservation tool to identify and manage areas with early Mesquite establishment.


Asunto(s)
Prosopis , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán , Plantas , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Árboles
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2521, 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534474

RESUMEN

It seems intuitively obvious that species diversity promotes functional diversity: communities with more plant species imply more varied plant leaf chemistry, more species of crops provide more kinds of food, etc. Recent literature has nuanced this view, showing how the relationship between the two can be modulated along latitudinal or environmental gradients. Here we show that even without such effects, the evolution of functional trait variance can erase or even reverse the expected positive relationship between species- and functional diversity. We present theory showing that trait-based eco-evolutionary processes force species to evolve narrower trait breadths in more tightly packed, species-rich communities, in their effort to avoid competition with neighboring species. This effect is so strong that it leads to an overall reduction in trait space coverage whenever a new species establishes. Empirical data from land snail communities on the Galápagos Islands are consistent with this claim. The finding that the relationship between species- and functional diversity can be negative implies that trait data from species-poor communities may misjudge functional diversity in species-rich ones, and vice versa.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Plantas , Ecuador , Fenotipo , Hojas de la Planta/genética , Plantas/genética
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210423, 2022 06 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491589

RESUMEN

Many environmental factors impact plant and pollinator communities. However, variation in soil moisture and how it mediates the plant-pollinator interactions has yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that long-term variation in soil moisture can exert a strong selective pressure on the floral and vegetative traits of plants, leading to changes in pollinator visitation. We demonstrated that there are three phenotypic populations of Gentiana aristata in our study alpine region in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that vary in floral colour and other traits. Pink (dry habitat) and blue (intermediate habitat) flower populations are visited primarily by bumblebees, and white (wet habitat) flower populations are visited by flies. These patterns of visitation are driven by vegetative and floral traits and are constant when non-endemic plants are placed in the intermediate habitats. Additionally, the floral communities in different habitats vary, with more insect-pollinated forbs in the dry and intermediate habitats versus the wet habitats. Through a common garden and reciprocal transplant experiment, we demonstrated that plant growth traits, pollinator attractiveness and seed production are highest when the plant population is raised in its endemic habitat. This suggests that these plant populations have evolved to pollinator communities associated with habitat differences. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Asunto(s)
Magnoliopsida , Animales , Flores , Plantas , Polinización , Suelo
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210155, 2022 06 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491594

RESUMEN

Floral nectar is prone to colonization by nectar-adapted yeasts and bacteria via air-, rain-, and animal-mediated dispersal. Upon colonization, microbes can modify nectar chemical constituents that are plant-provisioned or impart their own through secretion of metabolic by-products or antibiotics into the nectar environment. Such modifications can have consequences for pollinator perception of nectar quality, as microbial metabolism can leave a distinct imprint on olfactory and gustatory cues that inform foraging decisions. Furthermore, direct interactions between pollinators and nectar microbes, as well as consumption of modified nectar, have the potential to affect pollinator health both positively and negatively. Here, we discuss and integrate recent findings from research on plant-microbe-pollinator interactions and their consequences for pollinator health. We then explore future avenues of research that could shed light on the myriad ways in which nectar microbes can affect pollinator health, including the taxonomic diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate pollinators that rely on this reward. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias , Néctar de las Plantas , Animales , Bacterias/metabolismo , Néctar de las Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas , Olfato
14.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2071024, 2022 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506344

RESUMEN

Members of the SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family are plant-specific serine or threonine kinases that play a pivotal role in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Members of this plant-specific kinase family have included a critical regulator (SnRK2) of abscisic acid (ABA) response in plants. Plant organ development is governed substantially by the interaction of the SnRK2 and the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Recent research has revealed a synergistic link between SnRK2 and ABA signaling in a plant's response to stress such as drought and shoot growth. SnRK2 kinases play a dual role in the control of SnRK1 and the development of a plant. The dual role of SnRK2 kinases promotes plant growth under optimal conditions and in the absence of ABA while inhibiting the growth of plants in response to ABA. In this review, we have uncovered the roles of ABA-activated SnRK2 kinases in plants, as well as their physiological mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/farmacología , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal/fisiología
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2502, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523780

RESUMEN

Competition plays an important role in shaping species' spatial distributions. However, it remains unclear where and how competition regulates species' range limits. In a field experiment with plants originating from low and high elevations and conducted across an elevation gradient in the Swiss Alps, we find that both lowland and highland species can better persist in the presence of competition within, rather than beyond, their elevation ranges. These findings suggest that competition helps set both lower and upper elevation range limits of these species. Furthermore, the reduced ability of pairs of lowland or highland species to coexist beyond their range edges is mainly driven by diminishing niche differences; changes in both niche differences and relative fitness differences drive weakening competitive dominance of lowland over highland species with increasing elevation. These results highlight the need to account for competitive interactions and investigate underlying coexistence mechanisms to understand current and future species distributions.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Plantas
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2498, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523798

RESUMEN

Plants generate motion by absorbing and releasing water. Many Asteraceae plants, such as the dandelion, have a hairy pappus that can close depending on moisture levels to modify dispersal. Here we demonstrate the relationship between structure and function of the underlying hygroscopic actuator. By investigating the structure and properties of the actuator cell walls, we identify the mechanism by which the dandelion pappus closes. We developed a structural computational model that can capture observed pappus closing and used it to explore the critical design features. We find that the actuator relies on the radial arrangement of vascular bundles and surrounding tissues around a central cavity. This allows heterogeneous swelling in a radially symmetric manner to co-ordinate movements of the hairs attached at the upper flank. This actuator is a derivative of bilayer structures, which is radial and can synchronise the movement of a planar or lateral attachment. The simple, material-based mechanism presents a promising biomimetic potential in robotics and functional materials.


Asunto(s)
Robótica , Taraxacum , Biomimética , Movimiento (Física) , Plantas
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7421, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523906

RESUMEN

The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the proteins are very important parameters that control their subcellular localization and subsequent function. Although the genome sequence data of the plant kingdom improved enormously, the proteomic details have been poorly elaborated. Therefore, we have calculated the molecular weight and isoelectric point of the plant proteins and reported them in this database. A database, PlantMWpIDB, containing protein data from 342 plant proteomes was created to provide information on plant proteomes for hypothesis formulation in basic research and for biotechnological applications. The Molecular weight and isoelectric point (pI) are important molecular parameters of proteins that are useful when conducting protein studies involving 2D gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and X-ray protein crystallography. PlantMWpIDB provides an easy-to-use and efficient interface for search options and generates a summary of basic protein parameters. The database represents a virtual 2D proteome map of plants, and the molecular weight and pI of a protein can be obtained by searching on the name of a protein, a keyword, or by a list of accession numbers. The PlantMWpIDB database also allows one to query protein sequences. The database can be found in the following link https://plantmwpidb.com/ . The individual 2D virtual proteome map of the plant kingdom will enable us to understand the proteome diversity between different species. Further, the molecular weight and isoelectric point of individual proteins can enable us to understand their functional significance in different species.


Asunto(s)
Proteoma , Proteómica , Bases de Datos de Proteínas , Electroforesis en Gel Bidimensional , Focalización Isoeléctrica , Punto Isoeléctrico , Peso Molecular , Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteómica/métodos
18.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 424, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523944

RESUMEN

Research on successions and community assembly both address the same processes such as dispersal, species sorting, and biotic interactions but lack unifying concepts. Recent theoretical advances integrated both research lines proposing a sequence of stochastic and deterministic processes along successional gradients. Shifts in ecosystem states along successional gradients are predicted to occur abruptly once abiotic and biotic factors dominate over dispersal as main driver. Considering the multidiversity composed of five organismal groups including plants, animals, and microbes, our results imply that stochastic, likely dispersal-dominated, processes are replaced by rather deterministic processes such as environmental filtering and biotic interactions after around 60 years of succession in a glacier forefield. The niche-based character of later successional processes is further supported by a decline in multi-beta-diversity. Our results may update concepts of community assembly by considering multiple taxa, help to bridge the gap between research on successions and community assembly, and provide insights into the emergence of multidiverse and complex ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Plantas , Animales , Cubierta de Hielo , Procesos Estocásticos
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7451, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523988

RESUMEN

Microbial life in soil is fueled by dissolved organic matter (DOM) that leaches from the litter layer. It is well known that decomposer communities adapt to the available litter source, but it remains unclear if they functionally compete or synergistically address different litter types. Therefore, we decomposed beech, oak, pine and grass litter from two geologically distinct sites in a lab-scale decomposition experiment. We performed a correlative network analysis on the results of direct infusion HR-MS DOM analysis and cross-validated functional predictions from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and with DOM and metaproteomic analyses. Here we show that many functions are redundantly distributed within decomposer communities and that their relative expression is rapidly optimized to address litter-specific properties. However, community changes are likely forced by antagonistic mechanisms as we identified several natural antibiotics in DOM. As a consequence, the decomposer community is specializing towards the litter source and the state of decomposition (community divergence) but showing similar litter metabolomes (metabolome convergence). Our multi-omics-based results highlight that DOM not only fuels microbial life, but it additionally holds meta-metabolomic information on the functioning of ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Microbiota , 2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2489: 369-393, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524060

RESUMEN

Plant natural products (PNPs) are valuable resources for the development of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, yet the biosynthesis and metabolism of PNPs are largely unknown. Heterologous pathway reconstitution is a heavily adopted strategy in secondary metabolism characterization. Yeast systems have been broadly utilized in the heterologous production of PNPs and have been considered as a promising platform to investigate plant biosynthetic pathways. Here, we describe the reconstitution and verification of the upstream part of brassinolide biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae using this method.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos , Vías Biosintéticas , Productos Biológicos/metabolismo , Vías Biosintéticas/genética , Expresión Génica , Ingeniería Metabólica/métodos , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
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