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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 144902, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636760

RESUMEN

Antibiotics are considered one of the greatest advances of medicine and, in addition to their use in treating a wide spectrum of illnesses, they have been widely employed to promote animal growth. As many of those pharmaceuticals are only partially absorbed by the digestive system, a considerable fraction is excreted in its original active form or only partially metabolized. Therefore, the use of animal excrement in agriculture represents one of the principal routes of insertion of antibiotics into the environment. Within that context, plants, principally those of agricultural interest, will be exposed to those compounds when present in the soil or when irrigated with contaminated water. Although not yet fully understood, there are reports of phytotoxic effects of antibiotics that can diminish agricultural production. This review is designed to provide a general and integrative overview of physiological alterations observed in plants caused by environmental exposures to veterinary-use antibiotics. This text principally focuses on the processes involved in antibody absorption and accumulation, and their effects on the primary (photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen assimilation) and oxidative metabolisms of plants. We also bring attention to germinative and plant establishment processes under conditions of antibiotic contamination. The different effects of different antibiotics on plant physiology are listed here to provide a better understanding of their phytotoxicities.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Agricultura , Animales , Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Plantas , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 767: 145439, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636782

RESUMEN

Reynoutria japonica is one of the most invasive plant species. Its success in new habitats may be associated with the release of secondary metabolites. The aim of this study was to compare phenolic concentrations in plant biomass and soils between plots with R. japonica and resident plants (control), and determine the effects of these compounds on soil microbial communities. Samples of plant shoots and rhizomes/roots, and soil were collected from 25 paired plots in fallow and riparian habitats in Poland. We measured concentrations of total phenolics, condensed tannins, catechin, chlorogenic acid, emodin, epicatechin, hyperoside, physcion, piceatannol, polydatin, procyanidin B3, quercetin, resveratrol, and resveratroloside. Soil microbial parameters were represented by acid and alkaline phosphomonoesterases, ß-glucosidase, phenoloxidase, and peroxidase activity, culturable bacteria activity and functional diversity measured with Biolog Ecoplates, and microbial biomass and community structure measured with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. We found that concentrations of total phenolics and condensed tannins were very high in R. japonica leaves and rhizomes/roots, and concentrations of most phenolic compounds were very high in R. japonica rhizomes/roots when compared to resident plant species. Concentrations of most phenolics in mineral soil did not differ between R. japonica and control plots; the only exceptions were catechin and resveratrol which were higher and lower, respectively, under the invader. Total microbial and bacterial (G+, G-) biomass was decreased by approx. 30% and fungal biomass by approx. 25% in invaded soils in comparison to control. Among soil functional microbial parameters, only peroxidase activity and functional diversity differed between R. japonica and resident plant plots; peroxidase activity was higher, while functional diversity was lower in soil under R. japonica. The negative effects of R. japonica on microbial biomass may be related to catechin or its polymers (proanthocyanidins) or to other phenolics contained in high concentrations in R. japonica rhizomes.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Suelo , Biomasa , Hongos , Plantas , Polonia , Microbiología del Suelo
3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 160: 239-256, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524921

RESUMEN

High salt concentrations in the growing medium can severely affect the growth and development of plants. It is imperative to understand the different components of salt-tolerant network in plants in order to produce the salt-tolerant cultivars. High-affinity potassium transporter- and myelocytomatosis proteins have been shown to play a critical role for salinity tolerance through exclusion of sodium (Na+) ions from sensitive shoot tissues in plants. Numerous genes, that limit the uptake of salts from soil and their transport throughout the plant body, adjust the ionic and osmotic balance of cells in roots and shoots. In the present review, we have tried to provide a comprehensive report of major research advances on different mechanisms regulating plant tolerance to salinity stress at proteomics, metabolomics, genomics and transcriptomics levels. Along with the role of ionic homeostasis, a major focus was given on other salinity tolerance mechanisms in plants including osmoregulation and osmo-protection, cell wall remodeling and integrity, and plant antioxidative defense. Major proteins and genes expressed under salt-stressed conditions and their role in enhancing salinity tolerance in plants are discussed as well. Moreover, this manuscript identifies and highlights the key questions on plant salinity tolerance that remain to be discussed in the future.


Asunto(s)
Plantas/química , Potasio/química , Salinidad , Tolerancia a la Sal , Sodio/química , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Iones
4.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 831-840, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617490

RESUMEN

For large rivers with a compound cross section, the downstream channel has a very wide water surface during the flood season. A wide water surface, high water level, and larger wind speed will cause higher waves, increasing the threat of flooding to the dike. The design of a combined-vegetation wave break forest was put forward to achieve better wave attenuation effect. The main idea of this concept is to plant different types of vegetation at different locations in front of the dike. Three single-vegetation and four combined-vegetation forest schemes were tested under seven different water depth conditions. Both physical experiments and wave numerical simulations were carried out for each scheme to study the wave attenuation effect. The results showed that the wave attenuation effect of the single-vegetation wave break forest was significantly different under different water depth conditions, and the overall effect of the combined-vegetation of wave forest was better. Combined-vegetation wave break forests combine the advantages of different types of vegetation in different water levels, which makes it more economical and reasonable to plant by rivers with large water level variation. The proposed design ideas and methods could provide theoretical support for ecological revetment engineering of large rivers and insights for practical applications.


Asunto(s)
Inundaciones , Bosques , Plantas , Ríos , Agua
5.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116526, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545523

RESUMEN

Accumulation of metals by plants is an important area of investigation in plant ecology and evolution as well as in soil contamination/phytoremediation practices. This paper reports that hormetic-biphasic dose-response relationships were commonly observed for multiple agents (i.e. arsenic, cadmium, chromium, fluoride, lead, and zinc) and 20 species in plant (hyper)accumulator studies. The hormetic stimulation was related to metal accumulation in affected tissues, with the metal stimulation concentration zone unique for each metal, species, tissue, and endpoint studied. However, quantitative features of the hormetic dose response were similar across all (hyper)accumulation studies, with results independent of plant species, endpoints measured, and metal. The dose-dependent stimulatory and inhibitory/toxic plant responses were often associated with the up- and down-regulation of adaptive mechanisms, especially those involving anti-oxidative enzymatic processes. These findings provide a mechanistic framework to account for both the qualitative and quantitative features of the hormetic dose response in plant (hyper)accumulator studies.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Hormesis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Cadmio , Plantas
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 160: 386-396, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556754

RESUMEN

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide at low concentrations act as signaling of several abiotic stresses. Overproduction of hydrogen peroxide causes the oxidation of plant cell lipid phosphate layer promoting senescence and cell death. To mitigate the effect of ROS, plants develop antioxidant defense mechanisms (superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase), ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (ASA-GSH) (ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase), which have the function of removing and transforming ROS into non-toxic substances to maintain cellular homeostasis. Foliar or soil application of fertilizers containing B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn at low concentrations has the ability to elicit and activate antioxidative enzymes, non-oxidizing metabolism, as well as sugar metabolism to mitigate damage by oxidative stress. Plants treated with micronutrients show higher tolerance to abiotic stress and better nutritional status. In this review, we summarized results indicating micronutrient actions in order to reduce ROS resulting the increase of photosynthetic capacity of plants for greater crop yield. This meta-analysis provides information on the mechanism of action of micronutrients in combating ROS, which can make plants more tolerant to several types of abiotic stress such as extreme temperatures, salinity, heavy metals and excess light.


Asunto(s)
Fertilizantes , Micronutrientes , Plantas , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Estrés Fisiológico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidasas/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
7.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(2): 161-171, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559745

RESUMEN

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are suggested to be important for invasions by many exotic plants. However, it is not yet known how associations between AMF and invasive plant populations change in mountains ranges and how changed associations affect further expansion of different populations in new habitats. We conducted a field survey to detect AMF colonization rate of the invasive Galinsoga quadriradiata along an elevational gradient ranging from 223 to 1947 masl in the Qinling and Bashan Mountains, China. Additionally, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare plant growth performance among five elevational populations. In the field, total plant mass and seed production, as well as root AMF colonization rate, significantly decreased with elevation. When populations were grown in a novel soil environment in the greenhouse, the high-altitude populations achieved higher seed and total mass at lower AMF colonization rate than the low-altitude populations. Moreover, high AMF association was related to high intraspecific competition within low-altitude populations and limited seed production. Our results revealed that the associations between AMF and G. quadriradiata decrease with altitude in mountain ranges, and this may indicate that differentiation of association between AMF and elevational populations occurs during range expansion of G. quadriradiata. The results of the greenhouse experiment suggest that the high-altitude populations are more aggressive than the low-altitude populations in a non-stressful environment.


Asunto(s)
Micorrizas , Altitud , China , Raíces de Plantas , Plantas
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 765: 142786, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572039

RESUMEN

Plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) is a sustainable technology that can convert sunlight to electricity through the integration of plants, microorganism and electrode systems. Urban greening, such as green roofs, is considered as one of the measures to resolve the urban heat island effect caused by the increasing urbanization. In this study, PMFCs were installed as green roofs in a subtropical metropolis. During the operation, the biomass of Chinese pennisetum, Dwarf rotala, and Narrowleaf cattail increased from spring to summer. Furthermore, the maximum daily average output voltage of Chinese pennisetum and Narrowleaf cattail PMFCs was 667.94 ± 128.65 mV in March and 451.12 ± 94.37 mV in June, respectively. For no plant conditions, the maximum daily average output voltage of soil MFCs was 243.70 ± 128.93 mV in March and 100.16 ± 23.43 mV in June. However, little output voltage of Dwarf rotala PMFCs indicated different plant species in PMFC systems would result in varied efficiencies of electricity generation. The trends of electricity generation in Chinese pennisetum and Narrowleaf cattail PMFCs were influenced by net solar radiation and air temperature, respectively according to the results of correlation analysis. The PMFCs based green roofs could lower the temperature of underneath floor slabs as many as 24.81 °C and 29.37 °C compared with bare slabs at noon in March and June. Vegetation of the PMFCs could relieve soil heat flux, and simulated results showed Chinese pennisetum PMFCs with higher vegetation had lower U-value for energy savings of air conditioning. Microbial community analysis showed Geobacter was among the dominant genera and had higher relative abundance in anode soils than cathode soils in Chinese pennisetum and Narrowleaf cattail PMFCs, which generated higher output voltage. Our roof-top research demonstrated that using PMFCs based green roofs for urban greening is promising and warrants the potential for future application.


Asunto(s)
Fuentes de Energía Bioeléctrica , Ciudades , Calor , Plantas , Suelo
9.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112005, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540197

RESUMEN

Even though a growing amount of information about the effects of livestock grazing on soil microbial communities have accumulated in literature, less is known about the combined response of plants, soil properties, and their interactions with soil microbes. In this study, we used a seven-year controlled grazing experiment to quantify the response of plant and soil properties and their interactions with soil microbial communities to moderate grazing in a semiarid grassland of Northern China. Our results showed that moderate grazing reduced the richness and diversity of soil microbial communities, as well as weakened community interactions. However, bacterial communities and their linkages were more stable under moderate grazing than fungal communities. Changes in aboveground plant biomass, soil water content, NO3--N, and NO3/NH4 ratio dominated grazing effects on soil bacterial communities, while fungal communities were mainly influenced by plant N, soil NO3--N, and NO3/NH4 ratio. Changes in the plant community composition played a key role in driving the composition of the fungal community. Our results provide a new insight into the response of soil microbes to moderate grazing, and suggest that above- and belowground communities should be considered to be precise indicators of the state and characteristics of the grassland ecosystem.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Suelo , Animales , China , Ecosistema , Pradera , Plantas , Microbiología del Suelo
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 326: 124750, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517048

RESUMEN

This review illustrated the role of metal-binding proteins (MBPs) and microbial interaction in assisting the phytoremediation of industrial wastewater polluted with heavy metals. MBPs are used to increase the accumulation and tolerance of metals by microorganisms via binding protein synthesis. Microbes have various protection mechanisms to heavy metals stress like compartmentalization, exclusion, complexity rendering, and the synthesis of binding proteins. MBPs include phytochelatins, metallothioneins, Cd-binding peptides (CdBPs), cysteines (gcgcpcgcg) (CP), and histidines (ghhphg)2 (HP). In comparison with other physico-chemical methods, phytoremediation is an eco-friendly and safe method for the society. The present review concentrated on the efficiency of phytoremediation strategies for the use of MBPs and microbe-assisted approaches.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Microbiota , Contaminantes del Suelo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Proteínas Portadoras , Metales Pesados/análisis , Plantas/metabolismo , Aguas Residuales
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111739, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396067

RESUMEN

Ultraviolet-B is an important fraction of sunlight which influences the plant performance either positively or adversely in terms of growth, physiology, biochemistry, and major active compounds. The static nature of plants constrains them to be subjected to various adverse environmental conditions. Several studies performed with plants and UV-B with fewer reports are available on medicinal plants having rhizome. The present study focuses on transformation induced in two Curcuma spp. (C. caesia and C. longa) under the influence of elevated UV-B (eUV-B) (ambient ±9.6 kJ m-2 d-1) under natural field conditions to analyse the changes in physiological, biochemical and essential oil of the test plants. eUV-B significantly reduced the photosynthetic activities such as photosynthetic rate (Ps), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), internal CO2 (Ci), and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) with higher reductions in C. longa as compared to C. caesia. The enzymatic activities of PAL, CHI, and CAD showed higher stimulation in C. caesia whereas C. longa showed increment only in CAD. The essential oil content was increased by 16% and 9% in C. caesia and C. longa, respectively. C. caesia showed increased monoterpenes than sesquiterpenes, whereas almost equal increase of both the terpenoid found in C. longa. C. caesia showed induction of aromatic compounds (epiglobulol, germacrene, 4-terpineol), whereas anticancerous compounds; aphla-terpinolene (61%), beta-caryophyllene (60%), and beta-sesquiphellandrene (32%) were increased in C. longa. C. caesia acted well in terms of both physiology and major active compound (1, 8-cineole), but overall most of the compounds increased in C. longa under eUV-B.


Asunto(s)
Curcuma/efectos de la radiación , Rayos Ultravioleta , Curcuma/química , Curcuma/fisiología , Aceites Volátiles/farmacología , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales , Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Rizoma/química , Terpenos
12.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513822

RESUMEN

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a widely distributed polymer found from bacteria to animals, including marine species. This polymer exhibits morphogenetic as well as antiviral activity and releases metabolic energy after enzymatic hydrolysis also in human cells. In the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the platelets are at the frontline of this syndrome. Platelets release a set of molecules, among them polyP. In addition, the production of airway mucus, the first line of body defense, is impaired in those patients. Therefore, in this study, amorphous nanoparticles of the magnesium salt of polyP (Mg-polyP-NP), matching the size of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were prepared and loaded with the secondary plant metabolite quercetin or with dexamethasone to study their effects on the respiratory epithelium using human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. The results revealed that both compounds embedded into the polyP nanoparticles significantly increased the steady-state-expression of the MUC5AC gene. This mucin species is the major mucus glycoprotein present in the secreted gel-forming mucus. The level of gene expression caused by quercetin or with dexamethasone, if caged into polyP NP, is significantly higher compared to the individual drugs alone. Both quercetin and dexamethasone did not impair the growth-supporting effect of polyP on A549 cells even at concentrations of quercetin which are cytotoxic for the cells. A possible mechanism of the effects of the two drugs together with polyP on mucin expression is proposed based on the scavenging of free oxygen species and the generation of ADP/ATP from the polyP, which is needed for the organization of the protective mucin-based mucus layer.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Dexametasona/farmacología , Mucina 5AC/biosíntesis , Mucina 5AC/efectos de los fármacos , Quercetina/farmacología , Células A549 , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Dexametasona/química , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/farmacología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Magnesio/química , Mucina 5AC/genética , Mucinas/biosíntesis , Mucinas/química , Nanopartículas , Tamaño de la Partícula , Plantas/química , Polifosfatos/química , Quercetina/química , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111757, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396080

RESUMEN

A pot study was performed to assess the phytoremedial potential of Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Staf. for reclamation of coal mine overburden dump wastes, emphasizing the outcome of amendment practices using cow dung manure (CM) and garden soil mixtures on the revegetation of over-burden wastes (OB). Wastes amendment with cow dung manure and garden soil resulted in a significant increase in soil health and nutrient status along with an increment in the phytoavailability of Zn and Cu which are usually considered as micronutrients, essential for plant growth. A significant increment in the total biomass of lemongrass by 38.6% under CM20 (OB: CM 80:20) was observed along with improved growth parameters under amended treatments as compared to OB (100% waste). Furthermore, the proportionate increases in the assimilative rate, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll fluorescence have been observed with the manure application rates. Lemongrass emerged out to be an efficient metal-tolerant herb species owing to its high metal-tolerance index (>100%). Additionally, lemongrass efficiently phytostablized Pb and Ni in the roots. Based on the strong plant performances, the present study highly encourages the cultivation of lemongrass in coal mining dumpsites for phytostabilization coupled with cow-dung manure application (20% w/w).


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Cymbopogon/fisiología , Estiércol , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Animales , Biomasa , Bovinos , Carbón Mineral , Minas de Carbón , Cymbopogon/crecimiento & desarrollo , Metales , Desarrollo de la Planta , Raíces de Plantas/química , Plantas , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111586, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396109

RESUMEN

This research studies a typical landscape of an agricultural area separated from the road by a ditch with trees. Soils were sampled at 1, 2, 7, 25, and 50 m from the road. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total and phyto-available heavy metals (HM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and de-icing salts (DS, Cl-) were determined using standard techniques. A set of higher plants (Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis alba L., Raphanus sativus L., Hordeum vulgare L., Avena sativa L.) was applied for toxicity evaluation of soils. The objective of this research is to find correlations between pollution of roadside soils and their phytotoxicity. HM, TPH and DS contamination of soils was observed in the 0-25 m zone, and PAH contamination was found up to the 50 m. Soil toxicity was declining from the road to the 50 m. Phytotoxicity related to majority of plants performed correlations with the same set of contaminants: TPH, 2-rings PAH, phyto-available Zn, Cu, Pb, and total Zn. No any correlations demonstrated Avena sativa L., being not applicable for ecotoxicological assessment of roadside soils. Despite the phytotoxicity was generally in line with contaminants loads, surprisingly low values were indicated in the ditch characterized by the strong pollution. We attribute this to the contrasting properties of soils there - the higher content of organics and clay. Sensitivity of plants to roadside pollution decreased in the row Lepidium sativum L. > Hordeum vulgare L. > Sinapis alba L. > Raphanus sativus L. The most reliable test-parameters for toxicity estimation were the root and the shoot length, germination rate was not informative indicating low phytotoxicity values. The research showed the importance of the right choice of test-cultures and test-parameters to judge phytotoxicity correctly. Linking the contaminants loads and phytotoxicity effects is valuable for comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment.


Asunto(s)
Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Agricultura , Ecotoxicología , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental , Hordeum , Hidrocarburos , Lepidium sativum , Metales Pesados/análisis , Petróleo/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Sinapis , Suelo/química , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111598, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396119

RESUMEN

Within the domain of phytoremediation research, the proper disposal of harvestable plant parts, that remove pollutants from contaminated soil, has been attracted extensive attention. Here, the bioenergy generation capability of trace metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As) polluted plants was assessed. The biogas production potential of accumulators or hyperaccumulator plants, Elsholtzia haichowensis, Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, Phytolacca americana and Pteris vittata were 259.2 ± 1.9, 238.7 ± 4.2, 135.9 ± 0.9, 129.5 ± 2.9 and 106.8 ± 2.1 mL/g, respectively. The presence of Cu (at approximately 1000 mg/kg) increased the cumulative biogas production, the daily methane production and the methane yield of E. haichowensis. For S. alfredii, the presence of Zn (≥500 mg/kg) showed a significant negative impact on the methane content in biogas, and the daily methane production, which decreased the biogas and methane yield. The biogas production potential increased when the content of Mn was at 5 000-10,000 mg/kg, subsequently, decreased when the value of Mn at 20,000 mg/kg. However, Cd (1-200 mg/kg), Pb (125-2000 mg/kg) and As (1250-10,000 mg/kg) showed no distinctive change in the cumulative biogas production of S. nigrum, S. alfredii and P. vittata, respectively. The methane yield showed a strong positive correlation (R2 =0.9704) with cumulative biogas production, and the energy potential of the plant residues were at 415-985 kWh/ton. Thus, the anaerobic digestion has bright potential for the disposal of trace metal contaminated plants, and has promising prospects for the use in energy production.


Asunto(s)
Anaerobiosis , Biocombustibles , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Contaminantes Ambientales , Metano , Plantas , Pteris/química , Sedum
16.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 10, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407069

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel type of RNA with a closed-loop structure. Increasing numbers of circRNAs are being identified in plants and animals, and recent studies have shown that circRNAs play an important role in gene regulation. Therefore, identifying circRNAs from increasing amounts of RNA-seq data is very important. However, traditional circRNA recognition methods have limitations. In recent years, emerging machine learning techniques have provided a good approach for the identification of circRNAs in animals. However, using these features to identify plant circRNAs is infeasible because the characteristics of plant circRNA sequences are different from those of animal circRNAs. For example, plants are extremely rich in splicing signals and transposable elements, and their sequence conservation in rice, for example is far less than that in mammals. To solve these problems and better identify circRNAs in plants, it is urgent to develop circRNA recognition software using machine learning based on the characteristics of plant circRNAs. RESULTS: In this study, we built a software program named PCirc using a machine learning method to predict plant circRNAs from RNA-seq data. First, we extracted different features, including open reading frames, numbers of k-mers, and splicing junction sequence coding, from rice circRNA and lncRNA data. Second, we trained a machine learning model by the random forest algorithm with tenfold cross-validation in the training set. Third, we evaluated our classification according to accuracy, precision, and F1 score, and all scores on the model test data were above 0.99. Fourth, we tested our model by other plant tests, and obtained good results, with accuracy scores above 0.8. Finally, we packaged the machine learning model built and the programming script used into a locally run circular RNA prediction software, Pcirc ( https://github.com/Lilab-SNNU/Pcirc ). CONCLUSION: Based on rice circRNA and lncRNA data, a machine learning model for plant circRNA recognition was constructed in this study using random forest algorithm, and the model can also be applied to plant circRNA recognition such as Arabidopsis thaliana and maize. At the same time, after the completion of model construction, the machine learning model constructed and the programming scripts used in this study are packaged into a localized circRNA prediction software Pcirc, which is convenient for plant circRNA researchers to use.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático , Plantas/genética , ARN Circular/genética , Programas Informáticos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111697, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396028

RESUMEN

Owing to the unique properties and useful applications in numerous fields, nanomaterials (NMs) received a great attention. The mass production of NMs has raised major concern for the environment. Recently, some altered growth patterns in plants have been reported due to the plant-NMs interactions. However, for NMs safe applications in agriculture and medicine, a comprehensive understanding of bio-nano interactions is crucial. The main goal of this review article is to summarize the results of the toxicological studies that have shown the in vitro and in vivo interactions of NMs with plants. The toxicity mechanisms are briefly discussed in plants as the defense mechanism works to overcome the stress caused by NMs implications. Indeed, the impact of NMs on plants varies significantly with many factors including physicochemical properties of NMs, culture media, and plant species. To investigate the impacts, dose metrics is an important analysis for assaying toxicity and is discussed in the present article to broadly open up different aspects of nanotoxicological investigations. To access reliable quantification and measurement in laboratories, standardized methodologies are crucial for precise dose delivery of NMs to plants during exposure. Altogether, the information is significant to researchers to describe restrictions and future perspectives.


Asunto(s)
Ecotoxicología/normas , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Nanoestructuras/toxicidad , Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Agricultura , Ecotoxicología/tendencias , Contaminantes Ambientales/química , Humanos , Nanoestructuras/química , Desarrollo de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Plantas/clasificación , Plantas/metabolismo , Especificidad de la Especie , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos
18.
Anal Methods ; 13(5): 575-594, 2021 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507166

RESUMEN

Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are increasingly being identified as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). They have potentially detrimental ecological and human health impacts but most are not currently subject to environmental regulation. Addressing the life cycle of these pharmaceuticals plays a significant role in identifying the potential sources and understanding the environmental impact that pharmaceuticals may have in surface waters. The stability and biological activity of these "micro-pollutants" can lead to a pseudo persistence, with ensuing unknown chronic behavioural and health-related effects. Research that investigates pharmaceuticals predominantly focuses on their occurrence and effect within surface water environments. However, this review will help to collate this information with factors that affect their environmental concentration. This review focuses on six pharmaceuticals (clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, gemfibrozil and diclofenac), chosen because they are heavily consumed globally, have poor removal rates in conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (CAS WWTPs), and are persistent in the aquatic environment. Furthermore, these pharmaceuticals are included in numerous published prioritisation studies and/or are on the Water Framework Directive (WFD) "Watch List" or are candidates for the updated Watch List (WL). This review investigates the concentrations seen in European Union (EU) surface waters and examines factors that influence final concentrations prior to release, thus giving a holistic overview on the source of pharmaceutical surface water pollution. A period of 10 years is covered by this review, which includes research from 2009-2020 examining over 100 published studies, and highlighting that pharmaceuticals can pose a severe risk to surface water environments, with each stage of the lifecycle of the pharmaceutical determining its concentration. This review additionally highlights the necessity to improve education surrounding appropriate use, disposal and waste management of pharmaceuticals, while implementing a source directed and end of pipe approach to reduce pharmaceutical occurrence in surface waters.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Pandemias , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos/efectos de los fármacos , Industria Farmacéutica , Ecotoxicología , Unión Europea , Humanos , /metabolismo , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/aislamiento & purificación , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/metabolismo , Plantas/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/aislamiento & purificación , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/metabolismo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/farmacología , Purificación del Agua
19.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(2): 149-159, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475799

RESUMEN

The influence of mycorrhizal symbiosis on ecosystem processes depends on the mycorrhizal type and status of plants. Early research hypothesized that the proportion of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species decreases and of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) species increases along increasing elevations and latitudes. However, there is very scarce information about this pattern along elevation gradients. We aimed to test this hypothesis and to describe the trends in plant mycorrhizal status by examining the Pyrenean mountain range (from 400 to 3400 m asl). The distribution of plant mycorrhizal types: AM, ECM, ERM, and non-mycorrhizal (NM) and status (obligately, OM, or facultatively, FM mycorrhizal plants, FM) were identified based on the Pyrenean Floristic Atlas and analyzed for climatic and edaphic drivers. The proportion of AM plants decreased slightly with elevation, while ECM species peaked at 1000 m asl. The proportion of ERM and NM plant species rose with increasing elevation. The proportion of FM species increased, and OM species decreased with increasing elevation. The change of AM and ECM species, and OM and FM species, along the elevational gradient, corresponds broadly to changes along the latitudinal gradient, driven by a combination of climatic and edaphic factors. Differently, the elevational occurrence of NM plant species is mainly driven only by climatic factors (low temperature) and that of ERM species by only edaphic factors (low pH). Large-scale macroecological studies (≥ 50 km grid cell) well reflect the effects of climate on the distribution of plant mycorrhizal traits, but local data (≤ 1 km grid cell) are needed to understand the effects of soil conditions and land use.


Asunto(s)
Micorrizas , Ecosistema , Plantas , Suelo , Simbiosis
20.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(2): 137-148, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475800

RESUMEN

Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil fungi that can promote the growth of their host plants. Accurate quantification of AMF in plant roots is important because the level of colonization is often indicative of the activity of these fungi. Root colonization is traditionally measured with microscopy methods which visualize fungal structures inside roots. Microscopy methods are labor-intensive, and results depend on the observer. In this study, we present a relative qPCR method to quantify AMF in which we normalized the AMF qPCR signal relative to a plant gene. First, we validated the primer pair AMG1F and AM1 in silico, and we show that these primers cover most AMF species present in plant roots without amplifying host DNA. Next, we compared the relative qPCR method with traditional microscopy based on a greenhouse experiment with Petunia plants that ranged from very high to very low levels of AMF root colonization. Finally, by sequencing the qPCR amplicons with MiSeq, we experimentally confirmed that the primer pair excludes plant DNA while amplifying mostly AMF. Most importantly, our relative qPCR approach was capable of discriminating quantitative differences in AMF root colonization and it strongly correlated (Spearman Rho = 0.875) with quantifications by traditional microscopy. Finally, we provide a balanced discussion about the strengths and weaknesses of microscopy and qPCR methods. In conclusion, the tested approach of relative qPCR presents a reliable alternative method to quantify AMF root colonization that is less operator-dependent than traditional microscopy and offers scalability to high-throughput analyses.


Asunto(s)
Micorrizas , Hongos , Micorrizas/genética , Raíces de Plantas , Plantas , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
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