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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2020): 20232941, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593850

RESUMEN

Invasive flowering plants can disrupt plant-pollinator networks. This is well documented where invasives occur amongst native plants; however, the potential for 'spillover' effects of invasives that form stands in adjacent habitats are less well understood. Here we quantify the impact of two invasive Australian species, Acacia saligna and Acacia longifolia, on the plant-pollinator networks in fynbos habitats in South Africa. We compared networks from replicate 1 ha plots of native vegetation (n = 21) that were subjected to three treatments: (1) at least 400 m from flowering Acacia; (2) adjacent to flowering Acacia, or (3) adjacent to flowering Acacia where all Acacia flowers were manually removed. We found that native flowers adjacent to stands of flowering Acacia received significantly more insect visits, especially from beetles and Apis mellifera capensis, and that visitation was more generalized. We also recorded visitation to, and the seed set of, three native flowering species and found that two received more insect visits, but produced fewer seeds, when adjacent to flowering Acacia. Our research shows that 'spillover' effects of invasive Acacia can lead to significant changes in visitation and seed production of native co-flowering species in neighbouring habitats-a factor to be considered when managing invaded landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Acacia , Polinización , Animales , Australia , Plantas , Semillas , Insectos , Flores , Especies Introducidas
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8020, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580663

RESUMEN

The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae, is among the most destructive piercing-sucking herbivores, infesting more than 1100 plant species, including numerous greenhouse and open-field crops of significant economic importance. Its prolific fecundity and short life cycle contribute to the development of resistance to pesticides. However, effective resistance loci in plants are still unknown. To advance research on plant-mite interactions and identify genes contributing to plant immunity against TSSM, efficient methods are required to screen large, genetically diverse populations. In this study, we propose an analytical pipeline utilizing high-resolution imaging of infested leaves and an artificial intelligence-based computer program, MITESPOTTER, for the precise analysis of plant susceptibility. Our system accurately identifies and quantifies eggs, feces and damaged areas on leaves without expert intervention. Evaluation of 14 TSSM-infested Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes originating from diverse global locations revealed significant variations in symptom quantity and distribution across leaf surfaces. This analytical pipeline can be adapted to various pest and host species, facilitating diverse experiments with large specimen numbers, including screening mutagenized plant populations or phenotyping polymorphic plant populations for genetic association studies. We anticipate that such methods will expedite the identification of loci crucial for breeding TSSM-resistant plants.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Tetranychidae , Animales , Tetranychidae/genética , Inteligencia Artificial , Fitomejoramiento , Plantas
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8015, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580719

RESUMEN

Plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) are responsible for regulating the genes involved in the development of plant-specific organs and response systems for adaptation to terrestrial environments. This includes the development of efficient water transport systems, efficient reproductive organs, and the ability to withstand the effects of terrestrial factors, such as UV radiation, temperature fluctuations, and soil-related stress factors, and evolutionary advantages over land predators. In rice and Arabidopsis, INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) TFs are plant-specific TFs with crucial functions, such as development, reproduction, and stress response. However, in tomatoes, IDD TFs remain uncharacterized. Here, we examined the presence, distribution, structure, characteristics, and expression patterns of SlIDDs. Database searches, multiple alignments, and motif alignments suggested that 24 TFs were related to Arabidopsis IDDs. 18 IDDs had two characteristic C2H2 domains and two C2HC domains in their coding regions. Expression analyses suggest that some IDDs exhibit multi-stress responsive properties and can respond to specific stress conditions, while others can respond to multiple stress conditions in shoots and roots, either in a tissue-specific or universal manner. Moreover, co-expression database analyses suggested potential interaction partners within IDD family and other proteins. This study functionally characterized SlIDDs, which can be studied using molecular and bioinformatics methods for crop improvement.


Asunto(s)
Arabidopsis , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Filogenia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300903, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598453

RESUMEN

The order Hymenoptera holds great significance for humans, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, due to its role as a pollinator of wild and cultivated flowering plants, parasites of destructive insects and honey producers. Despite this importance, limited attention has been given to the genetic diversity and molecular identification of Hymenopteran insects in most protected areas. This study provides insights into the first DNA barcode of Hymenopteran insects collected from Hazarganji Chiltan National Park (HCNP) and contributes to the global reference library of DNA barcodes. A total of 784 insect specimens were collected using Malaise traps, out of which 538 (68.62%) specimens were morphologically identified as Hymenopteran insects. The highest abundance of species of Hymenoptera (133/538, 24.72%) was observed during August and least in November (16/538, 2.97%). Genomic DNA extraction was performed individually from 90/538 (16.73%) morphologically identified specimens using the standard phenol-chloroform method, which were subjected separately to the PCR for their molecular confirmation via the amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The BLAST analyses of obtained sequences showed 91.64% to 100% identities with related sequences and clustered phylogenetically with their corresponding sequences that were reported from Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Germany, India, Israel, and Pakistan. Additionally, total of 13 barcode index numbers (BINs) were assigned by Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), out of which 12 were un-unique and one was unique (BOLD: AEU1239) which was assigned for Anthidium punctatum. This indicates the potential geographical variation of Hymenopteran population in HCNP. Further comprehensive studies are needed to molecularly confirm the existing insect species in HCNP and evaluate their impacts on the environment, both as beneficial (for example, pollination, honey producers and natural enemies) and detrimental (for example, venomous stings, crop damage, and pathogens transmission).


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Parques Recreativos , Humanos , Animales , Abejas/genética , Pakistán , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/métodos , Insectos/genética , Himenópteros/genética , Plantas/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301795, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598506

RESUMEN

Wetland vegetation and ecology of Lake Abaya in the southern Ethiopia was studied to determine floristic composition, plant community type and vegetation ecology. A total of 102 plots were laid along transects that were set up preferentially across areas where there were rapid changes in vegetation or marked environmental gradients to collect data on estimate of percentage aerial cover of plant species and environmental variables. Vegetation data was analyzed by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis using similarity ratio as a resemblance index and Ward's linkage method. Multivariate data analysis was performed using appropriate packages in R version 2.14.0. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to explore the relationship between the species composition and environmental variables. The environmental data included in the CCA were determined using stepwise backward and forward selection of variables by ANOVA test. Statistical measurement regarding species diversity, richness and evenness of the plant community types was carried out by using Shannon-Wiener diversity indices. A total of 92 plant species belonging to 66 genera and 34 families were identified. Families Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Amaranthaceae account for about 56.99% of the total proportion. Based on the cluster analysis, five plant community types were identified. The most important factors influencing the plant species composition and pattern of wetland plant communities were water drainage, water depth, land use, slope, altitude, and hydrogeomorphology. Therefore, these factors should be considered in future management and protection under the circumstance of climate change and human activities.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Humedales , Humanos , Etiopía , Lagos , Plantas , Agua
6.
PLoS Biol ; 22(4): e3002571, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578728

RESUMEN

All animals and plants likely require interactions with microbes, often in strong, persistent symbiotic associations. While the recognition of this phenomenon has been slow in coming, it will impact most, if not all, subdisciplines of biology.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Simbiosis , Animales , Biología
7.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 79, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600528

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Throughout its nearly four-billion-year history, life has undergone evolutionary transitions in which simpler subunits have become integrated to form a more complex whole. Many of these transitions opened the door to innovations that resulted in increased biodiversity and/or organismal efficiency. The evolution of multicellularity from unicellular forms represents one such transition, one that paved the way for cellular differentiation, including differentiation of male and female gametes. A useful model for studying the evolution of multicellularity and cellular differentiation is the volvocine algae, a clade of freshwater green algae whose members range from unicellular to colonial, from undifferentiated to completely differentiated, and whose gamete types can be isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous. To better understand how multicellularity, differentiation, and gametes evolved in this group, we used comparative genomics and fossil data to establish a geologically calibrated roadmap of when these innovations occurred. RESULTS: Our ancestral-state reconstructions, show that multicellularity arose independently twice in the volvocine algae. Our chronograms indicate multicellularity evolved during the Carboniferous-Triassic periods in Goniaceae + Volvocaceae, and possibly as early as the Cretaceous in Tetrabaenaceae. Using divergence time estimates we inferred when, and in what order, specific developmental changes occurred that led to differentiated multicellularity and oogamy. We find that in the volvocine algae the temporal sequence of developmental changes leading to differentiated multicellularity is much as proposed by David Kirk, and that multicellularity is correlated with the acquisition of anisogamy and oogamy. Lastly, morphological, molecular, and divergence time data suggest the possibility of cryptic species in Tetrabaenaceae. CONCLUSIONS: Large molecular datasets and robust phylogenetic methods are bringing the evolutionary history of the volvocine algae more sharply into focus. Mounting evidence suggests that extant species in this group are the result of two independent origins of multicellularity and multiple independent origins of cell differentiation. Also, the origin of the Tetrabaenaceae-Goniaceae-Volvocaceae clade may be much older than previously thought. Finally, the possibility of cryptic species in the Tetrabaenaceae provides an exciting opportunity to study the recent divergence of lineages adapted to live in very different thermal environments.


Asunto(s)
Chlorophyceae , Volvox , Filogenia , Evolución Biológica , Volvox/genética , Fósiles , Plantas , Diferenciación Celular
8.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602271

RESUMEN

The bacterium responsible for a disease that infects citrus plants across Asia facilitates its own proliferation by increasing the fecundity of its host insect.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Hemípteros , Animales , Citrus/microbiología , Plantas , Reproducción , Asia , Enfermedades de las Plantas/microbiología
9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17264, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556774

RESUMEN

Nutrient enrichment often alters the biomass and species composition of plant communities, but the extent to which these changes are reversible after the cessation of nutrient addition is not well-understood. Our 22-year experiment (15 years for nutrient addition and 7 years for recovery), conducted in an alpine meadow, showed that soil nitrogen concentration and pH recovered rapidly after cessation of nutrient addition. However, this was not accompanied by a full recovery of plant community composition. An incomplete recovery in plant diversity and a directional shift in species composition from grass dominance to forb dominance were observed 7 years after the nutrient addition ended. Strikingy, the historically dominant sedges with low germination rate and slow growth rate and nitrogen-fixing legumes with low germination rate were unable to re-establish after nutrient addition ceased. By contrast, rapid recovery of aboveground biomass was observed after nutrient cessation as the increase in forb biomass only partially compensated for the decline in grass biomass. These results indicate that anthropogenic nutrient input can have long-lasting effects on the structure, but not the soil chemistry and plant biomass, of grassland communities, and that the recovery of soil chemical properties and plant biomass does not necessarily guarantee the restoration of plant community structure. These findings have important implications for the management and recovery of grassland communities, many of which are experiencing alterations in resource input.


Asunto(s)
Pradera , Plantas , Biomasa , Poaceae , Suelo/química , Nitrógeno/análisis , Nutrientes
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1902): 20230373, 2024 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583477

RESUMEN

Projections of spatial biodiversity dynamics under climate warming are often based on models including only climate variables, and when non-climatic factors (e.g. soil) are included, data are often at much coarser spatial resolutions than those experienced by plants. Field studies along elevation gradients permit the gathering of detailed soil data, while still covering a wide climatic gradient. Here, an intensive field survey of four spring forest herbs along an elevation gradient showed that soil properties had substantial impacts on the occurrence/abundance of all species, and that soil effects were more pronounced at higher elevations. For Trillium erectum and Claytonia caroliniana, very infrequent occurrences at high elevation were strongly associated with rare microsites with high pH or nutrients. In a seven-year transplant experiment with T. erectum, we found that individuals grew to much smaller sizes at high than low elevation, suggesting that environmental factors rather than dispersal limitation constrain the species' upper range limit, despite substantial warming in recent decades. Our study demonstrates that soil factors interact strongly with climate to determine plant range limits along climatic gradients. Unsuitable soils for plants at high elevations or latitudes may represent an important constraint on future plant migration and biodiversity change. This article is part of the theme issue 'Ecological novelty and planetary stewardship: biodiversity dynamics in a transforming biosphere'.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Suelo , Humanos , Suelo/química , Bosques , Biodiversidad , Dispersión de las Plantas
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2320259121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588439

RESUMEN

Plant leaves, whose remarkable ability for morphogenesis results in a wide range of petal and leaf shapes in response to environmental cues, have inspired scientific studies as well as the development of engineering structures and devices. Although some typical shape changes in plants and the driving force for such shape evolution have been extensively studied, there remain many poorly understood mechanisms, characteristics, and principles associated with the vast array of shape formation of plant leaves in nature. Here, we present a comprehensive study that combines experiment, theory, and numerical simulations of one such topic-the mechanics and mechanisms of corrugated leaf folding induced by differential shrinking in Rhapis excelsa. Through systematic measurements of the dehydration process in sectioned leaves, we identify a linear correlation between change in the leaf-folding angle and water loss. Building on experimental findings, we develop a generalized model that provides a scaling relationship for water loss in sectioned leaves. Furthermore, our study reveals that corrugated folding induced by dehydration in R. excelsa leaves is achieved by the deformation of a structural architecture-the "hinge" cells. Utilizing such connections among structure, morphology, environmental stimuli, and mechanics, we fabricate several biomimetic machines, including a humidity sensor and morphing devices capable of folding in response to dehydration. The mechanisms of corrugated folding in R. excelsa identified in this work provide a general understanding of the interactions between plant leaves and water. The actuation mechanisms identified in this study also provide insights into the rational design of soft machines.


Asunto(s)
Arecaceae , Deshidratación , Hojas de la Planta , Agua/fisiología , Plantas
12.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14282, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591354

RESUMEN

In nature, drought and salt stresses often occur simultaneously and affect plant growth at multiple levels. However, the mechanisms underlying plant responses to drought and salt stresses and their interactions are still not fully understood. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the effects of drought, salt, and combined stresses on plant physiological, biochemical, morphological and growth traits, analyze the different responses of C3 and C4 plants, as well as halophytes and non-halophytes, and identify the interactive effects on plants. There were numerous similarities in plant responses to drought, salt, and combined stresses. C4 plants had a more effective antioxidant defense system, and could better maintain above-ground growth. Halophytes could better maintain photosynthetic rate (Pn) and relative water content (RWC), and reduce growth as an adaptation strategy. The responses of most traits (Pn, RWC, chlorophyll content, soluble sugar content, H2O2 content, plant dry weight, etc.) to combined stress were less-than-additive, indicating cross-resistance rather than cross-sensitivity of plants to drought and salt stresses. These results are important to improve our understanding of drought and salt cross-resistance mechanisms and further induce resistance or screen-resistant varieties under stress combination.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/farmacología , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología , Plantas , Agua , Estrés Salino , Estrés Fisiológico
13.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299323, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568981

RESUMEN

Ester materials have become a significant topic in ecological restoration because of their degradability and lack of pollution. However, these artificial materials have issues such as high resource consumption and high cost. Therefore, finding a scientific substitute for ester materials is crucial to reduce costs. This study proposes the use of weathered red-bed soil to partially replace ester materials. Orthogonal coupled compounding and ecological effect tests were performed to analyze the soil improvement mechanism based on the mineral composition, soil structure, and electrical conductivity properties of the weathered red-bed soil. The experimental findings indicated that the soil modified using ester materials exhibited improved strength, water retention, and aeration owing to changes in the soil structure. Plant germination and height increased by 55% and 37 mm, respectively, when using a ratio of 15 g/m2 absorbent ester material, 2.5 g/m2 adhesive ester material, and 5% weathered red-bed soil. Through this approach, the amount of ester material to be used could be further reduced by 75%. The weathered red-bed soil offers improved ecological effects by altering the physical, mechanical, and hydraulic properties of the soil structure. This study presents a theoretical foundation for ecological conservation using weathered red-bed soil as a substitute for certain ester materials.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Suelo/química , Plantas
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2895, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570481

RESUMEN

Theory suggests that intraspecific trait variability may promote species coexistence when competitively inferior species have higher intraspecific trait variability than their superior competitors. Here, we provide empirical evidence for this phenomenon in tree seedlings. We evaluated intraspecific variability and plastic response of ten traits in 6750 seedlings of ten species in a three-year greenhouse experiment. While we observed no relationship between intraspecific trait variability and species competitiveness in competition-free homogeneous environments, an inverse relationship emerged under interspecific competition and in spatially heterogeneous environments. We showed that this relationship is driven by the plastic response of the competitively inferior species: Compared to their competitively superior counterparts, they exhibited a greater increase in trait variability, particularly in fine-root traits, in response to competition, environmental heterogeneity and their combination. Our findings contribute to understanding how interspecific competition and intraspecific trait variability together structure plant communities.


Asunto(s)
Plantas , Plantones , Fenotipo , Árboles
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8269-8283, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557049

RESUMEN

Many species of the Urticaceae family are important cultivated fiber plants that are known for their economic and industrial values. However, their secondary metabolite profiles and associated biosynthetic mechanisms have not been well-studied. Using Laportea bulbifera as a model, we conducted widely targeted metabolomics, which revealed 523 secondary metabolites, including a unique accumulation of flavonol glycosides in bulblet. Through full-length transcriptomic and RNA-seq analyses, the related genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were identified. Finally, weighted gene correlation network analysis and functional characterization revealed four LbUGTs, including LbUGT78AE1, LbUGT72CT1, LbUGT71BX1, and LbUGT71BX2, can catalyze the glycosylation of flavonol aglycones (kaempferol, myricetin, gossypetin, and quercetagetin) using UDP-Gal and UDP-Glu as the sugar donors. LbUGT78AE1 and LbUGT72CT1 showed substrate promiscuity, whereas LbUGT71BX1 and LbUGT71BX2 exhibited different substrate and sugar donor selectivity. These results provide a genetic resource for studying Laportea in the Urticaceae family, as well as key enzymes responsible for the metabolism of valuable flavonoid glycosides.


Asunto(s)
Glicósidos , Urticaceae , Glicósidos/química , Glicosiltransferasas/genética , Glicosiltransferasas/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Flavonoles , Plantas/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Urticaceae/metabolismo , Azúcares
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8235, 2024 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589665

RESUMEN

This study investigated the germination capacity (endogenous factor) of Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert, an endemic monospecific plant considered as a relict species of the ancient Mediterranean Tertiary flora. This investigation focused also on the temporal trends of soil-use, climate and desertification (exogenous factors) across the natural range of P. gussonei. The final germination percentage showed low values between 14 and 32%, the latter obtained with GA3 and agar at 10 °C. The rising temperatures in the study area will further increase the dormancy of P. gussonei, whose germination capacity was lower and slower at temperatures higher than 10 °C. A further limiting factor of P. gussonei is its dormancy, which seems to be morpho-physiological. Regarding climate trends, in the period 1931-2020, the average temperature increased by 0.5 °C, from 15.4 to 15.9 °C, in line with the projected climate changes throughout the twenty-first century across the Mediterranean region. The average annual rainfall showed a relatively constant value of c. 900 mm, but extreme events grew considerably in the period 1991-2020. Similarly, the land affected by desertification expanded in an alarming way, by increasing from 21.2% in 2000 to 47.3% in 2020. Soil-use changes created also a complex impacting mosaic where c. 40% are agricultural areas. The effective conservation of P. gussonei should be multilateral by relying on germplasm banks, improving landscape connectivity and vegetation cover, and promoting climate policies.


Asunto(s)
Apiaceae , Latencia en las Plantas , Latencia en las Plantas/fisiología , Suelo , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Cambio Climático , Semillas/fisiología , Germinación/fisiología , Plantas , Temperatura
17.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 350, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589807

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Eukaryotes, inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) represent a large family of secondary messengers and play crucial roes in various cellular processes. InsPs are synthesized through a series of pohophorylation reactions catalyzed by various InsP kinases in a sequential manner. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase (IP3 3-kinase/IP3K), one member of InsP kinase, plays important regulation roles in InsPs metabolism by specifically phosphorylating inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (IP4) in animal cells. IP3Ks were widespread in fungi, plants and animals. However, its evolutionary history and patterns have not been examined systematically. RESULTS: A total of 104 and 31 IP3K orthologues were identified across 57 plant genomes and 13 animal genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that IP3K originated in the common ancestor before the divergence of fungi, plants and animals. In most plants and animals, IP3K maintained low-copy numbers suggesting functional conservation during plant and animal evolution. In Brassicaceae and vertebrate, IP3K underwent one and two duplication events, respectively, resulting in multiple gene copies. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) was the main mechanism for IP3K duplications, and the IP3K duplicates have experienced functional divergence. Finally, a hypothetical evolutionary model for the IP3K proteins is proposed based on phylogenetic theory. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals the evolutionary history of IP3K proteins and guides the future functions of animal, plant, and fungal IP3K proteins.


Asunto(s)
Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato , Fosfotransferasas (Aceptor de Grupo Alcohol) , Animales , Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Fosfotransferasas (Aceptor de Grupo Alcohol)/genética , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo , Evolución Molecular
18.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(4): e13450, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590129

RESUMEN

Phytophthora pseudosyringae is a self-fertile pathogen of woody plants, particularly associated with tree species from the genera Fagus, Notholithocarpus, Nothofagus and Quercus, which is found across Europe and in parts of North America and Chile. It can behave as a soil pathogen infecting roots and the stem collar region, as well as an aerial pathogen infecting leaves, twigs and stem barks, causing particular damage in the United Kingdom and western North America. The population structure, migration and potential outcrossing of a worldwide collection of isolates were investigated using genotyping-by-sequencing. Coalescent-based migration analysis revealed that the North American population originated from Europe. Historical gene flow has occurred between the continents in both directions to some extent, yet contemporary migration is overwhelmingly from Europe to North America. Two broad population clusters dominate the global population of the pathogen, with a subgroup derived from one of the main clusters found only in western North America. Index of association and network analyses indicate an influential level of outcrossing has occurred in this preferentially inbreeding, homothallic oomycete. Outcrossing between the two main population clusters has created distinct subgroups of admixed individuals that are, however, less common than the main population clusters. Differences in life history traits between the two main population clusters should be further investigated together with virulence and host range tests to evaluate the risk each population poses to natural environments worldwide.


Asunto(s)
Phytophthora , Humanos , Filogeografía , Phytophthora/genética , Enfermedades de las Plantas , Plantas , Árboles
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 65-73, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594528

RESUMEN

The production of stomata, the epidermal pores of plants, is influenced by diverse environmental signals including high temperature. To assess its impact on stomatal formation, researchers need to grow plants in a carefully designed regime under controlled conditions and capture clear, microscopic views of the epidermis. Here, we describe a procedure to study the effect of high temperature on stomatal formation. This method can generate high-quality epidermal images of cotyledons, leaves, and hypocotyl of young Arabidopsis seedlings, which allow the determination of the pattern, density, and index of stomata on these tissues. Besides temperature, the protocol can serve as a general approach to examine stomatal phenotype and the effect of other external signals on stomatal formation.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Estomas de Plantas/genética , Temperatura , Arabidopsis/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 55-64, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594527

RESUMEN

Temperature is one of the most prominent environmental factors that influence plant immunity. Depending on the plant-pathogen system, increased temperature may inhibit or enhance disease resistance or immunity in plants. Measuring the effect of temperature on plant immunity is the first step toward revealing climate effects on plant-pathogen interactions and molecular regulators of temperature sensitivity of plant immunity. Quantification of plant disease resistance or susceptibility under different temperatures can be accomplished by assessing pathogen growth over time in infected plants or tissues. Here, we present a protocol for quantifying pathogen growth in the most studied system of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000. We discuss important factors to consider for assaying pathogen growth in plants under different temperatures. This protocol can be used to assess temperature sensitivity of resistance in different plant genotypes and to various pathovars.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Resistencia a la Enfermedad/genética , Temperatura , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Enfermedades de las Plantas/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas
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