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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668752

RESUMEN

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), one of the most important polymer materials nowadays, has a large variety of formulations through the addition of various plasticizers to meet the property requirements of the different fields of applications. Routine analytical methods able to identify plasticizers and quantify their amount inside a PVC product with a high analysis throughput would promote an improved understanding of their impact on the macroscopic properties and the possible health and environmental risks associated with plasticizer leaching. In this context, a new approach to identify and quantify plasticizers employed in PVC commodities using low-field NMR spectroscopy and an appropriate non-deuterated solvent is introduced. The proposed method allows a low-cost, fast, and simple identification of the different plasticizers, even in the presence of a strong solvent signal. Plasticizer concentrations below 2 mg mL-1 in solution corresponding to 3 wt% in a PVC product can be quantified in just 1 min. The reliability of the proposed method is tested by comparison with results obtained under the same experimental conditions but using deuterated solvents. Additionally, the type and content of plasticizer in plasticized PVC samples were determined following an extraction procedure. Furthermore, possible ways to further decrease the quantification limit are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Plastificantes/análisis , Cloruro de Polivinilo/análisis , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Estructura Molecular , Plastificantes/economía , Cloruro de Polivinilo/economía
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145418, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548714

RESUMEN

Phthalates (PAEs) are of wide concern because they are commonly used in various plastic products as plasticizers, and can found their way into the environment. However, their interaction with the environment and their toxicity in aquatic animals is still a matter of intense debate. In this review on PAEs in aquatic environments (lakes, rivers and seas), it is found that there is a large variety and abundance of PAEs in developing countries, and the total concentration of PAEs even exceeds 200 µg / L. The interaction between metabolic processes involved in the toxicity induced by various PAEs is summarized for the first time in the article. Exposure of PAEs can lead to activation of the detoxification system CYP450 and endocrine system receptors of aquatic animals, which in turn causes oxidative stress, metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders, and immunosuppression. Meanwhile, each system can activate / inhibit each other, causing genotoxicity and cell apoptosis, resulting in the growth and development of organisms being blocked. The mixed PAEs shows no cumulative toxicity changes to aquatic animals. For the combined pollution of other chemicals and PAEs, PAE can act as an agonist or antagonist, leading to combined toxicity in different directions. Phthalate monoesters (MPEs), the metabolites of PAEs, are also toxic to aquatic animals, however, the toxicity is weaker than the corresponding parent compounds. This review summarizes and analyzes the current ecotoxicological effects of PAEs on aquatic animals, and provides guidance for future research.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Ftálicos , Animales , China , Ésteres , Lagos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidad , Plastificantes/análisis , Plastificantes/toxicidad , Ríos
3.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129599, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540329

RESUMEN

Chia seeds were used to significantly improve the separation efficiency of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics from water samples via centrifugation. Upon hydration, the mucilage of chia seeds were able to capture PVC microplastics with sizes ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers. Since PVC microplastics contained di-2-etylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) as a plasticizer (verified via Fourier transform infrared spectrometry), DEHP was used as an indicator in the subsequent quantification via gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Specifically after verifying the DEHP peak in the GC spectrum using DEHP reference standard as a positive control, the GC spectral area of that peak was used to quantify the amount of DEHP in the sample. Using nominal operation settings at 10 min and 1000 rpm with 100 mg of chia seeds, the separation efficiency could be improved by 5 times (500%) as compared to the absence of chia seeds. Furthermore, chia seeds were also compatible with simulated synthetic wastewater samples. Most importantly, the use of chia seeds did not interfere with GC-MS quantification protocol and accuracy. The result suggested the proposed method can be used as a simple screening tool of microplastics entering wastewater treatment plant, even though a series of follow-up studies are needed in future.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato , Cloruro de Polivinilo , Dietilhexil Ftalato/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Microplásticos , Plastificantes/análisis , Plásticos , Agua
4.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116697, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611200

RESUMEN

Hooghly River (HR), the other name used for the lower stretch of River Ganga, is a prime freshwater source in the eastern part of India. However HR has been evidenced with a variety of emerging organic pollutants (EOPs) in the recent past. Given the extensive use of plasticizers and additive in plastic products, we have investigated seven plasticizers and bisphenol A (BPA) in the surface and storm-water of HR up to the tip of the Bay of Bengal. Further using a previously published sediment data we have estimated the fluxes for the aforementioned EOPs. Surface water and storm-water concentrations of seven plasticizers varied between 92.62 and 770 ng/L (176.1 ± 104.8; Avg ± SD) and 120.9-781.5 ng/L (355.2 ± 232.5), respectively. BPA varied between 43 and 8800 ng/L (658.3 ng/L ± 1760) and 117.9-2147 ng/L (459.3 ± 620.2) in surface and storm-water, respectively. With the increase in salinity, a decreasing trend for bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was evidenced. However, concentration of BPA increased with the increase in salinity. Significant and strong correlation between DEHP and BPA (R2 = 0.6; p < 0.01) in the suburban corridor might have resulted from sludge disposal of the scrap recycling activities. Using site-specific principal component analysis, unregulated disposal of plastic waste, particularly from such industrial belts and tourist spots were identified as the possible point sources for plasticizers and BPA in this region. Net diffusive flux based on fugacity fraction showed a trend depending on the pollutant's aqueous solubility and partition coefficient. However, transfer tendency from water to sediment was noticed in the sites having point source. Estimated ecotoxicological risk posed by BPA was higher for edible fishes and for lower order organisms, PAEs was the major contributor.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Ácidos Ftálicos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bahías , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , India , Fenoles , Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111624, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396144

RESUMEN

Phthalate esters (PAEs), such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are used extensively as additives and plasticizers, and have become ubiquitous in the environment. PAEs in the soil could have adverse effects on crop plants as well as humans via accumulations in food chain. Thus, it is important to explore strategies to reduce the bioavailability of phthalate esters. We investigated the effects of Fe-Mn oxide-modified biochar composite (FMBC) applications on the quality of wheat grown in DBP- and DEHP-polluted brown soil. The application of FMBC and biochar (BC) increased the wheat grain biomass by 9.71-223.01% and 5.40-120.15% in the DBP-polluted soil, and 10.52-186.21% and 4.50-99.53% in the DEHP-spiked soil in comparison to the controls. All FMBC treatments were better than the BC treatments, in terms of decreasing DBP and DEHP bioavailability for the wheat grains. The activities of the glutamine synthetase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase in the flag leaves at the filling stage and of granule-bound starch synthase, soluble starch synthase, and adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase in the grains at maturity increased significantly with increases in either the BC or FMBC applications. This, in turn, increased the starch, protein, and amino acid content in the wheat grains. Compared with the BC treatment, the FMBC amendment induced only slight increases in the aforementioned factors. This study offers novel insights into potential strategies for decreasing PAEs bioavailability in soil, with potential positive implications for crop quality and environmental health improvements.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Restauración y Remediación Ambiental/métodos , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Triticum/fisiología , Dibutil Ftalato/análisis , Dibutil Ftalato/metabolismo , Dietilhexil Ftalato/metabolismo , Grano Comestible/química , Contaminación Ambiental , Ésteres/análisis , Humanos , Hierro/análisis , Óxidos/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Triticum/metabolismo
6.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116394, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388685

RESUMEN

Common plasticizers and their alternatives are environmentally ubiquitous and have become a global problem. In this study, common plasticizers (phthalates and metabolites) and new alternatives [bisphenol analogs, t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BDP)] were quantified in urine and hair samples from children in Hong Kong, drinking water (tap water/bottled water) samples, and airborne particle samples from 17 kindergartens in Hong Kong. The results suggested that locally, children were exposed to various plasticizers and their alternatives. High concentrations of BPDP and BDP were present in urine, hair, tap water, bottled water, and air particulate samples. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine samples (126-2140 ng/L, detection frequencies < 81%) were lower than those detected in Japanese and German children in previous studies. However, a comparison of the estimated daily intake values for phthalates in tap water [median: 10.7-115 ng/kg body weight bw/day] and air particles (median: 1.23-7.39 ng/kg bw/day) with the corresponding reference doses indicated no risk. Bisphenol analogs were detected in 15-64% of urine samples at GM concentrations of 5.26-98.1 ng/L, in 7-74% of hair samples at GM concentrations of 57.5-2390 pg/g, in 59-100% of kindergarten air samples at GM concentrations of 43.1-222 pg/m3, and in 33-100% of tap water samples at GM concentrations of 0.90-3.70 ng/L. A significant correlation was detected between the concentrations of bisphenol F in hair and urine samples (r = 0.489, p < .05). The estimated daily urinary excretion values of bisphenol analogs suggest that exposure among children via tap water intake and airborne particle inhalation in kindergartens cannot be ignored in Hong Kong.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Ácidos Ftálicos , Preescolar , Polvo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Hong Kong , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Instituciones Académicas
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111620, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396140

RESUMEN

Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) is a widely used plasticizer and prevalent environmental contaminant. In this study, DEHA concentrations in the milk, cheese, and butter samples wrapped with food-grade commercial polyethylene films and stored at 4 °C for 30 days were detected using gas chromatographic analysis. Also, the effects of exposure to a high dose of DEHA for a long duration on the liver, brain, and heart of Wistar rats were assessed. Besides, the possible beneficial effect of Peganum harmala oil (PGO), in relieving DEHA induced adverse effects was explored. For this purpose, four groups (8 rats/group) were orally given physiological saline, PGO (320 mg/kg bwt), DEHA (2000 mg/kg bwt), or PGO + DEHA for 60 days. The results revealed that the DEHA concentrations in the tested dairy products were ordered as follows: (butter > cheese > milk). Notably, the detected levels in butter were higher than the specific migration limit in foods. DEHA induced a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, acetylcholine esterase, creatine kinase-myocardium bound, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1ß. But, significant hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglobulinemia, and hypocholesterolemia were evident following DEHA exposure. A significant reduction in the serum level of superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor was recorded. Besides, a significant downregulation in hepatic CYP2E1, brain glial fibrillary acidic protein, and cardiac troponin I gene expression was noticed. Moreover, DEHA exposure induced a significant decrease in Bcl-2 immunolabeling, but Caspase-3 immunoexpression was increased. On the contrary, PGO significantly recused DEHA injurious impacts. Therefore, PGO could represent a promising agent for preventing DEHA-induced hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and cardiotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Adipatos/toxicidad , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Corazón/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Peganum/química , Aceites Vegetales/farmacología , Plastificantes/toxicidad , Adipatos/análisis , Anemia/sangre , Anemia/prevención & control , Animales , Glucemia/análisis , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Productos Lácteos/análisis , Embalaje de Alimentos , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Pruebas de Función Hepática , Masculino , Miocardio/metabolismo , Miocardio/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Plastificantes/análisis , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Factores de Tiempo
8.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128369, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182099

RESUMEN

Due to the mounting evidence that phthalates, specifically di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate, produce adverse endocrine effects in humans and wildlife, the use of other chemicals as replacements has increased. One of the most commonly encountered phthalate replacements is di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). Currently, little is known about the prevalence of human exposure, bioactivity, and endocrine disrupting potential of DINCH. We sampled urine from 100 pregnant women during the second trimester of pregnancy living in Charleston, SC between 2011 and 2014 and measured the following DINCH metabolites by LC-MS/MS: cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (OH-MINCH), cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(oxo-isononyl) ester (oxo-MINCH), and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-monocarboxy isooctyl ester (cx-MINCH). These metabolites were also tested on human estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor beta transactivation assays in vitro. OH-MINCH was detected in 98% of urine samples. The specific gravity-adjusted median (interquartile range) OH-MINCH concentration was 0.20 (0.25) ng/mL, and concentrations were significantly higher in African American women compared to Caucasian women (p = 0.01). DINCH metabolite concentrations were consistent between years, and they did not exhibit estrogenic or progestogenic activity in vitro. Human exposure to these emerging compounds should continue to be monitored, especially in vulnerable populations, to ensure the replacement of phthalates by DINCH is not a case of regrettable substitution.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Monitoreo Biológico , Cromatografía Liquida , Ácidos Ciclohexanocarboxílicos/metabolismo , Ciclohexanos , Dibutil Ftalato , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/metabolismo , Dietilhexil Ftalato , Disruptores Endocrinos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Ésteres , Femenino , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Plastificantes/análisis , Embarazo , South Carolina , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
9.
Food Chem ; 338: 128031, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950007

RESUMEN

A comprehensive study on packaging used in commercially available milk products from Spanish markets has been presented. Concentrations of four phthalates, seven parabens and BPA were determined in forty-two milk products. Eleven brands and five types of packaging (metallic aluminium bag, carton, high-density polyethylene, metal pail and polyethylene terephthalate) were included in the study. BPA showed the lowest concentrations (8.3 pg/g f.w.), far below those of phthalates (6431 pg/g f.w.) and parabens (6234 pg/g f.w.). Metallic aluminium bags were the least migrating packaging (considering plasticisers and monomers) followed by HDPE bottles, in the case of phthalates. Parabens showed their highest concentrations for fresh-milk samples. Levels found were far below the specific migration limits established by the EU and the cumulative hazard index was lower than 1, indicating that adverse health effects were not expected. In general, the results found in Spanish samples were lower than those reported in other countries.


Asunto(s)
Leche/química , Plastificantes/análisis , Conservadores Farmacéuticos/análisis , Animales , Compuestos de Bencidrilo/análisis , Humanos , Límite de Detección , Parabenos/análisis , Fenoles/análisis , Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , España
10.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127716, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799137

RESUMEN

For the first time the occurrence of 25 organic micropollutants (OMPs) including; 11 personal care products (PCPs), six phthalate ester plasticizers (PEPs) and eight organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) was investigated in 72 water samples obtained from five bays in the Uganda sector of Lake Victoria. In addition, an assessment of the potential ecotoxic risk of the target OMPs to aquatic organisms was conducted. Water samples were analyzed for the target OMPs using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All the target PCPs were found in all the water samples with the exception of musk ketone and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol. Triclosan (89-1400 ng L-1), benzophenone (36-1300 ng L-1), and 4-methylbenzylidine camphor (21-1500 ng L-1) were the most predominant PCPs. All the six plasticizers were found in all the water samples with dibutyl phthalate (350-16 000 ng L-1), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (210-23 000 ng L-1) detected at the highest concentrations. Five OPFRs out of the eight targeted were found in all the water samples. Tricresyl phosphate (25-8100 ng L-1), tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (24-6500 ng L-1) and triphenyl phosphate (54-4300 ng L-1) were the most dominant OPFRs. The highest concentrations of OMPs were recorded in Murchison and Thurston Bays, presumably due to industrial wastewater effluents from the highly industrialized localities of the two Bays. Ecotoxicological risk assessment showed that PCPs (triclosan, musk ketone, and 4-MBC), plasticizers (dibutyl phthalate, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) and OPFRs (tricresyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate and tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate) pose a high ecotoxic risk to lives of aquatic organisms (risk quotients, RQ > 1).


Asunto(s)
Cosméticos/análisis , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Lagos/análisis , Compuestos Organofosforados/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , Cosméticos/toxicidad , Ecotoxicología/métodos , Retardadores de Llama/toxicidad , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Compuestos Organofosforados/toxicidad , Plastificantes/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Uganda , Aguas Residuales/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461347, 2020 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797827

RESUMEN

Phthalate diesters are a group of plasticizers extensively used in the manufacturing and processing of plastics. Phthalate monoesters are the primary degradation products of the diesters. Accumulation of endocrine disruptive diesters and monoesters in soil is of great concern because of the extensive use of plastic mulching and misdisposal of plastics. Accurate determination of their levels in soil is critical to assess the occurrence, exposure, and risks of phthalate diesters and monoesters. In this study, we aimed to develop a robust and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of phthalate diesters and monoesters in soil. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification, combined with accelerated solvent extraction and in-line cleanup for sample preparation. The method detection limits for the 14 diesters and 11 monoesters were in the range of 0.59 to 10.08 ng g-1 d.w. Acceptable recoveries (69%-131%) for these analytes were obtained when four deuterated analogs were used for internal calibration, and intra- and inter-day variations were less than 15%. This method was later successfully applied to five soil samples, and 8 diesters and 7 monoesters were detected with the maximum concentration up to 1142.2 ng g-1 d.w. The method developed in this study can be used for screening and accurate quantification of phthalate diesters and monoesters in soil and possibly in other environmental matrices.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Suelo/química , Calibración , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/normas , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Disruptores Endocrinos/normas , Ésteres/química , Límite de Detección , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/normas , Plastificantes/normas , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/normas , Temperatura
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461356, 2020 Aug 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797836

RESUMEN

The presence of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in everyday commodities such as furniture, household appliances and baby toys have rendered these contaminants ubiquitous in environmental fates such as air, water, soils and biota. Their presence in food-related species suggests that an additional route of exposure to these esters for the general population is fish intake through diet. Their incipient toxicity and carcinogenetic behaviour make it essential to develop methods for determining OPEs in fish samples. In this paper we have developed a new method for determining 9 OPEs based on the QuEChERS extraction method followed by a simple clean-up using a novel device for selective lipid removal (LipiFiltr) and GC-MS/MS to extract these compounds from fish samples regardless of lipid content. QuEChERS salt packet optimisation and clean-up strategies such as liquid-liquid extraction, dispersive-solid phase extraction and LipiFiltr were tested. Our results showed that EN 15662 method salts and Lipifiltr were the best combination to produce efficient analyte apparent recovery (67-116%) and negligible matrix effects (<10%). Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 ng g-1 (dry weight) for TiBP and TBP to 2.00 ng g-1 (dry weight) for TCEP. Fish samples from four fish species were determined with a median concentration of ΣOPEs 5.31 ng g-1 on a wet weight basis, with TBP, TiBP and TCPP as the main contenders. Estimates of exposure and risk associated with consuming these compounds via dietary intake showed low levels of concern for the population of Tarragona.


Asunto(s)
Ésteres/análisis , Peces/metabolismo , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Organofosfatos/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Animales , Niño , Dieta , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748726

RESUMEN

The transferability of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and other plasticizers, from model polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets to the skin of 11 subjects was assessed by measuring the amount of substance transferred using PVC sheets containing PAEs and alternative plasticizers of different types and contents. For all subjects, the transferred amount, from sheets containing 28 wt% PAE or from mixed sheets containing 14 wt% each of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and other PAE, was greater than that from sheets containing 15 wt% each of PAE or alternative plasticizer only. A comparison of the transferability of five types of PAE showed that transfer tended to occur more readily as the n-octanol-water partition coefficient increased, suggesting that PAE hydrophobicity affected its transferability. The transferability of the alternative plasticizers di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester showed a similar trend; however, the transferred amount tended to be higher from model PVC sheets containing 28 wt% PAE or mixed with DEHP. The transferability of PAEs and alternative plasticizers was higher for certain subjects, suggesting individual differences in the transferability of chemicals to the subject's skin surface and is the presence of a group of people comparatively more susceptible to such transfer.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato/farmacocinética , Modelos Biológicos , Plastificantes/farmacocinética , Cloruro de Polivinilo/química , Absorción Cutánea/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Dietilhexil Ftalato/análisis , Femenino , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Plastificantes/análisis , Piel/metabolismo
14.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115336, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836048

RESUMEN

Black-spotted frogs and bullfrogs from an e-waste polluted area were collected and examined for legacy and emerging organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and plasticizers. Total concentrations of PFRs and plasticizers were 0.62-15 ng/g wet weight (ww) and 316-4904 ng/g ww in muscles, 2.2-59 ng/g ww and 127-5757 ng/g ww in eggs and gonads, and 1.2-15 ng/g ww and 51-1510 ng/g ww in oviducts, respectively. For muscle tissues, concentrations of ∑PFRs, triethyl phosphate, tris-(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, and tris-(chloro-2-propyl) phosphate were significantly higher in the males than females (p < 0.05). However, for reproductive tissues, eggs exhibited higher levels of those contaminants than gonads (p < 0.05). No significant sex difference in levels of plasticizers was observed in muscles. In contrast, levels for (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and di-iso-butyl phthalate in gonads were significantly higher than those in eggs (p < 0.05). Significantly negative linear correlations between maternal transfer ratios and log KOW were found in female frogs. Paternal transfer potentials were first significantly and positively correlated to log KOW (<6) and then decreased afterward in the males. These results indicated that parental transfer was answer for the sex-specific accumulation of PFRs and plasticizers in frogs.


Asunto(s)
Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Animales , Huevos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Masculino , Organofosfatos , Compuestos Organofosforados , Plastificantes/análisis , Caracteres Sexuales
15.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126978, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417514

RESUMEN

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) migration from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been studied with infusion, transfusion and extracorporeal oxygenation devices, but no study has been conducted to estimate its migration via respiratory medical devices (MDs). This work aims to develop an ex vivo model to quantify DEHP released doses by these MDs, which will then be used to estimate newborns DEHP exposure from respiratory assistance MDs. We followed the Frensh National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) recommendations for the validation of a collecting and analysing method of DEHP in air, which will be used to quantify DEHP in air passing through PVC respiratory assistance MDs. The developed method met all the validation criteria for DEHP determination in air. DEHP in air passing through MDs on the sixth day reached a cumulative quantity of 122.86 µg when using a flow rate of 4 L min-1 of non-humidified air while it was of 49.22 µg; 58.12 µg and 29.61 µg with flow rates of 2 L min-1 of humidified air, 2 L min-1 of dry air and 4 L min-1 of humidified air, respectively. Model application to two patients undergoing two different respiratory procedure demonstrated that noninvasive ventilation patient received higher dose of inhaled DEHP, confirmed by DEHP metabolites quantification in urine. Although the protective effect of air humidifiers on DEHP exposure was demonstrated, the effect of flow rate is difficult to be established. This developed method should be tested to verify its capacity to collect and quantify other plasticizers used in PVC MDs.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Equipos y Suministros/efectos adversos , Ventiladores Mecánicos/efectos adversos , Dietilhexil Ftalato/metabolismo , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Plastificantes/análisis , Cloruro de Polivinilo/análisis , Cloruro de Polivinilo/química , Dispositivos de Autoayuda/efectos adversos
16.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 820-827, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424434

RESUMEN

Di-(2-ethylhcxyl) phthalate (DEHP) is applied as plasticizer, which results in the pollution of environment. In this study, the effects of DEHP on soil microbial functions, structure and genetic diversity were investigated. The concentration of DEHP in the soil were 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg, and the experimental period were 28 days. DEHP reduced the quantity, abundance, species dominance and homogeneity of soil microbes during the first 14 days. In addition, microbial utilization efficiency of carbon (carbohydrates, aliphatics, amino acids, metabolites) was impacted after 28 days, though the effects gradually weakened. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis, in the presence of DEHP, the dominant microbes in the DEHP-contaminated soil were Sphingomonas and Bacillus, which belonged to the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteriav, respectively. With 0.1 or 1 mg/kg of DEHP, the relative abundances of Acidobacteria were higher, and with 10 or 50 mg/kg of DEHP, the relative abundances of Proteobacteria were higher.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato/toxicidad , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Plastificantes/toxicidad , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Suelo/química , Bacillus/efectos de los fármacos , Bacillus/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Dietilhexil Ftalato/análisis , Plastificantes/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Sphingomonas/efectos de los fármacos , Sphingomonas/metabolismo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138500, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334352

RESUMEN

The health risks of exposure to plasticizers have received widespread attention, however, little is known about the effects of fast food packaging plasticizers on steroid hormone synthesis. In the present study, the types and migration of plasticizers in some commonly used fast-food packaging materials were detected by GC-MS, and the interference effects of these plasticizers and their metabolites on steroid hormone synthesis in the human body were evaluated by the H295R steroidogenesis assay. The GC-MS results showed that the main plasticizer compounds that migrated from fast food packaging into food were di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). Exposure to these chemicals (100-1000 µM) can significantly reduce the viability of H295R cells in a dose-response manner, and these plasticizers and their metabolites that migrated into oily foods at high temperatures (0.25-25 µM) could significantly increase the E2 level and reduce the T level in H295R cells. According to the qRT-PCR data, 0.25 to 25 µM mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) significantly upregulated the expression levels of 17ß-HSD1 and CYP19A1, and downregulated those of CYP17A1, CYP11A1 and StAR. The Western blot results were consistent with those of qRT-PCR. In summary, these results indicated that even exposure to low concentrations (≤1 mg/l or 2.5 µM) of these chemicals and their metabolites can cause significant endocrine-disrupting effects.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato/análisis , Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Dibutil Ftalato/análisis , Comida Rápida , Embalaje de Alimentos , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Plastificantes/análisis
18.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114237, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120256

RESUMEN

Plasticizers are marketed in high volumes and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is frequently detected in the environment and human populations. Industry had largely relied on DEHP until regulation started to restrict its marketing in 1999 due to environmental and human health concerns. The aim of this study was to obtain spatial-temporal trends for DEHP and its substitutes in German rivers. We have investigated suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) for the presence of 23 plasticizers, i.e. 17 phthalates and 6 non-phthalates. The samples were collected in the last 10 years at 13 sites in large river basins in Germany such as the Rhine, Elbe and Danube. A decrease in DEHP concentrations was observed at all sampling sites between the mid-2000s and 2017. The maximum concentration for DEHP was determined in 2006 in samples from Rehlingen/Saar (6720 ng/g dry weight (dw)). By 2017, the DEHP concentration in Rehlingen had dropped to 2080 ng/g dw. Currently, Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is the plasticizer with the highest levels in the SPM samples (maximum value 4150 ng/g dw in Rehlingen/Saar). Our results show that novel plasticizers such as Diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) spread rapidly in surface waters after their market introduction. We have found several plasticizers of emerging concern in the environmental samples, the further use of which is currently under review under the EU chemicals regulation (REACH, registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals). In particular for Di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPHP) a significant increase in concentration was observed at almost all sites between the mid-2000s and 2017, for example in Prossen/Elbe from 24 ng/g dw (2005) to 1380 ng/g dw (2017).


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Alemania , Humanos , Plastificantes/análisis , Ríos
19.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126297, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113093

RESUMEN

A total of 24 surface sediment samples were collected from Liao River, Northeast China. The concentration, spatial distribution, potential source, and ecological risk of 13 organophosphate esters (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers were analyzed. The total concentrations of OPEs varied considerably, ranging from 19.7 to 234 ng g-1 dry weight (dw), with the mean concentrations of 64.2 ± 52.2 ng g-1 dw. The OPEs pollution was increasing from upstream to downstream of Liao River. Compared with other sediments of rivers and lakes all over the world, Liao River has been seriously contaminated by OPEs, especially tributyl phosphate (TNBP) and tri-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBOEP). TNBP was the most abundant OPEs, followed by TBOEP and triphenylphosphine oxide. Their mean relative contributions were 26.3%, 12.4% and 11.6%, respectively. Positive matrix factorization indicated that OPEs in sediments from Liao River might be derived from plastic, textile, and polyurethane foam, anti-foam agent, hydraulic fluids, and coatings, indoor release, and chemical process emission. The risk of potential adverse effects of each individually OPEs on aquatic organisms were low (risk quotient less than 0.1). 2-Ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate was the main substance causing risk.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Organofosfatos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Ésteres/análisis , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Lagos , Compuestos Organofosforados , Plastificantes/análisis , Ríos/química
20.
Food Chem ; 317: 126465, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114276

RESUMEN

Based on the experimental data of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, an improved artificial neural network was first established to predict the migration of 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) plasticizer from poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVDC) into food simulants (ie., heptane, ethanol and water). The sensitivity analysis indicated that temperature acted as a crucial factor influencing the migration values of DEHP. Then, a combined experimental and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed to understand the migration kinetics and the mechanism of DEHP. Hansen solubility parameters of three component (δd, δp, δh) were simplified into two-component solubility parameters (δvdW, δe), and the tuple was successfully applied to describe the interactions between PVDC and food simulants. The MD results showed that high interaction energy and fractional free volume in PVDC/DEHP/food simulant systems accelerated the migration of DEHP. These fundamental studies would provide significant insights into the migration of environmental contaminants.


Asunto(s)
Dietilhexil Ftalato/análisis , Embalaje de Alimentos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Plastificantes/análisis , Dietilhexil Ftalato/química , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Plastificantes/química , Cloruro de Polivinilo/análogos & derivados , Cloruro de Polivinilo/química , Solubilidad , Temperatura
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