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1.
Food Chem ; 338: 127661, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882487

RESUMEN

Understanding the effects of processing on the Se content and bioaccessibility in food is critical in guiding the development of Se-enriched products. In this study, Se-enriched Pleurotus eryngii was obtained by applying different Se supplements to the substrate. Selenium content and its bioaccessibility among raw and processed fruit bodies were compared. The application of exogenous Se had no significant effect on the yield of P. eryngii, while amendment Se yeast could slightly promote the growth of P. eryngii. The enrichment ability of P. eryngii among different Se supplements declined in the order of Na2SeO3 > Se yeast > Na2SeO4. However, the processing treatments resulted in 6.6%-45.9% Se loss. The Se bioaccessibility of P. eryngii was 78.4%-89.7%. Frying treatment reduced Se bioaccessibility in samples, whereas boiling treatment enhanced it. Therefore, Se yeast and boiling treatment are recommended as the ideal Se supplement and processing method for Se-enriched P. eryngii.


Asunto(s)
Pleurotus/química , Selenio/química , Biotransformación , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Pleurotus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Selenio/metabolismo , Levadura Seca/química
2.
Food Chem ; 336: 127675, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795781

RESUMEN

The present study explores the biosorption potential of Pleurotus ostreatus immobilized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for solid-phase extractions of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from the water and food samples. It was characterized using FTIR, FE-SEM/EDX before and after analyte ions biosorption. Important operational parameters including the effect of initial pH, the flow rate of the sample solution and volume, amount of biomass and support material, interfering ions, best eluent, column reusability were studied. The biosorption capacities of fungus immobilized iron oxide nanoparticles were found as 28.6 and 32.1 mg g-1 for Ni(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved as 0.019 and 0.062 ng mL-1 for Ni(II), 0.041 and 0.14 ng mL-1 for Pb(II), respectively. The proposed method was validated by applying to certified reference materials and successfully applied for the preconcentrations of Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from water and food samples by ICP-OES.


Asunto(s)
Plomo/aislamiento & purificación , Nanopartículas/química , Níquel/aislamiento & purificación , Pleurotus/química , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/aislamiento & purificación , Adsorción , Células Inmovilizadas , Compuestos Férricos/química , Análisis de los Alimentos/instrumentación , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Límite de Detección , Fenómenos Magnéticos , Níquel/química , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Extracción en Fase Sólida/instrumentación , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química
3.
Food Chem ; 338: 127731, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810811

RESUMEN

Pleurotus tuoliensis is a popular edible and medical mushroom, but it is highly perishable during postharvest storage. The quality parameters, chemical composition, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and activity of metabolic enzymes were studied during 12 days of storage at 4 °C and 6 days of storage at 25 °C. Degradation was well described by changes in quality parameters, losses in nutritional value, increased metabolic enzyme activity, the accumulation of MDA concentrations, and the increase of total phenolic (TP) content. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) significantly positively correlated with TP, which suggested an underlying mechanism of browning that the increased PAL activity stimulates the biosynthesis of phenols through the phenylalanine pathway. These results suggest that increased activity of laccase, lipoxygenase, PAL, TP and MDA accumulation, together with polysaccharide degradation, are the main factors involved in the deterioration of P. tuoliensis during storage.


Asunto(s)
Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Pleurotus/química , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análisis , Enzimas/análisis , Enzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/análisis , Lacasa/análisis , Lacasa/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/análisis , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Fenoles/análisis , Fenilanina Amoníaco-Liasa/análisis , Fenilanina Amoníaco-Liasa/metabolismo , Temperatura
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(5): 1028-1032, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-198019

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: in April 2002, the National Food Authority of Sweden published a study in which the presence of a carcinogen was reported for the first time in experimental animals, and was identified as acrylamide. Various studies have shown that the β-glucans of Pleurotus ostreatus have diverse biological properties including antioxidant and anticancer activities. METHODS: β-glucans were obtained by alkaline-acid hydrolysis from Pleurotus ostreatus, and their content was characterized by liquid chromatography. To evaluate the effect of β-glucans on the expression of glutathione, Balb/c mice were used, and 4 test groups were established. All groups were fed as usual, groups treated with acrylamide were administered the compound intragastrically at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, and β-glucan treatment was given at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. RESULTS: no mortality was observed after exposure to the tested dose of acrylamide; only signs of peripheral neuropathy such as hyperactivity and tremors were observed after five days of experimentation, and were maintained over 30 days after the experiment. On the other hand, an increase in lipid peroxidation levels was observed in the livers of the acrylamide-treated mice, which were lower in the mice treated with β-glucans. CONCLUSIONS: results show that β-glucans may act as antioxidant agents able to protect the liver against oxidative stress as caused by the intake of acrylamide


INTRODUCCIÓN: en abril de 2002, la Autoridad Nacional de Alimentos de Suecia publicó un estudio en el que se informó por primera vez de la presencia de un carcinógeno en animales experimentales, identificado como acrilamida. Diversos estudios han demostrado que los β-glucanos de Pleurotus ostreatus tienen diversas propiedades biológicas, tales como actividades antioxidantes y anticancerígenas. MÉTODOS: los β-glucanos se obtuvieron por hidrólisis ácido-alcalina de Pleurotus ostreatus y su contenido se caracterizó por cromatografía líquida. Para evaluar el efecto de los β-glucanos sobre la expresión de glutatión, se usaron ratones Balb/c y se establecieron 4 grupos de prueba; todos los grupos se alimentaron normalmente, en los grupos tratados con acrilamida esta se administró intragástricamente a una concentración de 50 μg/mL, y el tratamiento con β-glucanos se dio a una concentración de 50 μg/mL. RESULTADOS: no se observó mortalidad después de la exposición a la dosis probada de acrilamida; solo se observaron signos de neuropatía periférica, como hiperactividad y temblores, después de cinco días de experimentación, que se mantuvieron dentro de los 30 días posteriores al experimento. Por otro lado, se observó un aumento de los niveles de peroxidación lipídica en los hígados de los ratones tratados con acrilamida, que fueron más bajos en los ratones tratados con β-glucanos. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados muestran que los β-glucanos podrían actuar como agentes antioxidantes y proteger el hígado contra el estrés oxidativo causado por la ingesta de acrilamida


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ratones , Pleurotus/química , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Acrilamida/efectos adversos , beta-Glucanos/administración & dosificación , Peroxidación de Lípido/efectos de los fármacos , beta-Glucanos/inmunología , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Medicamentos Hepatoprotectores , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1087-1093, 2020 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788522

RESUMEN

Previously, we reported that the polar lipid fraction from the golden oyster mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, suppresses colon injuries which result from apoptosis induced by inflammatory stresses in vivo and in vitro (Yamashita et al., J. Oleo Sci., 69, 751-757 (2020)). Here, we investigated the use of lipid classes in mushroom polar lipid fraction in alleviating colon injury using differentiated Caco-2 cells as an intestinal tract model. The mushroom polar lipid fraction was separated into four fractions using silica thin layer chromatography. Each mushroom polar lipid fraction suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decreases in the viability of intestinal cells, and the effects of sphingolipid fractions were significantly stronger than those of fraction that did not contain sphingolipids. Addition of sphingolipid fractions suppressed the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (e.g., death receptors and caspases) in the LPS-treated cells. Mushroom polar lipids, especially sphingolipids suppress intestinal apoptosis induced by inflammatory stress, and highly polar sphingolipids may exert stronger suppressive effects.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedades del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades del Colon/patología , Fitoterapia , Pleurotus/química , Esfingolípidos/aislamiento & purificación , Esfingolípidos/farmacología , Apoptosis/genética , Células CACO-2 , Caspasas/genética , Caspasas/metabolismo , Fraccionamiento Químico , Enfermedades del Colon/inducido químicamente , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamación , Lipopolisacáridos , Esfingolípidos/uso terapéutico
6.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2822-2831, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794226

RESUMEN

The anti-inflammatory effects of two newly identified Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (WPEP, NPEP) were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in this study. Characterization analysis revealed that molecular weights of WPEP and NPEP were 167 and 274 kDa, and were mainly composed of glucose with ß-type glycosidic linkages. WPEP and NPEP could significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by regulating the production of NO, Protaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). This was through the blocking of the activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulation of protein kinases 1/2, and stress-activated protein kinase/jun aminoterminal kinase. Moreover, WPEP and NPEP inhibited NF-κB signaling by reducing nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of p65. Overall, our results, for the first time identified two P. eryngii polysaccharides and demonstrated the related anti-inflammatory effects, which indicated the favorable potential of P. eryngii polysaccharide as specific functional foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study prepared and characterized newly identified Pleurotus eryngii water-soluble polysaccharide fractions and elucidated the nutritional benefits, mainly the immune response related to anti-inflammatory activities by utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, results of this study suggested that the P. eryngii polysaccharide fractions could be considered as potential candidates for exploration in the development of new immunomodulatory agent or functional supplementary foods.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Pleurotus/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Dinoprostona/inmunología , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Ratones , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/inmunología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polisacáridos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/inmunología
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(7): 751-757, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612025

RESUMEN

The rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in East Asian countries has necessitated the implementation of preventive methods in the form of dietary supplementation and changes in dietary habits. We have previously reported that dietary golden oyster mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) ethanol extract (GOMEE) suppresses intestinal inflammation in mouse models of IBD induced by dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS). Here, we investigated the components of GOMEE that exert suppressive effects on colon inflammation in vivo and in vitro. The total lipid fraction was extracted from GOMEE, and the polar and neutral lipid fractions were subsequently separated via solvent fractionation. Mice were assigned to dietary groups-control, 1% total lipid, 1% polar lipid, or 1% neutral lipid diet-and fed the respective diets for one week; mice were administered 1.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum for 20 days. Dietary supplementation with the total or polar lipid fraction alleviated DSS-induced chorionic crypt injury as determined by morphological observation, while dietary supplementation with the neutral lipid fraction did not produce such effects. In the in vitro study, using differentiated Caco-2 cells as the colon model, treatment with the total or polar lipid fraction suppressed cell decrease by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis whereas treatment with the neutral lipid fraction did not. Moreover, accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a fungal sphingolipid, was observed in the intestinal cells after treatment with polar lipid fraction. These results suggest that the active components of GOMEE that suppress colon inflammation are polar lipids, especially GlcCer. The structure of mushroom GlcCer differs from that of the plant counterpart and is therefore expected to exert different food functions.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Colon/metabolismo , Colon/patología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Pleurotus/química , Esfingolípidos/farmacología , Esfingolípidos/uso terapéutico , Animales , Células CACO-2 , Fraccionamiento Químico , Suplementos Dietéticos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Glucosilceramidas , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Esfingolípidos/aislamiento & purificación
8.
Food Chem ; 330: 127173, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569930

RESUMEN

Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible mushroom with pharmacological potential, due to its metabolites, mainly polysaccharides. On here, the development of a new methodology for the recovery of extract rich in antioxidant polysaccharide was reported. The extracts were characterized, evaluated for antioxidant activity in vitro and in cell models and cytotoxicity. The best defined extraction condition was 25 MPa, 433.15 K, and 20% H2O, with 30.69% of the total yield and 0.921 mg of CHO3. The anomeric bonds, identified in the FTIR and NMR spectrum, indicate that the extracts are a mixture of heteropolysaccharides, ß-glucans, α-glucans, and oligosaccharides. The best extraction condition has 80.83% of antioxidant activity, without cytotoxic effect in vitro. In addition to antioxidant activity in cell model, increasing protection against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Finally, H2O + CO2-SFE technology can be used to obtain extracts rich in antioxidant polysaccharides with pharmacological and food potential.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Pleurotus/química , Polisacáridos/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Glucanos/química , Calor , Peróxido de Hidrógeno/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Agua/química
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20191121, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428092

RESUMEN

Cadmium, present in the environment, accumulates in different organs of animals and humans, and has deleterious effects on the kidney. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of the methanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus in comparison with silymarin on renal function in cadmium-intoxicated rats for five days. Rats intraperitoneally injected with cadmium chloride (1 mg/kg). These rats were treated with either P. ostreatus extract (200 mg/kg) or silymarin to investigate the protective effects of the extract. Cadmium treatment induced significant histopathological impairments and increased cadmium levels, DNA fragmentation, and renal oxidative stress. However, treatment with P. ostreatus extract or silymarin improved the pathology, reduced the level of cadmium in renal tissue, and restored DNA fragmentation. In addition, a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species levels, and a significant increase in the levels of glutathione and catalase activity were observed. Thus, protective effects of P. ostreatus extract to its components. Chromatographic analysis of the P. ostreatus confirmed the presence of five phenolics (gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, propyl gallate, and cinnamic acid) that exhibit strong antioxidant properties as free radical scavengers. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that treatment with P. ostreatus extract protects against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity in female rats.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Cloruro de Cadmio/toxicidad , Riñón/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Pleurotus/química , Silimarina/farmacología , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Cloruro de Cadmio/análisis , Femenino , Riñón/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Sustancias Protectoras/farmacología , Ratas
10.
Food Chem ; 327: 127084, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446029

RESUMEN

Edible mushrooms are classified as a functional food. The study aimed to initiate in vitro cultures of selected species of Pleurotus: P. citrinopileatus, P. djamor, P. eryngii, P. florida, P. ostreatus, and P. pulmonarius and to optimize the method of cultivation of these species to obtain raw materials characterized by pro-health properties. Another objective was to analyze the biologically active substances in the obtained mushroom materials. By determining the organic compounds and bioelements present in the species selected for the study, it was found that the fruiting bodies obtained by cultivation were characterized by a high content of phenolic and indole compounds. Similarly, the mycelia obtained from in vitro culture were found to contain significant amounts of organic compounds exhibiting biological effects such as lovastatin. The study revealed that the composition of biologically active substances varied between the mycelia obtained from in vitro cultures and the fruiting bodies obtained by cultivation.


Asunto(s)
Pleurotus/química , Civilización , Lovastatina/química , Micelio/química , Fenoles/química
11.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079328

RESUMEN

Pleurotus eryngii (DC:Fr.) Quel. is a cultivated mushroom of high culinary value and medicinal properties. Mycelium of P. eryngii is characterized by the ability of effective bio-elements absorption from growth media so it could be biofortified with trace elements with a functional activity in the human body. In this study, the ability of P. eryngii mycelia from in vitro cultures as well as fruiting bodies were investigated in terms of their effectiveness in zinc and selenium accumulation. The effect of Se and Zn biofortification on productivity, chemical compounds, and bio-elements content of P. eryngii was determined as well. To enhance Se and Zn content in P. eryngii fruiting bodies and mycelia, substrates were supplemented with sodium selenite, at a concentration of 50 mg L-1, zinc sulfate, and zinc hydro-aspartate at a concentration of 87.2 and 100.0 mg L-1, respectively. Mentioned Zn concentrations contained the same amount of zinc(II) ions, namely 20 mg L-1. The content of organic compounds include phenolic compounds and lovastatin, which were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with UV detection. The ability of P. eryngii to accumulate zinc and selenium from the culture medium was demonstrated. The degree of accumulation of zinc turned out to be different depending on the type of salt used. The present study also showed that conducting mycelium of P. eryngii in in vitro culture, with a higher content of zinc ions, can result in obtaining the materials with better antioxidant ability. The results of this study can be used to develop the composition of growing media, which ensures the production of biomass with the desired composition of elements.


Asunto(s)
Biofortificación , Cuerpos Fructíferos de los Hongos/química , Micelio/química , Pleurotus/química , Selenio/análisis , Zinc/análisis , Biomasa , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Depuradores de Radicales Libres/química , Fenoles/análisis , Picratos/química , Análisis de Componente Principal
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 121, 2020 01 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924832

RESUMEN

In this study, we determined the influences of different drying techniques such as natural air (ND), hot-air (HD), vacuum (VD), infrared (ID), microwave (MD), and freeze drying (FD) methods on the color, shrinkage ratio (SR), rehydration ratio (RR), firmness, crispness, microstructures, nutritional components, and free amino acids of Pleurotus eryngii. The results showed that these parameters were markedly influenced by different drying techniques. Among them, FD was the most effective drying method which retained the main characteristics of the fresh P. eryngii in above mentioned indexes, followed by ND and HD at 40 °C. Finally, despite the least drying time, MD treatment was not suitable to the drying process of P. eryngii slices since it damaged physicochemical properties and caused massive losses of the main nutrients and free amino acids. The results will provide a theoretical basis for industrial processing of P. eryngii.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/análisis , Fenómenos Químicos , Desecación/métodos , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Nutrientes/análisis , Pleurotus/química , Fenómenos Mecánicos
13.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124881, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574438

RESUMEN

Phyto- and myco-remediation have been identified as sustainable options for treatment of petroleum-contaminated soils. To appraise the benefits thereof, the potentials of 3 sunflower species, 2 palm wine types and P. ostreatus to treat petroleum-contaminated soils was investigated. The study involved sampling of petroleum-contaminated soils and treatment with the phyto- and myco-remediation agents for a period of 90-days. Agents used for the remediation were 3 species of sunflowers (Helianthus annus-pacino gold, Helianthus sunsation &Helianthus annus-sunny dwarf), fermented palm wine (from 2 species of palm trees -Elaeis guineensis &Raffia africana), and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The study further investigated variation in remediation efficiency among the sunflower and palm wine species, as well as different substrates and conditions for optimal application of P. ostreatus. The results obtained revealed up to 340 g/kg dry weight of Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soils, with remediation outcomes of up to 69% by the sunflower- Helianthus annus (Pacino gold), 70% by fermented palm wine, and 85% by P. ostreatus. While the remediation efficiency of sunflower species was proportional to biomass, there was no significant difference in remediation efficiency of the palm wines. It was also found that substrates type and method of application has a significant impact on the remediation efficiency of P. ostreatus. The study further revealed available nitrate and electrical conductivity as possible useful indicators of TPHs concentration and remediation progress in soils.


Asunto(s)
Biodegradación Ambiental , Helianthus/química , Petróleo/metabolismo , Pleurotus/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/metabolismo , Suelo/química , Vino/análisis , Fermentación , Petróleo/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15999, 2019 11 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690791

RESUMEN

As a multifunctional material, biochar is considered a potential adsorbent for removing heavy metals from wastewater. Most biochars with high adsorption capacities have been modified, but this modification is uneconomical, and modifying biochar may cause secondary pollution. Thus, it is necessary to develop an efficient biochar without modification. In this study, spent P. ostreatus substrate and spent shiitake substrate were used as the raw materials to prepare biochar. Then, the physicochemical properties of the biochars and their removal efficiencies for Pb(II) were investigated. The results showed that the physicochemical properties (e.g., large BET surface area, small pore structure and abundant functional groups) contributed to the large adsorption capacity for Pb(II); the maximum adsorption capacities were 326 mg g-1 (spent P. ostreatus substrate-derived biochar) and 398 mg g-1 (spent shiitake substrate-derived biochar), which are 1.6-10 times larger than those of other modified biochars. The Pb(II) adsorption data could be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model. This study provides a new method to comprehensively utilize spent mushroom substrates for the sustainable development of the edible mushroom industry.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico/química , Plomo/química , Pleurotus/química , Hongos Shiitake/química , Residuos/análisis , Adsorción , Cinética
15.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(8): 765-781, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679284

RESUMEN

We have recently demonstrated that we could enhance glucan content in Pleurotus eryngii following cultivation of the mushrooms on a substrate containing different concentrations of olive mill solid waste (OMSW). These changes are directly related to the content of OMSW in the growing substrate. Using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-in-flammatory bowel disease (IBD) mice model, we measured the colonic inflammatory response to the different glucan preparations. We found that the histology damaging score (HDS) resulting from DSS treatment reach a value of 11.8 ± 2.3 were efficiently downregulated by treatment with the fungal extracted glucans. Glucans extracted from stalks cultivated at 20% OMSW downregulated to a HDS value of 6.4 ± 0.5 whereas those cultivated at 80% OMSW showed the strongest effects (5.5 ± 0.6). Similar downregulatory effects were obtained for expression of various intestinal cytokines. All tested glucans were equally effective in regulating the number of CD14/CD16 monocytes from 18.2 ± 2.7% for DSS to 6.4 ± 2.0 for DSS + glucans extracted from stalks cultivated at 50% OMSW. We tested the effect of glucans on lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-α, which demonstrated that stalk-derived glucans were more effective than caps-derived glucans. Isolated glucans competed with anti-Dectin-1 and anti-CR3 antibodies, indicating that they contain ß-glucans recognized by these receptors. In conclusion, the most effective glucans in ameliorating IBD-associated symptoms induced by DSS treatment in mice were glucan extracts prepared from the stalk of P. eryngii grown at higher concentrations of OMSW. We conclude that these stress-induced growing conditions may be helpful in selecting more effective glucans derived from edible mushrooms.


Asunto(s)
Glucanos/farmacología , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/tratamiento farmacológico , Pleurotus/química , Agaricales/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Glucanos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/aislamiento & purificación , Inflamación/tratamiento farmacológico , Olea , Pleurotus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Glucanos/aislamiento & purificación , beta-Glucanos/farmacología
16.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3091-3098, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627254

RESUMEN

The effects of four treatments of Pleurotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) as replacements for pork back fat were evaluated for the physicochemical, technological, and sensory properties; nitrite content; and amino acid profile in pork sausages. Five batches were manufactured: one control (formulated with pork back fat) and four treatments with raw, boiled, deep-fried, and fried P. eryngii to replace the pork back fat in sausages. The results indicated that the fat content and energy value decreased, while the protein, moisture, total dietary fiber content, cooking loss, and water-holding capacity of the modified sausages increased. All samples were judged acceptable for their sensory characteristics, with the best one being the sausage containing deep-fried P. eryngii. The raw and fried P. eryngii decreased the residual nitrite content in the sausages. Boiled P. eryngii enhanced the essential amino acids content in the sausages, while the other P. eryngii treatments improved the nonessential amino acid content. In summary, P. eryngii may potentially replace fat in sausages. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In manufacturing pork sausages, the mushroom P. eryngii can substitute pork back fat to improve the nutritional quality by reducing fat and energy value, while enhancing the protein and total dietary fiber content in the sausages. Raw and fried P. eryngii decreased the residual nitrite content in the sausages. This study provides a basis for preparing healthier alternatives to traditional sausages by substituting pork fat with mushrooms.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Sustitutos de Grasa/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Pleurotus , Porcinos , Aminoácidos/análisis , Animales , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Pleurotus/química , Carne Roja/análisis , Gusto
17.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614966

RESUMEN

Vitamin D2 deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient insufficiencies among children. Few foods, mainly those derived from animal sources, naturally contain this vitamin. The basidiomycete mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus could be used as an innovative and sustainable ingredient for food fortification with vitamin D2. This study was aimed at exploring children's acceptance of a whole-cereal-based product (breadsticks) combined with increasing concentrations of P. ostreatus powder rich in vitamin D2. The food neophobia trait (fear of trying unfamiliar and new food) on sample acceptability was also investigated. One hundred and three children (47 girls and 56 boys, aged 9-11 years) were recruited, and breadstick-liking was studied in relation to gender and neophobic traits. Results showed that the samples enriched in vitamin D2 were well accepted by children even if liking decreased with increasing concentration of mushroom powder. Generally, neophilic subjects gave higher liking scores compared with the neophobic ones, especially for the modified samples. New, well-accepted fortified products could be developed using an adequate concentration of mushroom powder to deal with the increasing vitamin D2 deficiency among children.


Asunto(s)
Ergocalciferoles/administración & dosificación , Alimentos Fortificados , Pleurotus/química , Gusto , Granos Enteros/química , Niño , Ergocalciferoles/química , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 141: 150-160, 2019 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487514

RESUMEN

Three polysaccharides (WZP1, WZP2, WZP3) and their Se-enriched products (SeWZP1, SeWZP2 and SeWZP3) were obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus using a simple, rapid method and HNO3-Na2SeO3 method, respectively. The molecular weight distribution profiles of all samples except SeWZP2 showed double peaks. The average molecular weights (Mw) of WZP1-3 were 48.6 kDa, 20.2 kDa and 11.8 kDa, respectively, and of SeWZP1-3 were 19.6 kDa, 37.7 kDa, 14.5 kDa, respectively. The complexity of monosaccharide composition of WZP1-3 was inversely proportional to the ethanol concentration used in the ethanol precipitation process. Additionally, the results of biological activity tests indicated that α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of WZP1-3 was related to the molecular weight and the monosaccharide composition complexity. The selenized modification can improve the α-glucosidase-inhibiting, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity of P. ostreatus polysaccharides. Therefore, by improving their bioactivities by selenization, the polysaccharides of P. ostreatus could be utilized as a natural health food supplement.


Asunto(s)
Depuradores de Radicales Libres/química , Polisacáridos Fúngicos/química , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/química , Pleurotus/química , Peso Molecular , Ácido Nítrico/química , Selenito de Sodio/química
19.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 20(15): 1309-1320, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483226

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mushrooms are deemed as a special delicacy in many countries. They are considered an important cuisine due to their bioactive ingredients and possible health benefits. METHODS: Herein, we measured selected biological properties of methanol extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Boletus edulis fruiting bodies including; in vitro antimicrobial activity, anti-α- glucosidase activity, antioxidant activity, anti-lipase activity and cytotoxic activity against different cancer cells and normal cells. RESULTS: B. edulis methanol extracts showed high antimicrobial and anti-α-glucosidase activity. In contrast, P. citrinopileatus methanol extracts showed superior antioxidant activity indicated by (1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH radical scavenging with half maximal inhibitory concentration of IC50 37.4 µg/ml, anti-lipase activities with IC50 65.2 µg/ml and high cytotoxicity activity against HepG2 and HeLa cell lines with IC50 22.8 and 36.7 µg/ml, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle was used to show apoptotic effects of methanol extracts against HepG2 and HeLa cells. CONCLUSION: P. citrinopileatus and B. edulis methanolic extracts appear to contain biologically active compounds that might be used to treat some common human diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/aislamiento & purificación , Antineoplásicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/aislamiento & purificación , Cuerpos Fructíferos de los Hongos/química , Pleurotus/química , Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Compuestos de Bifenilo/química , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/farmacología , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Células HeLa , Humanos , Lipasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Metanol/química , Picratos/química
20.
Biomolecules ; 9(9)2019 09 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547423

RESUMEN

Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease, is a significant health threat in many countries and affects millions of people. Given the magnitude of this disease, a broader understanding of trypanocidal mechanisms is needed to prevent and treat infection. Natural endoperoxides, such as ergosterol peroxide, have been shown to be toxic to parasites without causing harm to human cells or tissues. Although prior studies have demonstrated the trypanocidal activity of ergosterol peroxide, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. The results of this study indicate that a free-radical reaction occurs in T. cruzi following ergosterol peroxide exposure, leading to cell death. Using a combination of biochemical, microscopic and in silico experimental approaches, we have identified, for the first time, the cellular and molecular cytotoxic mechanism of an ergosterol peroxide obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq) P. Kumm. f. sp. Florida.


Asunto(s)
Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ergosterol/análogos & derivados , Pleurotus/química , Trypanosoma cruzi/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cristalografía por Rayos X , Sistema Enzimático del Citocromo P-450/química , Citoplasma/efectos de los fármacos , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Ergosterol/química , Ergosterol/farmacología , Modelos Moleculares , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Estructura Molecular , Trypanosoma cruzi/metabolismo
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