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1.
N C Med J ; 82(1): 46-49, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397755

RESUMEN

COVID-19 has fundamentally changed how society delivers health care, provides services, and cares for and educates our children. Entrenched problems that seem insurmountable are laid bare for all to see as we weather the pandemic. We cannot afford to tinker around the edges anymore. We must be creative, innovative, and bold to address systemic issues that impact our most under-resourced communities.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Humanos , North Carolina/epidemiología , Población Rural
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 37, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409544

RESUMEN

Indoor exposure to air pollutants emitted by solid fuels used for cooking or heating homes remains as a problem to solve. The most affected people are newborns, mothers, children, and people with disabilities, due to the time they spend at home. This study is the first in a rural area of South America, which measures indoor air pollutants (PM2.5 and black carbon) in different environments, inhabited by people with disabilities. The research was supported through a sociodemographic characterization, a methodology useful for future studies, continuous monitoring for 72 h of pollutants, and emission sources, cooking habits, and pre-existing diseases were identified. The primary sources of emissions are improved wood-burning stoves and their chimney. In households where firewood is used, the average concentrations of PM2.5 were the highest (between 10.9 and 3302.5 µg/m3), as were the average concentrations of BC (average 72 h between 2.6 and 51.2 µg/m3) compared with the houses that use gas (average 72 h between 2.6 and 6 µg/m3). In 57% of the households visited, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for PM2.5 (25 µg/m3 for 24 h) were exceeded. The results reveal that rural concentrations of BC can be up to 2.5 times higher than those of an urban area with high vehicular traffic and high population density and could be used to establish a baseline that allows the implementation of control mechanisms to reduce pollution of indoor air.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Personas con Discapacidad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Carbono , Niño , Colombia , Culinaria , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Material Particulado/análisis , Población Rural , América del Sur
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141775, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890827

RESUMEN

We evaluated the hygienic influence of onsite sanitation systems (OSSs) on drinking water wells in rural Sri Lanka by determining the safe setback distance between wells and the management of OSSs. Although previous studies have used bacterial indicators such as E. coli to evaluate the OSS impact, these parameters cannot assess the hygiene risk for waterborne pathogenic viruses (e.g. rotaviruses). Therefore, pepper mild mottle virus was selected as an indicator of human-specific faecal virus contamination. From a viral perspective, not only can the horizontal distance between a well and the nearest OSS reasonably represent hygiene safety, but the OSS sludge management can mitigate the contamination of wells even at short distances from the OSSs. Quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the infection risk of rotavirus was extremely high compared to the international standard. As proper management of OSSs would be key to reducing viral risk, it is necessary to reach out to the residents who are unaware of the importance and necessity of such management.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento , Virus , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Higiene , Población Rural , Sri Lanka , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua , Pozos de Agua
4.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1): 39-46, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216679

RESUMEN

Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) at the University of New Mexico is a telementoring program that uses videoconferencing technology to connect health care providers in underserved communities with subject matter experts. In March 2020, Project ECHO created 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) telementoring programs to meet the public health needs of clinicians and teachers living in underserved rural and urban regions of New Mexico. The newly created COVID-19 programs include 7 weekly sessions (Community Health Worker [in English and Spanish], Critical Care, Education, First-Responder Resiliency, Infectious Disease Office Hours, and Multi-specialty) and 3 one-day special sessions. We calculated the total number of attendees, along with the range and standard deviation, per session by program. Certain programs (Critical Care, Infectious Disease Office Hours, Multi-specialty) recorded the profession of attendees when available. The Project ECHO research team collected COVID-19 infection data by county from March 11 through May 31, 2020. During that same period, 9765 health care and general education professionals participated in the COVID-19 programs, and participants from 31 of 35 (89%) counties in New Mexico attended the sessions. Our initial evaluation of these programs demonstrates that an interprofessional clinician group and teachers used the Project ECHO network to build a community of practice and social network while meeting their educational and professional needs. Because of Project ECHO's large reach, the results of the New Mexico COVID-19 response suggest that the rapid use of ECHO telementoring could be used for other urgent national public health problems.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/educación , Capacitación en Servicio/organización & administración , Tutoría/organización & administración , Población Rural , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/normas , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/educación , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Área sin Atención Médica , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , New Mexico/epidemiología , Pandemias , Resiliencia Psicológica , Telemedicina , Población Urbana , Comunicación por Videocoferencia
5.
Water Res ; 188: 116480, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065414

RESUMEN

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is the most widely distributed sulfonamide antibiotics detected in decentralized poultry wastewater in rural communities. As an economically-feasible and eco-friendly technology for decentralized wastewater treatment in rural areas, vertical-flow multi-soil-layering (MSL) system was promising to mitigate the ecological and human health risks from SMX in such areas. The treatment of SMX-contained poultry wastewater by using MSL systems was investigated for the first time, and the main and interactive effects of related multiple variables on system performance were explored through factorial analysis, including material of permeable layer, concentration of SMX, and pH of influent. Results indicated that SMX concentration and pH of influent showed significantly negative effects on SMX removal. Medical stone used in MSL systems with larger surface area could intensify the SMX removal compared to anthracite. MSL systems showed stable performances on SMX removal with the best SMX removal efficiency more than 91%. A novel stepwise-cluster inference (SCI) model was developed for the first time to map the multivariate numeric relationships between state variables and SMX removal under discrete and nonlinear complexities. It was demonstrated that the effect of SMX in wastewater with high concentration was significant on the differentiation of soil bacteria composition in MSL systems based on microbial diversity analysis. These results can help better understand the mechanism of SMX removal in MSL systems from perspectives of factorial analysis, numeric modeling, and microbiological change.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Aguas Residuales , Animales , Humanos , Aves de Corral , Población Rural , Sulfametoxazol
6.
Int J Cardiol ; 323: 285-287, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889019

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related lockdown on adherence to lifestyle and drug regimens in stay-at-home chronic coronary syndromes patients living in urban and rural areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was perfomed in patients with chronic coronary syndromes. A sample of 205 patients was randomly drawn from the RICO (Observatoire des infarctus de Côte d'Or) cohort. Eight trained interviewers collected data by phone interview during week 16 (April 13 to April 19), i.e. 4 weeks after implementation of the French lockdown (start March 17, 2020). RESULTS: Among the 195 patients interviewed (of the 205, 3 had died, 1 declined, 6 lost), mean age was 65.5 ± 11.1 years. Only six patients (3%) reported drug discontinuation, mainly driven by media influence or family members. All 166 (85%) patients taking aspirin continued their prescribed daily intake. Lifestyle rules were less respected since almost half (45%) declared >25% reduction in physical activity, 26% of smokers increased their tobacco consumption by >25%, and 24% of patients increased their body weight > 2 kg. The decrease in physical activity and the increase in smoking were significantly greater in urban patients (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-related lockdown had a negative impact on lifestyle in a representative sample of stay-at-home CCS patients.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estilo de Vida , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Anciano , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural , Fumar/epidemiología , Población Urbana , Aumento de Peso
7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 118-124, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979575

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The case fatality rate (CFR) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies significantly between countries. We aimed to describe the associations between health indicators and the national CFRs of COVID-19. METHODS: We identified for each country health indicators potentially associated with the national CFRs of COVID-19. We extracted data for 18 variables from international administrative data sources for 34 member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We excluded the collinear variables and examined the 16 variables in multivariable analysis. A dynamic web-based model was developed to analyse and display the associations for the CFRs of COVID-19. We followed the Guideline for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). RESULTS: In multivariable analysis, the variables significantly associated with the increased CFRs were percentage of obesity in ages >18 years (ß = 3.26; 95%CI = 1.20, 5.33; p 0.003), tuberculosis incidence (ß = 3.15; 95%CI = 1.09, 5.22; p 0.004), duration (days) since first death due to COVID-19 (ß = 2.89; 95%CI = 0.83, 4.96; p 0.008), and median age (ß = 2.83; 95%CI = 0.76, 4.89; p 0.009). The COVID-19 test rate (ß = -3.54; 95%CI = -5.60, -1.47; p 0.002), hospital bed density (ß = -2.47; 95%CI = -4.54, -0.41; p 0.021), and rural population ratio (ß = -2.19; 95%CI = -4.25, -0.13; p 0.039) decreased the CFR. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic hits population-dense cities. Available hospital beds should be increased. Test capacity should be increased to enable more effective diagnostic tests. Older patients and patients with obesity and their caregivers should be warned about a potentially increased risk.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/mortalidad , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/mortalidad , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Américas/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , /patología , Comorbilidad , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Capacidad de Camas en Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/patología , Densidad de Población , Población Rural , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Factores de Tiempo , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/patología , Población Urbana
8.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 331-340, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361830

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Rural women, compared to urban, experience worse survivorship outcomes, including poorer health-related quality of life (QOL). There is a need to characterize the role of multilevel social factors that contribute to QOL, including context, networks, and functioning. Our objectives were to (1) use latent class analysis to identify distinct classes of social context and social networks and (2) examine how multilevel social factors (context, networks, and functioning) are associated with health-related QOL. METHODS: We recruited self-identified rural survivors to the Illinois Rural Cancer Assessment (2017-2018), via community-based sampling methods, and participants completed the survey online, by phone, or on paper. We used latent class analysis to generate multidimensional variables for contextual and network factors. We next modeled each social factor sas a predictor in separate, bivariable linear regressions for the QOL outcomes, followed by multivariable, adjusted regressions. RESULTS: For our first objective, there were three classes each of county-level contexts (1, highly rural, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and mostly lacking in cancer-related services; 2, mostly rural, moderately disadvantaged, and underserved; 3, mostly metropolitan, less disadvantaged, and most-resourced) and social networks (1, no caregivers; 2, only spousal caregivers with whom they communicated daily; 3, multiple caregivers with varying daily communication). For our second objective, among all social factors, only functioning was associated with better mental health-related QOL. No factors were associated with physical health-related QOL. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a rich diversity of social context and networks among rural female cancer survivors, and social functioning is particularly important for mental health-related QOL.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Neoplasias/terapia , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Apoyo Social , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cuidadores , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Ajuste Social , Medio Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Supervivencia
9.
BJOG ; 128(1): 101-109, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659031

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore parents' lived experiences of care and support following stillbirth in urban and rural health facilities. DESIGN: Qualitative, interpretative, guided by Heideggerian phenomenology. SETTING: Nairobi and Western Kenya, Kampala and Central Uganda. SAMPLE: A purposive sample of 75 women and 59 men who had experienced the stillbirth of their baby (≤1 year previously) and received care in the included facilities. METHODS: In-depth interviews, analysed using Van Manen's reflexive approach. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified; parents described devastating impacts and profound responses to their baby's death. Interactions with health workers were a key influence, but poor communication, environmental barriers and unsupportive facility policies/practices meant that needs were often unmet. After discharge, women and partners sought support in communities to help them cope with the death of their baby but frequently encountered stigma engendering feelings of blame and increasing isolation. CONCLUSIONS: Parents in Kenya and Uganda were not always treated with compassion and lacked the care or support they needed after the death of their baby. Health workers in Kenya and Uganda, in common with other settings, have a key role in supporting bereaved parents. There is an urgent need for context and culturally appropriate interventions to improve communication, health system and community support for African parents. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Health-system response and community support for parents after stillbirth in Kenya and Uganda are inadequate.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Padres , Atención Prenatal , Apoyo Social , Mortinato/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Kenia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Población Rural , Uganda , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
11.
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113628, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340799

RESUMEN

This research aims to analyze the effects of pseudoscientific information (PI) about COVID-19 on the mental well-being of the general population. A total of 782 participants were classified according to the type of municipality in which they lived (rural municipalities and urban municipalities). The participants answered psychometric questionnaires that assessed psychological well-being, pseudoscientific beliefs and the ability to discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific information about COVID-19. The results indicated the following: the greater the ability to discriminate between false information and true information, the greater the levels of psychological well-being perceived by the participant. The ability to discriminate predicts up to 32% of psychological well-being only for subjects living in rural municipalities. Residents in urban municipalities showed lower levels of well-being than residents in rural municipalities. It is concluded that new social resources are needed to help the general population of urban municipalities discriminate between pseudoscientific and scientific information.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Alfabetización en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111655, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309109

RESUMEN

Rural toilet retrofitting (RTR) is a complex, dynamic system that is affected by many factors and the positive/negative feedback relationships between subsystems and variables. Traditional technologies and management methods face challenges in fundamentally describing and solving problems in RTR. To bridge this gap, this study utilizes system dynamics and causal loop diagrams to explain such problems based on data collected from the stakeholders of the RTR in Jiaozhou from 2018 to 2019. Specifically, this study examines the RTR system from the perspectives of household users, wastewater treatment plants, local governments, grassroots promoters, operation and maintenance personnel, toilet supplier and construction teams, and fecal sludge end users. The factors and processes involved in RTR are identified, and the feedback and relationships among its major stakeholders are established. Results show that the motivation of farmers to engage in RTR is a key variable that affects their final decisions regarding retrofitting and maintaining toilet functions. Meanwhile, the important variables related to the feedback and relationships among the major stakeholders of RTR are mostly focused on policies, subsidies, technology, satisfaction, and cooperation. A scientific analysis method and the updated RTR plan for toilet revolution are then formulated to promote the implementation of RTR in developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Aparatos Sanitarios , China , Humanos , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño
14.
Med Decis Making ; 41(1): 3-8, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124494

RESUMEN

Widespread, convenient access to COVID-19 testing has been challenging in the United States. We make a case for provisioning COVID-19 tests through the United States Postal Service (USPS) facilities and demonstrate a simple method for selecting locations to improve access. We provide quantitative evidence that even a subset of USPS facilities could provide broad access, particularly in remote and at-risk communities with limited access to health care. Based on daily travel surveys, census data, locations of USPS facilities, and an established care-seeking model, we estimate that more than 94% of the US population would be willing to travel to an existing USPS facility if warranted. For half of the US population, this would require traveling less than 2.5 miles from home; for 90%, the distance would be less than 7 miles. In Georgia, Illinois, and Minnesota, we estimate that testing at USPS facilities would provide access to an additional 4.1, 3.1, and 1.3 million people and reduce the median travel distance by 3.0, 0.8, and 1.2 miles, respectively, compared with existing testing sites per 28 July 2020. We also discuss the option of distributing test-at-home kits via USPS instead of private carriers. Finally, our proposal provides USPS an opportunity to increase revenues and expand its mission, thus improving its future prospects and relevance.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Postales/organización & administración , /diagnóstico , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Población Rural , Estados Unidos
15.
Glob Public Health ; 16(1): 153-157, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125306

RESUMEN

After the Ebola outbreaks the world is again facing a challenge in which human behaviours and contact history play crucial roles in determining the trends in disease spreading within and across communities. With the onset of the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several issues related to conducting social behavioural sciences research and related community engagement activities arise, especially in rural areas of low-income countries, where the coverage of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is limited and their application on field-based research would imply a biased selection of relatively more privileged minorities with access to on-line and other communication platforms not requiring physical contact. This article enumerates and discusses the different technical challenges that social behavioural sciences research and community engagement activities face in times of public health emergencies caused by pandemics such as COVID-19. It also highlights the possibility of using alternative approaches to maintain the engagement with members of rural communities in research and social action activities, as well as the ethical challenges arising from such approaches.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Participación de la Comunidad , Investigación , Ciencias Sociales , Humanos , Mozambique/epidemiología , Pandemias , Población Rural
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328335

RESUMEN

Despite considerable social scientific attention to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on urbanized areas, very little research has examined its impact on rural populations. Yet rural communities-which make up tens of millions of people from diverse backgrounds in the United States-are among the nation's most vulnerable populations and may be less resilient to the effects of such a large-scale exogenous shock. We address this critical knowledge gap with data from a new survey designed to assess the impacts of the pandemic on health-related and economic dimensions of rural well-being in the North American West. Notably, we find that the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural populations have been severe, with significant negative impacts on unemployment, overall life satisfaction, mental health, and economic outlook. Further, we find that these impacts have been generally consistent across age, ethnicity, education, and sex. We discuss how these findings constitute the beginning of a much larger interdisciplinary COVID-19 research effort that integrates rural areas and pushes beyond the predominant focus on cities and nation-states.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Opinión Pública , Salud Rural , Autoinforme , Desempleo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
Maturitas ; 143: 105-114, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308615

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine is a timely solution for the restrictions that COVID-19 social distancing places upon conventional modalities of healthcare provision. Geriatric populations affected by dementia require greater access to healthcare services, particularly in rural areas. As such, the aim of this systematic review is to examine the impact of telemedicine on health outcomes in elderly individuals with dementia living in rural areas. METHODS: A systematic review was completed using Ovid Medline, Web of Science and ACM Digital Libraries. The keywords for the selection of articles were: (telemedicine OR Telehealth) AND (Rural) AND (Age* OR Eld*) AND (Dementia) and (Telemedicine) AND (Rural Health OR Rural Population OR Hospitals, Rural OR Rural Health Services) AND (Aged OR Aging) AND (Dementia OR Multi-Infarct Dementia OR Vascular Dementia OR Frontotemporal Dementia). Among the 94 articles identified, 79 (84.0 %) were screened, 58 (61.7 %) were assessed and 12 (12.8 %) were included. RESULTS: The studies had diverse populations. Two were conducted in Australia, five in Canada, one in Korea, and four in the United States of America. The studies used a variety of cognitive tests and reported mixed results regarding the differences in patient performance when assessed in-person as compared to telemedicine consultation. Overall, both patients and physicians reported satisfaction with telemedicine; however, there were mixed results regarding the reliability of cognitive tests and the infrastructure required. Convenience, satisfaction, comfort and recommending telemedicine were reported to be high in the telemedicine group and physicians reported they would use telemedicine again. CONCLUSION: The testing conditions and the accessibility of telemedicine yield inconclusive results as to whether telemedicine can improve the management of dementia in geriatric individuals.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Demencia/terapia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Población Rural , Telemedicina , Anciano , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Satisfacción del Paciente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(3): 2608-2625, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140301

RESUMEN

Every year, almost eight million people die from tobacco-related diseases, among which around 1.2 million die from secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Generally, it is estimated that SHS constituents generated in the interval between puffs are approximately 3 times more toxic than those produced at the moment of puffing. There is no risk-free level of SHS exposure, and even brief exposure can be harmful to health. The aim of this study was to assess SHS exposure and its trend in the different provinces of Iran from 1990 to 2013. To collect available data on SHS exposure, a systematic review was performed. We searched international and national databases using a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and relevant text words in the titles, abstracts, and/or keywords. Also, the data in national surveys were gathered. The frequency of exposure in different provinces as well as age, sex, and rural/urban areas were extracted. Afterwards, modeling was done to estimate SHS exposure from the smoking data. According to our findings, SHS exposure was more prevalent among young people. Moreover, this exposure was greater in rural areas as compared to urban areas. A national study on 13-15-year-old individuals showed the highest exposure occurred outdoors. In addition, a declining trend was observed on SHS exposure over time. It seems that attention to the importance of SHS exposure in researches in Iran dates back to 2001, and gradually, especially in recent years, further studies have been conducted on SHS exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco , Adolescente , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Irán , Población Rural , Fumar , Contaminación por Humo de Tabaco/análisis
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 757: 143923, 2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310571

RESUMEN

Regular monitoring of drinking water in China is carried out by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels and some articles were published for the public to understand the status of drinking water. However, these published articles were limited to small areas and reported almost exclusively in Chinese. In order to give the public a comprehensive understanding of the situation of drinking water sanitation in China and provide specific directions for ensuring drinking water safety in the future, we review the sanitation status of drinking water in different regions of China from 2007 to 2018, the changes over time and the factors affecting drinking water quality by means of systematic review for the first time. Our results show that the quality of drinking water in China has shown an upward trend from 2007 to 2018. The qualification rate of urban drinking water (85.51%) was much higher than that of rural drinking water (51.12%), and the dry season (56.93%) was higher than the wet season (50.54%), and the terminal tap water (59.88%) was higher than the outlet water of waterworks (55.87%). In addition, the regions with low qualification rate of water quality in China were mainly distributed in several southern provinces, such as Yunnan, Guizhou, Hainan, etc. What's more, the qualified rate of the three microbiological indicators was the lowest, all below 85%. All the results indicate that the sanitation status of drinking water in China is unsatisfactory, and the biggest risk affecting water safety is microbial pollution. The central and local governments should work hard to improve people's drinking water quality and continue to strengthen the treatment and supervision of drinking water, especially in rural areas and undeveloped southern areas.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , China , Humanos , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
20.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 67-78, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747989

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Despite wide acknowledgement of differences in levels of support and health outcomes between urban and rural areas, there is a lack of research that explicitly examines these differences in relation to self-management in people affected by cancer following treatment. This scoping review aimed to map the existing literature that examines self-management in people affected by cancer who were post-treatment from rural and urban areas. METHODS: Arksey and O'Malley's framework for conducting a scoping review was utilised. Keyword searches were performed in the following: Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Supplementary searching activities were also conducted. RESULTS: A total of 438 articles were initially retrieved and 249 duplicates removed leaving 192 articles that were screened by title, abstract and full text. Nine met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. They were published from 2011 to 2018 and conducted in the USA (n = 6), Australia (n = 2) and Canada (n = 1). None of the studies offered insight into self-managing cancer within a rural-urban context in the UK. Studies used qualitative (n = 4), mixed methods (n = 4) and quantitative designs (n = 1). CONCLUSION: If rural and urban populations define their health in different ways as some of the extant literature suggests, then efforts to support self-management in both populations will need to be better informed by robust evidence given the increasing focus on patient-centred care. It is important to consider if residency can be a predictor of as well as a barrier or facilitator to self-management.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Población Rural , Autocuidado/métodos , Automanejo/métodos , Población Urbana , Australia , Canadá , Humanos , Supervivencia
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