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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44289, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1104374

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir as vivências dos motoristas de ônibus através de suas percepções acerca do trânsito e os impactos à saúde sofridos por eles. Método: estudo qualitativo fenomenológico realizado em uma garagem de ônibus situada no Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas fenomenológicas foram realizadas com 24 motoristas que responderam perguntas semiestruturadas e foram gravadas em dispositivo mp3, posteriormente, transcritas para obtenção das unidades de significado, a coleta de dados ocorreu entre 2017 e 2018. O projeto foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados: da análise fenomenológica das unidades de significados dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias: o trânsito é instável e estressante e a falta de educação das pessoas afeta os aspectos psíquicos. O ambiente de trabalho determina, expressivamente, o bem-estar dos trabalhadores que nele atuam. Conclusão: diante de tantos limites impostos pela sociedade contemporânea e pelo sofrimento no trabalho, necessário é motiva-los, e também dar-lhes condições de realizar seu trabalho de forma plena.


Objective: to discuss the experience of bus drivers through their perceptions regarding traffic and the health impacts they suffer. Method: in this qualitative phenomenological study conducted at a bus garage in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected in 2017 and 2018 by way of phenomenological interviews of 24 drivers, who answered semi-structured questions. The resulting mp3 recordings were later transcribed to obtain the units of meaning. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: from phenomenological analysis of the units of meaning in the responses, two categories emerged: traffic is unstable and stressful, and people's lack of education has adverse psychological effects. The work environment substantially determines the well-being of those working in it. Conclusion: given all the many constraints imposed by contemporary society and by their suffering at work, it is necessary to motivate them and also assure them the conditions necessary to carry out their work fully.


Objetivo: discutir la experiencia de los conductores de autobuses a través de sus percepciones sobre el tráfico y los impactos en la salud que sufren. Método: en este estudio fenomenológico cualitativo realizado en un garaje de autobuses en Río de Janeiro, se recopilaron datos en 2017 y 2018 a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas a 24 conductores, que respondieron preguntas semiestructuradas. Las grabaciones mp3 resultantes se transcribieron posteriormente para obtener las unidades de significado. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: del análisis fenomenológico de las unidades de significado en las respuestas, surgieron dos categorías: el tráfico es inestable y estresante, y la falta de educación de las personas tiene efectos psicológicos adversos. El ambiente de trabajo determina sustancialmente el bienestar de quienes trabajan en él. Conclusión: dadas las muchas restricciones impuestas por la sociedad contemporánea y por su sufrimiento en el trabajo, es necesario motivarlos y también asegurarles las condiciones necesarias para llevar a cabo su trabajo plenamente.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción de Automóvil , Condiciones de Trabajo , Salud Laboral , Estrés Laboral , Percepción Social , Población Urbana , Brasil , Investigación Cualitativa
2.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Malaria/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Altitud , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Enfermedades Endémicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Bosques , Instituciones de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Mosquiteros Tratados con Insecticida , Malaria/epidemiología , Control de Mosquitos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Lluvia , Población Rural , Población Urbana
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23106, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181676

RESUMEN

Falling is one of the leading causes of injury among elderly populations. As the population over 65 years old increases, medical costs due to falling will also increase. Urban and rural areas have different fall characteristics, and research into these differences is lacking.A survey was conducted on 2012 people over 60 years old between September 1, 2015, to October 12, 2015. Guro-gu (Seoul), Yeongdeungpo-gu (Seoul), and Jung-gu (Daegu) were classified as urban areas and included 1205 of the study participants. Dalseong-gun (Daegu) and Yangpyeong-gun (Gyeonggi-do) were categorized as rural areas and included 807 participants. The survey included questions about fall history, cause, season and time of recent falls, and external conditions associated with recent falls, like floor or ground materials and shoe types.Rural respondents were older than urban respondents (P < .001) but did not differ significantly in gender proportion (P = .082). Fall history over the past year was not different between the 2 regions (P = .693), but lifetime fall history was greater among rural respondents (P < .001). Only 5.1% of all respondents had undergone fall-prevention education. A slippery floor was the most common cause of falls in both regions, but there was a significant difference in pattern of fall causes (P < .001). Falls were more frequent in the summer, spring, and the afternoon in urban areas, and in the summer, autumn, and the morning in rural areas. Cement and asphalt were the most common ground materials at the time of falls in both regions, but rural respondents had higher fall rates when walking on soil and when wearing slippers.A fall-prevention program that reflects the characteristics and differences of falls in urban and rural areas should be developed and used to effectively prevent falling among elderly people.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes por Caídas , Salud Pública/métodos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Accidentes por Caídas/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1617-1621, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151923

RESUMEN

Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States (1). In 2017, on average, a stroke-related death occurred every 3 minutes and 35 seconds in the United States, and stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability (1). To prevent mortality or long-term disability, strokes require rapid recognition and early medical intervention (2,3). Common stroke signs and symptoms include sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side; sudden confusion or trouble speaking; sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes; sudden trouble walking, dizziness, or loss of balance; and a sudden severe headache with no known cause. Recommended action at the first sign of a suspected stroke is to quickly request emergency services (i.e., calling 9-1-1) (2). Public education campaigns have emphasized recognizing stroke signs and symptoms and the importance of calling 9-1-1, and stroke knowledge increased 14.7 percentage points from 2009 to 2014 (4). However, disparities in stroke awareness have been reported (4,5). Knowledge of the five signs and symptoms of stroke and the immediate need to call emergency medical services (9-1-1), collectively referred to as "recommended stroke knowledge," was assessed among 26,076 adults aged ≥20 years as part of the 2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The prevalence of recommended stroke knowledge among U.S. adults was 67.5%. Stroke knowledge differed significantly by race and Hispanic origin (p<0.001). The prevalence of recommended stroke knowledge was highest among non-Hispanic White adults (71.3%), followed by non-Hispanic Black adults (64.0%) and Hispanic adults (57.8%). Stroke knowledge also differed significantly by sex, age, education, and urbanicity. After multivariable adjustment, these differences remained significant. Increasing awareness of the signs and symptoms of stroke continues to be a national priority. Estimates from this report can inform public health strategies for increasing awareness of stroke signs and symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anciano , Asesoramiento de Urgencias Médicas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1249-1254, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147925

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the trend of the congenital heart disease mortality rate in children aged under 1 year old from 2004 to 2018. Methods: The mortality rate and constituent ratio of congenital heart disease in different genders, urban and rural areas and regions were calculated by using the publicly available Dataset of National Mortality Surveillance in China from 2004 to 2018. The Joinpoint regression model was used to analyze the changing trend of mortality rate and constituent ratio, and calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in each time period, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) in all time period and their 95% values. Results: From 2004 to 2018, a total of 15 969 children aged 0 to 1 years died of congenital heart disease, of which 58.12% (9 281) were boys and 71.79% (11 464) were in rural areas. The deaths of congenital heart disease in eastern, central and western regions accounted for 34.30%, 37.06% and 28.64% of total deaths, respectively. From 2004 to 2018, the mortality rate of congenital heart disease in children decreased from 106.81 per 100 000 to 38.70 per 100 000, with an AAPC (95%) about -7.2% (-11.5%, -2.6%). The mortality rate of congenital heart disease showed a downward trend in girls [AAPC (95%) =-7.7% (-13.0%, -2.0%)], boys [AAPC (95%)=-6.8% (-12.0%, -1.2%)], urban areas [AAPC (95%) =-5.9% (-9.9%, -1.7%)], rural areas [AAPC (95%) =-7.4% (-10.5%, -4.2%)], eastern region [AAPC (95%)=-8.6% (-14.2%, -2.6%)], and central region [AAPC (95%)=-7.8% (-11.5%, -4.0%)]. The gaps of mortality rate gradually shrank in different genders, urban and rural areas and regions. From 2004 to 2018, the constituent ratio of congenital heart disease in children showed an upward trend [AAPC (95%) = 3.3% (1.7%, 4.9%)]. Conclusion: From 2004 to 2018, the mortality rate of congenital heart disease in children aged 0 to 1 years showed a downward trend, and the constituent ratio showed an upward trend.


Asunto(s)
Cardiopatías Congénitas , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Población Rural , Población Urbana
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2010-2013, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148850

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Determination of the peculiarities of annual changes in the thickness of trunk skin and fat flexures of rural and urban youth during educational process. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Were examined 200 healthy youths (100 residents of the village, 100 residents of the city) at their 1st, 2nd and 3rd courses of study at the University of Life Safety using Shephard R. method. RESULTS: Results: Based on the data obtained, the annual reduction of all trunk fat index values of rural and urban youth during their studies at the University of Life Safety were established. Comparing intra-group annual changes, they were drastically smaller in the first year of study, both in the rural group and in the locals' group. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: During the course of the study, we found a decrease in all the supervised indicators in both groups. However, intergroup changes during the first year of study were significantly ostent.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Población Rural , Adolescente , Humanos , Población Urbana
7.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 131-138, 2020 10 30.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152196

RESUMEN

Introduction: Public health surveillance together with good sanitary decisions is essential for the proper management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Objective: To compare the performance of Colombian departments based on the quality of the data and to build the national ranking. Materials and methods: We analyzed the accumulated cases published between March 6 and September 1, 2020, by the Instituto Nacional de Salud. To achieve comparability, the analyses considered the day the first case was diagnosed as the first analysis date for each department. The fulfillment of Benford's law was assessed with p-values in the log-likelihood ratio or chi-square tests. The analysis was completed with the lethality observed in each department and then the performance ranking was established. Results: Bogotá and Valle del Cauca had optimal public health surveillance performance all along. The data suggest that Antioquia, Nariño, and Tolima had good containment and adequate public health surveillance after the economic opening beginning on June 1, 2020. Conclusion: We obtained the ranking of the departments regarding the quality of public health surveillance data. The best five departments can be case studies to identify the elements associated with good performance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Benchmarking , Colombia/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribuciones Estadísticas , Análisis de Supervivencia , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e044202, 2020 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191269

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In Ethiopia, community-level knowledge about the current COVID-19 pandemic has not been well studied. This study is aimed to assess knowledge level and factors influencing the prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic among residents of Dessie and Kombolcha city administrations, Ethiopia. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Dessie and Kombolcha city administrations. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were household heads or members (n=828, >18 years) who have lived in the study area for at least 2 months preceding the survey. METHODS: Binary logistic regression was used for a single outcome and multiple response variables. In the multivariable regression model, a value of p<0.05 and adjusted OR (AOR) with 95% CI were used to identify factors associated with knowledge level of the community. Epi Info V.7.2 and SPSS V.20 software were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. OUTCOME: Knowledge level. RESULTS: A total of 828 participants was involved with a response rate of 98%. Women were 61.7%. Participants' mean (±SD) age was 39 (±14) years. Of the total participants 54.11% (95% CI 50.6% to 57.6%) had inadequate knowledge about COVID-19 prevention. Significant associations were reported among women (AOR=1.41; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.92); age ≥65 years (AOR=2.72; 95% CI 1.45 to 5.11); rural residence (AOR=2.69; 95% CI 1.78 to 4.07); unable to read and write (AOR=1.60; 95% CI 1.02 to 2.51); information not heard from healthcare workers, mass media and social media (AOR=1.95; 95% CI 1.35 to 2.82), (AOR=2.5; 95% CI 1.58 to 4.19) and (AOR=2.13; 95% CI 1.33 to 3.42), respectively, with inadequate knowledge. CONCLUSION: These findings revealed that more than 50% of participants had inadequate knowledge about COVID-19. It highlights the need for widespread awareness campaigns about COVID-19 through mass media, healthcare professionals and social media as sources of information. House-to-house awareness creation is recommended to address older adults who are more vulnerable to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Alfabetización , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Población Rural , Factores Sexuales , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138131

RESUMEN

Although social capital has been found to be an important social determinant of mental health in later life, research on social capital in the context of COVID-19 and the interplay among subdimensions of social capital is lacking. The present study examined the mediating role of cognitive social capital on the relationship between structural social capital and mental health among older adults in urban China in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from the Yangpu district in Shanghai, China, in July-August 2020. A quota sampling approach was used to recruit 472 respondents aged 60 years and older from 23 communities in the Yangpu district. Mental health was measured by depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Cognitive social capital was assessed through trust and reciprocity, and structural social capital was assessed through organization memberships, and COVID-19 related volunteering and citizenship activity. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation model. The results show that cognitive social capital had a full mediation effect on the association between structural social capital and mental health indicators (life satisfaction: b = 0.122, SD = 0.029, p < 0.001; depressive symptoms: b = -0.343, SD = 0.119, p < 0.01). The findings indicate that social capital can play an important role in sustaining and improving mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Capital Social , Apoyo Social , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240077, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052950

RESUMEN

This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240785, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057375

RESUMEN

Masks are an effective tool in combatting the spread of COVID-19, but some people still resist wearing them and mask-wearing behavior has not been experimentally studied in the United States. To understand the demographics of mask wearers and resistors, and the impact of mandates on mask-wearing behavior, we observed shoppers (n = 9935) entering retail stores during periods of June, July, and August 2020. Approximately 41% of the June sample wore a mask. At that time, the odds of an individual wearing a mask increased significantly with age and was also 1.5x greater for females than males. Additionally, the odds of observing a mask on an urban or suburban shopper were ~4x that for rural areas. Mask mandates enacted in late July and August increased mask-wearing compliance to over 90% in all groups, but a small percentage of resistors remained. Thus, gender, age, and location factor into whether shoppers in the United States wear a mask or face covering voluntarily. Additionally, mask mandates are necessary to increase mask wearing among the public to a level required to mitigate the spread of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Utilización de Equipos y Suministros/estadística & datos numéricos , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Wisconsin
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2787-2789, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050982

RESUMEN

We conducted a cohort study to determine sociodemographic risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection among obstetric patients in 2 urban hospitals in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Prevalence of infection was highest among women who were Hispanic, were uninsured, or lived in high-density neighborhoods.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Georgia/epidemiología , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/virología , Prevalencia , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
13.
Euro Surveill ; 25(42)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094713

RESUMEN

BackgroundThe progression and geographical distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the United Kingdom (UK) and elsewhere is unknown because typically only symptomatic individuals are diagnosed. We performed a serological study of blood donors in Scotland in the spring of 2020 to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as a marker of past infection and epidemic progression.AimOur objective was to determine if sera from blood bank donors can be used to track the emergence and progression of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.MethodsA pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay was used to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The study comprised samples from 3,500 blood donors collected in Scotland between 17 March and 18 May 2020. Controls were collected from 100 donors in Scotland during 2019.ResultsAll samples collected on 17 March 2020 (n = 500) were negative in the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay. Neutralising antibodies were detected in six of 500 donors from 23 to 26 March. The number of samples containing neutralising antibodies did not significantly rise after 5-6 April until the end of the study on 18 May. We found that infections were concentrated in certain postcodes, indicating that outbreaks of infection were extremely localised. In contrast, other areas remained comparatively untouched by the epidemic.ConclusionAlthough blood donors are not representative of the overall population, we demonstrated that serosurveys of blood banks can serve as a useful tool for tracking the emergence and progression of an epidemic such as the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Donantes de Sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Femenino , Geografía Médica , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Masculino , Modelos Inmunológicos , Pruebas de Neutralización , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Prevalencia , Escocia/epidemiología , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Población Urbana
14.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241102, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095838

RESUMEN

Visiting parks and gardens supports physical and mental health. We quantified access to public parks and gardens in urban areas of England and Wales, and the potential for park crowdedness during periods of high use. We combined data from the Office for National Statistics and Ordnance Survey to quantify (i) the number of parks within 500 and 1,000 metres of urban postcodes (i.e., availability), (ii) the distance of postcodes to the nearest park (i.e., accessibility), and (iii) per-capita space in each park for people living within 1,000m. We examined variability by city and share of flats. Around 25.4 million people (~87%) can access public parks or gardens within a ten-minute walk, while 3.8 million residents (~13%) live farther away; of these 21% are children and 13% are elderly. Areas with a higher share of flats on average are closer to a park but people living in these areas visit parks that are potentially overcrowded during periods of high use. Such disparity in urban areas of England and Wales becomes particularly evident during COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown when local parks, the only available out-of-home space option, hinder social distancing requirements. Cities aiming to facilitate social distancing while keeping public green spaces safe might require implementing measures such as dedicated park times for different age groups or entry allocation systems that, combined with smartphone apps or drones, can monitor and manage the total number of people using the park.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Planificación Ambiental , Jardines , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Parques Recreativos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Ciudades/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Instalaciones Públicas , Población Urbana , Gales/epidemiología , Caminata , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241330, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112922

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: According to current reporting, the number of active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections is not evenly distributed, both spatially and temporally. Reported COVID-19 infections may not have properly conveyed the full extent of attention to the pandemic. Furthermore, infection metrics are unlikely to illustrate the full scope of negative consequences of the pandemic and its associated risk to communities. METHODS: In an effort to better understand the impacts of COVID-19, we concurrently assessed the geospatial and longitudinal distributions of Twitter messages about COVID-19 which were posted between March 3rd and April 13th and compared these results with the number of confirmed cases reported for sub-national levels of the United States. Geospatial hot spot analysis was also conducted to detect geographic areas that might be at elevated risk of spread based on both volume of tweets and number of reported cases. RESULTS: Statistically significant aberrations of high numbers of tweets were detected in approximately one-third of US states, most of which had relatively high proportions of rural inhabitants. Geospatial trends toward becoming hotspots for tweets related to COVID-19 were observed for specific rural states in the United States. DISCUSSION: Population-adjusted results indicate that rural areas in the U.S. may not have engaged with the COVID-19 topic until later stages of an outbreak. Future studies should explore how this dynamic can inform future outbreak communication and health promotion.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Geografía Médica , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Participación de la Comunidad , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estudios Prospectivos , Salud Pública , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
N Z Med J ; 133(1523): 65-75, 2020 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032304

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate changes in general practice consultation patterns in response to reduced face-to-face patient contact during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective before and after case notes review study of one urban general practice to investigate patient contact in the first two weeks of New Zealand general practices' COVID-19 response in 2020, compared to the same period in 2019. RESULTS: Twenty percent of patients had contact with the practice in both samples, with similar proportions by age, gender, ethnicity, deprivation and presence of multimorbidity or mental health diagnoses. Similar numbers of acute illness, accident-related and prevention patient contacts occurred in both samples, with more long-term condition-related contact in 2020. While 70% of patient contacts were face-to-face in 2019, 21% were face-to-face in 2020. Most acute illness, accident-related and long-term condition-related contacts were able to be provided through virtual means, but most prevention-related contacts were face-to-face. CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Medicina General/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Derivación y Consulta/organización & administración , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda , Satisfacción del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1559, 2020 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066763

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among under five children in India is a major public health problem. Despite India's growth in the economy, the child mortality rate due to undernutrition is still high in both urban and rural areas. Studies that focus on urban slums are scarce. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition in children under five in Maharashtra, India. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 randomly selected clusters in two districts of Maharashtra state, India. Data were collected through house to house survey by interviewing mothers of under five children. Total 2929 mothers and their 3671 under five children were covered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the determinants of child nutritional status seperately in urban and rural areas. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2.38 years (±SD 1.36) and mean age of mothers was 24.25 years (± SD 6.37). Overall prevalence of stunting among children under five was 45.9%, wasting was 17.1 and 35.4% children were underweight. Prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight were more seen in an urban slum than a rural area. In the rural areas exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.001) and acute diarrhea (p = 0.001) were associated with wasting, children with birth order 2 or less than 2 were associated with stunting and exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) and low maternal education were associated with underweight. Whereas in the urban slums exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) was associated with wasting, sex of the child (p < 0.05) and type of family (p < 0.05) were associated with stunting,and low income of the family (p < 0.05) was associated with underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Factors like sex of the child, birth order,exclusive breast feeding,economic status of the family, type of family,acute diarrhea and maternal education have influence on nutritional status of the child. Improvement of maternal education will improve the nutritional status of the child. Strategies are needed to improve the economic status of the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: CTRI/2017/12/010881 ; Registration date:14/12/2017. Retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/epidemiología , Áreas de Pobreza , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Lactante , Masculino , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(5)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082284

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of child deaths in the United States. Although this has been examined at the national and state levels, there is more value in acquiring information at the county level to guide local policies. We aimed to estimate county-specific child mortality from road traffic accidents in the United States. METHODS: We queried the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database, 2010-2017, for road traffic accidents that resulted in a death within 30 days of the auto crash. We included all children <15 years old who were fatally injured. We estimated county-specific age- and sex-standardized mortality. We evaluated the impact of the availability of trauma centers and urban-rural classification of counties on mortality. RESULTS: We included 9271 child deaths. Among those, 45% died at the scene. The median age was 7 years. The overall mortality was 1.87 deaths per 100 000 children. County-specific mortality ranged between 0.25 and 21.91 deaths per 100 000 children. The availability of a trauma center in a county was associated with decreased mortality (adult trauma center [odds ratio (OR): 0.59; 95% credibility interval (CI), 0.52-0.66]; pediatric trauma center [OR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46-0.67]). Less urbanized counties were associated with higher mortality, compared with large central metropolitan counties (noncore counties [OR: 2.33; 95% CI, 1.85-2.91]). CONCLUSIONS: There are marked differences in child mortality from road traffic accidents among US counties. Our findings can guide targeted public health interventions in high-risk counties with excessive child mortality and limited access to trauma care.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/mortalidad , Mortalidad del Niño , Centros Traumatológicos/provisión & distribución , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Preescolar , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Gobierno Local , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Distribución de Poisson , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Distribución por Sexo , Análisis de Área Pequeña , Centros Traumatológicos/clasificación , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239587, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006973

RESUMEN

Resource-deprived coastal peri-urban settlements in Southern Ghana are characterized by indiscriminate solid waste disposal and open defecation practices. Persons engaged in waste handling in such communities perform their activities with little or no personal protective equipment. They are thus confronted with the risk of faecal pollution of the hands and other bodily parts. A mixed method approach was used to investigate 280 waste handlers performing different activities to estimate recent faecal pollution of their hands and to observe the utilization of personal protective equipment and sanitation/hygiene facilities during work. The log concentration of E. coli on hands of waste handlers after work (8.60 ± 4.20 CFU/hand, mean ± standard deviation) was significantly higher compared with the E. coli log concentration before work (2.95 ± 1.89 CFU/hand, mean ± standard deviation) (p<0.001). The odds of faecal pollution was significantly higher (aOR 4.2; 95% CI: 1.9-9.1) for workers aged 35 years and above compared with those less than 35 years; and for workers at public toilet facilities (aOR 3.0; 95% CI: 1.0-8.4) compared with those who worked for private waste handling companies. Female workers were, however, 60% less likely (aOR 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.8) to experience faecal pollution of their hands compared with males. The workers had limited access to water and sanitation and hygiene facilities, and about one-fifth (n = 59; 21.1%) did not use personal protective equipment during work. Waste handlers should be provided and instructed in proper use of personal protective equipment, have access to sanitation facilities and adopt improved hygiene behaviour to avoid the risk of faecal pollution and associated disease risk.


Asunto(s)
Heces , Exposición Profesional , Eliminación de Residuos , Adulto , Carga Bacteriana , Defecación , Contaminación Ambiental/prevención & control , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Ghana , Mano/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Cuartos de Baño , Población Urbana
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114771

RESUMEN

Prior evaluations of the relationship between COVID-19 and weather indicate an inconsistent role of meteorology (weather) in the transmission rate. While some effects due to weather may exist, we found possible misconceptions and biases in the analysis that only consider the impact of meteorological variables alone without considering the urban metabolism and environment. This study highlights that COVID-19 assessments can notably benefit by incorporating factors that account for urban dynamics and environmental exposure. We evaluated the role of weather (considering equivalent temperature that combines the effect of humidity and air temperature) with particular consideration of urban density, mobility, homestay, demographic information, and mask use within communities. Our findings highlighted the importance of considering spatial and temporal scales for interpreting the weather/climate impact on the COVID-19 spread and spatiotemporal lags between the causal processes and effects. On global to regional scales, we found contradictory relationships between weather and the transmission rate, confounded by decentralized policies, weather variability, and the onset of screening for COVID-19, highlighting an unlikely impact of weather alone. At a finer spatial scale, the mobility index (with the relative importance of 34.32%) was found to be the highest contributing factor to the COVID-19 pandemic growth, followed by homestay (26.14%), population (23.86%), and urban density (13.03%). The weather by itself was identified as a noninfluential factor (relative importance < 3%). The findings highlight that the relation between COVID-19 and meteorology needs to consider scale, urban density and mobility areas to improve predictions.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Tiempo (Meteorología) , Humanos , Características de la Residencia , Temperatura , Población Urbana
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