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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16213, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004925

RESUMEN

Italy was the first, among all the European countries, to be strongly hit by the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2). The virus, proven to be very contagious, infected more than 9 million people worldwide (in June 2020). Nevertheless, it is not clear the role of air pollution and meteorological conditions on virus transmission. In this study, we quantitatively assessed how the meteorological and air quality parameters are correlated to the COVID-19 transmission in two large metropolitan areas in Northern Italy as Milan and Florence and in the autonomous province of Trento. Milan, capital of Lombardy region, it is considered the epicenter of the virus outbreak in Italy. Our main findings highlight that temperature and humidity related variables are negatively correlated to the virus transmission, whereas air pollution (PM2.5) shows a positive correlation (at lesser degree). In other words, COVID-19 pandemic transmission prefers dry and cool environmental conditions, as well as polluted air. For those reasons, the virus might easier spread in unfiltered air-conditioned indoor environments. Those results will be supporting decision makers to contain new possible outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humedad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Temperatura , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Italia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
2.
Global Health ; 16(1): 96, 2020 10 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease is causing considerable acute risk to public health and might also have an unanticipated impact on the mental health of children and adolescents in the long run. This study collected data during the national lockdown period in China and aims to understand whether there is a clinically significant difference in anxiety, depression, and parental rearing style when comparing adolescents from Wuhan and other cities in China. This study also intends to examine whether gender, grade in school, single child status, online learning participation, parents' involvement in COVID-19 related work, and parents being quarantined or infected due to the disease would lead to clinically significant differences in anxiety and depression. Beyond that, this study explored the pathways among the different variables in order to better understand how these factors play a part in impacting adolescents' mental health condition. RESULTS: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in anxiety symptoms between participants who were from Wuhan compared to other urban areas, but not in depressive symptoms. In addition, participants' grade level, gender, relative being infected, and study online have direct positive predictive value for depressive and anxiety symptoms, whereas location and sibling status have indirect predictive value. Having relatives who participated in COVID-19 related work only had positive direct predictive value toward depression, but not anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This study discovered several risk factors for adolescents' depression and anxiety during the pandemic. It also called for a greater awareness of Wuhan parents' mental wellbeing and recommended a systematic approach for mental health prevention and intervention.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 448-455, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955229

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular diseases in Poland constitute a bigger threat to life in men than in women, especially after the age of 60. Death rates indicate higher stroke over-mortality in the rural population rather than the urban. At the same time, stroke is the main cause of long-term disability, since half of the patients are unable to independently perform daily activities, which makes them dependent on other people. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Independent Public Healthcare Institution in Krasnik, eastern Poland. It covered the medical records of 1,500 patients, 780 women (52%) and 720 men (48%), aged 20-100, diagnosed with cerebral infarction. The patients were hospitalised between 2011-2016 in the Neurology Ward with a Stroke Unit, the Internal Medicine Ward, and the Anaesthetics and Intensive Care Ward. RESULTS: The stroke patients hospitalised in the Independent Public Healthcare Institution in Krasnik were residents of urban communes (59.1% of subjects) and rural communes (40.9%). The most often diagnosed type of stroke was due to embolism of the cerebral arteries (I63.4) in women (63.48%). In men, the most most often diagnosed type was cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of the cerebral arteries (I63.3; 51.33%). Stroke in 36.15% of the female subjects resulted in death. In male subjects, death occurred in 26.11% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Women aged around 78-years-old were the most likely to suffer a stroke. In men, it occurred eight years earlier. Despite residents of urban areas being hospitalised due to stroke more often, deaths caused by this disease were recorded the most frequently among rural residents. It can be concluded that primary stroke prevention is the only effective measure for reducing morbidity and premature mortality in the population.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Accidente Cerebrovascular/clasificación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 469-475, 2020 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955231

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Currently, malignancies are the most severe medical problems worldwide. Numerous, already known risk factors in carcinogenesis could be potentially avoided. Some cancer risk factors have been recognized and have become the targets of primary prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to ascertain the state of knowledge about risk factors, primary prevention and early detection of malignancies of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in the urban and rural population of the Lublin province in Eastern Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. The originally designed questionnaire was applied to the group of 1,352 patients, representatives of both the rural and urban environments of the Lublin province during random appointments with their general practitioner (GP). RESULTS: The study showed low awareness of the issues connected with GIT malignancies within the studied group. The problem was particulary apparent in the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: In order to raise general awareness of cancer, different means should be applied in urban and rural populations. GPs and the media were found to have the leading rols in the promotion of primary prevention.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/psicología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Prevención Primaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/prevención & control , Polonia , Factores de Riesgo , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1442, 2020 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967642

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in older rural-to-urban migrant workers (aged 50 and above) in mainland China, little known about their depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers, as well as explored the factors leading to differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural counterparts (older rural dwellers) and urban counterparts (older urban residents) in mainland China. The results provided a comprehensive understanding of the depressive symptoms of older rural-to-urban migrant workers, and had great significance for improving the depressive symptoms for this vulnerable group. METHODS: Data were derived from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) conducted in 2015, and coarsened exact matching (CEM) method was employed to control confounding factors. This study employed a Chinese version 10-item short form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 10) to measure depressive symptoms, and used the Social-Ecological Model as a framework to explore influential factors related to depressive symptoms. Specifically, the approach of Fairlie's decomposition was used to parse out differences into observed and unobserved components. RESULTS: After matching, our findings indicated that the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was lower than older rural dwellers; and the prevalence of depressive symptoms in older rural-to-urban migrant workers was higher than older urban residents. Fairlie's decomposition analysis indicated that type of in-house shower, sleeping time at night and ill in the last month were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older rural dwellers; self-reported health and sleeping time at night were proved to be major contributors to the differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and older urban residents. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in depressive symptoms between older rural-to-urban migrant workers and their rural and urban counterparts did exist. Our findings contributed to a more reliable understanding in depressive symptoms among older rural-to-urban migrant workers. Our findings would be of referential significance for improving older rural-to-urban migrant workers' depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1472, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Urban-rural disparity in mortality at older ages is well documented in China. However, surprisingly few studies have systemically investigated factors that contribute to such disparity. This study examined the extent to which individual-level socioeconomic conditions, family/social support, health behaviors, and baseline health status contributed to the urban-rural difference in mortality among older adults in China. METHODS: This research used the five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014, a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 65 years or older in China (n = 28,235). A series of hazard regression models by gender and age group examined the association between urban-rural residence and mortality and how this association was modified by a wide range of individual-level factors. RESULTS: Older adults in urban areas had 11% (relative hazard ratio (HR) = 0.89, p < 0.01) lower risks of mortality than their rural counterparts when only demographic factors were taken into account. Further adjustments for family/social support, health behaviors, and health-related factors individually or jointly had a limited influence on the mortality differential between urban and rural older adults (HRs = 0.89-0.92, p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). However, we found no urban-rural difference in mortality (HR = 0.97, p > 0.10) after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors. Similar results were found in women and men, and among the young-old and the oldest-old populations. CONCLUSIONS: The urban-rural disparity in mortality among older adults in China was largely attributable to differences in individual socioeconomic resources (i.e., education, income, and access to healthcare) regardless of gender and age group.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estado de Salud , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Longevidad , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Riesgo , Percepción Social , Apoyo Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
8.
Western Pac Surveill Response J ; 11(1): 22-28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963888

RESUMEN

Objective: To identify individual characteristics related to the development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among residents in the Airin area (Airin), Osaka City, Japan. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of individual characteristics potentially related to the development of PTB by comparing PTB patients and residents without tuberculosis (TB) in Airin. The following binominal data of characteristics were compared: age (< 65 or > 65); body mass index (BMI) (< 18.5 or > 18.5); diabetes mellitus (diagnosed or not diagnosed); smoking (currently smoking any amount or not smoking); and alcohol use (currently drinking any amount or not drinking). Results: We compared the individual characteristics of 192 PTB patients notified from January 2015 to December 2018 and 190 residents of supportive houses who attended a health education programme from April 2016 to March 2018.Univariable analysis showed that the following characteristics were significantly related with PTB: BMI < 18.5 (odds ratio [OR]: 6.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.58-11.97, P < 0.001) and current alcohol use (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.24-2.85, P = 0.003). Multivariable analysis showed similar results: BMI < 18.5 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 6.90, 95% CI: 3.72-12.79, P < 0.001) and current alcohol use (aOR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.36-3.42, P = 0.001). Discussion: Undernutrition and alcohol use are individual characteristics associated with PTB among residents in Airin, Osaka City. To strengthen the TB control programme further, it is suggested to develop new programmes for primary prevention.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1076-1080, 2020 Jul 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741174

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the compliance of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for high-risk groups of lung cancer and influencing factors in urban area of Henan province during 2013-2017. Methods: Cluster sampling method was used to select the residents of 40-74 years old in Henan for cancer risk factor investigation and lung cancer risk assessment. Subjects with high risk of lung cancer received LDCT screening. The differences of LDCT receiving rates between groups were compared with χ(2) tests, and the time trend of rates were tested with the Cochran- Armitage trend test. The potential factors correlating to the compliance of LDCT screening were identified with multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Overall, 35 672 participants who met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis, and 13 383 of them received LDCT screening, the receiving rate was 37.52%. The receiving rate varied greatly across cities, ranging from 38.47% to 26.73% (P<0.05). Moreover, the receiving rate varied greatly across periods, ranging from 29.22% during 2013-2014 to 43.30% during 2014-2015, and the receiving rate increases gradually as the screening year increases (P<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that: being female, age 45-69 years, with education level of junior high school/high school, previous smoking, drinking or previous drinking, infrequent physical exercise, history of tuberculosis, history of chronic bronchitis, history of emphysema, history of asthma bronchiectasis and family history of lung cancer were positive factors for receiving LDCT screening (All P<0.05). Conclusions: The overall compliance of LDCT screening in high-risk population of lung cancer was still not high in urban area of Henan. Implementation of effective interventions targeting the specific high-risk populations might improve the overall compliance of LDCT screening in the future.


Asunto(s)
Detección Precoz del Cáncer/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevención & control , Cooperación del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Población Urbana , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
10.
J Registry Manag ; 47(1): 4-12, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833378

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Researchers often approximate individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) from census tract and county data. However, area-level variables do not serve as accurate proxies for individual-level SES, particularly among some demographic subgroups. The present study aimed to analyze the potential bias introduced by this practice. METHODS: Data included (1) individual-level SES from the Mortality Disparities in American Communities study (n ≈ 3,471,000 collected in 2008), and (2) census tract- and county-level SES from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Analyses included correlations among SES indicators (eg, median household income, having a high school degree, unemployment) across individual versus census tract and county levels, stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and urbanicity. Finally, generalized estimating equations evaluated demographic differences in whether area-level SES matched or underestimated individual-level SES. RESULTS: Low correlations were observed between individual- and area-level SES (census tract: Spearman's r range = 0.048 for unemployment to 0.232 for median household income; county: r range = 0.028 for unemployment to 0.157 for median household income; all P < .0001). SES indicators were more likely to match for males, older participants, and urban groups. Area-level SES indicators were more likely to underestimate individual-level SES for older participants and rural groups, indicating that individuals who are part of these groups may live in systematically lower-SES communities than their own SES might connote. CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study of 3.5 million participants, area-level indicators were poor proxies for individual-level SES, particularly for participants living in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Censos , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(33): 1127-1132, 2020 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817606

RESUMEN

The geographic areas in the United States most affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have changed over time. On May 7, 2020, CDC, with other federal agencies, began identifying counties with increasing COVID-19 incidence (hotspots) to better understand transmission dynamics and offer targeted support to health departments in affected communities. Data for January 22-July 15, 2020, were analyzed retrospectively (January 22-May 6) and prospectively (May 7-July 15) to detect hotspot counties. No counties met hotspot criteria during January 22-March 7, 2020. During March 8-July 15, 2020, 818 counties met hotspot criteria for ≥1 day; these counties included 80% of the U.S. population. The daily number of counties meeting hotspot criteria peaked in early April, decreased and stabilized during mid-April-early June, then increased again during late June-early July. The percentage of counties in the South and West Census regions* meeting hotspot criteria increased from 10% and 13%, respectively, during March-April to 28% and 22%, respectively, during June-July. Identification of community transmission as a contributing factor increased over time, whereas identification of outbreaks in long-term care facilities, food processing facilities, correctional facilities, or other workplaces as contributing factors decreased. Identification of hotspot counties and understanding how they change over time can help prioritize and target implementation of U.S. public health response activities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Incidencia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1291, 2020 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847504

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The effect of socioeconomic factors on cause-specific mortality and burden of CVD is rarely evaluated in low- and middle-income countries, especially in a rapidly changing society. METHODS: Original data were derived from the vital registration system in Yangpu, a representative, population-stable district of urban Shanghai, China, during 1974-2015. Temporal trends for the mortality rates and burden of CVD during 1974-2015 were evaluated using Joinpoint Regression Software. The burden was evaluated using age-standardized person years of life loss per 100,000 persons (SPYLLs). Age-sex-specific CVD mortality rates were predicted by using age-period-cohort Poisson regression model. RESULTS: A total of 101,822 CVD death occurred during 1974-2015, accounting for 36.95% of total death. Hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke were the 3 leading causes of CVD death. The age-standardized CVD mortality decreased from 144.5/100,000 to 100.7/100,000 in the residents (average annual percentage change [AAPC] -1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.7 to - 0.2), which was mainly contributed by women (AAPC -1.3, 95% CI - 2.0 to - 0.7), not by men. Hemorrhagic stroke, the major CVD death in the mid-aged population, decreased dramatically after 1991. The crude mortality of ischemic heart disease kept increasing but its age-adjusted mortality decreased continually after 1997. SPYLLs of CVD death increased from 1974 to 1986 (AAPC 2.1, 95% CI 0.4 to 3.8) and decreased after 1986 (AAPC 1.8, 95% CI - 2.3 to - 1.3). These changes were in concert with the implementation of policies including extended medical insurance coverage, pollution control, active prophylaxis of CVD including lifestyle promotion, and national health programs. The mortality of CVD increased in those born during 1937-1945, a period of the Japanese military occupation, and during 1958-1965, a period including the Chinese Famine. Sequelae of CVD and ischemic heart disease are predicted to be the leading causes of CVD death in 2029. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to serious malnutrition in early life might increase CVD mortality in later life. Improvements in medical services, pollution control, and lifestyle could decrease CVD death. New strategy is needed to prevent the aging-related CVD death and burden in the future.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte/tendencias , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estadísticas Vitales , Adulto Joven
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1243, 2020 Aug 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799833

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In African countries, including Angola, antenatal care (ANC) coverage is suboptimal and maternal mortality is still high due to pregnancy and childbirth-related complications. There is evidence of disparities in the uptake of ANC services, however, little is known about both the socio-economic and geographic-based disparity in the use of ANC services in Angola. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of socio-economic, urban-rural and subnational inequality in ANC coverage in Angola. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2015 Angola Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS) using the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT) software. The analysis consisted of disaggregated ANC coverage rates using four equity stratifiers (economic status, education, residence, and region) and four summary measures (Difference, Population Attributable Risk, Ratio and Population Attributable Fraction). To measure statistical significance, an uncertainty interval (UI) of 95% was constructed around point estimates. RESULTS: The study showed both absolute and relative inequalities in coverage of ANC services in Angola. More specifically, inequality favored women who were rich (D = 54.2, 95% UI; 49.59, 58.70, PAF = 43.5, 95% UI; 40.12, 46.92), educated (PAR = 19.9, 95% UI; 18.14, 21.64, R = 2.14, 95% UI; 1.96, 2.32), living in regions such as Luanda (D = 51.7, 95% UI; 43.56, 59.85, R = 2.64, 95% UI; 2.01, 3.26) and residing in urban dwellings (PAF = 20, 95% UI; 17.70, 22.38, PAR = 12.3, 95% UI; 10.88, 13.75). CONCLUSION: The uptake of ANC services were lower among poor, uneducated, and rural residents as well as women from the Cuanza Sul region. Government policy makers must consider vulnerable subpopulations when designing needed interventions to improve ANC coverage in Angola to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goal of reducing global maternal mortality ratio to 70 deaths per 100,000 live births.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Angola , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237384, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764809

RESUMEN

Dengue fever is one of the major public health problems in Lao PDR. Over the last decade, dengue virus (DENV) epidemics were characterized by a novel predominant serotype accompanied by at least two other serotypes. Since 2008, DENV-2 circulated at a low level in Lao PDR but its epidemiologic profile changed at the end of 2018. Indeed, the number of confirmed DENV-2 cases suddenly increased in October 2018 and DENV-2 became predominant at the country level in early 2019. We developed a Genotype Screening Protocol (GSP) to determine the origin(s) of the Lao DENV-2 and study their genetic polymorphism. With a good correlation with full envelope gene sequencing data, this molecular epidemiology tool evidence the co-circulation of two highly polymorphic DENV-2 genotypes, i.e. Asian I and Cosmopolitan genotypes, over the last five years, suggesting multiple introductions of DENV-2 in the country. GSP approach provides relevant first line information that may help countries with limited laboratory resources to reinforce their capabilities to DENV-2 and to follow the epidemics progresses and assess situations at the regional level.


Asunto(s)
Virus del Dengue/genética , Técnicas de Genotipaje/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Virus del Dengue/aislamiento & purificación , Virus del Dengue/fisiología , Humanos , Laos , Serotipificación , Factores de Tiempo , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 691-699, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791034

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although many people who use drugs meet criteria for vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), estimates of susceptibility (ie, lack of immunity) are not well established. This study sought to identify the prevalence of and characteristics associated with HAV and HBV susceptibility among people who use drugs attending an urban syringe services program. METHODS: We initiated this seroprevalence study in 2018 among 438 clients of a syringe services program who met study criteria, including provision of a blood specimen and a self-reported history of drug use. We assessed HAV and HBV susceptibility and infection via serological testing. We examined associations between participant characteristics and serology status by using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the initial 438 clients identified, 353 (80.6%) met study criteria. Of 352 participants with conclusive HAV test results, 48.6% (n = 171) were HAV susceptible; of 337 participants with conclusive HBV test results, 32.6% (n = 110) were HBV susceptible, 24.3% (n = 82) showed evidence of past or present HBV infection, and 43.0% (n = 145) had vaccine-derived immunity. Compared with participants born before 1970, participants born during 1980-1989 had 5.90 (95% CI, 2.42-14.40) times the odds of HAV susceptibility and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.06-0.53) times the odds of HBV susceptibility, and participants born during 1990-1999 had 6.31 (95% CI, 2.34-17.00) times the odds of HAV susceptibility. Decreased odds of HAV susceptibility were associated with homelessness (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.82). CONCLUSION: Despite applicable HAV and HBV vaccination recommendations, substantial gaps exist in HAV and HBV susceptibility among a population of people who use drugs. These findings highlight the need for increased HAV and HBV vaccination efforts among people who use drugs.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis A/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Programas de Intercambio de Agujas/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
17.
Health Place ; 64: 102378, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738578

RESUMEN

This longitudinal study aims to investigative the impacts of development density on the spread and mortality rates of COVID-19 in metropolitan counties in the United States. Multilevel Linear Modeling (MLM) is employed to model the infection rate and the mortality rate of COVID-19, accounting for the hierarchical (two-level) and longitudinal structure of the data. This study finds that large metropolitan size (measured in terms of population) leads to significantly higher COVID-19 infection rates and higher mortality rates. After controlling for metropolitan size and other confounding variables, county density leads to significantly lower infection rates and lower death rates. These findings recommend that urban planners and health professionals continue to advocate for compact development and continue to oppose urban sprawl for this and many other reasons documented in the literature, including the positive relationship between compact development and fitness and general health.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Planificación Ambiental , Morbilidad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etnología , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/etnología , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237578, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797104

RESUMEN

Although rurality is often treated as an aspect of diversity, researchers disagree regarding whether the traditional rural values of self-reliance, distrust of outsiders, religiosity, centrality of family, and fatalism continue to differentiate rural versus urban undergraduates. The present study examined 1) whether differences in these values exist between rural and urban college students in the United States and 2) whether these rural values might mediate the association between geographic remoteness and posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity. College undergraduates in the United States who reported experiencing traumatic and/or stressful events (N = 213) completed measures of these constructs through an online survey. T-test results indicated that rural respondents had significantly higher levels of PTSS severity and distrust of outsiders and significantly lower levels of religiosity when compared with urban participants. After controlling for gender, distrust of outsiders and religiosity also emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between geographic remoteness and PTSS severity. Thus, despite research that highlights differences based on geographic location, similarities and differences exist for rural and urban undergraduates in the United States with regard to traditionally rural values. For rural undergraduate clients presenting with trauma symptoms, our results suggest that building trust and religious and/or spiritual self-care may be particularly critical.


Asunto(s)
Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Estudiantes/psicología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Características Culturales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Religión , Autocuidado/psicología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estudiantes/clasificación , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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