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Curr Oncol ; 30(1): 1046-1053, 2023 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661729


Late detection and specialist referral result in poor oral cancer outcomes globally. High-risk LRMU populations usually do not have access to oral medicine specialists, a specialty of dentistry, whose expertise includes the identification, treatment, and management of oral cancers. To overcome this access barrier, there is an urgent need for novel, low-cost tele-health approaches to expand specialist access to low-resource, remote and underserved individuals. The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of remote versus in-person specialist visits using a novel, low-cost telehealth platform consisting of a smartphone-based, remote intraoral camera and custom software application. A total of 189 subjects with suspicious oral lesions requiring biopsy (per the standard of care) were recruited and consented. Each subject was examined, and risk factors were recorded twice: once by an on-site specialist, and again by an offsite specialist. A novel, low-cost, smartphone-based intraoral camera paired with a custom software application were utilized to perform synchronous remote video/still imaging and risk factor assessment by the off-site specialist. Biopsies were performed at a later date following specialist recommendations. The study's results indicated that on-site specialist diagnosis showed high sensitivity (94%) and moderate specificity (72%) when compared to histological diagnosis, which did not significantly differ from the accuracy of remote specialist telediagnosis (sensitivity: 95%; specificity: 84%). These preliminary findings suggest that remote specialist visits utilizing a novel, low-cost, smartphone-based telehealth tool may improve specialist access for low-resource, remote and underserved individuals with suspicious oral lesions.

Telemedicina , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Humanos , Telemedicina/métodos
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673971


California plans to substantially increase the use of prescribed fire to reduce risk of catastrophic wildfires. Although for a beneficial purpose, prescribed fire smoke may still pose a health concern, especially among sensitive populations. We sought to understand community health experience, adaptive capacity, and attitudes regarding wildland and prescribed fire smoke to inform public health guidance. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of medically vulnerable persons in a rural, high fire risk county (N = 106, 76% > 65 years) regarding wildfire and prescribed smoke health effects; health protective actions; information needs; and support for fire management policies. Qualitative comments were reviewed for context and emerging themes. More than half (58%) of participants reported health impacts from wildfire smoke; 26% experienced impacts from prescribed fire smoke. Participants expressed strong support for prescribed fire, although also concerns about safety and smoke. Respondents reported taking actions to reduce smoke exposure (average 5 actions taken per person), but many (47%) lacked confidence that they could successfully protect their health. Persons who were satisfied with the information received tended to be more confident in their ability to protect their health compared to those who were not satisfied (61% vs. 35%). More information was desired on many topics, including notifications about prescribed fire, health protection and exposure reduction. As California expands use of prescribed fire, the need for effective health protective communication regarding smoke is increasingly vital. We recommend seeking solutions that strengthen community resilience and address equity for vulnerable populations.

Incendios , Incendios Forestales , Adulto , Humanos , Humo/efectos adversos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Estudios Transversales , California , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 15, 2023 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597102


BACKGROUND: Brazil has been dramatically hit by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and is a world leader in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the largest country of Latin America has been a continuous source of SARS-CoV-2 variants and shows extraordinary variability of the pandemic strains probably related to the country´s outstanding position as a Latin American economical and transportation hub. Not all regions of the country show sufficient infrastructure for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and genotyping which can negatively impact the pandemic response. METHODS: Due to this reason and to disburden the diagnostic system of the inner São Paulo State, the Butantan Institute established the Mobile Laboratory (in Portuguese: LabMovel) for SARS-CoV-2 testing which started a trip of the most important "hotspots" of the most populous Brazilian region. The LabMovel initiated in two important cities of the State: Aparecida do Norte (an important religious center) and the Baixada Santista region which incorporates the port of Santos, the busiest in Latin America. The LabMovel was fully equipped with an automatized system for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and sequencing/genotyping. It also integrated the laboratory systems for patient records and results divulgation including in the Federal Brazilian Healthcare System. RESULTS: Currently,16,678 samples were tested, among them 1,217 from Aparecida and 4,564 from Baixada Santista. We tracked the delta introductio in the tested regions with its high diversification. The established mobile SARS-CoV-2 laboratory had a major impact on the Public Health System of the included cities including timely delivery of the results to the healthcare agents and the Federal Healthcare system, evaluation of the vaccination status of the positive individuals in the background of exponential vaccination process in Brazil and scientific and technological divulgation of the fieldwork to the most vulnerable populations. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has demonstrated worldwide the importance of science to fight against this viral agent and the LabMovel shows that it is possible to integrate researchers, clinicians, healthcare workers and patients to take rapid actions that can in fact mitigate this and other epidemiological situations.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Prueba de COVID-19 , Brasil/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Poblaciones Vulnerables
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 3, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604705


BACKGROUND: There is consensus that the 2008 financial and economic crisis and related austerity measures adversely impacted access to healthcare. In light of the growing debt caused by the COVID-19 crisis, it is uncertain whether a period of austerity will return. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a structured overview of the impact of austerity policies in the EU-28 zone, applied in response to the Great Recession, on access to health care for the adult population, using the five access dimensions by Levesque et al. (2013). METHODS: This study followed the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews guideline. Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science were searched between February 2021 and June 2021. Primary studies in the English language published after the 1st of January 2008 reporting on the possible change in access to the healthcare system for the adult population induced by austerity in an EU28 country were included. RESULTS: The final search strategy resulted in 525 articles, of which 75 studies were reviewed for full-text analysis, and a total of 21 studies were included. Results revealed that austerity policy has been primarily associated with a reduction in access to healthcare, described through four main categories: i) Increase in rates of reported unmet needs (86%); ii) Affordability (38%); iii) Appropriateness (38%); iv) and Availability and Accommodation (19%). Vulnerable populations were more affected by austerity measures than the general population when specific safeguards were not in place. The main affected adult vulnerable population groups were: patients with chronic diseases, elderly people, (undocumented) migrants, unemployed, economically inactive people and individuals with lower levels of education or socioeconomic status. CONCLUSION: Austerity measures have led to a deterioration in access to healthcare in the vast majority of the countries studied in the EU-28 zone. Findings should prompt policymakers to rethink the fiscal agenda across all policies in times of economic crisis and focus on the needs of the most vulnerable populations from the health perspective.

Economía , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Adulto , Anciano , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Recesión Económica , Unión Europea , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Clase Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos
Vaccine ; 41(2): 519-531, 2023 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496286


AIM: The aim of this study was to explore key informants' views on and experiences with Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy in a Dublin community with a high concentration of economic and social disadvantage and to identify feasible, community-centred solutions for improving vaccination acceptance and uptake. METHODS: Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were carried out at a local community-centre and a central hair salon. Twelve key informants from the target community were selected based on their professional experience with vulnerable population groups: the unemployed, adults in recovery from addiction, the elderly, and Irish Travellers. Inductive thematic framework analysis was conducted to identify emergent themes and sub-themes. RESULTS: Drivers of vaccine hesitancy identified by key informants largely fell under the WHO '3Cs' model of hesitancy: lack of confidence in the vaccine and its providers, complacency towards the health risks of Covid-19, and inconvenient access conditions. Covid-19 Communications emerged as a fourth 'C' whereby unclear and negative messages, confusing public health measures, and unmet expectations of the vaccine's effectiveness exacerbated anti-authority sentiments and vaccine scepticism during the pandemic. Community-specific solutions involve the provision of accurate and accessible information, collaborating with community-based organizations to build trust in the vaccine through relationship building and ongoing dialogue, and ensuring acceptable access conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed Confidence, Complacency, Convenience, Covid-19 Communications ('4Cs') model provides a tool for considering vaccine hesitancy in disadvantaged urban communities reacting to the rapid development and distribution of a novel vaccine. The model and in-depth key informants' perspectives can be used to compliment equitable vaccination efforts currently underway by public health agencies and non-governmental organizations.

Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Adulto , Anciano , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Irlanda , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Comunicación , Vacunación
Addict Behav ; 139: 107592, 2023 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584543


The co-occurrence of substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common, and is associated with greater severity of symptoms, poorer treatment prognosis, and increased risk of return to substance use following treatment. Screening for PTSD is not routinely implemented in substance use treatment programs, despite clinical relevance. Identifying screening tools that minimize patient burden and allow for comprehensive treatment in this patient population is critical. The current study examined the utility of the Primary Care PTSD Screen for DSM-5 (PC-PTSD-5) in identifying probable PTSD in a predominantly Black sample of 81 socioeconomically disadvantaged substance misusing hospital patients. The majority of the sample (75.3 %; n = 61) were found to meet criteria for probable PTSD using a suggested clinical cut score of 33 on the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Diagnostic utility analyses were completed and determined a cut-score of 5 for the PC-PTSD-5 to demonstrate the best performance (SE = 0.62, κ(1) = 0.22; SP =.80, κ(0) = 0.61; EEF = 0.67, κ(0.5) = 0.32) in this sample. Results provide preliminary support for the use of the PC-PTSD-5 as a brief screening tool for probable PTSD in substance misusing patient populations. Routine use of the PC-PTSD-5 during assessment may be beneficial when treatment planning with those undergoing treatment for SUD because comprehensive assessment and treatment will provide a better chance of long-term recovery.

Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Atención Primaria de Salud , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Poblaciones Vulnerables
Chemosphere ; 313: 137530, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509187


BACKGROUND: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent organic pollutants. The first exposure to PFAS occurs in utero, after birth it continues via breast milk, food intake, environment, and consumer products that contain these chemicals. Our aim was to identify determinants of PFAS concentrations in sensitive population subgroups- pregnant women and newborns. METHODS: Nine European birth cohorts provided exposure data on PFAS in pregnant women (INMA-Gipuzkoa, Sabadell, Valencia, ELFE and MoBa; total N = 5897) or newborns (3xG study, FLEHS 2, FLEHS 3 and PRENATAL; total N = 940). PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA concentrations were measured in maternal or cord blood, depending on the cohort (FLEHS 2 measured only PFOS and PFOA). PFAS concentrations were analysed according to maternal characteristics (age, BMI, parity, previous breastfeeding, smoking, and food consumption during pregnancy) and parental educational level. The association between potential determinants and PFAS concentrations was evaluated using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: We observed significant variations in PFAS concentrations among cohorts. Higher PFAS concentrations were associated with higher maternal age, primipara birth, and educational level, both for maternal blood and cord blood. Higher PFAS concentrations in maternal blood were associated with higher consumption of fish and seafood, meat, offal and eggs. In cord blood, higher PFHxS concentrations were associated with daily meat consumption and higher PFNA with offal consumption. Daily milk and dairy consumption were associated with lower concentrations of PFAS in both, pregnant women and newborns. CONCLUSION: High detection rates of the four most abundant PFAS demonstrate ubiquitous exposure of sensitive populations, which is of concern. This study identified several determinants of PFAS exposure in pregnant women and newborns, including dietary factors, and these findings can be used for proposing measures to reduce PFAS exposure, particularly from dietary sources.

Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Contaminantes Ambientales , Fluorocarburos , Animales , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Paridad , Dieta
Sci Total Environ ; 861: 160554, 2023 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574560


BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence in support of a short-term association between ambient temperature and cardiac arrest attacks that is a serious manifestation of cardiovascular disease and has a high incidence and low survival rate. However, it remains unrecognized about the hazardous temperature exposure types, exposure risk magnitude, and vulnerable populations. OBJECTIVES: We comprehensively summarize prior epidemiological studies looking at the short-term associations of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with various temperature exposures among different populations. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Web of Science databases from inception to October 2021 for eligible English language. Temperature exposure was categorized into three types: heat (included high temperature, extreme heat, and heatwave), cold (included low temperature and extreme cold), and temperature variation (included diurnal temperature range and temperature change between two adjacent days). Meta-analysis weighted by inverse variance was used to pool effect estimates. RESULTS: This study included 15 studies from 8 countries, totaling around 1 million OHCA events. Extreme heat and extreme cold were significantly associated with an increased risk of OHCA, and the pooled relative risks (RRs) were 1.071 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.019-1.126] and 1.662 (95%CI: 1.138-2.427), respectively. The risk of OHCA was also elevated by heatwaves (RR = 1.248, 95%CI: 1.091-1.427) and more intensive heatwaves had a greater effect. Notably, the elderly and males seemed to be more vulnerable to the effects of heat and cold. However, we did not observe a significant association between temperature variation and the risk of OHCA (1.005, 95%CI: 0.999-1.012). CONCLUSION: Short-term exposure to heat and cold may be novel risk factors for OHCA. Considering available studies in limited regions, the temperature effect on OHCA should be urgently confirmed in different regions.

Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario , Temperatura , Anciano , Humanos , Masculino , Frío , Calor , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/epidemiología , Paro Cardíaco Extrahospitalario/etiología , Poblaciones Vulnerables
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 110-124, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964372


In social movements, activists may belong to either the disadvantaged or the advantaged group (e.g., Black racial justice activists or White racial justice activists). Across three experimental survey studies, we examined the content of these stereotypes by asking participants to freely generate a list of characteristics to describe each target group-a classic paradigm in stereotype research. Specifically, we examined the stereotypes applied to Black and White activists within racial justice movements (Study 1, n = 154), female and male activists within feminist movements (Study 2, n =134), and LBGT and straight activists within Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender movements (Study 3, n =156). We found that the "activist" category was consistently differentiated into subcategories based on group status: Disadvantaged group activists were stereotyped as strong and aggressive, whereas advantaged group activists were stereotyped as altruistic and superficial. These findings underscore the importance of considering status differences to understand the social perception of activists.

Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Estereotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Percepción Social , Justicia Social , Poblaciones Vulnerables
J Pediatr ; 240: 272-279, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547338


Within pediatric graduate medical education, the care of transgender youth presents opportunities for deepening learners' understanding of equity, access, the role of the physician as an advocate, and health disparities caused by stigma and minority stress. However, when a pediatric resident objects to providing health care to this uniquely vulnerable population owing to their personal beliefs and values, how should pediatrician-educators respond? Important reasons to respect healthcare professionals' conscience have been described in the scholarly literature; however, equally important concerns have also been raised about the extent to which conscientious objection should be permitted in a pluralistic society, particularly given power differentials that favor healthcare professionals and grants them a monopoly over certain services. In the context of medical education, however, residents are in a unique position: they are simultaneously learners and employees, and although privileged relative to their patients, they are also vulnerable in relation to the hierarchy of healthcare and of institutions. We must find a compassionate balance between nurturing the evolving conscience of students and trainees and protecting the health and well-being of our most vulnerable patients. Educators have an obligation to foster empathy, mitigate bias, and mentor their learners, regardless of beliefs, but in some cases, they may recognize that there are limits: patients' welfare ultimately takes precedence and trainees should be guided toward alternative career paths. We explore the limits of conscientious objection in medical training and propose a framework for pediatrician-educators to support learners and patients in challenging circumstances.

Actitud del Personal de Salud , Pediatría/educación , Negativa al Tratamiento , Personas Transgénero , Conciencia , Humanos , Internado y Residencia , Poblaciones Vulnerables
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(12): 797-807, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466207


Infections remain a leading cause of death in neonates. The sparse antibiotic development pipeline and challenges in conducting neonatal research have resulted in few effective antibiotics being adequately studied to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections in neonates, despite the increasing global mortality burden caused by antimicrobial resistance. Of 40 antibiotics approved for use in adults since 2000, only four have included dosing information for neonates in their labelling. Currently, 43 adult antibiotic clinical trials are recruiting patients, compared with only six trials recruiting neonates. We review the World Health Organization (WHO) priority pathogens list relevant to neonatal sepsis and propose a WHO multiexpert stakeholder meeting to promote the development of a neonatal priority antibiotic development list. The goal is to develop international, interdisciplinary consensus for an accelerated neonatal antibiotic development programme. This programme would enable focused research on identified priority antibiotics for neonates to reduce the excess morbidity and mortality caused by MDR infections in this vulnerable population.

Les infections demeurent l'une des principales causes de décès chez les nouveau-nés. Les rares projets de développement d'antibiotiques et les défis posés par la recherche néonatale ont entraîné une pénurie d'antibiotiques efficaces spécialement étudiés pour traiter les infections multirésistantes (MR) chez les nouveau-nés, en dépit d'une mortalité galopante due à une résistance accrue aux antimicrobiens. Sur 40 antibiotiques autorisés pour les adultes depuis 2000, quatre à peine sont munis d'un étiquetage indiquant la posologie adaptée aux nouveau-nés. Actuellement, 43 essais cliniques portant sur des antibiotiques recrutent des patients du côté des adultes, contre six seulement du côté des nouveau-nés. Dans le présent document, nous passons en revue la liste prioritaire d'agents pathogènes établie par l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) pour soigner la septicémie néonatale et proposons de réunir, sous l'égide de l'OMS, des parties prenantes issues de plusieurs domaines d'expertise afin de promouvoir la création d'une liste prioritaire de développement d'antibiotiques destinés aux nouveau-nés. Objectif: parvenir à un consensus international et interdisciplinaire visant à accélérer le programme de mise au point d'antibiotiques à usage néonatal. Ce programme permettrait d'orienter les recherches vers des antibiotiques identifiés comme prioritaires pour les nouveau-nés, en vue de faire baisser les taux de morbidité et de mortalité excessifs qu'engendrent les infections MR au sein de cette population vulnérable.

Las infecciones siguen siendo una de las principales causas de muerte en los recién nacidos. Debido al escaso desarrollo de los antibióticos y a las dificultades para llevar a cabo la investigación neonatal, son pocos los antibióticos eficaces que se estudian de manera adecuada para tratar las infecciones multirresistentes (MR) en los recién nacidos, a pesar de la creciente carga de mortalidad mundial causada por la resistencia a los antimicrobianos. De los 40 antibióticos aprobados para su uso en adultos desde el 2000, solo cuatro han incluido información sobre la dosis para recién nacidos en su etiquetado. En la actualidad, 43 ensayos clínicos con antibióticos para adultos están reclutando pacientes, en comparación con solo seis ensayos que reclutan recién nacidos. Se revisa la lista de patógenos prioritarios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) relevantes para la sepsis neonatal y se propone una reunión de la OMS con múltiples expertos para promover el desarrollo de una lista de antibióticos prioritarios para los recién nacidos. El objetivo es desarrollar un consenso internacional e interdisciplinario para establecer un programa acelerado de desarrollo de antibióticos neonatales. Este programa permitiría centrar la investigación en los antibióticos prioritarios identificados para los recién nacidos con el fin de reducir el exceso de morbilidad y mortalidad causado por las infecciones MR en esta población vulnerable.

Antibacterianos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Organización Mundial de la Salud
Front Public Health ; 10: 1007408, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466487


Objectives: Intergenerational support is associated with fewer depressive symptoms in old age. Uneven development has resulted in huge urban-rural disparities in China, which could lead to different intergenerational relationships. The present study aimed to examine whether intergenerational support was associated with depressive symptoms differently among urban and rural Chinese older participants. Methods: A sample of 3,498 participants from nine pairs of urban subdistricts and rural villages were included in the present study. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the intergenerational support mechanisms (financial, instrumental, and emotional) were assessed with a self-designed questionnaire. Results: Significant areas by support effect for depressive symptoms indicated different associations between intergenerational financial and emotional support and depressive symptoms in urban and rural areas. Specifically, urban older participants receiving emotional support from adult children and rural older participants receiving financial support from adult children showed fewer depressive symptoms. In both areas, participants receiving instrumental support showed fewer depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our study is the first to compare the urban-rural disparity in association between intergenerational support and depressive symptoms in a developing country, China. The results support modernization theories proposing weakened economic function but intensified emotional ties in societies with higher level of development. Communication-based intergenerational emotional support should be promoted in urban areas, and formal support systems should provide financial and instrumental support to the vulnerable rural older population.

Depresión , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Depresión/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Comunicación , Poblaciones Vulnerables
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278459, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454981


OBJECTIVE: We assessed the critical role of Housing First (HF) programs and frontline workers in responding to challenges faced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine HF frontline workers from three HF programs between May 2020 and July 2020, in Toronto, Canada. Information was collected on challenges and adjustments needed to provide services to HF clients (people experiencing homelessness and mental disorders). We applied the Analytical Framework method and thematic analysis to our data. RESULTS: Inability to provide in-person support and socializing activities, barriers to appropriate mental health assessments, and limited virtual communication due to clients' lack of access to digital devices were among the most salient challenges that HF frontline workers reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. Implementing virtual support services, provision of urgent in-office or in-field support, distributing food aid, connecting clients with online healthcare services, increasing harm reduction education and referral, and meeting urgent housing needs were some of the strategies implemented by HF frontline workers to support the complex needs of their clients during the pandemic. HF frontline workers experienced workload burden, job insecurity and mental health problems (e.g. distress, worry, anxiety) as a consequence of their services during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Despite the several work-, programming- and structural-related challenges experienced by HF frontline workers when responding to the needs of their clients during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, they played a critical role in meeting the communication, food, housing and health needs of their clients during the pandemic, even when it negatively affected their well-being. A more coordinated, integrated, innovative, sustainable, effective and well-funded support response is required to meet the intersecting and complex social, housing, health and financial needs of underserved and socio-economically excluded groups during and beyond health emergencies.

COVID-19 , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Vivienda , Investigación Cualitativa
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(6): 4-5, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455907


The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the adverse health, economic and social consequences of longstanding social inequality on various communities, groups, and individuals. Because they lack sufficient access to health and social resources, vulnerable groups affected by lower incomes, geographic remoteness, and/or low awareness of disease prevention and control measures are more susceptible to infection (McDonald, 2022; Mein, 2020; Moghanibashi-Mansourieh, 2021). According to The Lancet (2020) editorial board, vulnerable groups are defined as segments of the population disproportionately exposed to risk. People not considered vulnerable at the start of the pandemic may become vulnerable afterward due to pandemic-related effects such as loss of income and lack of access to social support. Thus, during the COVID-19 pandemic, vulnerable groups include not only traditionally vulnerable populations (e.g., older adults, infants, immuno-compromised individuals) but socioeconomic groups that may be financially, mentally, or physically struggling to cope. In addition, schools of all levels around the world have adopted remote online synchronous or asynchronous teaching methods to avoid pandemic-related school closures and interruptions in student learning (Dreesen et al., 2020). However, issues such as the accessibility, availability, acceptability, and applicability of online learning equipment for vulnerable students should be comprehensively considered by the government. Governments encounter multiple challenges related to the above-mentioned issues, including (1) dealing with the public health effects of the pandemic crisis; (2) dealing with related economic and social impacts such as social and economic depression due to isolation, tax reductions, increased payments, subsidies, compensation, and the provision of unemployment insurance (Moghanibashi-Mansourieh, 2021); and (3) reforming education teaching methods and providing appropriate information and equipment of vulnerable groups. In responding to COVID-19, policymakers should consider the risks of exacerbating the inequalities faced by vulnerable groups. Moreover, vulnerable groups should be clearly identified to limit the long-term consequences of the pandemic. Governments must continually identify vulnerable / at-risk populations and provide equitable support to those most at risk.

COVID-19 , Educación a Distancia , Lactante , Humanos , Anciano , Pandemias/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudiantes , Poblaciones Vulnerables
BMJ Open ; 12(12): e067270, 2022 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456010


INTRODUCTION: Delaying cancer treatment following diagnosis impacts health outcomes, including increasing patient distress and odds of mortality. Interventions to promote timely healthcare engagement may decrease patient-reported stress and improve quality of life. Community health workers (CHWs) represent an enabling resource for reducing delays in attending initial oncology treatment visits. As part of an ongoing programme evaluation coordinated by the Merck Foundation, we will implement a pilot navigation programme comprising CHW-conducted needs assessments for supporting patients and their caregivers. We aim to investigate (1) the programme's influence on patients' healthcare utilisation within the period between their first diagnosis and initial treatment visit and (2) the logistic feasibility and acceptability of programme implementation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will employ a hybrid implementation design to introduce the CHW navigation programme at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center. CHW team members will use a consecutive sampling approach. Participants will complete the Problem-Checklist, Chronic Illness Distress Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Domains instruments. CHWs will provide tailored guidance by sharing information available on the Johns Hopkins Electronic Resource databases. The investigators will evaluate patients' time to initial oncology treatment and healthcare utilisation by reviewing electronic medical records at 3 and 6 months postintervention. Bivariate analyses will be completed to evaluate the relationships between receiving the programme and all outcome measures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study's protocol was approved by the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine's institutional review board (IRB00160610). Informed consent will be obtained by phone by the CHW navigator. Dissemination planning is ongoing through regular meetings between members of the investigator team and public members of two community advisory groups. Study plans include collaborating with other experts from the Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research and the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Equity for ideating dissemination strategies.

Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Neoplasias , Humanos , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Calidad de Vida , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Organizaciones , Neoplasias/terapia
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-7, 01/jan./2022.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411267


Objetivo: analisar a mortalidade por doenças do aparelho circulatório no estado de Pernambuco. Métodos: estudo ecológico, com dados secundários do Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade e do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas, referentes aos anos de 2010 a 2019. Para a análise dos dados, foram utilizados o software Microsoft Excel 2007 e o software SIG QGIS 3.16, sendo apresentados em gráficos, tabelas e mapa temático. Resultados: o estado de Pernambuco não apresentou uma tendência constante no número de óbitos por doenças do aparelho circulatório, variando ao decorrer dos anos analisados no estudo. A mortalidade foi maior na população masculina (51,35%), negra (63,07%) e na faixa etária de 60 anos e mais (78,02%). Conclusões: a distribuição dos óbitos não foi uniforme no território estadual, sendo fundamental a construção do perfil de mortalidade para a identificação de população e grupos vulneráveis, direcionando a implementação e desenvolvimento de políticas públicas.

Objective: to analyze mortality from circulatory system diseases in the state of Pernambuco. Methods: ecological study, with secondary data from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, for the years 2010 to 2019. For data analysis, Microsoft Excel 2007 software and SIG QGIS 3.16 software were used, which is presented in graphs, tables, and thematic maps. Results: the state of Pernambuco did not show a constant trend in the number of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system, varying over of the years analyzed in the study. Mortality was higher in the male population (51,35%), black (63,07%), and in the age group of 60 years and over (78,02%). Conclusion: the distribution of deaths was not uniform across the state territory, making it essential to build a mortality profile for the identification of vulnerable populations and groups, guiding the implementation and development of public policies.

Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Política Pública , Grupos de Riesgo , Sistema Cardiovascular , Registros de Mortalidad , Salud Pública , Mortalidad , Poblaciones Vulnerables
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 93(nspe2): e224, dic. 2022. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1403318


Introducción: alrededor del 30% de las enfermedades infantiles responden a factores sociofamiliares y ambientales, asociados a condiciones de vida, dinámica familiar y exposición a sustancias tóxicas. Conocer las características de la población pediátrica que asiste este centro de salud nos ayudará a identificar factores que pueden estar influyendo en su salud. Objetivos: Describir las características clínico-epidemiológicas de la población menor de 15 años que recibió asistencia en el Centro de Salud Badano Repetto en el período 2020-2021. Conocer diferentes variables que pueden influir en la salud de esta población Identificar asociación de variables familiares y socioculturales con el desarrollo en las diferentes edades. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, corte transversal. Se incluyó una muestra por conveniencia del 15% del total de los niños y adolescentes menores de 15 años asistidos en el centro de salud desde 1/10/2020 hasta 31/3/2021. Variables estudiadas: del niño: sexo, edad, antecedentes perinatales, crecimiento y desarrollo, controles en salud, inmunizaciones, escolarización, actividades extracurriculares. De los padres: edad, nivel educativo, consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, antecedentes patológicos, empleo, privación de libertad. Familia y vivienda: estado civil de los padres, antecedentes de violencia doméstica, convivientes, características de la vivienda, servicios básicos, transferencias directas de ayuda, intervención de equipos de territorio. Fuente de datos: historias clínicas y vía telefónica. Registro en planilla prediseñada. Los resultados se expresan en frecuencias absolutas, relativas y medidas de tendencia central con su rango. Se utilizó test de Chi cuadrado o exacto de Fisher. Nivel de significación: 0,05. Programa Epi Info™ versión 7.2. Consentimiento informado telefónico a padres y asentimiento a adolescentes. Aprobado por el Comité de Ética del CHPR. Resultados: consultaron 2.826 menores de 15 años, se incluyeron 426 (15%), pero solo 263 (62%) fueron analizados, dado que 163 (38%) no pudieron ser contactados telefónicamente. El 52% eran de sexo femenino. Media de edad: 4 años (5 días-14 años), 69% ≤5 años. 83% de los pacientes tenían adecuados controles de salud y 91% estaban al día con sus inmunizaciones. 12% tenían sobrepeso/obesidad. El desarrollo neurológico fue adecuado en 93% en los menores de 5 años y en 56% de los mayores de 5 años de edad. En el caso de aquellos con trastornos del neurodesarrollo mayores de 5 años, 46% tenían trastornos del aprendizaje, 39% trastorno de conducta, 32% trastornos del lenguaje, 10% déficit intelectual. 56% estaba escolarizado, todos en escuelas públicas. En el caso de aquellos que no asistían a la escuela, 4 estaban en edad de asistencia obligatoria (6, 7, 9 y 10 años de edad). 20% de los niños/adolescentes había repetido por lo menos un año en escuela o liceo. Datos perinatales: 14% de las madres consumieron drogas; las más frecuentes fueron tabaco y pasta base de cocaína (PBC). 85% fueron recién nacidos de término, 10% presentaron depresión neonatal. 15% de niños/ adolescentes estuvo expuesto a violencia doméstica y 32% de ellos (12/38) tenía por lo menos un padre con uso de drogas psicoactivas en el domicilio. 21% de los niños/adolescentes expuestos a violencia doméstica tenía una dificultad de aprendizaje. 8% de estos pacientes tenía por lo menos un padre que no había terminado educación primaria y 28% que no había terminado ciclo básico. Se encontró una relación significativa entre uso de drogas psicoactivas, declarada por uno o ambos padres, y violencia doméstica. No se encontró una relación significativa entre alteración del neurodesarrollo y violencia doméstica. Conclusiones: estos hallazgos muestran una población social y económicamente vulnerable, padres con baja escolaridad, uso de pasta base de cocaína durante el embarazo en un porcentaje mayor al reportado nacionalmente, y 15% de niños/adolescentes expuestos a violencia doméstica, pero con un buen número de controles de salud. La mayor fortaleza encontrada por este estudio es la importancia de mantener una buena conexión con estas familias, que mostraron un alto nivel de compromiso con el centro de salud. Esto nos desafía a priorizar la prevención y promoción en salud como herramientas valiosas para adquirir salud de calidad para estos niños/adolescentes. Nuevos estudios, con otras metodologías, serán necesarios para analizar estas variables encontradas.

Introduction: around 30% of childhood diseases are caused by social, environmental and family issues, as well as by life conditions, family dynamics and exposure to toxic substances. Understanding the characteristics of the pediatric population assisted at this Health Center, will help us identify health-threatening factors. Objectives: Describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the population under 15 years of age assisted at Badano Repetto Health Center between 2020 and 2021. Understand the different variables that could influence this population´s health. Identify the link between family, social and cultural variables and neurological development at different ages. Methodology: descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. Convenience sampling of 15% of the total number of children and adolescents under 15 years of age, assisted at the Health Center from 10/01/2020 to 3/31/2021. Variables: children: sex, age, perinatal history, growth and neurological development, health checkups, vaccines, school attendance, extracurricular activities. Parents: age, education, psychoactive substance use, pathological background, job, prison. Family and household: parent`s marital status, domestic violence history, cohabitants, housing characteristics, basic household services, government aids, community interventions. Data source: medical records and telephone conversations. Data was recorded on template charts. We used results in absolute and relative frequencies, and their measures of central tendency measures and their range, Chi-square test or Fisher´s exact test. Significance level 0,05. Epi Info Program, version 7.2. Informed parent and adolescent consent. Approved by the CHPR Ethics Committee. Results: out of the 2826 patients under 15 years of age assisted at the clinic, we included 426 (15%), but only 263 (62%) were analyzed, since we were not able to reach 163 (38%) by phone. 52% were female. The average age was 4 years of age (5 days-14 years old). 69% of children were under 5 years old. 83% of patients had adequate number of checkups and 91% had an updated vaccination chart. 12% were overweight/obese. Neurodevelopment was adequate in 93% of those under 5 years of age, and 56% of those over 5 years of age. Regarding those with neurodevelopmental difficulties and over 5 years of age, 46% had learning disabilities, 39% had behavioral disorders, 32% language disorders, 10% intellectual deficit. 56% attended school, all of them public schools. For those who did not attend school, 4 of them were old enough to attend mandatory school (6, 7, 9 and 10 years of age). 20% of the children and adolescents had failed at least one year in school or high school. Perinatal findings: 14% of mothers had substance use during pregnancy, mainly tobacco and cocaine base paste. 85% of them had been born to term, 10% had neonatal depression 15% of children/adolescents had been exposed to domestic violence and 32% of them (12/38) had one parent with psychoactive drug use at home. 21% of children/adolescents exposed to domestic violence had a learning disability. 8% had at least one parent who did not finish primary school and 28% who did not finish middle school. Statistically, a significant link was found between psychoactive substance use, declared by one or both parents, and domestic violence. No statistically significant link was found between neurodevelopmental difficulties and domestic violence. Conclusions: these findings show a socially and economically vulnerable population, parents with little formal education, higher cocaine paste base use during pregnancy than the national statistics and 15% of children/adolescents exposed to domestic violence, even though they a high number of them had received their health checkups. The biggest strength shown by this study is the importance of maintaining a good bond with these families, who showed a high level of commitment with the health center. This leads us to prioritize health prevention and promotion as a valuable tool to achieve health quality standards for these children and adolescents. New studies, using other methodologies, will be necessary to analyze this data.

Introdução: cerca de 30% das doenças infantis são causadas por questões sociais, ambientais e familiares, bem como por condições de vida, dinâmica familiar e exposição a substâncias tóxicas. Compreender as características da população pediátrica atendida neste Centro de Saúde, nos ajudará a identificar fatores de risco à saúde. Objetivos: Descrever as características clínico-epidemiológicas da população menor de 15 anos de idade atendida no Centro de Saúde Badano Repetto no período 2020-2021. Compreender diferentes variáveis que podem influenciar a saúde dessa população. Identificar uma relação entre as variáveis familiares e socioculturais e o desenvolvimento em diferentes idades. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, transversal. Foi incluída uma amostra por conveniência de 15% de todas as crianças e adolescentes menores de 15 anos atendidos no Centro de Saúde entre 01/10/2020 e 31/03/2021. Variáveis estudadas: da criança: sexo, idade, história perinatal, crescimento e desenvolvimento, controles de saúde, imunizações, escolaridade, atividades extracurriculares. Dos pais: idade, escolaridade, consumo de substâncias psicoativas, histórico médico, emprego, privação de liberdade. Família e habitação: estado civil dos pais, história de violência doméstica, coabitantes, características da moradia, serviços básicos, transferências de ajuda de custo, intervenção das equipes no território. Fonte de dados: prontuários e enquetes telefônicas. Cadastro em planilha padrão. Os resultados são expressos em frequências absolutas e relativas e medidas de tendência central com sua amplidão. Utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher. Nível de significância 0,05. Programa Epi Info™ versão 7.2. Consentimento informado por telefone pais e consentimento dos adolescentes. Aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética do CHPR. Resultados: 2.826 crianças menores de 15 anos consultadas, 426 (15%) foram incluídas, mas 263 (62%) foram analisadas, pois 163 (38%) não puderam ser contatadas por telefone. 52% eram do sexo feminino. Idade média 4 anos (5 dias -14 anos), 69% ≤ 5 anos. 83% dos pacientes possuíam controles de saúde adequados e 91% estavam com suas imunizações em dia. 12% com sobrepeso/obesidade. O desenvolvimento neurológico foi adequado em 93% dos menores de 5 anos e em 56% dos maiores de 5 anos. No caso dos portadores de transtornos de neurodesenvolvimento com mais de 5 anos, 46% apresentavam transtorno de aprendizagem, 39% transtorno de conduta, 32% transtorno de linguagem, 10% déficit intelectual. 56% estavam na escola, todos em escolas públicas. No caso dos que não frequentaram a escola, 4 deles estavam em idade em idade escolar obrigatória (6, 7, 9 e 10 anos). 20% das crianças/adolescentes repetiram pelo menos um ano na escola ou no ensino médio. Dados perinatais: 14% das mães usavam drogas; pasta base de tabaco e maiormente pasta base de cocaína (PBC). 85% eram recém-nascidos a termo, 10% tinham depressão neonatal. 15% das crianças/adolescentes foram expostos à violência doméstica e 32% deles (12/38) tinham pelo menos um dos pais que usava drogas psicoativas em casa. 21% das crianças/adolescentes expostas à violência doméstica tinham dificuldade de aprendizagem. 8% desses pacientes possuíam pelo menos um dos pais com escola primária incompleta e 28% com ensino médio incompleto. Encontrou-se relação significativa entre o uso de drogas psicoativas, declarado por um ou ambos os pais, e a violência doméstica. Não foi encontrada relação significativa entre transtornos do neurodesenvolvimento e violência doméstica. Conclusões: esses achados mostram uma população social e economicamente vulnerável, pais com baixa escolaridade, uso de pasta base de cocaína durante a gravidez em porcentagem superior ao reportado a nível nacional, e 15% de crianças/adolescentes expostos à violência doméstica, mas com um alto número de controles de saúde. A maior fortaleza encontrada por este estudo é a importância de manter um bom vínculo com essas famílias, que demonstraram alto nível de comprometimento com o centro de saúde. Isso nos leva a priorizar a prevenção e promoção da saúde como ferramentas valiosas para a aquisição de saúde de qualidade para essas crianças/adolescentes. Novos estudos, com outras metodologias, serão necessários para poder analisar essas variáveis encontradas.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Asistencia Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Perinatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Adolescente/estadística & datos numéricos , Relaciones Familiares , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Uruguay/epidemiología , Desarrollo Infantil , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Prospectivos , Poblaciones Vulnerables/estadística & datos numéricos
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604884, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36518870


Objectives: Based on a life-course approach, the purpose of this study is to analyze how the age at the birth of a first child moderates the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) incidence in old age, separately for women and men. Methods: We used a rich and representative life history survey of people aged from 65 to 75 living in Santiago, Chile (n = 802), and weighted multivariate statistical models. Data collection process involved the use of face-to-face life history calendars, administered by well-trained interviewers. Results: Early motherhood increases the risk of suffering CVD among older women with a disadvantaged childhood SEP, while late motherhood decreases it. By contrast, early fatherhood decreases CVD risk among older men with an adverse childhood SEP, while late fatherhood increases it. Conclusion: Our findings about the moderating role of parenthood onset on CVD risk among older women and men with a disadvantaged childhood SEP contributes to public health reflections on unexplored cardiovascular risk factors, which lead to substantial changes in women's and men's life courses, and might optimize cardiovascular prevention strategies.

Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Masculino , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/etiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Chile/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social