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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141157, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835960

RESUMEN

When making infrastructure policies, decision makers insufficiently consider negative consequences for the environment or health. This lack of multi-sectorial awareness in policymaking triggers poor public health outcomes. To illustrate this issue, this interdisciplinary work presents evidence for the association of road infrastructure investment (as infrastructure policy) with the incidences of deaths due to transport accidents, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia using nationally aggregated data from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for 27 countries over an 18-year period (1995-2012). We conduct an explorative analysis using descriptive statistics and fixed-effects panel-data regression models that include the interaction of the policy variable with the Environmental Policy Stringency Index, which proxies the awareness of negative consequences of policies. We show that countries which never achieved a score of 3 or higher for the Environmental Policy Stringency Index had higher levels of standardized death rates. This is supported by Pearson's correlation coefficients and by the results of t-tests for deaths due to transport accidents. Following the fixed-effects analysis, we find that an increase in road infrastructure investment of 1% of gross domestic product is associated, on average, with about three additional deaths per 100,000 population due to transport accidents and about 18 fewer deaths per 100,000 population due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using standardized death rates. A one unit increase in the Environmental Policy Stringency Index is related to about 7 fewer deaths per 100,000 population due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Marginal effects of the interaction of road infrastructure investment and the Environmental Policy Stringency Index are significant for standardized death rates due to transport accidents and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multi-sectorial awareness in infrastructure policy mediates health effects for deaths due to transport accidents and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Asunto(s)
Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Salud Pública , Accidentes de Tránsito , Política Ambiental , Producto Interno Bruto
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111686, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181956

RESUMEN

This paper presents the current status and trends over time in the environmental situation of European ports, based on the results of a wide representation of EcoPorts members (90 ports). All the information presented in this research comes from the Self-Diagnosis Method (SDM), a concise checklist managed by European Sea Ports Organisation (ESPO), against which ports can self-assess their environmental management. The results provide data on a total number of 54 indicators, being the existence of an inventory of environmental legislation the indicator with the highest implementation (96,7%), followed by the existence of an environmental policy (95,7%). Waste is the environmental issue that is being more monitored by ports. Air quality continues as the top environmental priority, followed by energy consumption and noise. It is interesting to highlight the growing awareness of Climate change among ports as well as the increasing implementation of green initiatives in ports.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Navíos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Estaciones de Transporte
4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 83, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111925

RESUMEN

Almost half of the Brazilian population has no access to sewage collection and treatment. Untreated effluents discharged in waters of reservoirs for human supply favor the flowering of cyanobacteria - and these microorganisms produce toxins, such as saxitoxin, which is a very potent neurotoxin present in reservoirs in the Northeast region. A recent study confirmed that chronic ingestion of neurotoxin-infected water associated with Zika virus infection could lead to a microcephaly-like outcome in pregnant mice. Cyanobacteria benefit from hot weather and organic matter in water, a condition that has been intensified by climate change, according to our previous studies. Considering the new findings, we emphasize that zika arbovirus is widespread and worsened when associated with climate change, especially in middle- or low-income countries with low levels of sanitation coverage.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Infección por el Virus Zika/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Proliferación Celular , Cianobacterias/fisiología , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Riesgo
5.
Nature ; 585(7826): 551-556, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908312

RESUMEN

Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it  provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether-and how-humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042-2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34-50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats-such as climate change-must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Política Ambiental/tendencias , Actividades Humanas/tendencias , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana/tendencias , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
7.
Nurs Outlook ; 68(4): 517-522, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896304

RESUMEN

Climate change has a significant global impact on individuals' mental health and well-being. However, global health systems are inadequately prepared to address this issue. Studies indicate that climate events such as floods, droughts, tornados, earthquakes, and fires not only exacerbate chronic mental illness, but also impact well-being causing anxiety, stress, and in the worst case, suicide. The World Health Organization estimates that 12.6 million preventable deaths per year can be attributed to environmental factors, all of which are exacerbated by climate change, and an additional 250,000 deaths per year are projected between 2030 and 2050. Nurses must advocate for research, education, and policies that support disaster-resilient infrastructure and human services that allow communities across the globe to effectively mitigate the impact of climate change on human health.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Rol de la Enfermera , Personal de Enfermería/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Adulto , Política Ambiental , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239006, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960903

RESUMEN

To prevent and control non-point source pollution, many policies have been carried out by government in China. However, the effectiveness of these policies has rarely been evaluated. In this study, the potential and spatial distribution of agricultural non-point source pollution in the Baiyangdian Basin are reported. This investigation considers multiple parameters under various policies with county as a basic unit. The results for the potential pollution from chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) are 60.89×104, 3.93×104, 87.05×104 and 15.10×104 Mg, with corresponding intensities of 190, 12, 272 and 47 kg ha-1 for the Baiyangdian Basin in 2016. The highest pollution from COD is attributed to livestock and poultry breeding, whereas TN and TP are dominantly produced by rural domestic sources, and NH3-N is mostly derived from planting. Spatially, distribution of the counties producing larger non-point source pollution presented a northeast to southwest direction, consistent with the Taihang mountain alignment in the basin. The counties with high pollution intensities are mostly in the south and east of the basin. Agricultural non-point source pollution control and prevention policies contributed in pollution reduction. Compared with 2016, the total potential pollution of COD, NH3-N, TN and TP in 2020 decrease by 45.1%, 14.7%, 37.9% and 37.4%, respectively, whereas for an assumed future time (F2), the decreases are 59%, 51.4%, 56.2% and 55.7%, respectively. Prevention measures should focus on reducing pollution from livestock and poultry breeding as well as planting.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Difusa/análisis , Contaminación Difusa/economía , Agricultura , Amoníaco/análisis , Animales , Análisis de la Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno/métodos , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/tendencias , Política Ambiental/tendencias , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/economía , Ganado , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo/análisis , Aves de Corral , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 637, 2020 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920681

RESUMEN

The process of urbanization promotes the development of economy and society, and also brings great pressure to the environment. In order to better understand the harmonious and interactive relationship between environment and urbanization, by selecting 13 cities in Hunan province of China as cases, this paper establishes a correlation model and a comprehensive evaluation system, uses entropy weight method to weight the index, the coupling coordination model to analyze the coupling coordination relationships empirically, and gray prediction model to predict the trend and make corresponding decision recommendations. The results show with novelty that the overall performances of environment and urbanization for the 13 cities in Hunan province have similarities, the coupling coordination degrees are mild with slight fluctuations, and the next years will keep the similar trends. However, the coupling coordination development is unbalanced with the coupling degree of the east higher than that of the west; therefore, corresponding measures for better environmental governance and urban planning need to be taken in different cities.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Urbanización , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental
10.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111225, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889416

RESUMEN

Many studies demonstrate that the booming number of environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) in China have substantially affected on the environmental issues. However, little research has paid attention to discern the different types of ENGOs' activities. Thus, this study aims to provide the first set of quantitative data analysis to demonstrate the effects of different types of ENGOs' effects on the governance from two major perspectives, namely, top-down and grassroots. Both perspectives offer different assumptions of whether the effects of key ENGOs on promoting urban environmental governance are national or local. This paper collects unique data from the websites of several NGO list-collecting organizations, the urban statistical yearbooks published by the Chinese government, and the pollution information transparency index released by ENGOs annually, to accurately identify the characteristics and activities of ENGOs. By using the Ordinary Least Squares regression model in which the city fixed effects are included, this study analyzes the influences of ENGOs on the levels of environmental information disclosure among over 100 prefecture-level cities from 2008 to 2015. The results primarily support the grassroots perspective. Cities with more local ENGOs have better performance in terms of environmental information disclosure. In addition, although local ENGOs allying with national NGOs have certain influences in 2014-2015, they downgrade the effects of other local ENGOs. Taken together, the findings illustrate that, while national ENGOs have received great deal of attention, possessed more resources to align local ENGOs, and had extensive opportunities to connect with international ENGOs, local ENGOs within local contexts and activities play crucial roles in the local environmental governance. Furthermore, the results also imply that although the Chinese government has reinforced control over the civil society after 2012, local ENGOs still strengthen their influences on the environmental governance.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , China , Ciudades , Revelación
12.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111117, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763745

RESUMEN

Climate Change related concerns affect multiple international and national policy forefronts. Globally, conflicts over renewables industry between the developed and emerging economies have affected the provision of green goods-thus slowing the overall welfare of global environmental governance. This article argues that the above phenomenon is a new form of green dilemma which arises from the long-lasting issue of balancing environmental protection and economic gains. It further tracks the historical evolutionary change of green dilemma, from version 1.0 to 2.0 to the current avatar of Green Dilemma 3.0. By developing the Green Dilemma Framework, the article aims to uncover the logic underlying the industrial policies and trade conflicts between the developed and emerging economies in their energy transitions. Utilizing the US vs China and US vs India conflicts in the solar PV industries as the two group of cases, the key feature of Green Dilemma 3.0 is illustrated as the conflict over status and control of the global division of labor in the new energy industry. This article offers a novel perspective on global inequality by deconstructing the unequal global production system that can act to restrict the optimization of energy use and production in tackling climate change and thus successively hindering global environmental governance in its realization of optimal results. Underneath global climate change governance, there is an unequal global production network and political system, and both these follow a core, semi-periphery, and periphery distribution of power structure. We argue that the inequality of global production system suppresses the effects of subsidy competition and erodes the economic foundation of global climate governance.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , China , India , Energía Renovable , Factores Socioeconómicos
13.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111209, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798847

RESUMEN

Since the parties to Paris agreement ink ambitious emissions reduction targets, there is a growing debate - whether the existing environmental regulations have potential to spur enough technological base that could help to achieve the targets by 2030? Thus, this study attempts to empirically investigate the role of stringent environmental regulations towards environmentally friendly technological innovation, carbon emissions, GDP, exports and imports for 20 OECD countries. The results find long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables and suggest that the current environmental regulations encourage green innovation in the panel countries. Furthermore, stringent environmental policies couple with environmentally friendly innovation are impetus to sustainable development. Exports and imports have little to contribute green innovation but, exports reduce carbon emissions in the short-run only and imports are emissions intensive. The study suggests that the OECD countries need to revisit trade related environmental regulations.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Política Ambiental , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico , Paris
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674383

RESUMEN

Global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from anthropogenic activities have already become the focus of the world. A more systematic and comprehensive analysis on the factors influencing the changes of global GHGs transferring via trade have not been fully discussed. To this end, employing spatial econometric regression models and multi-regional input-output models, this paper reveals factors influencing the GHGs transferring via trade changes in 39 major economies, so as to develop the relevant GHGs reduction policies. The results indicate that regions with the highest net outflow of GHGs transferring via trade are primarily Russia and Canada, and the adverse effects of promoting GHGs reduction on the national economy could be avoided by these regions owing to trade relations. Additionally, factors influencing the changes in GHGs transferring via trade have significant spatial autocorrelation, and population size and energy structure exert significant spatial spillover effects on the changes in the GHGs transferring via trade. On this basis, this paper suggests that one more effective way to prevent trade from the rigorous demands of environmental governance measures while preserving the economic benefits of international trade may be to facilitate cooperation between countries on GHGs mitigation. Further, we articulate more balanced environment governance policies, including conducting the sharing of advanced energy technologies and developing clearer production technologies.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Canadá , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Política Ambiental , Efecto Invernadero , Internacionalidad , Federación de Rusia
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708629

RESUMEN

As air pollution becomes highly focused in China, the accurate identification of its influencing factors is critical for achieving effective control and targeted environmental governance. Land-use distribution is one of the key factors affecting air quality, and research on the impact of land-use distribution on air pollution has drawn wide attention. However, considerable studies have mostly used linear regression models, which fail to capture the nonlinear effects of land-use distribution on PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns) and to show how impacts on PM2.5 vary with land-use magnitudes. In addition, related studies have generally focused on annual analyses, ignoring the seasonal variability of the impact of land-use distribution on PM2.5, thus leading to possible estimation biases for PM2.5. This study was designed to address these issues and assess the impacts of land-use distribution on PM2.5 in Weifang, China. A machine learning statistical model, the boosted regression tree (BRT), was applied to measure nonlinear effects of land-use distribution on PM2.5, capture how land-use magnitude impacts PM2.5 across different seasons, and explore the policy implications for urban planning. The main conclusions are that the air quality will significantly improve with an increase in grassland and forest area, especially below 8% and 20%, respectively. When the distribution of construction land is greater than around 10%, the PM2.5 pollution can be seriously substantially increased with the increment of their areas. The impact of gardens and farmland presents seasonal characteristics. It is noted that as the weather becomes colder, the inhibitory effect of vegetation distribution on the PM2.5 concentration gradually decreases, while the positive impacts of artificial surface distributions, such as construction land and roads, are aggravated because leaves drop off in autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February). According to the findings of this study, it is recommended that Weifang should strengthen pollution control in winter, for instance, expand the coverage areas of evergreen vegetation like Pinus bungeana Zucc. and Euonymus japonicus Thunb, and increase the width and numbers of branches connecting different main roads. The findings also provide quantitative and optimal land-use planning and strategies to minimize PM2.5 pollution, referring to the status of regional urbanization and greening construction.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630703

RESUMEN

This study examines the effects of renewable energy expansion policy on the Korean economy and industries using the computable general equilibrium model, which divides the power generation sector into detailed generation technologies and sources. The scenarios are set to observe the cases where the share of solar photovoltaic and wind power generation reaches 7%. The effects are examined according to differing circumstances, such as when greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are regulated, and the funding source for renewable expansion varies. The results show that renewable expansion policies have negative effects on GDP. However, the magnitude of the GDP decline becomes smaller when GHG emissions are regulated. The expansion of renewable energy induces the growth of upstream industries which supply components for renewable generation modules. Regarding employment, the renewable expansion policy can increase the demand for labor. However, the direction and the extent of the effect vary depending on the funding source. When overlapping regulations, such as the emission trading scheme and renewable energy expansion policies, exist in the power generation sector, the renewable energy expansion policy could provide incentives for GHG emission-intensive power sources.


Asunto(s)
Política Ambiental/economía , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Energía Renovable , Política Pública , República de Corea , Viento
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635267

RESUMEN

Scientific determination of energy and environmental efficiency and productivity is the key foundation of green development policy-making. The hyperbolic distance function (HDF) model can deal with both desirable output and undesirable output asymmetrically, and measure efficiency from the perspective of "increasing production and reducing pollution". In this paper, a nonparametric linear estimation method of an HDF model including uncontrollable index and undesirable output is proposed. Under the framework of global reference, the changes of energy environmental efficiency and productivity and their factorization of 107 resource-based cities in China from 2003 to 2018 are calculated and analyzed. With the classification of resource-based cities by resource dependence (RD) and region, we discuss the feature in green development quality of those cities. The results show that: (1) On the whole, the average annual growth rate of energy and environmental productivity of resource-based cities in China is 2.6%, which is mainly due to technological changes. The backward of relative technological efficiency hinders the further growth of productivity, while the scale diseconomy is the main reason for the backward of relative technological efficiency. (2) For the classification of RD, the energy and environmental efficiency of the high-dependent group are significantly lower than the other two, and the growth of productivity of the medium-dependent group is the highest. (3) In terms of classification by region, the energy and environmental efficiency of the eastern region is the highest, and that of the middle and western regions is not as good as that of the eastern and northeastern regions. The middle region shows the situation of "middle collapse" in both static efficiency and dynamic productivity change, and the main reason for its low productivity growth is the retreat of relatively pure technical efficiency. This conclusion provides practical reference for the classification and implementation of regional energy and environmental policies.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia , Política Ambiental , China , Ciudades , Fenómenos Físicos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110890, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721328

RESUMEN

How do different multi-level governance models influence the adaptive capacity of environmental management? This paper examines the connection between different types of governance models, distinguished by diverse institutional features, and elements of adaptive capacity. The task is undertaken through a comparative study of two differently organized management systems within the same national context: Swedish water and large carnivore management. The systems' governance models are defined through an institutional analysis of polycentric features, logics of design and knowledge arrangements. Assessments of adaptive capacity are based on survey data describing the involved actors' perceptions of the knowledge base, use of an experimental approach and the presence of learning. The empirical results suggest that institutional features influence some, but not all, elements of adaptive capacity. The results lend support to the idea that polycentric governance models, based on an ecological rationale, sustain participation in knowledge mobilization, support the use of an experimental approach and promote learning to a larger extent than more centralized and hierarchical governance models do; while there is no connection between governance model and the perceived reliability of knowledge base. The study contributes to environmental governance research, policy and practice by evaluating the adaptive capacity of current water and wildlife management systems in Sweden and by increasing our knowledge about how different governance models influence the adaptive capacity in environmental management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agua , Política Ambiental , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Suecia
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111438, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692668

RESUMEN

The Indian Ocean hosts a wide range of living resources including fish stocks. Marine resources contribute significantly to economies and livelihoods, and seafood is a major source of protein in Indian Ocean nations. Fisheries resources in the Indian Ocean have started showing symptoms of depletion. Several regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) have been established for sustainable management of the fisheries resources in the Indian Ocean region. These RFMOs were created at different times with various particular mandates, and in some cases prior to the emergence of contemporary scientific concepts and legal approaches to marine environmental governance. In this article, eight such RFMOs are studied to determine the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) and the precautionary approach (PA), which are now widely accepted norms of fisheries management and international law. This article argues that there is a mismatch between the legal and governance frameworks, and the fisheries science and management.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Política Ambiental , Peces , Océano Índico
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233888, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603333

RESUMEN

Urban development relies on many factors to remain viable, including infrastructure, services, and government provisions and subsidies. However, in situations involving federal or state level policy, development responds not just to one regulatory signal, but also to multiple signals from overlapping and competing jurisdictions. The 1982 U.S. Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CoBRA) offers an opportunity to study when and how development restrictions and economic disincentives protect natural resources by stopping or slowing urban development in management regimes with distributed authority and responsibility. CoBRA prohibits federal financial assistance for infrastructure, post-storm disaster relief, and flood insurance in designated sections (CoBRA units) of coastal barriers. How has CoBRA's removal of these subsidies affected rates and types of urban development? Using building footprint and real estate data (n = 1,385,552 parcels), we compare density of built structures, land use types, residential house size, and land values within and outside of CoBRA units in eight Southeast and Gulf Coast states. We show that CoBRA is associated with reduced development rates in designated coastal barriers. We also demonstrate how local responses may counteract withdrawal of federal subsidies. As attention increases towards improving urban resilience in high hazard areas, this work contributes to understanding how limitations on infrastructure and insurance subsidies can affect outcomes where overlapping jurisdictions have competing goals.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Política Ambiental , Financiación Gubernamental , Remodelación Urbana/economía , Desastres , Inundaciones , Humanos , Seguro , Sudeste de Estados Unidos
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