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3.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 10(1): [P32-P36], mar. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1087896

RESUMEN

Introducción: El Instituto Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición (INAN) implementa el Programa Alimentario Nutricional Integral (PANI), el cual consiste en un conjunto de actividades de carácter preventivo y de recuperación nutricional. El PANI ha tenido resultados positivos en los años de implementación, pero una problemática constante ha sido el abandono injustificado del Programa. Objetivo: describir los motivos que influyen en la deserción de niños beneficiarios del Programa Alimentario Nutricional Integral, ingresados en el año 2016, en los servicios de salud pública de la ciudad de Asunción. Metodología: Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal, muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia. Se incluyeron a niños beneficiarios del PANI en Asunción, ingresados en el año 2016. Se utilizaron datos asentados en las tarjetas índice de los beneficiarios en deserción e informes mensuales de deserción del PANI. Se calculó el porcentaje de deserción de beneficiarios en Asunción y se evaluaron los principales factores que influyeron en el abandono del Programa. El análisis de datos se realizó con el paquete estadístico Stata 12. Resultados: 36,9% de los beneficiarios ingresados al PANI en Asunción desertaron el Programa. El principal motivo de deserción fue "No le gusta la leche" (25,2%). Conclusión: La palatabilidad del complemento nutricional es un factor preponderante para la adherencia al PANI. Palabras claves: Asistencia alimentaria, desarrollo infantil, deserción escolar.


Introduction: The National Institute of Food and Nutrition (INAN) implements the Comprehensive Nutritional Food Program (PANI), which consists of a set of preventive activities and nutritional recovery. PANI has had positive results in the years of implementation, but despite this, a constant problem has been the unjustified dropouts of the Program. Objective: describe the reasons for the desertion of children benefiting from the Comprehensive Nutritional Food Program, admitted in 2016, in the public health services of the city of Asunción. Methods: Retrospective descriptive cross-sectional observational study, non-probability sampling for convenience. PANI beneficiary children admitted in the year 2016 in Asuncion were included. Data recorded in the beneficiary cards in desertion and monthly dropouts reports from PANI were used. The percentage of dropouts of beneficiaries in Asuncion was calculated and the main factors affecting the dropouts of the Program were assessed. For the analysis of the data, the statistical package Stata 12 was used. Results:36.9% of the children who joined PANI in Asunción dropped out of the Program. The main reason for desertion was "He does not like the milk" (25.2%). Conclusion: The palatability of the nutritional complement is a preponderant factor for adherence to PANI. Key words: Food Assistance, child development, scholar desertion


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Programas y Políticas de Nutrición y Alimentación , Apoyo Nutricional , Asistencia Alimentaria , Paraguay , Programas de Nutrición Aplicada , Política Nutricional
4.
JAMA ; 323(12): 1161-1174, 2020 03 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207798

RESUMEN

Importance: Prior studies of dietary trends among US youth have evaluated major macronutrients or only a few foods or have used older data. Objective: To characterize trends in diet quality among US youth. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional investigation using 24-hour dietary recalls from youth aged 2 to 19 years from 9 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles (1999-2016). Exposures: Calendar year and population sociodemographic characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the survey-weighted, energy-adjusted mean consumption of dietary components and proportion meeting targets of the American Heart Association (AHA) 2020 continuous diet score (range, 0-50; based on total fruits and vegetables, whole grains, fish and shellfish, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sodium). Additional outcomes were the AHA secondary score (range, 0-80; adding nuts, seeds, and legumes; processed meat; and saturated fat) and Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015 score (range, 0-100). Poor diet was defined as less than 40% adherence (scores, <20 for primary and <32 for secondary AHA scores); intermediate as 40% to 79.9% adherence (scores, 20-39.9 and 32-63.9, respectively); and ideal, as at least 80% adherence (scores, ≥40 and ≥64, respectively). Higher diet scores indicate better diet quality; a minimal clinically important difference has not been quantified. Results: Of 31 420 youth aged 2 to 19 years included, the mean age was 10.6 years; 49.1% were female. From 1999 to 2016, the estimated AHA primary diet score significantly increased from 14.8 (95% CI, 14.1-15.4) to 18.8 (95% CI, 18.1-19.6) (27.0% improvement), the estimated AHA secondary diet score from 29.2 (95% CI, 28.1-30.4) to 33.0 (95% CI, 32.0-33.9) (13.0% improvement), and the estimated HEI-2015 score from 44.6 (95% CI, 43.5-45.8) to 49.6 (95% CI, 48.5-50.8) (11.2% improvement) (P < .001 for trend for each). Based on the AHA primary diet score, the estimated proportion of youth with poor diets significantly declined from 76.8% (95% CI, 72.9%-80.2%) to 56.1% (95% CI, 51.4%-60.7%) and with intermediate diets significantly increased from 23.2% (95% CI, 19.8%-26.9%) to 43.7% (95% CI, 39.1%-48.3%) (P < .001 for trend for each). The estimated proportion meeting ideal quality significantly increased but remained low, from 0.07% (95% CI, 0.01%-0.49%) to 0.25% (95% CI, 0.10%-0.62%) (P = .03 for trend). Persistent dietary variations were identified across multiple sociodemographic groups. The estimated proportion of youth with a poor diet in 2015-2016 was 39.8% (95% CI, 35.1%-44.5%) for ages 2 to 5 years (unweighted n = 666), 52.5% (95% CI, 46.4%-58.5%) for ages 6 to 11 years (unweighted n = 1040), and 66.6% (95% CI, 61.4%-71.4%) for ages 12 to 19 years (unweighted n = 1195), with persistent differences across levels of parental education, household income, and household food security status. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on serial NHANES surveys from 1999 to 2016, the estimated overall diet quality of US youth showed modest improvement, but more than half of youth still had poor-quality diets.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable/tendencias , Dieta/tendencias , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Dieta/etnología , Dieta/normas , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Femenino , Asistencia Alimentaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Autoinforme , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
7.
BMJ ; 368: m688, 2020 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188587

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of macronutrient intake with all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the implications for dietary advice. DESIGN: Prospective population based study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 195 658 of the 502 536 participants in UK Biobank completed at least one dietary questionnaire and were included in the analyses. Diet was assessed using Oxford WebQ, a web based 24 hour recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were estimated using standard methodology. Cox proportional models with penalised cubic splines were used to study non-linear associations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality and incidence of CVD. RESULTS: 4780 (2.4%) participants died over a mean 10.6 (range 9.4-13.9) years of follow-up, and 948 (0.5%) and 9776 (5.0%) experienced fatal and non-fatal CVD events, respectively, over a mean 9.7 (range 8.5-13.0) years of follow-up. Non-linear associations were found for many macronutrients. Carbohydrate intake showed a non-linear association with mortality; no association at 20-50% of total energy intake but a positive association at 50-70% of energy intake (3.14 v 2.75 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.28 (60-70% v 50% of energy)). A similar pattern was observed for sugar but not for starch or fibre. A higher intake of monounsaturated fat (2.94 v 3.50 per 1000 person years, average hazard ratio 0.58, 0.51 to 0.66 (20-25% v 5% of energy)) and lower intake of polyunsaturated fat (2.66 v 3.04 per 1000 person years, 0.78, 0.75 to 0.81 (5-7% v 12% of energy)) and saturated fat (2.66 v 3.59 per 1000 person years, 0.67, 0.62 to 0.73 (5-10% v 20% of energy)) were associated with a lower risk of mortality. A dietary risk matrix was developed to illustrate how dietary advice can be given based on current intake. CONCLUSION: Many associations between macronutrient intake and health outcomes are non-linear. Thus dietary advice could be tailored to current intake. Dietary guidelines on macronutrients (eg, carbohydrate) should also take account of differential associations of its components (eg, sugar and starch).


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Grasas de la Dieta , Ingestión de Energía , Adulto , Anciano , Fibras de la Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política Nutricional , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología
8.
N Z Med J ; 133(1509): 65-72, 2020 02 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027640

RESUMEN

Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease in New Zealand. Concurrently, obesity and related chronic metabolic diseases are the most challenging public health problems of modern times. There is considerable evidence that a common dietary behaviour-high frequency consumption of sugar- and starch-containing foods-is the principal aetiological factor for both dental caries, and presentation of children and young people with increased adiposity or obesity. Conversely, consumption of full-fat dairy products by children and young people is associated with reduced risks of dental caries and obesity. Government-endorsed dietary guidelines for young people correctly provide recommendations to decrease intake of high-sugar foods. However, recommendations are provided to increase the frequency of consumption of sugar- and starch-containing foods as children age, and to choose low-fat dairy produce. We contend that this advice directly contradicts evidence of the dietary causes of both dental caries and obesity. This advice also does not reflect evidence regarding observed associations between the consumption of full-fat dairy produce and reduced dental caries and obesity. We present evidence to support our contention that important elements of New Zealand's dietary guidelines have been established without due consideration of the entirety of the evidence, including that which is updated, recent or evolutionarily. Given the epidemics of dental caries and metabolic disease are ongoing public health challenges in New Zealand and share common dietary causes, guidelines for healthy eating should limit refined sugar- and starch-containing foods and encourage intake of full-fat dairy items.


Asunto(s)
Productos Lácteos , Caries Dental/prevención & control , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Azúcares de la Dieta , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Nueva Zelanda , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Almidón
10.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 67(2): 122-129, feb. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-187436

RESUMEN

Antecedentes y objetivos: El incremento de la prevalencia de obesidad y de enfermedades asociadas conlleva la necesidad de aplicar políticas sociales que ayuden a frenar esta tendencia. El etiquetado frontal de los envases (EFE) es una herramienta eficiente para ayudar a los consumidores a tomar decisiones más saludables en el momento de la compra. Para ello es importante que los consumidores comprendan la información proporcionada por los EFE. El objetivo es evaluar en una muestra de consumidores españoles la comprensión objetiva de 5 tipos de EFE: sistema de clasificación de estrellas de salud, semáforo múltiple, Nutri-Score, ingestas de referencia y símbolo de advertencia. Métodos: En 2018 se reclutaron 1.000 participantes españoles y se les pidió que clasificaran 3 productos por categoría, repitiendo esto para 3 categorías distintas de productos analizados anteriormente sin etiquetado (3 tipos de pizzas, 3 tipos de pasteles y 3 tipos de cereales de desayuno), de acuerdo con su calidad nutricional usando una encuesta on-line. Seguidamente, los participantes fueron asignados al azar a uno de los 5 tipos de EFE y se les pidió clasificar de nuevo los mismos productos. Se realizaron varios modelos de regresión logística multivariante. Resultados: Nutri-Score fue el sistema que mejor clasificó los alimentos según su calidad nutricional en las 3 categorías de alimentos, seguido del semáforo múltiple, el símbolo de advertencia y el sistema clasificación de estrellas de salud respecto a las ingestas de referencia. Conclusiones: Nutri-Score apareció, entre los consumidores españoles, como el EFE más eficiente para transmitir información sobre la calidad nutricional de los alimentos


Background and objectives: Increased prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities has shown the need to implement social policies to help curb this trend. Nutritional risk factors are recognized as key drivers of obesity and other chronic diseases in Spain and in other Western countries. Front-of-package labels (FoPLs) are efficient tools to help consumers make healthier choices. To be useful in purchasing situations, consumers need to understand the information provided by FoPLs. The study objective was to assess objective understanding by consumers of five types of FoPLs, i.e. Health Star Rating system (HSR), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), Nutri-Score, Reference Intakes (RIs), and Warning symbol in Spain. Methods: In 2018, 1,000 Spanish participants were recruited and requested to rank three sets of label-free products (one set of three pizzas, one set of three cakes, and one set of three breakfast cereals) according to their nutritional quality in an on-line survey. Participants were then randomized to one of the five types of FoPLs, and were requested to rank the same sets of products again, this time with a given FoPL displayed on the package. Changes in ability to correctly rank products according to FoPLs were compared between both tasks using ordinal logistic regression. Results: For all three food categories, Nutri-Score performed significantly better, followed by MTL, the Warning symbol, HSR and RIs. Conclusions: Nutri-Score emerged as the most efficient FoPL in conveying information on the nutritional quality of foods among Spanish consumers


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Etiquetado de Alimentos/métodos , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Etiquetado de Alimentos/normas , España , Publicidad Directa al Consumidor , Política Nutricional , Protocolos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0216516, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978089

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity is an undeniable reality that has rapidly increased in many countries. Obesity at an early age not only increases the risks of chronic diseases but also produces a problem for the whole healthcare system. One way to alleviate this problem is to provide each patient with an appropriate menu that is defined by a mathematical model. Existing mathematical models only partially address the objective and constraints of childhood obesity; therefore, the solutions provided are insufficient for health specialists to prepare nutritional menus for individual patients. This manuscript proposes a multiobjective mathematical programming model to aid in healthy nutritional menu planning that may prevent childhood obesity. This model provides a plan for combinations and amounts of food across different schedules and daily meals. This approach minimizes the major risk factors of childhood obesity (i.e., glycemic load and cholesterol intake). In addition, this approach considers the minimization of nutritional mismatch and total cost. The model is solved using a deterministic method and two metaheuristic methods. Test instances associated with children aged 4-18 years were created with the support of health professionals to complete this numerical study. The quality of the solutions generated using the three methods was similar, but the metaheuristic methods provided solutions in a shorter computational time. These results are submitted to statistical hypothesis tests to be validated. The numerical results indicate proper guidelines for personalized plans for individual children.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Comidas , Planificación de Menú/normas , Leche/metabolismo , Política Nutricional , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226181, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918437

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: U.S. children are failing to meet the recommended daily 4 cups of fruits and vegetables. New federal guidelines were implemented for healthier school lunches for the National School Lunch Programs (NSLP). Consequently, students waste large amounts of fruits and vegetables. Several organizations advocate implementation of classroom nutrition education programs as a school nutrition policy. METHODS: We conducted a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a classroom nutrition education on food consumption behavior of public elementary school students. Our intervention was designed to improve students' preferences for fruits and vegetables. We collected data using digital-photography, and estimated the amount of fruits and vegetables selected and wasted using ordinary least squares. RESULTS: The nutrition education program had no impact on the amount of fruits and vegetables selected by the students in the treatment group. We also find no significant difference in the amount of fruits and vegetables wasted by students in the treatment and control group. CONCLUSION: Nutrition education did not change students' consumption behavior, implying the proposed policy might not be optimal. Inducing a behavioral change in elementary school students is an intricate process and might require more than classroom lessons to change their dietary habits.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Asistencia Alimentaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Servicios de Alimentación/normas , Estudiantes/psicología , Residuos/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Instituciones Académicas
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941054

RESUMEN

In 2010, 193 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed World Health Assembly Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children to prevent obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). No study has examined HFSS marketing policies across the WHO regional office countries in the Americas. Between 2018 and 2019, a transdisciplinary team examined policies to restrict HFSS food and beverage product marketing to children to develop a responsible policy index (RESPI) that provides a quality score based on policy characteristics and marketing techniques. After designing the RESPI, we conducted a comprehensive literature review through October 2019 to examine policies in 14 countries in the WHO Americans Region. We categorized policies (n = 38) as either self-regulatory or statutory and calculated the RESPI scores, ranked from 0 (lowest) to 10 (highest). Results showed Brazil, Canada, Chile, and Uruguay had the highest RESPI scores associated with statutory policies that restricted point of sale, cartoon, licensed media characters and celebrities; and HFSS products in schools and child care settings, and broadcast and print media. Policymakers can use the RESPI tool to evaluate marketing policies within and across geopolitical boundaries to protect children's diet and health.


Asunto(s)
Salud del Niño , Mercadotecnía , Política Nutricional , Obesidad/prevención & control , Niño , Dieta , Industria de Alimentos , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Organización Mundial de la Salud
17.
Monogr Oral Sci ; 28: 1-13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940634

RESUMEN

Diet and nutrition are fundamental in maintaining the general and oral health of populations. Diet refers to the total amount of food consumed by individuals; whereas nutrition is the process of utilising food for growth, metabolism and repair of tissues. The relationship between diet and nutrition and health is 2-way; health status can be affected by nutrient deficiency and vice versa. Dietary guidelines have been developed to provide evidence-based food and beverage recommendations for populations; aiming to promote a diet that meets the nutrient requirement, and to prevent diet-related diseases such as dental caries and obesity. Based on the amount required by the human body for normal metabolism, growth and physical well-being, nutrients are divided into 2 categories: macronutrients consisting of proteins, carbohydrates and fat; and micronutrients consisting of vitamins and minerals. Fats are the most energy-dense macronutrient; whereas carbohydrates are quantitatively the most important dietary energy source for most populations. Proteins are vital structural and functional components within every cell of the body and are essential for growth and repair and maintenance of health. Vitamins and minerals, which are found in small amounts in most foods, are essential for normal metabolic function. This chapter provides an overview of the impact of nutrients on general and oral health, with an emphasis on macronutrients.


Asunto(s)
Caries Dental , Dieta , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Vitaminas
18.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 61-71, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564476

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There is a growing interest in diets and their effects on cancer prognosis. In 2014, a report from the World Cancer Research Fund on diet and women with a history of breast cancer did not demonstrate a major effect on breast cancer prognosis. The aim of this literature review was to provide an update of knowledge in this area. METHODS: Randomized trials, prospective cohorts and meta-analyses published between 2012 and 2018 examining the impact of diet on recurrence risk and/or mortality after breast cancer were included, to achieve the objective. We evaluated study quality (according to Haute Autorité de Santé criteria) and the studied diets were categorized: macronutrients, micronutrients and selective foods. RESULTS: We selected eighteen articles that met levels of evidence 1 to 3. For macronutrients, a low-fat diet was associated with better survival. With regard to micronutrients, a diet rich in phytœstrogen reduced the risk of cancer recurrence. Finally, the adoption of a healthy diet was not associated with an improved prognosis for breast cancer but with an improvement in overall survival and risk of death from cardiovascular disease. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that nutrition influences the prognosis of breast cancer. Nevertheless, the level of evidence of the results was insufficient to make recommendations. Ultimately, a healthy and balanced diet could be encouraged in order to reduce global mortality.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Estado Nutricional , Neoplasias de la Mama/complicaciones , Neoplasias de la Mama/dietoterapia , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Culinaria , Dieta con Restricción de Grasas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Ayuno , Femenino , Alimentos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Inflamación , Desnutrición/complicaciones , Desnutrición/dietoterapia , Desnutrición/terapia , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Micronutrientes/administración & dosificación , Nutrientes/administración & dosificación , Política Nutricional , Apoyo Nutricional , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapéutico , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Recurrencia , Riesgo
19.
Food Chem ; 302: 125330, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404872

RESUMEN

This study assessed compliance between declared and analysed values on prepacked foods, considering the tolerance limits for salt, fat and saturated fatty acids. Foods were distributed by food categories (e.g. snacks, ready-to-eat meals, potato and potato-products, bakery and pastry products) and a total of 209 products were analysed. Only half of the samples with a declared value ≥1.25 g/100 g were within tolerance limits for salt content. The lowest number of samples outside tolerance limits was observed for fat content; for saturated fatty acids, 27% of the samples were outside of tolerance limits. Only amongst "cereal products" were 100% of products compliant for fat and salt declarations. It is of utmost importance that manufacturers update continuously values declared for prepacked foods, because this information is crucial for consumers and food policy-makers as well as being a legal requirement.


Asunto(s)
Etiquetado de Alimentos/normas , Nutrientes/análisis , Política Nutricional , Grano Comestible , Unión Europea , Comida Rápida/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Embalaje de Alimentos/normas , Bocadillos , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/análisis
20.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 142-155, 2020 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852603

RESUMEN

Actions to address different forms of malnutrition are typically managed by separate communities, policies, programmes, governance structures, and funding streams. By contrast, double-duty actions, which aim to simultaneously tackle both undernutrition and problems of overweight, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs) have been proposed as a way to effectively address malnutrition in all its forms in a more holisitic way. This Series paper identifies ten double-duty actions that have strong potential to reduce the risk of both undernutrition, obesity, and DR-NCDs. It does so by summarising evidence on common drivers of different forms of malnutrition; documenting examples of unintended harm caused by some undernutrition-focused programmes on obesity and DR-NCDs; and highlighting examples of double-duty actions to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition. We find that undernutrition, obesity, and DR-NCDs are intrinsically linked through early-life nutrition, diet diversity, food environments, and socioeconomic factors. Some evidence shows that programmes focused on undernutrition have raised risks of poor quality diets, obesity, and DR-NCDs, especially in countries undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. This Series paper builds on this evidence to develop a framework to guide the design of double-duty approaches and strategies, and defines the first steps needed to deliver them. With a clear package of double-duty actions now identified, there is an urgent need to move forward with double-duty actions to address malnutrition in all its forms.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades no Transmisibles/prevención & control , Política Nutricional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Estado Nutricional , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Calidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , Desnutrición/etiología , Desnutrición/prevención & control , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/prevención & control , Sobrepeso/etiología , Sobrepeso/prevención & control , Factores Socioeconómicos
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