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1.
Brasília; IPEA; 20200500. 73 p. ilus.(Texto para Discussão / IPEA, 2559).
Monografía en Portugués | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1100677

RESUMEN

Este texto apresenta um panorama internacional das medidas econômicas adotadas para reduzir os graves efeitos econômicos da pandemia de Sars-COV-2 em três países: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Espanha. A análise toma como base primordialmente documentos governamentais que normatizaram as medidas de política econômica. São analisados os diversos canais por meio dos quais a crise sanitária afeta a economia. Por um lado, estão os fatores de oferta: oferta de trabalho, produtividade do trabalho e funcionamento das cadeias produtivas. Por outro lado, encontram-se os fatores de demanda: consumo das famílias, investimento privado e comércio exterior. O terceiro canal diz respeito aos fatores financeiros que incidem sobre as variáveis de demanda e, principalmente, sobre o grau de liquidez das empresas financeiras e não financeiras. As medidas adotadas nos três países apresentam como características comuns a mobilização de grande volume de recursos fiscais e financeiros, a adoção de uma grande diversidade de instrumentos de política econômica e o uso de arranjos institucionais sofisticados em termos de regras de focalização e de mecanismos de operacionalização das medidas adotadas.


This text presents an international overview of the economic measures adopted to reduce the serious economic effects of the Sars-COV-2 pandemic in three countries: the USA, the United Kingdom and Spain. The analysis is based primarily on government documents that regulated economic policy measures. The various channels through which the health crisis affects the economy are analyzed. On one hand, there are the supply factors: labor supply, labor productivity and the functioning of production chains. On the other hand, there are demand factors: household consumption, private investment and foreign trade. The third channel concerns the financial factors on demand variables and, mainly, on the degree of liquidity of financial and non-financial companies. The measures adopted in the three countries have as common characteristics the mobilization of large volumes of fiscal and financial resources, the adoption of a wide range of economic policy instruments and the use of sophisticated institutional arrangements in terms of targeting rules and mechanisms for operationalizing the measures adopted.


Asunto(s)
Política Pública , Coronavirus , Pandemias , España/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180250, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059129

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the health promotion practices developed by nurses in the care of people with non-transmittable chronic disease in primary health care, in scientific publications, between 2007 and 2017. Method: an integrative literature review of a qualitative approach, conducted in five databases, in which was read and critical analysis of the studies in order to know the practices of health promotion. Results: 40 articles were selected and organized according to the fields of the Ottawa Charter: public policies, reorientation of health services, creation of personal skills, reinforcement of community action and favorable environments. Thus, most of the experiments were mainly related to two fields of action: development of personal skills and reorientation of the health system. There is a movement towards the development of a health promotion in which the collective, the social determinants of health and multidisciplinarity are advocated. Conclusion: some limits were identified that need to be overcome, among which stands out the inter-sectoral work that needs to grow beyond the health sector.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las prácticas de promoción de la salud llevadas a cabo por los enfermeros al cuidar d personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisible en la atención primaria de la salud, en publicaciones científicas de 2007 a 2017. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura con enfoque cualitativo realizada en cinco bases de datos, en las que se efectuó una lectura y un análisis crítico de los estudios de modo de conocer las prácticas de promoción de la salud. Resultados: se seleccionaron 40 artículos y se los organizó de acuerdo con los campos de la Carta de Ottawa: políticas públicas, reorientación de los servicios de salud, desarrollo de habilidades personales, refuerzo de la acción comunitaria y ambientes favorables. De esta manera, la mayor parte de las experiencias se relacionó principalmente con dos campos de acción: desarrollo de habilidades personales y reorientación del sistema de salud. Se nota un desplazamiento en dirección al desarrollo de un enfoque de promoción de salud en el que se promueve lo colectivo, los determinantes sociales de la salud y de la multidisciplinariedad. Conclusión: se identificaron algunos límites que deben superarse, dentro de los cuales se destaca el trabajo intersectorial que debe extenderse más allá dl sector de la salud.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as práticas de promoção da saúde desenvolvidas pelos enfermeiros no cuidado às pessoas com doença crônica não transmissível na atenção primária à saúde, em publicações científicas entre de 2007 e 2017. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em cinco bases de dados, nos quais se fez uma leitura e análise crítica dos estudos de modo a conhecer as práticas de promoção da saúde. Resultados: foram selecionados 40 artigos, sendo organizados de acordo com os campos da Carta de Ottawa: políticas públicas, reorientação dos serviços de saúde, criação de habilidades pessoais, reforço da ação comunitária e ambientes favoráveis. Dessa forma, a maior parte das experiências estava relacionada principalmente a dois campos de ação: desenvolvimento de habilidades pessoais e reorientação do sistema de saúde. Observou-se um movimento em direção ao desenvolvimento de uma promoção da saúde em que se preconiza o coletivo, os determinantes sociais da saúde e a multidisciplinaridade. Conclusão: identificaram-se alguns limites que precisam ser transpostos, dentre os quais se destaca o trabalho intersetorial que precisa crescer para além do setor saúde.


Asunto(s)
Atención Primaria de Salud , Enfermedad Crónica , Enfermería , Política Pública , Participación de la Comunidad , Promoción de la Salud , Literatura , Atención de Enfermería
3.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e2018068, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094543

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the narrative of users about the assistance received by the professionals of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program. Method: qualitative, exploratory, descriptive, comprehensive research carried out from August to December 2015. 16 interviews were carried out in four Basic Health Units that hired doctors who spoke the Spanish language. Systematic observation was performed with 30 hours of registration, and the respondents answered a socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The analysis followed the triangulation of data from participant observation, interviews and the theoretical framework, using thematic analysis in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. Three operational categories have been developed: Quality and welcoming in consultation, Doctor-patient communication and foreign Doctor Results: the interviewees stated that making an appointment for a medical appointment, unlike before, became possible and less time consuming with the arrival of new doctors. The interviewees were satisfied with the medical care received, highlighting the quality of care. Conclusion: the medical reception received at the consultation, and the prescribed medications, seem to have a greater weight for the perception of the quality of the consultation, and to be more important for users than the understanding of the foreign language and the doctor's language. The low structural and operational competence of Primary Care remains the limit for the Mais Médicos Program.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la narrativa de los usuarios sobre la asistencia recibida por los profesionales del Programa Mais Médicos. Método: investigación cualitativa, exploratoria, descriptiva, exhaustiva, realizada entre agosto y diciembre de 2015. Se realizaron 16 entrevistas en cuatro Unidades Básicas de Salud que contrataron médicos que hablaban español. La observación sistemática se realizó con 30 horas de registro, y los encuestados respondieron un cuestionario sociodemográfico y una entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis siguió la triangulación de datos de la observación participante, entrevistas y el marco teórico, utilizando análisis temáticos a la luz de la hermenéutica dialéctica. Se han desarrollado tres categorías operativas: calidad y bienvenida en la consulta, comunicación médico-paciente y médico extranjero. Resultados: los entrevistados declararon que hacer una cita para una cita médica, a diferencia de antes, se hizo posible y llevó menos tiempo con la llegada de nuevos médicos. Los entrevistados quedaron satisfechos con la atención médica recibida, destacando la calidad de la atención. Conclusión: la recepción médica recibida en la consulta, y los medicamentos recetados, parecen tener un mayor peso para la percepción de la calidad de la consulta, y son más importantes para los usuarios que la comprensión del idioma extranjero y el idioma del médico. La baja competencia estructural y operativa de Atención Primaria sigue siendo el límite para el Programa Mais Médicos.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a narrativa de usuários sobre a assistência recebida pelos profissionais do Programa Mais Médicos. Método: pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva, de natureza compreensiva, realizada no período de agosto a dezembro de 2015. Foram realizadas 16 entrevistas em quatro Unidades Básicas de Saúde que contrataram médicos que se expressavam no idioma espanhol. Foi realizada observação sistemática com 30 horas de registro, e os depoentes responderam a um questionário sócio demográfico e a uma entrevista semiestruturada. A análise obedeceu à triangulação dos dados da observação participante, das entrevistas e do referencial teórico, utilizando-se a análise temática à luz da hermenêutica dialética. Foram elaboradas três categorias operacionais: Qualidade e acolhimento na consulta, Comunicação médico-paciente e Médico estrangeiro. Resultados: os entrevistados afirmaram que marcar uma consulta médica, diferente de antes, tornou-se possível e menos demorado com a chegada dos novos médicos. Os entrevistados mostraram-se satisfeitos com o atendimento médico recebido, realçando a qualidade na assistência. Conclusão: o acolhimento médico recebido na consulta, e as medicações prescritas, parecem ter um peso maior para a percepção da qualidade da consulta, e serem mais importantes para os usuários do que a compreensão do idioma estrangeiro e da linguagem do médico. A baixa competência estrutural e operacional da Atenção Básica permanece como limite para o Programa Mais Médicos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Salud , Atención Médica , Consorcios de Salud , Médicos , Atención Primaria de Salud , Política Pública , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Sistema Único de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49570, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094832

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir as experiências e contradições no controle da pandemia de Covid-19 sob a perspectiva da epidemiologia e das políticas públicas brasileiras. Conteúdo: o debate apresentado divide-se em duas seções: a primeira traça a reflexão dos parâmetros epidemiológicos sobre a curva epidêmica do SARS-CoV-2, bem como as experiências internacionais para o controle deste fenômeno. A segunda, ancorada nas políticas públicas brasileiras, apresenta uma análise comparada das experiências nacionais e internacionais, discutindo os potenciais reflexos sobre a pandemia, considerando algumas especificidades sociais. Conclusão: frente à impossibilidade de redução de pessoas susceptíveis por meio de estratégias vacinais, a redução da velocidade da curva epidêmica precisa ocorrer por meio de ações de isolamento físico social. Ademais, a construção de políticas públicas que visem a proteção ao trabalhador e a ampliação do investimento no setor saúde são medidas urgentes.


Objective: to discuss experiences and contradictions in the control of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of epidemiology and Brazilian public policies. Content: the discussion presented is divided into two sections: the first one present epidemiological parameters on the epidemic curve of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the international experiences for the control of this phenomenon. The second, anchored in the Brazilian public policies, presents a comparative analysis of national and international experiences, discussing the potential impacts on the pandemic, considering some specific social issues. Conclusion: in the face of impossibility of reducing susceptible people through vaccination strategies, the reduction of the speed of the epidemic curve needs to occur through actions of social distance. In addition, the construction of public policies aimed at protecting workers and expanding investment in the health sector are urgent measures.


Objetivo: discutir las experiencias y contradicciones en el control de la pandemia Covid-19 desde la perspectiva de la epidemiología brasileña y las políticas públicas. Contenido: el debate presentado se divide en dos secciones. El primero traza la reflexión de los parámetros epidemiológicos en la curva epidémica del SARS-CoV-2, así como las experiencias internacionales para el control de este fenómeno. El segunda seccione, anclada en las políticas públicas brasileñas, presenta un análisis comparativo de las experiencias nacionales e internacionales, discutiendo los posibles impactos en la pandemia, considerando algunas especificidades sociales brasileñas. Conclusión: dada la imposibilidad de reducir a las personas susceptibles a través de estrategias de vacunación, la reducción de la velocidad de la curva epidémica debe ocurrir a través de acciones de aislamiento social y físico. Además, la construcción de políticas públicas destinadas a proteger a los trabajadores y ampliar la inversión en el sector de la salud son medidas urgentes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Pandemias , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus
5.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 239-253, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191356

RESUMEN

Las carencias sociales de México empeorarán por la pandemia SARS-COV2. A saber, el acceso a la salud, derechos laborales básicos, y la infructuosa respuesta del gobierno para erradicar la violencia machista contra las mujeres. El desinterés histórico para fomentar una cultura del apoyo mutuo y el autocuidado ha provocado que gran parte de la ciudadanía se haya desconectado de sus derechos sociales y sanitarios. Así, no se sigue una indicación -quédate en casa- por desigualdades estructurales. Propongo que la libertad efectiva puede conseguirse mediante la aprobación de la renta básica universal desde una perspectiva feminista. Concluyo que las secuelas de la pandemia, que definirán la vida cotidiana, ameritan la aprobación de esta medida. Igualmente, las mujeres como clase sexual requieren protección desde una perspectiva feminista


Many of the social deprivations of Mexico will be worsened due to SARS-COV2 pandemic. Namely, the insufficient access to public health, lack of labor rights, and the unsuccessful government's response to eradicate male violence against women. The historical unconcern in promoting a culture rooted in mutual aid and self-care has provoked many citizens are disconnected from their social and health rights. Thus, people's inability to carry through one direction -stay home- is unfulfilled, in part, due to structural inequalities. I affirm that effective liberty could be obtained by approving a Universal Basic Income from a feminist perspective. I conclude that the aftermath of COVID-19, which will define everyday life for a while, require the endorsement of such measure. Likewise, women as a class deserve protection from a feminist critical framework


Les mancances socials de Mèxic empitjoraran per la pandèmia SARS-COV-2. A saber, l'accés a la salut, els drets laborals bàsics I la infructuosa resposta de govern per eradicar la violència masclista contra les dones. El desinterès històric per fomentar una cultura de suport mutu I l'autocura ha provocat que gran part de la ciutadania s'hagi desconnectat dels seus drets socials I sanitaris. Així, no se segueix una indicació -queda't a casa- per desigualtats estructurals. Proposo que la llibertat efectiva pot aconseguir-se mitjançant l'aprovació de la renda bàsica universal des d'una perspectiva feminista. Concloc que les seqüeles de la pandèmia, que definiran la vida quotidiana, mereixen l'aprovació d'aquesta mesura. Igualment, les dones com a classe sexual requereixen protecció des d'una perspectiva feminista


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pandemias , Renta per Cápita , Apoyo Social , Incertidumbre , Política Pública , Política de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , México/epidemiología
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 170, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004064

RESUMEN

With the threat of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) enduring in the United States, effectively and equitably implementing testing, tracing, and self-isolation as key prevention and detection strategies remain critical to safely re-opening communities. As testing and tracing capacities increase, frameworks are needed to inform design and delivery to ensure their effective implementation and equitable distribution, and to strengthen community engagement in slowing and eventually stopping Covid-19 transmission. In this commentary, we highlight opportunities for integrating implementation research into planned and employed strategies in the United States to accelerate reach and effectiveness of interventions to more safely relax social distancing policies and open economies, schools, and other institutions. Implementation strategies, such as adapting evidence-based interventions based on contextual factors, promoting community engagement, and providing data audit and feedback on implementation outcomes, can support the translation of policies on testing, tracing, social distancing, and public mask use into reality. These data can demonstrate how interventions are put into practice and where adaptation in policy or practice is needed to respond to the needs of specific communities and socially vulnerable populations. Incorporating implementation research into Covid-19 policy design and translation into practice is urgently needed to mitigate the worsening health inequities in the pandemic toll and response. Applying rigorous implementation research frameworks and evaluation systems to the implementation of evidence-based interventions which are adapted to contextual factors can promote effective and equitable pandemic response and accelerate learning both among local stakeholders as well as between states to further inform their varied experiences and responses to the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Ciencia de la Implementación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Humanos , Política Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1460-1463, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031366

RESUMEN

Mitigating the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), requires individual, community, and state public health actions to prevent person-to-person transmission. Community mitigation measures can help slow the spread of COVID-19; these measures include wearing masks, social distancing, reducing the number and size of large gatherings, pausing operation of businesses where maintaining social distancing is challenging, working from or staying at home, and implementing certain workplace and educational institution controls (1-4). The Arizona Department of Health Services' (ADHS) recommendations for mitigating exposure to SARS-CoV-2 were informed by continual monitoring of patient demographics, SARS-CoV-2 community spread, and the pandemic's impacts on hospitals. To assess the effect of mitigation strategies in Arizona, the numbers of daily COVID-19 cases and 7-day moving averages during January 22-August 7, 2020, relative to implementation of enhanced community mitigation measures, were examined. The average number of daily cases increased approximately 151%, from 808 on June 1, 2020 to 2,026 on June 15, 2020 (after stay-at-home order lifted), necessitating increased preventive measures. On June 17, local officials began implementing and enforcing mask wearing (via county and city mandates),* affecting approximately 85% of the state population. Statewide mitigation measures included limitation of public events; closures of bars, gyms, movie theaters, and water parks; reduced restaurant dine-in capacity; and voluntary resident action to stay at home and wear masks (when and where not mandated). The number of COVID-19 cases in Arizona peaked during June 29-July 2, stabilized during July 3-July 12, and further declined by approximately 75% during July 13-August 7. Widespread implementation and enforcement of sustained community mitigation measures informed by state and local officials' continual data monitoring and collaboration can help prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and decrease the numbers of COVID-19 cases.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Arizona/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia
10.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(3): 546-562, jul.-set. 2020. ilus, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121410

RESUMEN

Este artigo possui como objetivo identificar ações governamentais no âmbito dos sistemas e serviços de saúde que visam a adoção de políticas públicas relacionadas à preservação digital em saúde. As políticas públicas de informação e de arquivos são transversais às políticas públicas de saúde e contribuem diretamente para a garantia dos direitos dos cidadãos preconizados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Neste sentido, as políticas de preservação digital são essenciais para garantir o acesso às informações a gerações futuras. A pesquisa caracteriza-se como aplicada e exploratória. Utiliza como amostra os textos completos da Consolidação das Normas Infralegais do SUS. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de ações voltadas para a preservação digital em saúde por meio da adoção de políticas públicas. Por fim, destaca-se que a participação popular no desenvolvimento destas políticas públicas de informação em saúde é essencial para a transparência das ações governamentais.


This article seeks to identify governmental actions within the scope of health systems and services that aim to adopt public policies related to digital preservation in health. Public information and archive policies are transversal to public health policies and directly contribute to guaranteeing the rights of citizens advocated by the Unified Health System (SUS). In this sense, digital preservation policies are essential to guarantee access to information for future generations. The research is characterized as applied and exploratory. It uses as a sample the complete texts of the Consolidation of Infralegal Norms of SUS. The results point to the need for actions aimed at digital preservation in health through the adoption of public policies. Finally, it is emphasized that popular participation in the development of these public health information policies is essential for the transparency of governmental actions.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar acciones gubernamentales dentro del alcance de los sistemas y servicios de salud que apuntan a adoptar políticas públicas relacionadas con la preservación digital en salud. Las políticas de información pública y archivo son transversales a las políticas de salud pública y contribuyen directamente a garantizar los derechos de los ciudadanos que defiende el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS). En este sentido, las políticas de preservación digital son esenciales para garantizar el acceso a la información para las generaciones futuras. La investigación se caracteriza por ser aplicada y exploratoria. Utiliza como muestra los textos completos de la Consolidación de las Normas Infralegales del SUS. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de acciones dirigidas a la preservación digital en salud a través de la adopción de políticas públicas. Finalmente, se enfatiza que la participación popular en el desarrollo de estas políticas de información de salud pública es esencial para la transparencia de las acciones gubernamentales.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Archivos , Política Pública , Sistema Único de Salud , Seguridad Computacional , Comunicación en Salud , Brasil , Gestión de la Información , Acceso a la Información
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200244, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965399

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze information on resource allocation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, published in indexed scientific journals, from December 2019 to March 2020. METHODS: This is an integrative literature review, which took place in March 2020. All databases were investigated and studies were found only in MEDLINE. After applying the established criteria, six articles were selected. RESULTS: It was evident that the allocation of resources is carried out as the demands emerge. The fragility in presenting scientific-methodological evidence that can guide decision makers for assertive allocation of available resources is highlighted. The results showed that studies on this subject are incipient and need to be expanded. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The need for health organizations and area authorities to be better prepared for the proper use of available resources, with allocation based on scientific evidence and maximization of resources is indicated.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Asignación de Recursos/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias , Política Pública
12.
Global Health ; 16(1): 85, 2020 09 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967691

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Restricting mobility is a central aim for lowering contact rates and preventing COVID-19 transmission. Yet the impact on mobility of different non-pharmaceutical countermeasures in the earlier stages of the pandemic is not well-understood. DESIGN: Trends were evaluated using Citymapper's mobility index covering 2nd to 26th March 2020, expressed as percentages of typical usage periods from 0% as the lowest and 100% as normal. China and India were not covered. Multivariate fixed effects models were used to estimate the association of policies restricting movement on mobility before and after their introduction. Policy restrictions were assessed using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Stringency Index as well as measures coding the timing and degree of school and workplace closures, transport restrictions, and cancellation of mass gatherings. SETTING: 41 cities worldwide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Citymapper's mobility index. RESULTS: Mobility declined in all major cities throughout March. Larger declines were seen in European than Asian cities. The COVID-19 Government Response Stringency Index was strongly associated with declines in mobility (r = - 0.75, p < 0.001). After adjusting for time-trends, we observed that implementing non-pharmaceutical countermeasures was associated with a decline of mobility of 10.0% for school closures (95% CI: 4.36 to 15.7%), 15.0% for workplace closures (95% CI: 10.2 to 19.8%), 7.09% for cancelling public events (95% CI: 1.98 to 12.2%), 18.0% for closing public transport (95% CI: 6.74 to 29.2%), 13.3% for restricting internal movements (95% CI: 8.85 to 17.8%) and 5.30% for international travel controls (95% CI: 1.69 to 8.90). In contrast, as expected, there was no association between population mobility changes and fiscal or monetary measures or emergency healthcare investment. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the effect of public policy on mobility in the early stages is crucial to slowing and reducing COVID-19 transmission. By using Citymapper's mobility index, this work provides the first evidence about trends in mobility and the impacts of different policy interventions, suggesting that closure of public transport, workplaces and schools are particularly impactful.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Salud Global , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Viaje/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciudades/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Política Pública , Factores de Tiempo , Viaje/legislación & jurisprudencia , Voluntarios
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3421-3430, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876253

RESUMEN

The emergence of COVID-19 in Brazil further explained the massive discrepancy between different social realities coexisting in the country, rekindling the discussions about food and nutrition security, similarly to what has been happening in other countries facing the same pandemic situation. In this paper, we argue that the risks to hunger and food security in Brazil have been present since 2016 and are now being exacerbated due to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This situation requires knowing the extent and magnitude of the issue and articulation of measures in the three governmental spheres(federal, municipal and state) to ensure access to adequate and healthy food and reduce the disease's adverse effectson the diet, health, and nutrition among the most vulnerable people. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the debate on the measures to be adopted by governments and society to promote and ensure food and nutrition security and prevent insecurity and the expansion of hunger during and after the social and health crisis created by the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Brasil , Dieta , Humanos , Hambre , Pandemias , Política Pública , Poblaciones Vulnerables
16.
Am Surg ; 86(7): 757-761, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916074

RESUMEN

From the onset of the COVID-19 global pandemic of 2020, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) has been a leader in disseminating credible information on the clinical and scientific aspects of the disease. As governmental regulations enforced the closure of hospitals and operating rooms to elective surgical cases as part of its "shelter-in-place" public lockdown policies, the ACS brought specialty societies together to create guidelines to protect patients and preserve surgical quality. Federal agencies made available financial aid programs to mitigate the economic impact of the outbreak. The division of advocacy and health policy of the ACS made certain that the interests of surgeons and their patients were served. Steven Wexner, member of the Board of Regents of the ACS interviewed the medical directors of the division, Frank Opelka in quality and health policy, and Patrick Bailey in advocacy, for their stories of how the College responded to the many health and public policy issues that came before Congress and governmental agencies during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Defensa del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Cirujanos/organización & administración , Comités Consultivos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Innovación Organizacional , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Sociedades Médicas/organización & administración , Estados Unidos
17.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(6): 622-631, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969952

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate predictors of stay-at-home order adoption among US states, as well as associations between order enactment and residents' mobility. DESIGN: We assess associations between state characteristics and adoption timing. We also assess associations between enactment and aggregate state-level measures of residents' mobility (Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports). SETTING: The United States. PARTICIPANTS: Adoption population: 50 US states and District of Columbia. Mobility population: state residents using devices with GPS tracking accessible by Google. INTERVENTION AND EXPOSURES: State characteristics: COVID-19 diagnoses per capita, 2016 Trump vote share, Republican governor, Medicaid expansion status, hospital beds per capita, public health funding per capita, state and local tax revenue per capita, median household income, population, percent residents 65 years or older, and percent urban residents. Mobility exposure: indicator of order enactment by March 29, 2020 (date of mobility data collection). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Order adoption timing: days since adoption of first order. Mobility: changes in mobility to 6 locations from February 6 to March 29, 2020. RESULTS: In bivariate models, order adoption was associated with COVID-19 diagnoses (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.01), Republican governor (HR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.44), Medicaid expansion (HR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.40 to 4.48), and hospital capacity (HR = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.70), consistent with findings in the multivariate models. Order enactment was positively associated with time at home (beta (B) = 1.31; 95% CI, 0.35 to 2.28) and negatively associated with time at retail and recreation (B = -7.17; 95% CI, -10.89 to -3.46) and grocery and pharmacy (B = -8.28; 95% CI, -11.97 to -4.59) locations. Trump vote share was associated with increased mobility for 4 of 6 mobility measures. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: While politics influenced order adoption, public health considerations were equally influential. While orders were associated with decreased mobility, political ideology was associated with increased mobility under social distancing policies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Política Pública , Cuarentena , Viaje , Betacoronavirus , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Distancia Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 79(9): 268-271, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914093

RESUMEN

Infections with the SARS-CoV-2 virus are increasing in Hawai'i at alarming rates. In the absence of a SARS-CoV-2 virus vaccine, the options for control include social distancing, improved hygiene, and face mask use. There is evidence that mask use may decrease the rates of viral transmission. The rate of effective face mask use has not yet been established in Hawai'i. The authors performed an observational study at 2 locations in Honolulu and evaluated outdoor face mask use compliance in 200 people. Simultaneous observations were performed in a downtown Honolulu business area and in Waikiki, an area focusing on tourism. Overall, 77% of all subjects used face masks in an appropriate fashion, covering their nose and mouth, while 23% were either incorrectly masked or not masked. The rate of compliance with correct public mask use in downtown Honolulu (88%) was significantly higher than in Waikiki (66%) (P=.0003, Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval]=3.78 [1.82, 7.85]) These findings suggest that there are opportunities for improvement in rates of public face mask use and a potential decrease in the spread of COVID-19 in our population. Four proposed actions are suggested, including a reassessment of the face mask exemption requirements, enhanced mask compliance education, non-threatening communication for non-compliance, and centralization of information of the public compliance with face mask use.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Política Pública , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Geografía , Hawaii/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
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