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1.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 341-376, 20210630. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282957

RESUMEN

Mesmo que haja algumas pesquisas e estudos, nos âmbitos acadêmico e científico, referentes à gestão, uso e apropriação de espaços públicos nos contextos do esporte e do lazer, notam-se, ainda, lacunas pouco exploradas, como a gestão da informação e a difusão adequada do conhecimento sobre a temática, envolvendo as Políticas Públicas. Desta forma, este estudo, de natureza qualitativa, teve como objetivo, realizar uma revisão sistemática de literatura sobre a produção científica recente, apresentando o estado da arte sobre Políticas Públicas e a gestão de espaços públicos nos contextos do esporte e do lazer. Para tanto, a busca foi realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Pro Quest e SciELO, utilizando os termos booleanos a seguir: "sport and leisure management" OR "sport space" OR "leisure space" OR "sport equipment" OR "leisure equipment" OR "public Sport policy" OR "public leisure policy". Os artigos analisados abrangeram diferentes áreas do conhecimento, tal como, as Ciências do Esporte, Geografia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo e Sociologia. Os dados foram analisados por meio da Técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. Com base nos resultados, pode-se perceber que o tema referente às Políticas Públicas nos contextos do esporte e do lazer tem sido focalizado atualmente, nos estudos, entretanto, os espaços públicos neste contexto ainda são tratados de forma secundária. Este campo de estudo carece de novas pesquisas, com a intenção de aprofundar as investigações sobre a temática.


Despite some research and studies, in academic and scientific fields, and concerning the management, use and appropriation of public spaces in sports and leisure contexts, there are still some gaps that have been insufficiently explored, such as information management and the appropriate knowledge diffusion on the subject, among Public Policies. Thus, this qualitative study aimed to conduct a systematic review on recent scientific production, presenting the state of the art on Public Policies and public spaces management regarding sport and leisure contexts. A search was performed in the following databases: Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Pro Quest and SciELO. The keywords and Boolean terms were: "sport and leisure management" OR "sport space" OR "leisure space" OR "Sport equipment" OR "leisure equipment" OR "public sport policy" OR "public leisure policy". The papers analyzed covered different knowledge areas, such as Sport Sciences, Geography, Architecture and Urbanism, and Sociology. The collected data were analyzed using the Content Analysis Technique. Based on the results, it can be noticed that the theme regarding Public Policies in sport and leisure contexts is focused among the studies; however, public spaces are still treated in a secondary way. This study field needs further researches, with the intention of deepening the knowledge on the subject.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Recreativas , Política Pública , Deportes
2.
Licere (Online) ; 24(02): 418-436, 20210630.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282959

RESUMEN

A eficácia das práticas corporais, atividades físicas e esportivas regulares é cientificamente comprovada como vetor de saúde e devem ser fomentadas em todos os ambientes. O objetivo é investigar se, no Século XXI, o governo federal brasileiro formulou políticas públicas que as contemplem no âmbito da Educação Básica em prol da saúde. Metodologicamente é um estudo exploratório documental. Como resultados, a Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico, Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua e Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar são os inquéritos que subsidiam aspolíticas públicas. Conclui que, alinhado com a Política Nacional de Promoção de Saúde de 2006, 2014 e 2017, Lei do SUS, Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação e a Constituição/1988, o Programa Saúde na Escola é a principal política pública interfederativa que as contemplam.


The effectiveness of body practices, regular physical activity and sports is scientifically demonstrated as a health vector and should be adopted in all environments. The goal is to investigate if, in the 21st Century, the Brazilian federal government created public policies that include these practices and activities in the scope of Basic Education in favor of health. Methodologically it is an exploratory documentary study. As a result, Surveillance of Risk Factors and Protection for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey, National Health Survey, National Continuous Household Sample Survey and National School Health Survey are the surveys that support public policy and that, in line with The National Health Promotion Policy of 2006, 2014 and 2017, with the SUS Law, the Education Guidelines and Bases Law and the Federal Constitution / 1988, the Health at School Program is the main interfederative and intersectoral public policy.


Asunto(s)
Educación , Política Pública
3.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 798-805, 2021 Aug 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486716

RESUMEN

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected the world in an unprecedented manner and South Asian countries were among the first to experience imported cases. Pakistan's response to COVID-19 has been under scrutiny for its granularity, reach and impact. Aims: to evaluate objectively the chronology and depth of the response to COVID-19 in Pakistan. Methods: We evaluated available national and subnational epidemiological and burden information on COVID-19 cases and deaths in Pakistan, including projection models available to the Government at an early stage of the pandemic. Results: Pakistan, with a population of 215 million and considerable geographic diversity, experienced case introduction from pilgrims returning from the Islamic Republic of Iran, followed by widespread community transmission. The National Command and Operations Centre, established through civilian and military partnership, was critical in fast tracking logistics, information gathering, real-time reporting and smart lockdowns, coupled with a massive cash support programme targeting the poorest sections of society. Cases peaked in June 2020 but the health system was able to cope with the excess workload. Since then, although testing rates remain low (> 300 000 cases confirmed to date), case fatality rates have stabilized, and with 6300 deaths, Pakistan seems to have flattened the COVID-19 curve. Conclusion: Despite notable successes in controlling the pandemic, several weaknesses remain and there are risks of rebound as the economy and educational systems reopen. There is continued need for strong technical and programmatic oversight, linked to civic society engagement and working with religious scholars to ensure nonpharmacological intervention compliance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Política Pública , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Humanos , Pakistán/epidemiología
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3467-3479, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468643

RESUMEN

Public policies are based on categories that have a double effect: build eligibility for rights and generate symbolic effects, reproducing or fighting social stigmas. This article aims to analyze the historical setup of categories targeted in mental health policies in Brazil. Based in a study of the legislation from 1841 to 2017, we observed how was the processes of constructing the political categories of mental health - passing from users to citizens or mentally ill. The processes of control of public policies were selected for the respect of users of mental health policy, the social framework of data and the criteria for access to policies and the construction of social stigmas. The analysis shows important changes in these categories over time that tried to remove stigmas based on new conceptions proposed by social movements of mental health, international policies and social changes, such as Brazilian re-democratization. However, we also highlight the difficulty of effectively coping with stigmas due to the lack of consensus in the field itself, resistance to changes in social categories, family members and health professionals.


Asunto(s)
Enfermos Mentales , Brasil , Política de Salud , Humanos , Salud Mental , Política Pública
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3753-3764, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468669

RESUMEN

This work, extracted from the doctoral research of the author, aims to discuss, from the reports of socio-educational system professionals, the access to State politics and programs performed by youth in conflict with the law attending to socio-educational system. In this research, 14 professionals who work in periphery regions, at the South Zone of São Paulo were interviewed, using the methodological proposal of "narrative policies". From the reports, we can see ambiguities of proposals and state interventions, configuring the "double discipline" of State, evidencing the insufficiency and the disinvestment in social security and social assistance policies, meanwhile occurs the production of an apparatus of repressive measures. We discuss the theme related to the field of public health and the importance of the bonds between professionals and youth attending to socio-educational system.


Asunto(s)
Derechos Humanos , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Humanos , Política , Política Pública
6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 121, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488797

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the era of evidence-based policy-making (EBPM), scientific outputs and public policy should engage with each other in a more interactive and coherent way. Notably, this is becoming increasingly critical in preparing for public health emergencies. METHODS: To explore the coevolution dynamics between science and policy (SAP), this study explored the changes in, and development of, COVID-19 research in the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, from 30 December 2019 to 26 June 2020. In this study, VOSviewer was adopted to calculate the link strength of items extracted from scientific publications, and machine learning clustering analysis of scientific publications was carried out to explore dynamic trends in scientific research. Trends in relevant policies that corresponded to changing trends in scientific research were then traced. RESULTS: The study observes a salient change in research content as follows: an earlier focus on "children and pregnant patients", "common symptoms", "nucleic acid test", and "non-Chinese medicine" was gradually replaced with a focus on "aged patients", "pregnant patients", "severe symptoms and asymptomatic infection", "antibody assay", and "Chinese medicine". "Mental health" is persistent throughout China's COVID-19 research. Further, our research reveals a correlation between the evolution of COVID-19 policies and the dynamic development of COVID-19 research. The average issuance time of relevant COVID-19 policies in China is 8.36 days after the launching of related research. CONCLUSIONS: In the early stage of the outbreak in China, the formulation of research-driven-COVID-19 policies and related scientific research followed a similar dynamic trend, which is clearly a manifestation of a coevolution model (CEM). The results of this study apply more broadly to the formulation of policies during public health emergencies, and provide the foundation for future EBPM research.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , China , Humanos , Salud Pública , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2129041, 2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459904

RESUMEN

Importance: Housing insecurity induced by evictions may increase the risk of contracting COVID-19. Objective: To estimate the association of lifting state-level eviction moratoria, which increased housing insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the risk of being diagnosed with COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included individuals with commercial insurance or Medicare Advantage who lived in a state that issued an eviction moratorium and were diagnosed with COVID-19 as well as a control group comprising an equal number of randomly selected individuals in these states who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. Data were collected from OptumLabs Data Warehouse, a database of deidentified administrative claims. The study used a difference-in-differences analysis among states that implemented an eviction moratorium between March 13, 2020, and September 4, 2020. Exposures: Time since state-level eviction moratoria were lifted. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was a binary variable indicating whether an individual was diagnosed with COVID-19 for the first time in a given week with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision code U07.1. The study analyzed changes in COVID-19 diagnosis before vs after a state lifted its moratorium compared with changes in states that did not lift it. For sensitivity analyses, models were reestimated on a 2% random sample of all individuals in the claims database during this period in these states. Results: The cohort consisted of 509 694 individuals (254 847 [50.0%] diagnosed with COVID-19; mean [SD] age, 47.0 [23.6] years; 239 056 [53.3%] men). During the study period, 43 states and the District of Columbia implemented an eviction moratorium and 7 did not. Among the states that implemented a moratorium, 26 (59.1%) lifted their moratorium before the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued their national moratorium, while 18 (40.1%) maintained theirs. In a Cox difference-in-differences regression model, individuals living in a state that lifted its eviction moratorium experienced higher hazards of a COVID-19 diagnosis beginning 5 weeks after the moratorium was lifted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% CI, 1.11-1.76; P = .004), reaching an HR of 1.83 (95% CI, 1.36-2.46; P < .001) 12 weeks after. Hazards increased in magnitude among individuals with preexisting comorbidities and those living in nonaffluent and rent-burdened areas. Individuals with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 3 or greater had an HR of 2.37 (95% CI, 1.67-3.36; P < .001) at the end of the study period. Those living in nonaffluent areas had an HR of 2.14 (95% CI, 1.51-3.05; P < .001), while those living in areas with a high rent burden had an HR of 2.31 (95% CI, 1.64-3.26; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this difference-in-differences analysis suggest that eviction-led housing insecurity may have exacerbated the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/etiología , Estado de Salud , Vivienda , Pandemias , Pobreza , Política Pública , Clase Social , Adulto , Anciano , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Personas sin Hogar , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
8.
J Int Bioethique Ethique Sci ; Vol. 32(1): 141-149, 2021 May 24.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378883

RESUMEN

In Colombia, the curious request of a citizen whose leg had to be amputated for health reasons surprised the judges. This person indeed demanded the return of his amputated leg, because, according to his religious beliefs, his body was to be buried in its entirety after his death. The case ended up in the Constitutional Court, which ordered the application of meaningful measures when fundamental rights such as the right to freedom of worship come up against public health policy.


Asunto(s)
Pierna , Política Pública , Colombia , Libertad , Humanos
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16895, 2021 08 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413337

RESUMEN

Deriving effective mobility control measures is critical for the control of COVID-19 spreading. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries and regions implemented travel restrictions and quarantines to reduce human mobility and thus reduce virus transmission. But since human mobility decreased heterogeneously, we lack empirical evidence of the extent to which the reductions in mobility alter the way people from different regions of cities are connected, and what containment policies could complement mobility reductions to conquer the pandemic. Here, we examined individual movements in 21 of the most affected counties in the United States, showing that mobility reduction leads to a segregated place network and alters its relationship with pandemic spread. Our findings suggest localized area-specific policies, such as geo-fencing, as viable alternatives to city-wide lockdown for conquering the pandemic after mobility was reduced.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Control Social Formal/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Pandemias , Política Pública , Viaje , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445006

RESUMEN

Evidence for effective government policies to reduce exposure to alcohol's carcinogenic and hepatoxic effects has strengthened in recent decades. Policies with the strongest evidence involve reducing the affordability, availability and cultural acceptability of alcohol. However, policies that reduce population consumption compete with powerful commercial vested interests. This paper draws on the Canadian Alcohol Policy Evaluation (CAPE), a formal assessment of effective government action on alcohol across Canadian jurisdictions. It also draws on alcohol policy case studies elsewhere involving attempts to introduce minimum unit pricing and cancer warning labels on alcohol containers. Canadian governments collectively received a failing grade (F) for alcohol policy implementation during the most recent CAPE assessment in 2017. However, had the best practices observed in any one jurisdiction been implemented consistently, Canada would have received an A grade. Resistance to effective alcohol policies is due to (1) lack of public awareness of both need and effectiveness, (2) a lack of government regulatory mechanisms to implement effective policies, (3) alcohol industry lobbying, and (4) a failure from the public health community to promote specific and feasible actions as opposed to general principles, e.g., 'increased prices' or 'reduced affordability'. There is enormous untapped potential in most countries for the implementation of proven strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. While alcohol policies have weakened in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, societies may now also be more accepting of public health-inspired policies with proven effectiveness and potential economic benefits.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bebidas Alcohólicas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política de Salud , Salud Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Bebidas Alcohólicas/economía , COVID-19/epidemiología , Canadá , Comercio/economía , Comercio/normas , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Programas de Gobierno , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Pandemias , Etiquetado de Productos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256516, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411182

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Public health policies with varying degrees of restriction have been imposed around the world to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the implementation of government policies and the Nowruz holidays on the containment of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran, using an intervention time series analysis. METHODS: Daily data on COVID-19 cases registered between February 19 and May 2, 2020 were collected from the World Health Organization (WHO)'s website. Using an intervention time series modeling, the effect of two government policies on the number of confirmed cases were evaluated, namely the closing of schools and universities, and the implementation of social distancing measures. Furthermore, the effect of the Nowruz holidays as a non-intervention factor for the spread of COVID-19 was also analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed that, after the implementation of the first intervention, i.e., the closing of universities and schools, no statistically significant change was found in the number of new confirmed cases. The Nowruz holidays was followed by a significant increase in new cases (1,872.20; 95% CI, 1,257.60 to 2,476.79; p<0.001)), while the implementation of social distancing measures was followed by a significant decrease in such cases (2,182.80; 95% CI, 1,556.56 to 2,809.04; p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The Nowruz holidays and the implementation of social distancing measures in Iran were related to a significant increase and decrease in COVID-19 cases, respectively. These results highlight the necessity of measuring the effect of health and social interventions for their future implementations.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacaciones y Feriados , Pandemias/prevención & control , Distanciamiento Físico , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/transmisión , Femenino , Gobierno , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Masculino , Política Pública
13.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(9): 45-47, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399666
14.
Am J Public Health ; 111(7): 1202-1203, 2021 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370522
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047925, 2021 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373303

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We developed (a) a survey to investigate the knowledge of childhood health experts on public policies and behavioural insights (BI), as well as its use in Latin American and the Caribbean countries (LACs), and (b) an intervention (randomised controlled trial) to test the influence of nudges on the effect of a simulated public health programme communication. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 2003 LACs childhood health professionals participated in the study through a Hispanic online platform. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: We used regression models analysing expertise-related information, individual differences and location. We extracted several outcome variables related to (a) 'Public Policy Knowledge Index' based on the participants' degree of knowledge on childhood health public policies and (b) BI knowledge, perceived effectiveness and usefulness of a simulated public programme communication. We also analysed a 'Behavioural Insights Knowledge Index' (BIKI) based on participants' performance in BI questions. RESULTS: In general, health professionals showed low BI knowledge (knowledge of the term BI: χ2=210.29, df=1 and p<0.001; BIKI: χ2=160.5, df=1 and p<0.001), and results were modulated by different factors (age, academic formation, public policy knowledge and location). The use of BI principles for the communication of the public programme revealed higher impact and clarity ratings from professionals than control messages. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide relevant knowledge about BI in health professionals to inform governmental and non-governmental organisations' decision-making processes related with childhood public policies and BI designs.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Política Pública , Gobierno , Humanos , América Latina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
Soins ; 66(858): 30-34, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462066

RESUMEN

Poverty is an absolute evil. It corrodes society. France is not the most affected country, because a social protection system allows the most vulnerable to avoid falling into extreme poverty. The current health crisis is, however, aggravating situations of exclusion. It is therefore urgent to question the effectiveness of public policies and to construct indicators capable of measuring the well-being of citizens who are both contributors and beneficiaries.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Política Pública , Francia , Humanos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444219

RESUMEN

People who use drugs (PWUD) experience many social and health harms and are considered at greater risk of acquiring COVID-19. Little research has examined the impact of coronaviruses either on PWUD, or on services targeted to PWUD. We report the findings of a systematic review of empirical evidence from studies which have examined the impact of coronaviruses (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and COVID-19) on PWUD or on service responses to them. Five databases were searched (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA and EMBASE) as well as COVID-19 specific databases. Inclusion criteria were studies reporting any impact of SARS, MERS or COVID-19 or any service responses to those, published between January 2000 and October 2020. Weight of Evidence judgements and quality assessment were undertaken. In total, 27 primary studies were included and grouped by seven main themes: treatment/recovery services; emergency medical settings; low-threshold services; prison setting, PWUD/substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis; people with SUD and HIV; 'Sexual minority' men. Overall, research in the area was scant, and of average/poor quality. More robust research is required to inform on-going and future responses to coronavirus epidemics for PWUD.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 647670, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368041

RESUMEN

Health care for the elderly is one of the key issues in the field of public health. In the context of global aging, the government's policy framework for elderly care affects the development of local elderly care. The priorities and instruments of the elderly care policy are important windows for understanding the local development planning system. This paper uses a quantitative text analysis method based on text mining to analyze 3,618 provincial policies in China. Considering the pilot demonstration projects for elderly care selected by the Chinese government in recent years, this paper finds that local elderly care policies have a three-phase evolution, and the priorities in each phase are solving the legacy of transition, expanding private sector participation, and realizing the well-being of the elderly. Moreover, mature regions use more environmental policy instruments, and the most effective are financial services, regulatory systems, and strategic guidance. For immature regions, it is necessary to use more core instruments on the premise of using basic instruments so that public policies can serve local development and realize the well-being of the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno , Formulación de Políticas , Anciano , China , Minería de Datos , Humanos , Política Pública
20.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(1): 47-56, 2021 Jun 24.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372639

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Health impact assessment (HIA) is rapidly growing in France. It shows similarities with other approaches, such as the evaluation of public policies (EPP), with which it can sometimes be mistaken for.Purpose of research: The aims of this article are to identify the similarities and differences between HIA and EPP and to assess the extent to which HPA skills are transferable to HIA. RESULTS: The two approaches share common features: they are both based on principles and values that structure practice; they produce a judgement at the end of an argumentation process; they follow the same thinking process and use similar tools. However, HIA has specific features that justify the strengthening of skills, particularly in relation to its participatory dimension. CONCLUSIONS: The two approaches have more similarities than differences due to their evaluative nature. The competences acquired in PPE are transferable to HIA and the evaluator at the crossroads of the two exercises can revisit and enrich his practice in PPE.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación del Impacto en la Salud , Política Pública , Francia , Política de Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública
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