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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50353, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1122745

RESUMEN

Objetivo: estabelecer relações entre os fundamentos Nightingaleanos na sustentabilidade de uma clínica de cuidado humano em diálogo com conceitos que sustentam duas atuais políticas de saúde brasileiras. Conteúdo: a ciência da enfermagem se afirma em uma abordagem holística do ser humano, com vistas à saúde integral, ressaltando a pessoa na sua dimensão física, mental, emocional e espiritual. Este princípio sustenta práticas humanizadas de cuidado e também integrativas, na proposição de cuidados integrais centrados na pessoa e relacionamento terapêutico para promover a saúde e o bem-estar. As fontes principais foram a obra seminal de Nigthingale, teorias de enfermagem, textos aplicados da Política Nacional de Humanização e de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares de Saúde. Conclusão: os princípios básicos do cuidado propostos por Nightingale refletem-se em atuais políticas de saúde, contribuindo para ampliar a autonomia dos profissionais de enfermagem, na oferta de cuidados baseados em conceitos próprios, em favor de uma Enfermagem Integrativa e Humana.


Objective: to establish relations between Nightingale fundamentals on the sustainability of human clinical care in dialogue with concepts underpinning two of Brazil's current health policies. Content: nursing science is grounded on a holistic approach of the human being, with a view to comprehensive health, emphasizing subjects in their physical, mental, emotional and spiritual dimensions. This principle underpins integrative, humanized care practices in proposing comprehensive care centered on the human person and a therapeutic relationship designed to promote health and wellbeing. The main sources were Nightingale's seminal work, nursing theories, and applied texts from Brazil's National Policy of Humanization and Integrative, Complementary Healthcare Practices. Conclusion: The basic health care principles proposed by Nightingale, reflected in current health policies, contribute to expanding the autonomy of nursing personnel in the providing care based on concepts specific to nursing, in favor of Integrative, Human Nursing.


Objetivo: establecer relaciones entre los fundamentos de Nightingale sobre la sostenibilidad de la atención clínica humana en diálogo con los conceptos que sustentan dos de las políticas de salud actuales de Brasil. Contenido: la ciencia de la enfermería se fundamenta en un enfoque holístico del ser humano, con miras a la salud integral, enfatizando los sujetos en sus dimensiones física, mental, emocional y espiritual. Este principio sustenta las prácticas de atención integral y humanizada al proponer una atención integral centrada en la persona humana y una relación terapéutica orientada a promover la salud y el bienestar. Las fuentes principales fueron el trabajo fundamental de Nightingale, las teorías de enfermería y los textos aplicados de la Política Nacional de Humanización y Prácticas de Atención Integrativa y Complementaria de Salud de Brasil. Conclusión: Los principios básicos del cuidado de la salud propuestos por Nightingale, reflejados en las políticas de salud vigentes, contribuyen a ampliar la autonomía del personal de enfermería en la prestación de cuidados basados en conceptos propios de la enfermería, a favor de la Enfermería Integrativa, Humana.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Teoría de Enfermería , Humanización de la Atención , Política de Salud , Terapias Complementarias , Brasil , Pautas de la Práctica en Enfermería , Salud Holística , Atención de Enfermería
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180205, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094549

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the motivations that mobilize professors-nurses in the construction of a proposal for the theoretical and methodological basis for the Nursing Process teaching. Method: a Convergent Assistential research, conducted with professors-nurses. Six convergence groups were developed, with triggering questions on the theme. The reports were audio-recorded, validated by the participants and analyzed in the light of the Convergent Assistance Research. Results: there are three thematic approaches: professors' perception of the nurses' professional practices; dissatisfaction with the current health model; and dissatisfaction with the current teaching model. The thematic approaches reveal the motivation to overcome biomedical/cartesian practices in teaching and nursing care, which converges to the development of a proposal with a philosophical, theoretical and methodological framework for the Nursing Process teaching, aligned with the assumptions of the Unified Health System and consistent with health expanded clinic. Conclusion: this study allowed for the expression of concerns and discomforts with the current model of education and health, triggering reflections on the paradigm that guides the field of health teaching and dominates our life in society. The results reveal what is desired in the health scenario, as educating individuals and society, enhancing the perspective of social changes in the health sector, acclaimed and desired politically and socially, basing the development of philosophical, theoretical and methodological proposals for nursing care, consistent with society's current demands.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir las motivaciones que impulsan a los enfermeros profesores a elaborar una propuesta para definir las bases teórica y metodológica para la enseñanza del Proceso de Enfermería. Método: investigación Convergente Asistencial, realizada con profesores enfermeros. Se desarrollaron seis grupos de convergencia con preguntas desencadenantes sobre la temática. Los relatos se grabaron en audio, fueron validados por los participantes y analizados bajo la óptica de la Investigación Convergente Asistencial. Resultados: surgen tres enfoques temáticos: prácticas profesionales de los enfermeros en la percepción de los profesores; la insatisfacción con el modelo de salud vigente; y la insatisfacción con el modelo de enseñanza vigente. Los enfoques temáticos revelan la motivación para superar prácticas biomédicas/cartesianas en la enseñanza y en la atención de enfermería, lo que converge para desarrollar una propuesta de referencial filosófico, teórico y metodológico para la enseñanza del Proceso de Enfermería, alineado con las presunciones del Sistema Único de Salud y en coincidencia con una clínica ampliada en salud. Conclusión: este estudio permitió expresar inquietudes y malestares con el modelo vigente de enseñanza y de salud, iniciando reflexiones sobre el paradigma que orienta al campo de la enseñanza en salud y rige nuestra vida en sociedad. Los resultados revelan lo que se desea en el ámbito de la salud, como individuos formadores y sociedad, potenciando la perspectiva de cambios sociales en el sector de la salud, aclamados y deseados tanto política como socialmente, y sirviendo como base para desarrollar propuestas filosóficas, teóricas y metodológicas para el cuidado de enfermería, en coincidencia con las demandas actuales de la sociedad.


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever as motivações que mobilizam enfermeiros professores na construção de uma proposta para o embasamento teórico e metodológico para o ensino do Processo de Enfermagem. Método: pesquisa Convergente Assistencial, com professores enfermeiros. Desenvolveram-se seis grupos de convergência com questões deflagradoras sobre a temática. Os relatos foram audiogravados, validados pelos participantes e analisados à luz da Pesquisa Convergente Assistencial. Resultados: surgem três enfoques temáticos: práticas profissionais dos enfermeiros na percepção dos professores; a insatisfação com o modelo de saúde vigente; e a insatisfação com o modelo de ensino vigente. Os enfoques temáticos revelam a motivação para superar práticas biomédicas/cartesianas no ensino e na assistência de enfermagem, o que converge para o desenvolvimento de uma proposta de referencial filosófico, teórico e metodológico para o ensino do Processo de Enfermagem, alinhado com os pressupostos do Sistema Único de Saúde e condizente com uma clínica ampliada em saúde. Conclusão: este estudo permitiu a expressão de inquietações e desconfortos com o modelo vigente de ensino e de saúde, disparando reflexões sobre o paradigma que orienta o campo do ensino na saúde e domina a nossa vida em sociedade. Os resultados revelam o que se almeja no cenário da saúde, como indivíduos formadores e sociedade, potencializando a perspectiva de mudanças sociais no setor da saúde, aclamadas e desejadas política e socialmente, alicerçando o desenvolvimento de propostas filosóficas, teóricas e metodológicas para o cuidado em enfermagem, condizentes com as demandas atuais da sociedade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Enfermería , Educación en Enfermería , Tamaño de la Porción de Referencia , Política de Salud , Proceso de Enfermería
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241954, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166336

RESUMEN

Evidence-based models may assist Mexican government officials and health authorities in determining the safest plans to respond to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the most-affected region of the country, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. This study aims to present the potential impacts of COVID-19 in this region and to model possible benefits of mitigation efforts. The COVID-19 Hospital Impact Model for Epidemics was used to estimate the probable evolution of COVID-19 in three scenarios: (i) no social distancing, (ii) social distancing in place at 50% effectiveness, and (iii) social distancing in place at 60% effectiveness. Projections of the number of inpatient hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and patients requiring ventilators were made for each scenario. Using the model described, it was predicted that peak case volume at 0% mitigation was to occur on April 30, 2020 at 11,553,566 infected individuals. Peak case volume at 50% mitigation was predicted to occur on June 1, 2020 with 5,970,093 infected individuals and on June 21, 2020 for 60% mitigation with 4,128,574 infected individuals. Occupancy rates in hospitals during peak periods at 0%, 50%, and 60% mitigation would be 875.9%, 322.8%, and 203.5%, respectively, when all inpatient beds are included. Under these scenarios, peak daily hospital admissions would be 40,438, 13,820, and 8,650. Additionally, 60% mitigation would result in a decrease in peak intensive care beds from 94,706 to 23,116 beds and a decrease in peak ventilator need from 67,889 to 17,087 units. Mitigating the spread of COVID-19 through social distancing could have a dramatic impact on reducing the number of infected people and minimize hospital overcrowding. These evidence-based models may enable careful resource utilization and encourage targeted public health responses.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Política de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Hospitalización , Humanos , México , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/virología
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMEN

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Conflictos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Países en Desarrollo , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Política de Salud , Prioridades en Salud , Recursos en Salud/provisión & distribución , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condiciones Sociales , Sudán/epidemiología , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes
5.
mSphere ; 5(6)2020 11 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177213

RESUMEN

After the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Japan on 15 January 2020, multiple nationwide COVID-19 clusters were identified by the end of February. The Japanese government focused on mitigating the emerging COVID-19 clusters by conducting active nationwide epidemiological surveillance. However, an increasing number of cases continued to appear until early April 2020, many with unclear infection routes and no recent history of travel outside Japan. We aimed to evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome sequences from the COVID-19 cases that appeared until early April 2020 and to characterize their genealogical networks in order to demonstrate possible routes of spread in Japan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from patients, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed. Positive RNA samples were subjected to whole-genome sequencing, and a haplotype network analysis was performed. Some of the primary clusters identified during January and February 2020 in Japan descended directly from the Wuhan-Hu-1-related isolates from China and other distinct clusters. Clusters were almost contained until mid-March; the haplotype network analysis demonstrated that the COVID-19 cases from late March through early April may have created an additional large cluster related to the outbreak in Europe, leading to additional spread within Japan. In conclusion, genome surveillance has suggested that there were at least two distinct SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Japan from China and other countries.IMPORTANCE This study aimed to evaluate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome sequences from COVID-19 cases and to characterize their genealogical networks to demonstrate possible routes of spread in Japan. We found that there were at least two distinct SARS-CoV-2 introductions into Japan, initially from China and subsequently from other countries, including Europe. Our findings can help understand how SARS-CoV-2 entered Japan and contribute to increased knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 in Asia and its association with implemented stay-at-home/shelter-in-place/self-restraint/lockdown measures. This study suggested that it is necessary to formulate a more efficient containment strategy using real-time genome surveillance to support epidemiological field investigations in order to highlight potential infection linkages and mitigate the next wave of COVID-19 in Japan.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , ARN Viral/análisis , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Emigración e Inmigración , Haplotipos , Política de Salud , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología
7.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161675

RESUMEN

The personnel policy is one of priority areas of developing national health care. Its effective implementation requires evidence-based development of relevant program documents, the most important of which is the Concept of health care personnel policy that currently exists only in a number of regions of the Russian Federation. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to develop approaches to scientific justification and development of the Concept of health care personnel policy at the level of region of the Russian Federation, as exemplified in the Irkutsk oblast. The article describes progress of this large-scale and lengthy study, its main results included. The developed approaches resulted in comprehensive organizational technology of development corresponding Concept. The results of this experience can be implemented in other regions of the Russian Federation. Therefore, it is of scientific and practical interest for all potential developers of similar program documents and wide range of specialists in health care organization.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Política de Salud , Federación de Rusia , Especialización
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139302

RESUMEN

The International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR) is a legally binding framework which requires 196 WHO Member States to take actions to prevent, protect against, control and provide public health response to the international spread of disease. Improving IHR compliance provides grounds for better health system strengthening, which is key to moving countries closer towards Universal Health Coverage. Multisectoral, collaborative working within and across sectors is fundamental to improving IHR (2005) compliance, and for that, governance is the best lever of the health system. This paper highlights the importance of the relationship between governance and IHR in the context of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which follow the fundamental principle of interdependence; SDGs interlink with one another. We consider governance (SDG 16) and how it influences the IHR capacity of SDG 3 (health and well-being for all at all ages). This paper considers the successes of the Myanmar Ministry of Health and Sports thus far in improving IHR compliance and highlights that an even greater focus on health system governance would lead to more sustainable outcomes. Nurturing an institutional culture with enforced rules, which are conducive for improved accountability through inclusive participation would further improve Myanmar IHR strengthening efforts. Without those principles of good governance, the developed IHR capacities cannot be sustained or owned by Myanmar people. This has now become even more urgent given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Reglamento Sanitario Internacional , Salud Pública/legislación & jurisprudencia , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Programas de Gobierno , Humanos , Mianmar/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e043560, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148769

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the COVID-19 case-fatality rate (CFR) globally. DESIGN: Publicly available register-based ecological study. SETTING: Two hundred and nine countries/territories in the world. PARTICIPANTS: Aggregated data including 10 445 656 confirmed COVID-19 cases. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: COVID-19 CFR and crude cause-specific death rate were calculated using country-level data from the Our World in Data website. RESULTS: The average of country/territory-specific COVID-19 CFR is about 2%-3% worldwide and higher than previously reported at 0.7%-1.3%. A doubling in size of a population is associated with a 0.48% (95% CI 0.25% to 0.70%) increase in COVID-19 CFR, and a doubling in the proportion of female smokers is associated with a 0.55% (95% CI 0.09% to 1.02%) increase in COVID-19 CFR. The open testing policies are associated with a 2.23% (95% CI 0.21% to 4.25%) decrease in CFR. The strictness of anti-COVID-19 measures was not statistically significantly associated with CFR overall, but the higher Stringency Index was associated with higher CFR in higher-income countries with active testing policies (regression coefficient beta=0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.27). Inverse associations were found between cardiovascular disease death rate and diabetes prevalence and CFR. CONCLUSION: The association between population size and COVID-19 CFR may imply the healthcare strain and lower treatment efficiency in countries with large populations. The observed association between smoking in women and COVID-19 CFR might be due to the finding that the proportion of female smokers reflected broadly the income level of a country. When testing is warranted and healthcare resources are sufficient, strict quarantine and/or lockdown measures might result in excess deaths in underprivileged populations. Spatial dependence and temporal trends in the data should be taken into account in global joint strategy and/or policy making against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Producto Interno Bruto/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Densidad de Población , Regresión Espacial , Distribución por Edad , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Política de Salud , Indicadores de Salud , Humanos , Esperanza de Vida , Mortalidad , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Fumar/epidemiología , Análisis Espacial
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 107, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146298

RESUMEN

The participation of the ultra-processed products industry in efforts to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases has been questioned, especially because there is evidence of its interference in policy-making processes. This article builds on the Collective Action Theory and the literature of political science to discuss the role of this sector as a special interest group that uses its significant economic power to influence government decisions in its favor. In Brazil, its participation occurs mainly with industry associations. However, it has not yet been established whether their interests prevail in the decision-making process. It has been suggested that research should be carried out to determine the degree of success of their actions, identifying the conditions associated with the convergence of policy results with their interests and indicating to what extent civil society organizations are able to make public interests override private ones.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Opinión Pública , Política Pública , Brasil , Política de Salud , Humanos , Formulación de Políticas , Política , Asociación entre el Sector Público-Privado
13.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2995, 2020 10 29.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147394

RESUMEN

This essay intends to carry out an ethical and philosophical reflection on the effects of the emergency contingencies of the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on Brazil, it seeks to understand, critique, and attribute meaning to references to the pandemic, in particularly dramatic moments brought about by the synergy produced between the serious disease affecting the country and the world and a government that stands out for its remarkable unwillingness and inability to deal with this calamity. This text was written during the Brazilian "quarantine," which lasted from mid-March to late April, 2020. During this period, we were bombarded by facts that never ceased to haunt us, and lived each day under the terrible dominion of the pandemic. Therefore, this text was written in the midst of a social context marked by control efforts, with great attention directed at the health of those affected, despite the complex political framework and serious economic difficulties facing the country.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Política de Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Cuarentena , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Gobierno Federal , Humanos , Pandemias/economía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/economía , Cuarentena/métodos , Cuarentena/psicología , Riesgo
14.
Salud Colect ; 16: e2897, 2020 10 17.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147400

RESUMEN

Taking into account the latent threat of future pandemics, the objective of this study is to analyze - particularly with respect to medications - the sustainability of the health system, healthcare coverage, budgetary efficiency, and connections with the pharmaceutical patent system. In this context, the pharmaceutical patent system acts as a determining factor, given that promoting its existence stimulates the production of research, but in turn its existence stands in the way of rapid advancements, primarily due to the development of protective legislation concerning patents, which has largely accommodated the industry. Given that the pharmaceutical industry has managed to extend the duration of patents and avoid the incorporation of generics, our analysis focuses on the influence of pharmaceutical patents; this influence has led to reflection on the possibility of combining efforts by forging alliances between numerous companies and the public sector in order to face the challenges posed by new diseases caused by viruses that give rise to epidemics and pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Costos de los Medicamentos , Industria Farmacéutica/organización & administración , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Patentes como Asunto , Virosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Antivirales/economía , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Genéricos , Salud Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Virosis/economía , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/prevención & control
15.
Salud Colect ; 16: e3149, 2020 11 03.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147403

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown - once again - the decisive and structural importance of health/disease/care-prevention processes, as it has generated consequences and reactions in all areas of collective and individual life in ways that no other process could. That being said, it was expected that the intelligentsia would focus their attention on these processes; however, figures such as Agamben and Zizek leaped at the opportunity to frame the pandemic in terms of their perennially unfulfilled socio-ideological prophecies rather than attempting to understand the reality of the pandemic as a health/disease/care-prevention process. Taking these dominant tendencies among contemporary intellectuals as a starting point, in this article I analyze the self-care processes of micro-groups related to disease, which have informed health policies in all countries. In other words, the core strategy for combatting COVID-19 has been and continues to be self-care, which constitutes one of the basic structures that micro-groups generate in order to live and to survive, but that biomedicine has coopted as a "policy" of its own making, thereby masking once again the true locus of power in containing the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Negación en Psicología , Empoderamiento , Procesos de Grupo , Política de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Autocuidado , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Global , Humanos , Control Interno-Externo , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Política
16.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 239-253, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191356

RESUMEN

Las carencias sociales de México empeorarán por la pandemia SARS-COV2. A saber, el acceso a la salud, derechos laborales básicos, y la infructuosa respuesta del gobierno para erradicar la violencia machista contra las mujeres. El desinterés histórico para fomentar una cultura del apoyo mutuo y el autocuidado ha provocado que gran parte de la ciudadanía se haya desconectado de sus derechos sociales y sanitarios. Así, no se sigue una indicación -quédate en casa- por desigualdades estructurales. Propongo que la libertad efectiva puede conseguirse mediante la aprobación de la renta básica universal desde una perspectiva feminista. Concluyo que las secuelas de la pandemia, que definirán la vida cotidiana, ameritan la aprobación de esta medida. Igualmente, las mujeres como clase sexual requieren protección desde una perspectiva feminista


Many of the social deprivations of Mexico will be worsened due to SARS-COV2 pandemic. Namely, the insufficient access to public health, lack of labor rights, and the unsuccessful government's response to eradicate male violence against women. The historical unconcern in promoting a culture rooted in mutual aid and self-care has provoked many citizens are disconnected from their social and health rights. Thus, people's inability to carry through one direction -stay home- is unfulfilled, in part, due to structural inequalities. I affirm that effective liberty could be obtained by approving a Universal Basic Income from a feminist perspective. I conclude that the aftermath of COVID-19, which will define everyday life for a while, require the endorsement of such measure. Likewise, women as a class deserve protection from a feminist critical framework


Les mancances socials de Mèxic empitjoraran per la pandèmia SARS-COV-2. A saber, l'accés a la salut, els drets laborals bàsics I la infructuosa resposta de govern per eradicar la violència masclista contra les dones. El desinterès històric per fomentar una cultura de suport mutu I l'autocura ha provocat que gran part de la ciutadania s'hagi desconnectat dels seus drets socials I sanitaris. Així, no se segueix una indicació -queda't a casa- per desigualtats estructurals. Proposo que la llibertat efectiva pot aconseguir-se mitjançant l'aprovació de la renda bàsica universal des d'una perspectiva feminista. Concloc que les seqüeles de la pandèmia, que definiran la vida quotidiana, mereixen l'aprovació d'aquesta mesura. Igualment, les dones com a classe sexual requereixen protecció des d'una perspectiva feminista


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pandemias , Renta per Cápita , Apoyo Social , Incertidumbre , Política Pública , Política de Salud , Factores Socioeconómicos , México/epidemiología
19.
Value Health ; 23(11): 1405-1408, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127009

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To develop a checklist that helps quantify the economic impact associated with fear of contagion and to illustrate how one might use the checklist by presenting a case study featuring China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: Based on "fearonomic effects," a qualitative framework that conceptualizes the direct and indirect economic effects caused by the fear of contagion, we created a checklist to facilitate empirical estimation. As a case study, we first identified relevant sectors affected by China's lockdown policies implemented just before the Lunar New Year (LNY) week. To quantify the immediate impact, we then estimated the projected spending levels in 2020 in the absence of COVID-19 and compared these projections with actual spending during the LNY week. Data sources used include Chinese and global websites. To characterize uncertainty, we reported upper and lower bound estimates and calculated midpoints for each range. RESULTS: The COVID-19 epidemic is estimated to cost China's economy $283 billion ($196-369 billion), that is, ¥2.0 trillion renminbi (¥1.4-¥2.6 trillion), during the LNY week. Reduced restaurant and movie theater business ($106 [$103-$109] billion, 37.5% [36.4%-38.5%]) and reduced public transportation utilization ($96 [$13-$179] billion dollars, 33.9% [4.6%-63.3%]) explain most of this loss, followed by travel restrictions and the resulting loss of hotel business and tourism ($80.36 billion, 28.4%). CONCLUSION: Our checklist can help quantify the immediate and near-term impact of COVID-19 on a country's economy. It can also help researchers and policy makers consider the broader economic and social consequences when valuing future vaccines and treatments.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Miedo , Modelos Económicos , Pandemias/economía , Neumonía Viral/economía , Betacoronavirus , Lista de Verificación , China , Bases de Datos Factuales , Política de Salud , Humanos
20.
Value Health ; 23(11): 1432-1437, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127013

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to cost and calculate the relative cost-effectiveness of the hypothetical suppression policies found in the Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team model. METHODS: Key population-level disease projections in deaths, intensive care unit bed days, and non-intensive care unit bed days were taken from the Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team report of March 2020, which influenced the decision to introduce suppression policies in the United Kingdom. National income loss estimates were from a study that estimated the impact of a hypothetical pandemic on the UK economy, with sensitivity analyses based on projections that are more recent. Individual quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) loss and costed resource use inputs were taken from published sources. RESULTS: Imperial model projected suppression polices compared to an unmitigated pandemic, even with the most pessimistic national income loss scenarios under suppression (10%), give incremental cost-effectiveness ratios below £50 000 per QALY. Assuming a maximum reduction in national income of 7.75%, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for Imperial model projected suppression versus mitigation are below 60 000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Results are uncertain and conditional on the accuracy of the Imperial model projections; they are also sensitive to estimates of national income loss. Nevertheless, it would be difficult to claim that the hypothetical Imperial model-projected suppression policies are obviously cost-ineffective relative to the alternatives available. Despite evolving differences between government policy and Imperial model-projected suppression policy, it is hoped this article will provide some early insight into the trade-offs that are involved.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/economía , Política de Salud/economía , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Pandemias , Años de Vida Ajustados por Calidad de Vida , Reino Unido/epidemiología
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