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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201320

RESUMEN

We considered scalable anonymous voting on the Ethereum blockchain. We identified three major bottlenecks in implementation: (1) division overflow in encryption of voting values for anonymity; (2) large time complexity in tallying, which limited scalability in the number of candidates and voters; and (3) tallying failure due to "no votes" from registered voters. Previous schemes failed at tallying if one (or more) registered voters did not send encrypted voting values. Algorithmic solutions and implementation details are provided. An experiment using Truffle and Remix running on a desktop PC was performed for evaluation. Our scheme shows great reduction in gas, which measures the computational burden of smart contracts to be executed on Ethereum. For instance, our scheme consumed 1/53 of the gas compared to a state-of-the-art solution for 60 voters. Time complexity analysis shows that our scheme is asymptotically superior to known solutions. In addition, we propose a solution to the tallying failure due to the "no vote" from registered voters.


Asunto(s)
Cadena de Bloques , Política , Análisis de Sistemas
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678053, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211955

RESUMEN

The 400 Years of Inequality Project was created to call organizations to observe the 400th anniversary of the first Africans landing in Jamestown in 1619. The project focused on the broad ramifications of inequality. Used as a justification of chattel slavery, structures of inequality continue to condition the lives of many groups in the US. Over 110 organizations joined this observance and held 150 events. The highlight of the year was the homily given by Reverend William Barber II, co-chair of the Poor People's Campaign, who described the "seven sins" that link the concept of inequality to every aspect of national life, from politics to militia. These "seven sins" help us to analyze and address crises, such as the COVID pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Américas , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 719-728, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231901

RESUMEN

This paper intends to analyse the current political and social situation in Brazil and show how this context has influenced the management of the public health crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, the authors conducted an investigation into Brazil's historical roots, which have not only engendered deep class differences but, also, social psychopathologies such as dissociation and perversion. Finally, this paper presents a symbolic analysis of social exclusion and how the mythical figure of Sophia can inspire a renewed movement of inclusion and tolerance.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cultura , Política , Prejuicio , Teoría Psicoanalítica , Brasil/etnología , Colonialismo , Esclavización , Humanos , Inclusión Social , Aislamiento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254511, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255781

RESUMEN

Spain was, together with Italy, the first European country severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. After one month of strict lockdown and eight weeks of partial restrictions, Spanish residents are expected to have revised some of their beliefs. We conducted a survey one year before the pandemic, at its outbreak and during de-escalation (N = 1706). Despite the lockdown, most respondents tolerated being controlled by authorities, and acknowledged the importance of group necessities over individual rights. However, de-escalation resulted in a belief change towards the intrusiveness of authorities and the preeminence of individual rights. Besides, transcendental beliefs-God answering prayers and the existence of an afterlife-declined after the outbreak, but were strengthened in the de-escalation. Results were strongly influenced by political ideology: the proportion of left-sided voters who saw authorities as intrusive greatly decreased, and transcendental beliefs prevailed among right-sided voters. Our results point to a polarization of beliefs based on political ideology as a consequence of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , COVID-19/psicología , Cultura , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Femenino , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política , Cuarentena/psicología , España
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254359, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255783

RESUMEN

Reopening amid the COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a battle on social media. The supporters perceived that the lockdown policy could damage the economy and exacerbate social inequality. By contrast, the opponents believed it was necessary to contain the spread and ensure a safe environment for recovery. Anatomy into the battle is of importance to address public concerns, beliefs, and values, thereby enabling policymakers to determine the appropriate solutions to implement reopening policy. To this end, we investigated over 1.5 million related Twitter postings from April 17 to May 30, 2020. With the aid of natural language processing (NLP) techniques and machine learning classifiers, we classified each tweet into either a "supporting" or "opposing" class and then investigated the public perception from temporal and spatial perspectives. From the temporal dimension, we found that both political and scientific news that were extensively discussed on Twitter led to the perception of opposing reopening. Further, being the first mover with full reopen adversely affected the public reaction to reopening policy, while being the follower or late mover resulted in positive responses. From the spatial dimension, the correlation and regression analyses suggest that the state-level perception was very likely to be associated with political affiliation and health value.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , COVID-19/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Política , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1403, 2021 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266409

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Wearing a protective face covering can reduce the spread of COVID-19, but Americans' compliance with wearing a mask is uneven. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between health determinants (Health Behaviors, Clinical Care, Social and Economic Conditions, and the Physical Environment) and mask wearing at the county level. METHODS: Data were collected from publicly available sources, including the County Health Rankings and the New York Times. The dependent variable was the percent of county residents who reported frequently or always wearing a mask when in public. County demographics and voting patterns served as controls. Two-levels random effects regression models were used to examine the study hypotheses. RESULTS: Results indicate that, after considering the effects of the controls, Health Behaviors were positively associated with mask wearing, the Physical Environment held a negative association, and Clinical Care and Social and Behavioral Factors were unrelated. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that patterns of healthy behaviors can help predict compliance with public health mandates that can help reduce the spread of COVID-19. From an instutitional theory perspective, the data suggest counties develop collective values and norms around health. Thus, public health officials can seek to alter governance structures and normative behaviors to improve healthy behaviors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Humanos , Máscaras , New York , Política , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671896, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34295869

RESUMEN

Background: Vaccination is considered to be a key public health intervention to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, the success of the intervention is contingent on attitudes toward vaccination and the design of vaccination policies. Methods: We conduct cross-sectional analyses of policy-relevant attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination using survey data of a representative sample of Austrian residents collected by the Austrian Corona Panel Project (ACPP). As outcomes, we examine the individual readiness to get vaccinated, the support for compulsory vaccinations, and the preference for making the vaccine available free of charge. The independent variables include demographics, objective and perceived health risks, and social and political factors. Results: Although there is broad public support for making the vaccine available free of charge, vaccine hesitancy and the opposition to a vaccine mandate are widespread. The protective function of the vaccine for the individual only motivates limited support for vaccinations. Opposition to COVID-19 vaccination also stems from a lack of sense of community and an ongoing politicization of the issue through conspiracy theories and party politics. Conclusion: We propose that overcoming the inherent free-rider problem of achieving sufficiently high vaccination rates poses a potential dilemma for policymakers: Given the politicized nature of the issue, they may find themselves having to choose between making vaccinations compulsory at political costs and a lingering pandemic at high costs for public health and the economy. We propose that promoting a sense of community and addressing potential practical constraints will be key in designing an effective COVID-19 vaccination policy.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Actitud , Austria , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Estudios Transversales , Demografía , Humanos , Políticas , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación
10.
Z Gastroenterol ; 59(5): 492-493, 2021 05.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224129

Asunto(s)
Política , Humanos
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(7): e16750, 2021 07 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Advances in information technology have paved the way to facilitate accessibility to population-level health data through web-based data query systems (WDQSs). Despite these advances in technology, US state agencies face many challenges related to the dissemination of their local health data. It is essential for the public to have access to high-quality data that are easy to interpret, reliable, and trusted. These challenges have been at the forefront throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify the most significant challenges faced by state agencies, from the perspective of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) coordinator from each state, and to assess if the coordinators from states with a WDQS perceive these challenges differently. METHODS: We surveyed BRFSS coordinators (N=43) across all 50 US states and the District of Columbia. We surveyed the participants about contextual factors and asked them to rate system aspects and challenges they faced with their health data system on a Likert scale. We used two-sample t tests to compare the means of the ratings by participants from states with and without a WDQS. RESULTS: Overall, 41/43 states (95%) make health data available over the internet, while 65% (28/43) employ a WDQS. States with a WDQS reported greater challenges (P=.01) related to the cost of hardware and software (mean score 3.44/4, 95% CI 3.09-3.78) than states without a WDQS (mean score 2.63/4, 95% CI 2.25-3.00). The system aspect of standardization of vocabulary scored more favorably (P=.01) in states with a WDQS (mean score 3.32/5, 95% CI 2.94-3.69) than in states without a WDQS (mean score 2.85/5, 95% CI 2.47-3.22). CONCLUSIONS: Securing of adequate resources and commitment to standardization are vital in the dissemination of local-level health data. Factors such as receiving data in a timely manner, privacy, and political opposition are less significant barriers than anticipated.


Asunto(s)
Sistema de Vigilancia de Factor de Riesgo Conductual , COVID-19 , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Política , Privacidad , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
15.
Br Dent J ; 230(11): 700-701, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117423

Asunto(s)
Política
16.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 91(3): 412-422, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138630

RESUMEN

This report summarizes what is known about the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and proposes ways for psychology organizations to engage in addressing pandemic-related challenges. A stress and coping framework is used to describe key factors that account for mental health difficulties resulting from the stress of pandemics including the pandemic course, political leadership and public response, cumulative stressors, risk and protective factors, and coping strategies. Psychology organizations could do much to provide help particularly to vulnerable healthcare and frontline workers, the elderly, and the socially isolated. They could offer clinical services and design prevention programs, train non-professional community workers to provide mental health first aid, assist NGO's and political leaders, and translate basic research on psychological factors that influence acceptance of public health measures. The pandemic occurs at a time of advanced connectivity that provides an opportunity for (a) scientific information exchange, (b) alleviation of distress of social isolation, but also (c) infodemic, unprecedented spread of hoaxes and online incitements to non-compliance with preventative measures. Psychology's role is not limited to addressing mental health needs but also includes promoting adjustment to changes in the economy, education and employment, and developing effective communication strategies that encourage acceptance of public health measures. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , COVID-19/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Política , Salud Pública , Aislamiento Social
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252670, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138893

RESUMEN

In March of 2020, the United States was confronted with a major public health crisis caused by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to identify what factors influence adherence to recently implemented public health measures such as mask-wearing and social distancing, trust of scientific organizations like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) on information pertaining to the pandemic, and level of perceived risk. Data were collected from June 30, 2020 to July 22, 2020 on 951 adult residents of the United States using an online survey through Microsoft Forms. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the strongest predictors for compliance to pandemic-related health measures, trust in the scientific community, and perceived risk. Results showed that the strongest predictor of all variables of interest was degree of policy liberalism. Additionally, participants who consumed more conservative news media conformed less to the pandemic health guidelines and had less trust in the scientific community. Degree of policy liberalism was found to have a significant moderating effect on the relationship between gender and conformity to pandemic-related health behaviors. These findings have concerning implications that factors like degree of policy liberalism and source of news are more influential in predicting adherence to life-saving health measures than established risk factors like pre-existing health conditions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Confianza , Adulto , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Política , Salud Pública/métodos , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253326, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185786

RESUMEN

Social liberals tend to be less pathogen-avoidant than social conservatives, a pattern consistent with a model wherein ideological differences stem from differences in threat reactivity. Here we investigate if and how individual responses to a shared threat reflect those patterns of ideological difference. In seeming contradiction to the general association between social conservatism and pathogen avoidance, the more socially conservative political party in the United States has more consistently downplayed the dangers of COVID-19 during the ongoing pandemic. This puzzle offers an opportunity to examine the contributions of multiple factors to disease avoidance. We investigated the relationship between social conservatism and COVID-19 precautionary behavior in light of the partisan landscape of the United States. We explored whether consumption of, and attitudes toward, different sources of information, as well as differential evaluation of various threats caused by the pandemic-such as direct health costs versus indirect harms to the economy and individual liberties-shape partisan differences in responses to the pandemic in ways that overwhelm the contributions of social conservatism. In two pre-registered studies, socially conservative attitudes correlate with self-reported COVID-19 prophylactic behaviors, but only among Democrats. Reflecting larger societal divisions, among Republicans and Independents, the absence of a positive relationship between social conservatism and COVID-19 precautions appears driven by lower trust in scientists, lower trust in liberal and moderate sources, lesser consumption of liberal news media, and greater economic conservatism.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Política , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Actitud , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
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