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2.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010404, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257152

RESUMEN

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogen; it infects >90% people globally and is linked to infectious mononucleosis and several types of cancer. Vaccines against EBV are in development. In this study we present the first systematic review of the literature on risk factors for EBV infection, and discuss how they differ between settings, in order to improve our understanding of EBV epidemiology and aid the design of effective vaccination strategies. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science were searched on 6th March 2017 for observational studies of risk factors for EBV infection. Studies were excluded if they were published before 2008 to ensure relevance to the modern day, given the importance of influencing future vaccination policies. There were no language restrictions. After title, abstract and full text screening, followed by checking the reference lists of included studies to identify further studies, data were extracted into standardised spreadsheets and quality assessed. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results: Seventy-seven papers met our inclusion criteria, including data from 31 countries. There was consistent evidence that EBV seroprevalence was associated with age, increasing throughout childhood and adolescence and remaining constant thereafter. EBV was generally acquired at younger ages in Asia than Europe/North America. There was also compelling evidence for an association between cytomegalovirus infection and EBV. Additional factors associated with EBV seroprevalence, albeit with less consistent evidence, included ethnicity, socioeconomic status, other chronic viral infections, and genetic variants of HLA and immune response genes. Conclusions: Our study is the first systematic review to draw together the global literature on the risk factors for EBV infection and includes an evaluation of the quality of the published evidence. Across the literature, the factors examined are diverse. In Asia, early vaccination of infants would be required to prevent EBV infection. In contrast, in Western countries a vaccine could be deployed later, particularly if it has only a short duration of protection and the intention was to protect against infectious mononucleosis. There is a lack of high-quality data on the prevalence and age of EBV infection outside of Europe, North America and South-East Asia, which are essential for informing effective vaccination policies in these settings.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/prevención & control , Herpesvirus Humano 4/inmunología , Vacunas contra Herpesvirus/inmunología , Mononucleosis Infecciosa/prevención & control , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/inmunología , Infecciones por Virus de Epstein-Barr/virología , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Vacunas contra Herpesvirus/administración & dosificación , Vacunas contra Herpesvirus/genética , Humanos , Mononucleosis Infecciosa/inmunología , Mononucleosis Infecciosa/virología , Políticas , Factores de Riesgo , Vacunas
7.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 492-498, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078357

RESUMEN

Objectives. To examine content of financial assistance polices (FAPs) among US tax-exempt hospitals and determine whether restrictive policies were associated with reduced charity care spending.Methods. Using hospital tax filings with the Internal Revenue Service in 2016 and FAPs obtained from hospital Web sites, we examined characteristics of FAPs and associated expenditures for charity care in a representative sample of 170 tax-exempt hospitals. We identified common eligibility requirements and used them to define restrictiveness of FAPs.Results. FAPs were characterized by various ways to exclude patients, a patchwork of coverage for typical health care services, and wide-ranging discounts. FAP expenditures were lowest among restrictive hospitals in states that expanded Medicaid as part of the Affordable Care Act and highest among nonrestrictive hospitals in nonexpansion states. FAP expenses did not differ by hospital restrictiveness alone.Conclusions. Standardizing common eligibility requirements among FAPs carries potential benefits with regard to optimizing charity care for community benefit and achieving at least some level of equity; however, further policy efforts must account for additional restrictions, charges, and exclusions to be effective.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales Públicos/economía , Hospitales Filantrópicos/economía , Atención no Remunerada/economía , Hospitales Públicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitales Filantrópicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Medicaid , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Políticas , Pobreza/economía , Exención de Impuesto , Atención no Remunerada/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos
9.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110154, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090844

RESUMEN

Behavioral theories have much to offer researchers and policy makers who seek sustainable resource management within households. However, much research on household resource consumption applies theories of the individual to understand the behavioral patterns of what are very often groups of people cohabiting in a particular dwelling. This misalignment of levels of analysis leads to erroneous empirical results and conclusions, and thereby less effective policy and management actions. We address this issue by first detailing the nature of the problem; illustrating its pervasiveness in research on resource consumption behaviors; offering some ways forward by drawing on research on group dynamics; and exploring new ways of thinking about some existing concepts in resource consumption and conservation with the goal of developing insights from a household-level perspective. We suggest that researchers seek a multi-level understanding of consumption and conservation in future research, as this could lead to theories and evidence to support group-level interventions that target behaviors in a household setting, which is likely to be more effective than existing individualistic approaches.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Políticas , Conducta , Humanos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(8): 8142-8156, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897990

RESUMEN

This paper investigates the long-run dynamics between health care expenditure and environmental pollution across four global income groups. The analysis uses data from 178 countries, spanning the period 1995-2017. Panel estimations are employed with unobserved heterogeneity, temporal persistence, and cross-sectional dependence using a model with common correlated effects. The findings document that the health care expenditure is a necessity for all sub-groups. We established that a 1% increase in national income increased health expenditure by 7.2% in the full sample, and 9.3%, 8.6%, 6.8% and 2.9% for low, low-middle, upper-middle and high-income groups, respectively, while a 1% increase in CO2 emissions increased health expenditure by 2.5% in the full sample, and 2.9%, 1.2%, 2.3% and 2.6% across these four income groups. We recommend that coordinated approach is needed in setting policy goals both in energy and health sectors in mitigating the negative effects of pollution. Our findings indicate that low-carbon emissions and energy efficient health care services will significantly reduce future health care expenses.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Gastos en Salud , Renta , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Estudios Transversales , Contaminación Ambiental , Políticas
11.
J Environ Manage ; 258: 110036, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929069

RESUMEN

The Clean Air Action is considered an important measure to control air pollution. Despite extensive studies on the benefits or the cost of the Clean Air Action, the overall effect of such an action on green development is largely unknown. This paper tries to fill this gap. Based on panel data of 278 Chinese cities, this paper begins with the construction of a comprehensive indicator, namely green production efficiency, to reflect the green development over the period 2011 to 2016, we then implement the quasi-difference-in-differences framework to identify the policy effect of the Clean Air Action on green development. The following findings are obtained: (1) The Clean Air Action has enhanced the green development of Chinese cities, especially in areas with relatively high reduction target and rich resource endowment; (2) The dynamic analysis reveals that the positive effect of the Clean Air Action on green development presents an intensifying trend with time. This paper provides new insights to understand the Clean Air Action, based on these findings, we propose that future policies should focus on the transformation of overall green development and take full account of regional heterogeneity.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ciudades , Políticas
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1326-1335, 2020 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899622

RESUMEN

National commitments under the Paris Agreement on climate change interact with other global environmental objectives, such as those of the Minamata Convention on Mercury. We assess how mercury emissions and deposition reductions from national climate policy in China under the Paris Agreement could contribute to the country's commitments under the Minamata Convention. We examine emissions under climate policy scenarios developed using a computable general equilibrium model of China's economy, end-of-pipe control scenarios that meet China's commitments under the Minamata Convention, and these policies in combination, and evaluate deposition using a global atmospheric transport model. We find climate policy in China can provide mercury benefits when implemented with Minamata policy, achieving in the year 2030 approximately 5% additional reduction in mercury emissions and deposition in China when climate policy achieves a 5% reduction per year in carbon intensity (CO2 emissions 9.7 Gt in 2030). This corresponds to 63 Mg additional mercury emissions reductions in 2030 when implemented with Minamata Convention policy, compared to Minamata policy implemented alone. Climate policy provides emissions reductions in sectors not considered under the Minamata Convention, such as residential combustion. This changes the combination of sectors that contribute to emissions reductions.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , China , Cambio Climático , Políticas
13.
Global Health ; 16(1): 11, 2020 01 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959213

RESUMEN

Unhealthy foods and tobacco remain the leading causes of non-communicable disease (NCDs). These are key agricultural commodities for many countries, and NCD prevention policy needs to consider how to influence production towards healthier options. There has been little scholarship to bridge the agriculture with the public health literature that seeks to address the supply of healthy commodities. This scoping review synthesizes the literature on government agricultural policy and production in order to 1) present a typology of policies used to influence agricultural production, 2) to provide a preliminary overview of the ways that impact is assessed in this literature, and 3) to bring this literature into conversation with the literature on food and tobacco supply.This review analyzes the literature on government agricultural policy and production. Articles written in English and published between January 1997 and April 2018 (20-year range) were included. Only quantitative evaluations were included. Studies that collected qualitative data to supplement the quantitative analysis were also included. One hundred and three articles were included for data extraction. The following information was extracted: article details (e.g., author, title, journal), policy details (e.g., policy tools, goals, context), methods used to evaluate the policy (e.g., outcomes evaluated, sample size, limitations), and study findings. Fifty four studies examined the impact of policy on agricultural production. The remaining articles assessed land allocation (n = 25) (e.g., crop diversification, acreage expansion), efficiency (n = 23), rates of employment including on- and off-farm employment (n = 18), and farm income (n = 17) among others. Input supports, output supports and technical support had an impact on production, income and other outcomes. Although there were important exceptions, largely attributed to farm level allocation of labour or resources. Financial supports were most commonly evaluated including cash subsidies, credit, and tax benefits. This type of support resulted in an equal number of studies reporting increased production as those with no effects.This review provides initial extrapolative insights from the general literature on the impact of government policies on agricultural production. This review can inform dialogue between the health and agricultural sector and evaluative research on policy for alternatives to tobacco production and unhealthy food supply.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Gobierno , Políticas , Humanos , Investigación
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227299, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978142

RESUMEN

With rapid economic and population growth, construction land expansion in Yangtze River economic belt in China becomes substantial, carrying significant social and economic implications. This research uses Expansion Speed Index and Expansion Intensity Index to examine spatiotemporal characteristics of construction land expansion in the Yangtze River economic belt from 2000 to 2017. Based on a STIRPAT model, driving forces of construction land expansion are measured by Principal Component Analysis and Ordinary Least Square regression. The results show that: (1) there is a clear expansion pattern regarding the time sequence in provinces/cities of the Yangtze River economic belt, with rapid expansion in the initial stage, moderate expansion in the middle stage and rapid expansion in the later stage. (2) Spatial analysis demonstrates first expansion in the lower reaches in the early stage, rapid expansion of the upper reaches in the middle and later stage, and steady expansion of the middle reaches throughout the research period. (3)There are statistical significant correlations between construction land expansion and GDP, social fixed asset investments, population at the end of the year, population urbanization rate, per capita road area, and number of scientific and technological professionals as well as secondary and tertiary industry values. Of these factors, GDP, social fixed asset investments, population urbanization rate and second industry value are important common driving forces of construction land expansion in this region. The research findings have significant policy implications particularly on coordinated development of urban agglomerations and sustainable industry upgrading when construction land expansion is concerned.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción/tendencias , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , Urbanización/tendencias , China , Industria de la Construcción/economía , Industria de la Construcción/legislación & jurisprudencia , Desarrollo Económico/legislación & jurisprudencia , Políticas , Ríos , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Desarrollo Sostenible/legislación & jurisprudencia , Urbanización/legislación & jurisprudencia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227800, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978096

RESUMEN

The Internet of Things (IoT) brings internet connectivity to everyday electronic devices (e.g. security cameras and smart TVs) to improve their functionality and efficiency. However, serious security and privacy concerns have been raised about the IoT which impact upon consumer trust and purchasing. Moreover, devices vary considerably in terms of the security they provide, and it is difficult for consumers to differentiate between more and less secure devices. One proposal to address this is for devices to carry a security label to help consumers navigate the market and know which devices to trust, and to encourage manufacturers to improve security. Using a discrete choice experiment, we estimate the potential impact of such labels on participant's purchase decision making, along with device functionality and price. With the exception of a label that implied weak security, participants were significantly more likely to select a device that carried a label than one that did not. While they were generally willing to pay the most for premium functionality, for two of the labels tested, they were prepared to pay the same for security and functionality. Qualitative responses suggested that participants would use a label to inform purchasing decisions, and that the labels did not generate a false sense of security. Our findings suggest that the use of a security label represents a policy option that could influence behaviour and that should be seriously considered.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad Computacional/legislación & jurisprudencia , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Toma de Decisiones , Internet de las Cosas/economía , Privacidad/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Internet de las Cosas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Internet de las Cosas/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Políticas , Privacidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles/economía , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles/psicología , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(2): 94-99, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896614

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To understand and characterise the construct of 'near misses' from the perspective of temporary construction workers and to describe the safety and health risks associated with and contributing to near misses and injuries in temporary workers in the construction industry. METHODS: Six semistructured language-sensitive (ie, English and Spanish) focus group discussions were conducted with workers (n=43) employed with temporary staffing agencies in South Florida. This convenience sample completed a demographic questionnaire prior to the focus group discussion. A general inductive approach was used to examine near misses in the construction industry and the unique safety and health concerns of temporary workers. RESULTS: Four broad themes describing near misses, reporting practices and workplace safety hazards in the construction industry were derived from the group discussions: (1) non-standard workers in the construction industry draw a clear distinction between near misses and injury and believe their best protections from both occur at the worker level; (2) social network structure on construction worksites is an effective way to protect workers against injury and near misses; (3) safety and health priorities and policies at the organisational level differ from those at the worker level, which contributes to workplace injury; and (4) reporting of safety concerns and near misses is influenced by injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: Temporary workers in the construction industry are familiar with near misses but have limited resources to protect themselves against potential health and safety hazards. These non-standard workers addressed unique barriers to staying safe at work and identified potential improvements.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Trabajo/prevención & control , Industria de la Construcción , Empleo , Salud Laboral , Seguridad , Recursos Humanos , Heridas y Traumatismos/prevención & control , Adulto , Actitud , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Organizaciones , Políticas , Informe de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto Joven
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