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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 218-229, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150860

RESUMEN

El artículo analiza las movilizaciones políticas en Paraguay, a partir de la década de 2000, con mayor atención a la relación entre los movimientos sociales y el gobierno de Fernando Lugo (2008 - 2012). Entre los aspectos que destaca el texto está que los movimientos sociales en Paraguay tuvieron un rol significativo desde la década del 2000. Desde la llegada de Lugo al gobierno nacional, sin embargo, se observó que las acciones de los líderes de las Centrales Sindicales comenzaron a priorizar las posiciones gubernamentales. Es decir, los partidos y agrupaciones de izquierda apuestan por el fortalecimiento de organizaciones populares, sindicatos, movimientos sociales partiendo del supuesto de que la vía administrativa podría fortalecer las organizaciones y garantizar mayores ganancias de derechos. Lo que sucedió, sin embargo, fue que los líderes fueron rápidamente cooptados por la lógica del poder estatal y la ocupación de cargos se convirtió en el objetivo principal.(AU)


The article analyzes the political mobilizations in Paraguay, starting in the 2000s, with greater attention to the relationship between social movements and the government of Fernando Lugo (2008 - 2012). Among the aspects highlighted in the text is that social movements in Paraguay had a significant role since the 2000s. Since Lugo's arrival in the national government, however, it was observed that the actions of the leaders of the Trade Union Centrals began to prioritize government positions. In other words, the parties and groups of the left are committed to strengthening popular organizations, unions, and social movements based on the assumption that the administrative route could strengthen organizations and guarantee greater gains in rights. What happened, however, was that the leaders were quickly co-opted by the logic of state power and the occupation of positions became the main objective.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Paraguay , Utopias , Políticas , Gobierno
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249596, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826646

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the U.S. public's health behaviors, attitudes, and policy opinions about COVID-19 in the earliest weeks of the national health crisis (March 20-23, 2020). METHOD: We designed and fielded an original representative survey of 3,000 American adults between March 20-23, 2020 to collect data on a battery of 38 health-related behaviors, government policy preferences on COVID-19 response and worries about the pandemic. We test for partisan differences COVID-19 related policy attitudes and behaviors, measured in three different ways: party affiliation, intended 2020 Presidential vote, and self-placed ideological positioning. Our multivariate approach adjusts for a wide range of individual demographic and geographic characteristics that might confound the relationship between partisanship and health behaviors, attitudes, and preferences. RESULTS: We find that partisanship-measured as party identification, support for President Trump, or left-right ideological positioning-explains differences in Americans across a wide range of health behaviors and policy preferences. We find no consistent evidence that controlling for individual news consumption, the local policy environment, and local pandemic-related deaths erases the observed partisan differences in health behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes. In further analyses, we use a LASSO regression approach to select predictors, and find that a partisanship indicator is the most commonly selected predictor across the 38 dependent variables that we study. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of individual self-reported behavior, attitudes, and policy preferences in response to COVID-19 reveals that partisanship played a central role in shaping individual responses in the earliest months of the COVID-19 pandemic. These results indicate that partisan differences in responding to a national public health emergency were entrenched from the earliest days of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Políticas , Salud Pública , Adulto , /prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
3.
Pediatr Dent ; 43(2): 109-117, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892835

RESUMEN

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine receipt of preventive oral health services (POHS) by race/ethnicity for young Medicaid-enrollees following the enactment of state policies enabling medical providers to deliver POHS. Methods: Using Medicaid data (2006 to 2014) from 38 states for 8,711,192 child-years (aged six months to five years), logistic regressions were used to examine differences within and between racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and "other" race/ethnicity groups) in terms of adjusted probabilities of receiving POHS in medical offices or any medical or dental offices. Models were adjusted for years since policy enactment and estimated separately for states with and without requirements that medical providers obtain POHS training. Results: Receipt of any POHS was 10.9 percentage points higher for Hispanic children and 4.7 percentage points higher for "other" race/ethnicity group children than white children after five or more years of policy enactment in states with training requirements (P<0.05). Findings for medical POHS and states without training requirements were similar but smaller in magnitude. Conclusions: Hispanic and "other" race/ethnicity group children benefitted more from the integration of POHS into medical offices than white children. Policies enabling delivery of POHS in medical offices increased receipt of POHS among some minority groups and may help to reduce disparities.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Dental , Medicaid , Niño , Preescolar , Consultorios Odontológicos , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 61, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864168

RESUMEN

Calls for evidence-based approaches to COVID-19 have sparked up discussions on the use of evidence for policy. In this note, we expand these discussions: while the debate has mostly focused on the types of evidence to be used for policy, we argue that the assessment of judgments involved in data practices and evidence production should play a central role in evaluating policy.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Juicio , Políticas , Humanos
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802705

RESUMEN

Sustainable utilization of grassland resources was an important topic concerned by worldwide countries and regions, and ecological compensation had gradually become the main policy tool for grassland environmental management and ecological protection. This study adopted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires, and multiordered Logit model was then used to explore herdsmen's satisfaction with Grassland Ecological Conservation Subsidy and Reward Policy (GECSRP) focusing on identifying the key factors behind it. Results showed that herdsmen were not satisfied with GECSRP on the whole, while value perception, environmental regulation and their interaction played a positive role on improving the satisfaction. Specifically, economic benefits had the strongest promotion impacts, followed by social identity in the two-dimensional variables of value perception. The guiding regulation had stronger promoting impacts, followed by the incentive regulation in the two-dimensional variables of environmental regulation. Interestingly, incentive regulation played an enhanced interaction on the influence of economic benefits and environmental value on herdsmen's satisfaction, yet the interaction between guiding regulation and environmental value was not significant. These indicated that herdsmen paid more attention to substantial subsidies and rewards in the process of ecological livestock husbandry, and environmental regulation formulated by government had a phenomenon of "relative system failure". Thus, the grassland ecological environment policy should be further adjusted and improved to promote the economic development of pastoral areas.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Pradera , Animales , China , Ecosistema , Percepción , Satisfacción Personal , Políticas
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802501

RESUMEN

From 7 November 2020, Greece adopted a second nationwide lockdown policy to mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (the first took place from 23 March to 4 May 2020), just as the second wave of COVID-19 was advancing, as did other European countries. To secure the full benefits of mass vaccination, which started in early January 2021, it is of utmost importance to complement it with mid-term non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The objective was to minimize human losses and to limit social and economic costs. In this paper a two-phase stochastic dynamic network compartmental model (a pre-vaccination SEIR until 15 February 2021 and a post-vaccination SVEIR from 15 February 2021 to 30 June 2021) is developed. Three scenarios are assessed for the first phase: (a) A baseline scenario, which lifts the national lockdown and all NPIs in January 2021; (b) a "semi-lockdown" scenario with school opening, partial retail sector operation, universal mask wearing, and social distancing/teleworking in January 2021; and (c) a "rolling lockdown" scenario combining a partial lifting of measures in January 2021 followed by a third nationwide lockdown in February 2021. In the second phase three scenarios with different vaccination rates are assessed. Publicly available data along with some first results of the SHARE COVID-19 survey conducted in Greece are used as input. The results regarding the first phase indicate that the "semi-lockdown" scenario clearly outperforms the third lockdown scenario (5.7% less expected fatalities); the second phase is extremely sensitive on the availability of sufficient vaccine supplies and high vaccination rates.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Europa (Continente) , Grecia , Humanos , Vacunación Masiva , Políticas
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806138

RESUMEN

Background: Standard precautions prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings. Incompliance with infection control guidelines of healthcare workers (HCWs) may increase their risk of exposure to infectious disease, especially under pandemics. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of compliance with the infection prevention and control practices among HCWs in different healthcare settings and its relationship with their views on workplace infection control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Nurses in Hong Kong were invited to respond to a cross-sectional online survey, in which their views on workplace infection and prevention policy, compliance with standard precautions and self-reported health during pandemics were collected. Results: The respondents were dissatisfied with workplace infection and prevention policy in terms of comprehensiveness (62%), clarity (64%), timeliness (63%), and transparency (60%). For the protective behavior, the respondents did not fully comply with the standard precautions when they were involved in medical care. Their compliance was relatively low when having proper patient handling (54%) and performing invasive procedures (46%). A multivariate analysis model proved that the level of compliance of the standard precautions was positively associated with the satisfaction on infection control and prevention policy among high risk group (0.020; 95% CI: 0.005-0.036), while older respondents had higher level of compliance among the inpatient and outpatient groups (coefficient range: 0.065-0.076). The higher level of compliance was also significantly associated with working in designated team and having chronic condition of the respondents among high-risk and inpatient groups. Conclusions: Standard precautions are the most important elements to reduce cross-transmission among HCWs and patients while the satisfaction on infection control and prevention policy would increase the compliance among the high-risk group. An overall suboptimal compliance and poor views on the infection prevention and control guidelines is a warning signal to healthcare system especially during pandemics.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , Adhesión a Directriz , Personal de Salud , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Control de Infecciones , Pandemias/prevención & control , Políticas , Estándares de Referencia
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810438

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The implementation of effective control measures in a timely fashion is crucial to control the epidemic outbreak of COVID-19. In this study, we aimed to analyze the control measures implemented during the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as evaluating the responses and outcomes at different phases for epidemic control in Taiwan. (2) Methods: This case study reviewed responses to COVID-19 and the effectiveness of a range of control measures implemented for epidemic control in Taiwan and assessed all laboratory-confirmed cases between 11 January until 20 December 2020, inclusive of these dates. The confirmation of COVID-19 infection was defined as the positive result of a reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction test taken from a nasopharyngeal swab. Test results were reported by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. The incidence rate, mortality rate, and testing rate were compiled, and the risk ratio was provided to gain insights into the effectiveness of prevention measures. (3) Results and Discussion: This study presents retrospective data on the COVID-19 incidence rate in Taiwan, combined with the vital preventive control measures, in a timeline of the early stage of the epidemic that occurred in Taiwan. The implementation of multiple strategy control measures and the assistance of technologies to control the COVID-19 epidemic in Taiwan led to a relatively slower trend in the outbreak compared to the neighboring countries. In Taiwan, 766 confirmed patients were included, comprised of 88.1% imported cases and 7.2% local transmission cases, within the studied period. The incidence rate of COVID-19 in Taiwan during the studied period was 32 per million people, with a mortality rate of 0.3 per million people. Our analysis showed a significantly raised incidence risk ratio in the countries of interest in comparison to Taiwan during the study period; in the range of 1.9 to 947.5. The outbreak was brought under control through epidemic policies and hospital strategies implemented by the Taiwan Government. (4) Conclusion: Taiwan's preventive strategies resulted in a drastically lower risk for Taiwan nationals of contracting COVID-19 when new pharmaceutical drug or vaccines were not yet available. The preventive strategies employed by Taiwan could serve as a guide and reference for future epidemic control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Brotes de Enfermedades , Hospitales , Humanos , Políticas , Estudios Retrospectivos , Taiwán/epidemiología
9.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112442, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823417

RESUMEN

The long-term supply of ecosystem services is dependent on properly functioning ecosystems and their susceptibility to natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as climate change and urbanization, as they can alter ecosystem structure and function. Forest function is not static, but rather a risky asset that fluctuates and can decrease as a result of forest disturbance. Therefore, concepts such as resilience and insurance value as well effective policy formulation, management, and restoration are key to maintaining these benefits. This study estimates the insurance value that the public places on a policy that promotes restoration for increased resilience and ecosystem services using binary choice (BC) and best-worst scaling (BWS) models to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) and to vote for the restoration of longleaf pine (LLP) forests in the southeastern United States. Our BWS findings indicate that respondents seemed to only prefer programs with low risk of forest damage and lower monthly costs, while BC models show that low and moderate risk programs increased the likelihood of voting for them and that excellent wildlife habitat was also highly valued by our respondents. Positive attitudes towards the environment also positively influence voting for forest restoration programs. Findings contribute to an emerging body of literature on social-ecological systems and how the voting public conceptualizes trade-offs among ecosystem services, insurance value, and resilience. Results may help assess the use and incorporation of concepts such as resilience, ecosystem services, and insurance value in restoration, environmental, fire management, and climate change-related policy instruments and programs.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Seguro , Animales , Bosques , Políticas , Sudeste de Estados Unidos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112574, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865022

RESUMEN

An accurate and efficient extraction of urban extent is important for understanding the dynamics of urban expansion process and for sustainable planning and management of cities. We proposed an improved dynamic nightlight threshold method to model urban extent and to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics and driving forces of urban expansion. Differing from previous studies, we correct the blooming and over-saturation problems of nighttime light (NTL), and highlight a combination of NTL with urban population data for determining a yearly-continued and city-class-wide threshold for urban mapping. China is selected as a case study area to test the improved method and to gain insights to its urban expansion process. Through the validation, our method has been proven to be more accurate than the traditional NTL threshold method. Accordingly, the yearly-continued NTL data can better describe the changing patterns and driving forces of urban expansion than the yearly-discontinued land use and land cover data do. It is found that the total urban area in China has more than quadrupled from 25.2 in 1992 to 108.2 thousand km2 in 2013. Some significant pulses of urban expansion have been detected in our study, which may be attributed to the policy and socioeconomic impacts. Moreover, the panel regression based on annual NTL data indicates that GDP is a more important driver of urban expansion than urban population.


Asunto(s)
Políticas , Urbanización , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Población Urbana
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2274, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859196

RESUMEN

Massive unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic could result in an eviction crisis in US cities. Here we model the effect of evictions on SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, simulating viral transmission within and among households in a theoretical metropolitan area. We recreate a range of urban epidemic trajectories and project the course of the epidemic under two counterfactual scenarios, one in which a strict moratorium on evictions is in place and enforced, and another in which evictions are allowed to resume at baseline or increased rates. We find, across scenarios, that evictions lead to significant increases in infections. Applying our model to Philadelphia using locally-specific parameters shows that the increase is especially profound in models that consider realistically heterogenous cities in which both evictions and contacts occur more frequently in poorer neighborhoods. Our results provide a basis to assess eviction moratoria and show that policies to stem evictions are a warranted and important component of COVID-19 control.


Asunto(s)
/transmisión , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Vivienda/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Políticas , /economía , /virología , Ciudades/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Simulación por Computador , Vivienda/economía , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802284

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to examine the disciplinary approaches being used in secondary schools for student violations of school cannabis policies. Survey data from 134 Canadian secondary schools participating in the Cannabis use, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol use, Smoking, and Sedentary behaviour (COMPASS) study were used from the school year immediately following cannabis legalization in Canada (2018/19). Despite all schools reporting always/sometimes using a progressive discipline approach, punitive consequences (suspension, alert police) remain prevalent as first-offence options, with fewer schools indicating supportive responses (counselling, cessation/educational programs). Schools were classified into disciplinary approach styles, with most schools using Authoritarian and Authoritative approaches, followed by Neglectful and Permissive/Supportive styles. Further support for schools boards in implementing progressive discipline and supportive approaches may be of benefit.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Canadá , Humanos , Políticas , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806462

RESUMEN

Climate change represents a serious threat to the health and well-being of populations. Today, many countries, regions, and cities around the world are implementing policies and strategies to adapt to climate change and mitigate its effects. A scoping review was performed to identify tools and methods that help integrate health into climate change adaptation and mitigation policies and strategies. The literature search includes scientific and grey literature. The scientific literature was conducted using PubMed, Elsevier Embase, and Web of Science databases. A grey literature web search was performed to complement the results. A total of 35 studies (28 from the scientific literature and 7 from the grey literature) were finally included. A large majority of research articles (24/28) and almost all reports (6/7) from the grey literature were published after 2010. Results show that the tools that were found most frequently are the nested models (12/35), health impact assessment (6/35), vulnerability and adaptation assessment (3/35), conceptual frameworks (3/35), and mixed methods (3/35). This review shows an increasing interest in the topic of developing tools to better manage health issues in adaptation and mitigation strategies, with a recent increase in the number of publications. Additional analyses of tools' effectiveness should be conducted in further studies.


Asunto(s)
Aclimatación , Cambio Climático , Políticas
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806885

RESUMEN

(1) The majority of Canadian youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and more female than male youth are falling short of these recommendations. School programs and policies are a viable strategy to improve youth physical activity. However, they may differentially affect female and male activity. This study aimed to examine school-level differences in physical activity outcomes among male and female students and to explore how school programs and policies associate with school-level physical activity outcomes among females. (2) This study used data from 136 schools participating in year 7 (Y7 2018-2019) of the COMPASS study. Data on school programs and policies and on student physical activity were collected. School-level means and percentages for outcomes were calculated and compared between males and females and the impact of physical activity programs and policies on female physical activity outcomes were examined. (3) More males met the guidelines, achieved more strength training days and physical activity minutes compared to females. The number of female varsity sports, community partnerships and fitness ambassadors were all positively and significantly associated with female physical activity. (4) Supportive physical activity environments fostered by offering varsity sports, establishing community partnerships and positive role models may promote physical activity among female youth.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Deportes , Adolescente , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Políticas , Instituciones Académicas
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809158

RESUMEN

Residents' behavior is the result of the combined effect of external environment factors and internal psychological factors. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the attitude-behavior-condition (ABC) theory, this study aims to explore the impact of policy support on residents' psychological factors and proenvironmental behavior. This study developed an extended TPB and ABC model and replaced the behavioral intention in the TPB model with implementation intentions to enhance the ability of the variables to explain and predict proenvironmental behavior. The longitudinal research method was adopted to collect data through a two-stage questionnaire survey of 1145 Shanghai residents. Results demonstrated that perceived policy effectiveness has a significant and positive impact on attitude, implementation intention, and proenvironmental behavior. This means that proenvironmental behavior tends to appear in people with a high perception of policy effectiveness, positive attitude, and strong implementation intention. Moreover, this study points out for the first time that high waste management knowledge weakens the relationship between perceived policy effectiveness and attitude. For residents with high waste management knowledge, the effect of simple policy publicity is limited. The findings suggest that the government should increase the breadth and depth of policy support and policy publicity to cover the entire waste management process.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Intención , China , Políticas , Teoría Psicológica , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Br J Nurs ; 30(8): 498-499, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876682

RESUMEN

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses a new initiative from the Nursing and Midwifery Council to increase clinical learning through simulation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Enfermería/tendencias , Entrenamiento Simulado/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Partería , Pandemias , Políticas , Embarazo , Medicina Estatal , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Reino Unido
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916631

RESUMEN

Different countries have introduced different urgent policies to control the spread of the novel coronavirus. The compliance behavior of these anti-epidemic policies has always been an important concern to governments, and its effects need to be tested. In recent years, many scholars have paid attention to the mechanism and intervention of policy compliance behavior, which helps to explain the mechanism of anti-epidemic compliance behavior, and to improve the effectiveness of anti-epidemic policy. Therefore, considering the characters of youth groups in the context of the novel coronavirus, this study takes campus anti-epidemic compliance behavior as the research topic, based on 680 effective samples of college students in China, in order to examine the effectiveness of these policies using an investigation experiment. This study revealed that the 'Nudge' policy instrument was the most effective way to guide individuals' behavior during the coronavirus outbreak, the 'Sermon' instrument was the least recognized, and the 'Whip' instrument (a traditional and classical policy instrument) had its normal effect on individuals' behavior. Additionally, it found that high accessibility in policy implementation results in more significant policy behavior. By taking the effects of different policy behaviors into consideration, governments may produce better and more effective policy implementation and compliance during the anti-epidemic period.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Epidemias/prevención & control , Humanos , Políticas
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To investigate any associations between new clinical policies implemented because of the COVID-19 pandemic and harm to patients. METHODS: Retrospective data collection of incidents and complaints reported through Datix®, and the Patient Advice and Liaison Service (PALS), respectively. The setting was the Family Health division in a University teaching hospital in the UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures included: the proportion of incidents reported on Datix® from 23 March 2020 to 29 May 2020, compared to the period from 23 March 2019 to 29 May 2019. COVID-19 related incidents and complaints and association with newly published guidelines or pathways from 23 March 2020 to 29 May 2020 were investigated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the proportion of overall patient activity resulting in incidents reported on Datix in 2020 (2.08%) compared to 2019 (2.09%), with 98% resulting in no/low harm in 2020. Three incident categories had increases in relative proportions of incidents including the terms "COVID" or "Corona" compared to incidents that did not: "Child death", "delay/failure to treatment and procedure" and "information governance". One of the child deaths was a miscarriage and we were unable to link the second child death to a change in clinical policy at this stage. We were only able to link two COVID-19 associated incidents with a pathway or procedural change (one to the Children's Emergency Department admission pathway and the second to the introduction of virtual antenatal clinics). Eighteen complaints related to COVID-19 were logged. However, at this stage, we are unable to link any of these to a published change in clinical policy. CONCLUSIONS: New policies introduced in the division, during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with similar rates of clinical incidents, when compared with the previous year. There were only two COVID-19-related incidents clearly related to a change in pathways and procedures. Continued surveillance and improved metrics for monitoring the impact of changes to pathways and procedures should be sought with the sustained presence of COVID-19 in clinical areas.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Niño , Femenino , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Políticas , Embarazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
20.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(4): 134-143, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835851

RESUMEN

Chemsex drug use (CDU) is a frequent, yet neglected issue in the era of treat-all policy. We evaluated the temporal pattern of CDU, factors associated with CDU, and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between chemsex drugs and initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) by surveying 621 Taiwanese individuals (mean age: 29.7 years; 99.2% men; 92.9% men who have sex with men) diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) from 2015 to 2020 [2015 to 2016 (period 1), 2017 to 2018 (period 2), and 2019 to 2020 (period 3)]. CDU was defined as chemsex in the past 1 year before HIV diagnosis. CDU remained prevalent across three periods (34.3-30.5%). Among CDU, methamphetamine (43.4%) was most frequently used, followed by amphetamine (40.0%) and poppers (various alkyl nitrites) (39.5%). We identified significantly increasing amphetamine use (37.0-61.5%) and decreasing ecstasy (methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) use (32.1-17.9%) in CDU across three periods. Besides, polydrug chemsex also significantly increased in CDU across three periods (23.5-43.6%), with amphetamine plus gamma-hydroxybutyrate being the most commonly used combination. CDU was associated with multiple sexual partners and a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). DDIs between chemsex drugs and initial ART remained stable across three periods (10.6-7.8%), with cobicistat/elvitegravir and methamphetamine most common combination. In summary, the magnitude of CDU remained high across 2015-2020 in Taiwan, causing DDIs with initial ART agents. Strategies to reduce the frequency of high-risk sexual practices, STD transmission, and DDIs for newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients engaging in chemsex should be implemented.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Políticas , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Taiwán/epidemiología
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