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2.
Med J (Ft Sam Houst Tex) ; (PB 8-21-01/02/03): 90-96, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666918

RESUMEN

As SARS-CoV-2 spread throughout the world military units had to develop ways of combatting risk to ensure force health protection and deployability of their soldiers. Medical functions were impacted and solutions needed to be found in order to incorporate these items as functioning medical platforms. In the following article, we address one unit's individual response to the difficulties faced as a Military Police Brigade in Europe. Lessons learned from the initial wave of COVID-19 across medical operations, medical readiness, virtual health, and behavioral health initiatives can be utilized for better planning and response in the future.


Asunto(s)
/diagnóstico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Medicina Militar/organización & administración , Personal Militar , Policia , /epidemiología , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(2): 247-253, 2021 03 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690208

RESUMEN

The personnel involved in the management of COVID-19 affected dead bodies, including law enforcement personnel at the scene of crime, personnel involved in transportation of the dead bodies, forensic practitioners, autopsy pathologists, mortuary personnel, as well as the family members of the dead, etc. are at risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Post-mortem examination is a high-risk procedure, considering that it involves aerosol generating procedures, and exposure to body fluids. The safety of the forensic practitioners and support staff in the management of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 deaths hence, is of extreme importance, especially in the absence of pre-autopsy testing for COVID-19 and due to non-availability of adequate first-hand medical history of the deceased. This communication aims to highlight the current practices and advises certain guidelines in ensuring occupational health and safety in view of these risks in medico-legal death investigations.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , /prevención & control , Víctimas de Crimen , Mortalidad Hospitalaria , Humanos , Prácticas Mortuorias/métodos , Equipo de Protección Personal , Policia , Lugar de Trabajo
5.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(1): 71-76, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled external hemorrhage is a common cause of preventable death. The Hartford Consensus recommendations presented the concept of a continuum of care, in which police officers should be considered an integral component of the emergency medical response to active shooter incidents. Recent publications have reported individual cases of tourniquet application by police officers. This report analyzed all documented cases of hemorrhage control using tourniquets applied by police officers in a single large metropolitan police department. METHODS: A retrospective computerized search of all public safety communications center reports and police officer documentation for cases of tourniquet application was conducted by searching for the word "tourniquet." Each case was evaluated for indication and appropriateness using Stop The Bleed criteria for tourniquet placement. In addition, police response time was compared to emergency medical services (EMS) response time in an effort to determine if there was a time difference in response to the bleeding patient that could potentially impact patient outcomes. RESULTS: Forty- three cases were identified over the 6-year period ending in December 2019. The majority of cases involved gunshot wounds and most were civilian victims. Injured police officers accounted for two cases (gunshot wound and dog bite). Review of the officers' narratives indicated that most applications appeared justified using the Stop The Bleed criteria (two cases were questionable if a tourniquet was necessary and one may have been placed in an incorrect location). On average, police arrived 4 minutes sooner than EMS did. CONCLUSION: Several reports in the literature document the success of police officer application of tourniquets to control limb hemorrhage. Most of the reports involved a small number of case reports. This is the largest case series to date from a single urban police department.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Heridas por Arma de Fuego , Colorado , Humanos , Policia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Torniquetes , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/terapia
6.
J Spec Oper Med ; 21(1): 90-93, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721313

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: An immediate paramedic tactical response unit was implemented into a civilian emergency medical services (EMS) system. This was compared with the preexisting traditional tactical EMS support (TEMS). The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on tasking frequencies. The secondary aims of the study were to assess mission timings and the effect on patient encounters. METHODS: Paramedics with tactical emergency medical training provided immediate response on a 24/7 basis. They responded to support police in high-risk TEMS scenarios and incidents in a Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC) role. Tasking frequencies, timings, and clinical input were compared between the first year of immediate response and 3 preceding years of TEMS. RESULTS: The number of TEMS dispatches increased from an average of 5 to 54 annually. The median time from dispatch to scene arrival decreased from a median of 54 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 39-65) to 17 minutes (IQR 11-26) (p < .0001). The overall mission duration decreased from a median of 3 hr 13 min (IQR 2 h 29 min to 4 h 40 min) to 1 h 12 min (IQR 34 min-1 h 18 min) (p < .0001). The number of treated patients increased from one minor injury annually to 13 severe and six minor injuries annually. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing immediate tactical paramedic response significantly decreases response time and mission duration and increases the number of activations and resultant number of treated patients.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Auxiliares de Urgencia , Urgencias Médicas , Tratamiento de Urgencia , Humanos , Policia
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2037209, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576818

RESUMEN

Importance: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used broadly as a less-lethal force option for police officers. However, there is no clear picture of the possible health risks in humans on the basis of rigorously assessed scientific evidence from the international peer-reviewed literature. Objective: To synthesize and systematically evaluate the strength of published evidence for an association between exposure to different models of CEWs and adverse acute as well as chronic conditions. Evidence Review: Following a preregistered review protocol, the literature search strategy was based on a search of reviews published between January 1, 2000, and April 24, 2020, of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library, as well as relevant online databases and bibliographic sources, such as reference sections of recent publications. The identified studies were independently assessed in terms of scope, relevance, methodologic bias, and quality. Peer-reviewed publications of human studies were included, using original data and with a focus on the use of taser CEWs in the context of law enforcement. Eligible studies examined clearly defined health outcomes as dependent variables following exposure to a CEW. The review followed the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. A meta-analysis could not be conducted. Findings: Of the 1081 unique records screened, 33 relevant studies were identified, all of them of experimental design and conducted in the US. Eleven studies had a low risk of bias and 22 had a higher bias risk. Studies focused on outcomes such as physiologic stress responses, heart rate, blood pressure, arrhythmias, or cognitive performance. Independently of bias risk, the studies reported few or no acute health problems, apart from the wounds caused by the darts. Furthermore, no long-term outcomes were studied. Most of the studies were performed on healthy, physically fit individuals (eg, police officers) in a controlled setting, with short exposure duration (5 seconds). Half of the studies, mainly those with a higher risk of bias, were at least partly funded by the manufacturer. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on the findings of the reviewed studies, the risk for adverse health outcomes due to CEW exposure can be currently estimated as low. However, most of the reviewed studies had methodologic limitations. Considering that recruited participants were not representative of the population that usually encounters a CEW deployment, it is not possible to draw conclusions regarding exposure outcomes in potentially vulnerable populations or high-risk groups, such as those under the influence of substances.


Asunto(s)
Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Lesiones por Armas Conductoras de Energía/fisiopatología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Armas , Acidosis Láctica/epidemiología , Acidosis Láctica/etiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiología , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Enfermedad Crónica , Lesiones por Armas Conductoras de Energía/complicaciones , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/etiología , Policia , Apoyo a la Investigación como Asunto , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
9.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 45, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563270

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: All countries are facing decisions about which population groups to prioritize for access to COVID-19 vaccination after the first vaccine products have been licensed, at which time supply shortages are inevitable. Our objective is to define the key target populations, their size, and priority for a COVID-19 vaccination program in the context of China. METHODS: On the basis of utilitarian and egalitarian principles, we define and estimate the size of tiered target population groups for a phased introduction of COVID-19 vaccination, considering evolving goals as vaccine supplies increase, detailed information on the risk of illness and transmission, and past experience with vaccination during the 2009 influenza pandemic. Using publicly available data, we estimated the size of target population groups, and the number of days needed to vaccinate 70% of the target population. Sensitivity analyses considered higher vaccine coverages and scaled up vaccine delivery relative to the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: Essential workers, including staff in the healthcare, law enforcement, security, nursing homes, social welfare institutes, community services, energy, food and transportation sectors, and overseas workers/students (49.7 million) could be prioritized for vaccination to maintain essential services in the early phase of a vaccination program. Subsequently, older adults, individuals with underlying health conditions and pregnant women (563.6 million) could be targeted for vaccination to reduce the number of individuals with severe COVID-19 outcomes, including hospitalizations, critical care admissions, and deaths. In later stages, the vaccination program could be further extended to target adults without underlying health conditions and children (784.8 million), in order to reduce symptomatic infections and/or to stop virus transmission. Given 10 million doses administered per day, and a two-dose vaccination schedule, it would take 1 week to vaccinate essential workers but likely up to 7 months to vaccinate 70% of the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed framework is general but could assist Chinese policy-makers in the design of a vaccination program. Additionally, this exercise could be generalized to inform other national and regional strategies for use of COVID-19 vaccines, especially in low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
/uso terapéutico , Personal de Salud , Programas de Inmunización/métodos , Selección de Paciente , Policia , Adolescente , Anciano , /mortalidad , Niño , China/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Teoría Ética , Femenino , Industria de Alimentos , Prioridades en Salud , Hospitalización , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización/organización & administración , Lactante , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Casas de Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Formulación de Políticas , Embarazo , Transportes , Vacunación , Adulto Joven
10.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591676

RESUMEN

The article considers the circumstances of the beginning of teaching medical police at St.Vladimir Imperial University in Kiev that was investigated for the first time. It was established that the medical police were taught as one of academic disciplines at the Department of State Medicine Studies. It found out that the given Department began its activities in 1843 when it was organized and headed by professor Ivan Fedorovich Leonov (1809-1854). The adjunct assistant professor Ch.Ya. von Hübbenet and associate professor A. I. Slobodzinsky worked at this Department in 1847-1850 and in 1851-1856 correspondingly. In 1852, the Charter and Staff of the St. Vladimir University provided setting apart medical jurisprudence from medical police subject and teaching it as an independent faculty discipline. It is demonstrated that hereinafter the given practice didn't become widespread in the Universities of the Russian Empire. In 1853, the Department of State Medicine Studies in Kiev was headed by F. F. Mering (1822-1887).


Asunto(s)
Docentes Médicos , Policia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Federación de Rusia , Medicina Estatal , Universidades
11.
Science ; 371(6530): 677-678, 2021 02 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574200
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 21, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461572

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Brazil is a violent society and police officers play a fundamental role in this scenario. Police work is a stressful occupation. Dealing with routine violence, police officers must have high standards of physical and mental health. Patrolling the streets involves several risks and stressful situations that may hamper military policemen's quality of life. The identification of factors associated with health-related quality of life may help in planning and providing adequate care to military policemen. This study aimed to identify factors associated with health-related quality of life of military policemen in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional design study investigated a random sample of 329 male military police officers, engaged in patrolling the streets of Salvador, Brazil. A structured questionnaire applied to the policemen collected information about age, education, marital status, income, house ownership, car ownership, police rank, working day, alcohol consumption, smoking, frequency of vigorous physical activity, obesity (body mass index ≥ 30.0), and work ability. Health-related quality of life was evaluated through the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Work ability was assessed through the Work Ability Index questionnaire. Poor work ability was defined by a 7-27 points score. Multiple linear regression models were used to measure the impact of police officers characteristics on the variation in the Physical Component and Mental Component Summary scores. RESULTS: Normalised scores were below 50.0% for seven out of the eight SF-36 domains and for the two component summaries. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with poor work ability, while the Mental Component Summary was associated with poor work ability, excessive alcohol consumption, and younger age (24-34 years). Multivariate analysis estimated that the Physical Component Summary was 7.386 units (%) lower among policemen with poor work ability compared to those with moderate/good/excellent work ability. The Mental Component Summary was 12.755 units lower among those with poor work ability, 5.354 units lower among those with excessive alcohol consumption, and 5.532 units higher among those with younger age. CONCLUSIONS: The military police officers investigated presented low health-related quality of life, associated with younger age, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor work ability.


Asunto(s)
Personal Militar/psicología , Policia/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Brasil , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Rendimiento Laboral , Recursos Humanos , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466506

RESUMEN

The current article examined the relationship between preferred styles of coping with stress and occupational burnout among probation officers in Poland. The probation system in Poland is unique in comparison to similar organizations in Europe and the world. It is characterized by two separate specializations in the area of performed tasks: probation officers for adults and for family and juvenile clients. The main purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between occupational burnout levels among probation officers (n = 390) and their preferred styles of coping with stress. Two psychological tools were used in the study: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A linear regression analysis was carried out to explain the variance in occupational burnout. Occupational burnout was the dependent variable and the CISS scales were the predictors. In order to test the moderating role of the sociodemographic factors of gender, work experience, age, and probation specialization in the relationship between coping styles and occupational burnout, a range of moderation analyses using Hayes' PROCESS macro on SPSS was carried out.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Agotamiento Profesional , Policia/psicología , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polonia , Adulto Joven
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2033484, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394004

RESUMEN

Importance: Violence is a significant public health problem that has become entwined with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Objective: To describe individuals' concerns regarding violence in the context of the pandemic, experiences of pandemic-related unfair treatment, prevalence of and reasons for firearm acquisition, and changes in firearm storage practices due to the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used data from the 2020 California Safety and Well-being Survey, a probability-based internet survey of California adults conducted from July 14 to 27, 2020. Respondents came from the Ipsos KnowledgePanel, an online research panel with members selected using address-based sampling methods. Responses were weighted to be representative of the adult population of California. Main Outcomes and Measures: Topics included worry about violence for oneself before and during the pandemic; concern about violence for someone else due to a pandemic-related loss; experiences of unfair treatment attributed to the pandemic; firearm and ammunition acquisition due to the pandemic; and changes in firearm storage practices due to the pandemic. Results: Of 5018 invited panel members, 2870 completed the survey (completion rate, 57%). Among respondents (52.3% [95% CI, 49.5%-55.0%] women; mean [SD] age, 47.9 [16.9] years; 41.9% [95% CI, 39.3%-44.6%] White individuals), self-reported worry about violence for oneself was significantly higher during the pandemic for all violence types except mass shootings, ranging from a 2.8 percentage point increase for robbery (from 65.5% [95% CI, 62.8%-68.0%] to 68.2% [95% CI, 65.6%-70.7%]; P = .008) to a 5.6 percentage point increase for stray bullet shootings (from 44.5% [95% CI, 41.7%-47.3%] to 50.0% [47.3%-52.8%]; P < .001). The percentage of respondents concerned that someone they know might intentionally harm themselves was 13.1% (95% CI, 11.5%-15.3%). Of those, 7.5% (95% CI, 4.5%-12.2%) said it was because the other person had experienced a pandemic-related loss. An estimated 110 000 individuals (2.4% [95% CI, 1.1%-5.0%] of firearm owners in the state) acquired a firearm due to the pandemic, including 47 000 new owners (43.0% [95% CI, 14.8%-76.6%] of those who had acquired a firearm). Of owners who stored at least 1 firearm in the least secure way, 6.7% (95% CI, 2.7%-15.6%) said they had adopted this unsecure storage practice in response to the pandemic. Conclusions and Relevance: In this analysis of findings from the 2020 California Safety and Well-being Survey, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increases in self-reported worry about violence for oneself and others, increased firearm acquisition, and changes in firearm storage practices. Given the impulsive nature of many types of violence, short-term crisis interventions may be critical for reducing violence-related harm.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Discriminación Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/psicología , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Ansiedad/psicología , Americanos Asiáticos , California/epidemiología , Comercio , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Miedo/psicología , Femenino , Armas de Fuego/estadística & datos numéricos , Hispanoamericanos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Propiedad , Policia , Seguridad , Discriminación Social/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(1): 66-69, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431395

RESUMEN

We are living in unprecedented times. While the world is grappling with COVID-19, we find the horrors of racism looming equally large as we, yet again, confront lurid deaths in the center of the news cycle of Black and brown people from police bias and brutality. Those of us who have been championing antiracism and justice work and bearing the burden of the "minority tax" have been overwhelmed by sudden asks from our well-intentioned White colleagues of how to best respond. In the tone of the Netflix series, "Dear White People," we further emphasize that we are not alone in trying to reach out to you, our White colleagues and leaders. Please hear our story and heed our call to action.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Racismo , Humanos , Policia , Justicia Social , Televisión
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407558

RESUMEN

In this commentary, we present a follow-up of two articles published in 2017 and 2018 about road traffic crashes, which is an important public health issue in Africa and Burkina Faso. The first article reported on a research project, conducted in partnership with local actors involved in road safety, carried out in Ouagadougou in 2015. Its aim was to test the effectiveness, acceptability, and capacity of a surveillance system to assess the number of road traffic crashes and their consequences on the health of crash victims. Several knowledge translation activities were carried out to maximize its impact and were reported in the 2018 article published in HRPS: monthly reports presenting the research data, large-format printed maps distributed to the city's police stations, and a deliberative workshop held at the end of the research project. The present commentary presents our efforts to deepen our understanding of the impacts of the knowledge translation strategy, based on follow-up interviews, 18 months after the workshop, with the heads of the road traffic crash units in Ouagadougou police stations (n = 5). Several benefits were reported by respondents. Their involvement in the process prompted them to broaden their knowledge of other ways of dealing with the issue of road crashes. This led them, sometimes with their colleagues, to intervene differently: more rapid response at collision sites, increased surveillance of dangerous intersections, user awareness-raising on the importance of the highway code, etc. However, sustaining these actions over the longer term has proven difficult. Several lessons were derived from this experience, regarding the importance of producing useful and locally applicable research data, of ensuring the acceptability of the technologies used for data collection, of using collaborative approaches in research and knowledge translation, of ensuring the visibility of actions undertaken by actors in the field, and of involving decision-makers in the research process to maximize its impacts.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Policia , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Burkina Faso , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034868, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492375

RESUMEN

Importance: Police in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, routinely transport patients with penetrating trauma to nearby trauma centers. During the past decade, this practice has gained increased acceptance, but outcomes resulting from police transport of these patients have not been recently evaluated. Objective: To assess mortality among patients with penetrating trauma who are transported to trauma centers by police vs by emergency medical services (EMS). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study registry and included 3313 adult patients with penetrating trauma from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018. Outcomes were compared between patients transported by police (n = 1970) and patients transported by EMS (n = 1343) to adult level I and II trauma centers in Philadelphia. Exposures: Police vs EMS transport. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was 24-hour mortality. Secondary end points included death at multiple other time points. After whole-cohort regression analysis, coarsened exact matching was used to control for confounding differences between groups. Matching criteria included patient age, injury mechanism and location, Injury Severity Score (ISS), presenting systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow Coma Scale score. Subgroup analysis was performed among patients with low, moderate, or high ISS. Results: Of the 3313 patients (median age, 29 years [interquartile range, 23-40 years]) in the study, 3013 (90.9%) were men. During the course of the study, the number of police transports increased significantly (from 328 patients in 2014 to 489 patients in 2018; P = .04), while EMS transport remained unchanged (from 246 patients in 2014 to 281 patients in 2018; P = .44). On unadjusted analysis, compared with patients transported by EMS, patients transported by police were younger (median age, 27 years [interquartile range, 22-36 years] vs 32 years [interquartile range, 24-46 years]), more often injured by a firearm (1741 of 1970 [88.4%] vs 681 of 1343 [50.7%]), and had a higher median ISS (14 [interquartile range, 9-26] vs 10 [interquartile range, 5-17]). Patients transported by police had higher mortality at 24 hours than those transported by EMS (560 of 1970 [28.4%] vs 246 of 1343 [18.3%]; odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.57-2.21; P < .001) and at all other time points. After coarsened exact matching (870 patients in each transport cohort), there was no difference in mortality at 24 hours (210 [24.1%] vs 212 [24.4%]; odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.59-1.52; P = .91) or at any other time point. On subgroup analysis, patients with severe injuries transported by police were less likely to be dead on arrival compared with matched patients transported by EMS (64 of 194 [33.0%] vs 79 of 194 [40.7%]; odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.94; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: For patients with penetrating trauma in an urban setting, 24-hour mortality was not different for those transported by police vs EMS to a trauma center. Timely transport to definitive trauma care should be emphasized over medical capability in the prehospital management of patients with penetrating trauma.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Policia , Transporte de Pacientes , Heridas Penetrantes/mortalidad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Puntaje de Gravedad del Traumatismo , Masculino , Philadelphia , Centros Traumatológicos
19.
Forensic Sci Int ; 319: 110650, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340849

RESUMEN

The aim of this article was to conduct a rapid critical review of the literature about the relationship between violence against women (VAW) and the current COVID-19 pandemic. After the screening process, a total of 42 articles were considered. Our review confirmed that the "stay at home" policies to contrast the pandemic have increased the problem of VAW, creating a "shadow pandemic within the pandemic", as it was called by the United Nations. However, rigorous studies estimating the relationship between VAW and COVID-19 pandemic are scarce; most of the articles are commentaries, letters, editorials, and most of the published data derives from social media, internet, anecdotal evidence and helplines reports. Health care systems should promote further investigations into the relation between VAW and COVID-19, to identify creative solutions to provide clinical care and forensic services for victims of VAW.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Líneas Directas/tendencias , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/tendencias , Policia , Política Pública
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