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1.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 58744, Jan.-Jun. 2024. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550248

RESUMEN

Resumo Introdução: A profissão policial é considerada de alto risco e exige um vigor físico e mental do trabalhador diante do serviço realizado. De tal modo que uma boa qualidade do sono é importante, pois impacta diretamente em diversos aspectos na saúde desses trabalhadores. Ademais, a falta de uma boa qualidade do sono devido ao trabalho pode influenciar negativamente a qualidade de vida no trabalho. Objetivo: Analisar a influência da qualidade do sono na qualidade de vida no trabalho de policiais militares. Metodologia: Estudo quantitativo, correlacionalde corte transversal, realizado no primeiro semestre de 2019, com policiais de três municípios da Bahia, Brasil. Foram utilizados três instrumentos: sociodemográfico e características laborais; qualidade de vida de vida no trabalho; e qualidade do sono. Foi aplicado o teste do qui quadrado para as variáveis sociodemograficas e ocupacionais. Posteriormente, foi aplicado o teste de correlação de Spearman entre a qualidade do sono com as dimensões da qualidade de vida no trabalho. Resultados: Evidenciou-se entre os 298 policiais que a mediana da idade foi de 40 anos e tempo de serviço ≤ 7 anos, observou-se também que os policiais com pior qualidade do sono apresentaram qualidade de vida no trabalho insatisfatória em todas as dimensões (biológica/fisiológica; psicológica/comportamental; sociológica/relacional; econômica/política, ambiental/organizacional). Conclusão: Os policiais sofrem com a qualidade do sono e consequentemente influencia negativamente a qualidade de vida no trabalho. Assim, há uma necessidade de desenvolver ações no ambiente de trabalho que possam diminuir os afastamentos decorrentes dos problemas de saúde ocasionados pela qualidade do sono.


Resumen Introdución: La formación policial se considera de alto riesgo y requiere vigor físico y mental por parte de la persona trabajadora antes de realizar el servicio. Para esto, la buena calidad de sueño es importante, ya que impacta directamente en la salud de la población trabajadora en varios aspectos. Además, la falta de una buena calidad de sueño debido al trabajo puede influir negativamente en la calidad de vida fuera del trabajo. Objetivo: Analizar la influencia de la calidad del sueño en la calidad de vida en el trabajo de policías militares. Metodología: Estudio cuantitativo, correlacional transversal, realizado en el primer semestre de 2019, con policías de tres municipios de Bahía, Brasil. Se utilizaron tres instrumentos: características sociodemográficas y laborales, calidad de vida en el trabajo y calidad de sueño. Se aplicó la prueba chi cuadrado para las variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales. Posteriormente, se aplicó la prueba de correlación de Spearman entre la calidad del sueño y las dimensiones de calidad de vida en el trabajo. Resultados: La muestra fue de 298 policías, la mediana de edad fue de 40 años y la antigüedad en el servicio fue ≤ 7 años. También, se observó quienes tuvieron peor calidad de sueño, también tuvieron una calidad de vida en el trabajo insatisfactoria en todos sus dimensiones (biológica/fisiológica; psicológica/conductual; sociológica/relacional; económica/política, ambiental/organizacional). Conclusión: Quienes son agentes de policía sufren de mala calidad de sueño y, en consecuencia, se influye negativamente su calidad de vida en el trabajo. Por lo tanto, existe la necesidad de desarrollar acciones en el lugar de trabajo que pueda reducir los riesgos de problemas de salud causados por la calidad del sueño.


Abstract Background: Police training is considered high risk and demands physical and mental vigor from the worker before preforming the service. Therefore, sleep quality is important as it directly impacts the health of these workers in several aspects. Furthermore, the lack of sleep quality due to work can negatively influence the quality of life outside of work. Aim: To analyze the influence of sleep quality on the quality of life and work of military police officers. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional correlational study, conducted in the first half of 2019 with police officers from three municipalities in Bahia, Brazil. Three instruments were used: sociodemographic and work characteristics; quality of life at work; and sleep quality. The chi-square test was applied for sociodemographic and occupational variations. Subsequently, the Spearman correlation test was applied between sleep quality and the quality of life and work dimensions. Results: Among the 298 police officers the median age was 40 years and the length of service was ≤ 7 years. It was also observed that police officers with poorer sleep quality had an unsatisfactory quality of life at work in all its dimensions (biological/physiological; psychological/behavioral; sociological/relational; economic/political, environmental/organizational). Conclusion: Police officers suffer from poor sleep quality and this negatively influence their quality of life and work. Therefore, there is a need to develop actions in the workplace that may reduce the risks of health problems caused by poor sleep quality.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Policia , Salud Militar , Calidad del Sueño , Calidad de Vida , Brasil , Salud Laboral
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355625, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716240

RESUMEN

Introduction: Work-related burnout is a state of physical and psychological fatigue and exhaustion resulting from chronic workplace stress related to work. The police workforce is vulnerable to this psychosocial hazard, which affects service delivery by police workers. However, there is little evidence about the prevalence of work-related burnout and associated factors among police officers in Ethiopia. Therefore, this research investigated the prevalence and predictor variables of work-related burnout among police officers in central Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2023. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was carried out from April 12 to May 12, 2023. A sample of 633 police officers was recruited through multistage random sampling techniques. To measure work-related burnout, a standardized, self-administered Copenhagen Burnout Inventory was used. To enter the collected data, EpiData V 4.6 and to analyze SPSS V 26 were used. To examine the association between work-related burnout and its predictor variables, both bivariable (p < 0.2) and multivariable (<0.05) logistic regression analyses were performed, and statistical significance was established via multivariable logistic regression. Results: The response rate in this study was 96.05% (n = 608). The majority, 452 (74.3%) of the police officers, were male; the median (IQR) age of participants was 28. In the past six months, 45.7% of the police officers had experienced work-related burnout (n = 278). Being female, having a high job demand, having a high level of organizational police stress, having a moderate level of operational police stress, having a high level of operational police stress, experiencing job dissatisfaction, and sleeping troubles were risk factors significantly related to the occurrence of work-related burnout among police officers. Conclusion: According to this study, a significant number of police officers suffer from burnout due to their work. Police officers' work-related burnout was found to be influenced by factors such as sex, job demands, job satisfaction, workplace stress, organizational police stress, and sleeping troubles. To address this problem, improving the handling of work pressure, developing a stress management program, finding joy at work by improving interpersonal relationships and working conditions, offering support and inspiration to female police officers, and ensuring sufficient and restful sleep are advised.


Asunto(s)
Agotamiento Profesional , Policia , Humanos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Policia/estadística & datos numéricos , Policia/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores de Riesgo , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 33: e26, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38712441

RESUMEN

AIMS: Police employees may experience high levels of stress due to the challenging nature of their work which can then lead to sickness absence. To date, there has been limited research on sickness absence in the police. This exploratory analysis investigated sickness absence in UK police employees. METHODS: Secondary data analyses were conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (2006-2015). Past year sickness absence was self-reported and categorised as none, low (1-5 days), moderate (6-19 days) and long-term sickness absence (LTSA, 20 or more days). Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine sickness absence and exploratory associations with sociodemographic factors, occupational stressors, health risk behaviours, and mental health outcomes, controlling for rank, gender and age. RESULTS: From a sample of 40,343 police staff and police officers, forty-six per cent had no sickness absence within the previous year, 33% had a low amount, 13% a moderate amount and 8% were on LTSA. The groups that were more likely to take sick leave were women, non-uniformed police staff, divorced or separated, smokers and those with three or more general practitioner consultations in the past year, poorer mental health, low job satisfaction and high job strain. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the groups of police employees who may be more likely to take sick leave and is unique in its use of a large cohort of police employees. The findings emphasise the importance of considering possible modifiable factors that may contribute to sickness absence in UK police forces.


Asunto(s)
Salud Mental , Estrés Laboral , Policia , Ausencia por Enfermedad , Humanos , Policia/estadística & datos numéricos , Policia/psicología , Ausencia por Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Factores Sociodemográficos , Absentismo , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10015, 2024 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693176

RESUMEN

Police officers often face emotionally challenging interpersonal situations and numerous studies have demonstrated that policing is a stressful occupation. A study revealed a significant positive correlation between emotional demands among police officers and emotional dissonance, as well as burnout. Health-promoting behaviors can contribute to better overall health outcomes and reduce the risk of developing health problems, but there is limited research evaluating the association of job strain and health behaviors with mental health outcomes in police officers. The objective of this study was to assess the job strain associated with mental health mediated by health behaviors in Taiwanese police officers. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted in Oct 2016. A total of 41,871 police officers (response rate was 79.7%) participated questionnaire that consisted of demographic information, job characteristics, health behaviors, and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Short-Form Health Survey. Independent t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) were conducted to assess the differences in mean MCS scores across various demographics, health behavior, and job characteristics. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between job strain and health behaviors with mental health outcomes. MCS scores were associated with job characteristics and health behaviors among police officers except for gender. After adjusting for covariates, multivariate analysis indicated that police officers with high job demands and high job strain index exhibited poor MCS scores. Job strain was significantly associated with MCS mediated by health behaviors (consumption of fruits and vegetables, and physical activity) in Taiwanese police officers. Since regular physical activity and increased vegetable and fruit consumption might alleviate the effects of job strain on mental health status, it is recommended that institutional policies be established to promote health-enhancing behaviors among police officers.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Salud Mental , Estrés Laboral , Policia , Humanos , Policia/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Taiwán/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Estrés Laboral/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 103: 102681, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588619

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: A comparison between Cinematic Rendering Technique (CRT) and Volume Rendering Technique (VRT) in cases with postmortem CT-angiography (PMCTA) was carried out. METHODS: For different injuries seen in PMCTA, a VRT and a CRT image of exactly the same pathological section was generated. Two questionnaires were created, one with CRT and one with VRT reconstructions, with the same questions per 3D-image. The questionnaires were sent to forensic pathologists, lawyers and police officers. In total eleven different injuries had to be analyzed. RESULTS: In total 109 questionnaires were answered fully. Of these returnees, 36 stated that they were forensic pathologists. Seventy-three people were assigned to the group of medical laypersons, in the study this group consists mainly of police officers, judges and lawyers. Between the two software programs CRT and VRT that were compared, no significant difference could be identified in any of the participating groups with regard to the assessment of the life-threatening nature of the injury images shown. When asked about the comprehensibility of pathology, there was a significant difference in favour of CRT. This advantage was apparent to named medical laypersons and to forensic pathologists. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed a positive trend that CRT may be more understandable than VRT. Not only the medical laypersons, but also the forensic physicians found CRT to be beneficial.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Legal , Imagenología Tridimensional , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Medicina Legal/métodos , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Policia , Abogados , Programas Informáticos , Masculino , Heridas y Lesiones/diagnóstico por imagen , Heridas y Lesiones/patología
6.
Child Abuse Negl ; 152: 106757, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574600

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite acknowledging the detrimental impact of child sexual abuse material (CSAM) exposure on the mental and physical well-being of investigators and forensic examiners, there is a need for comprehensive exploration into the complex relationship between CSAM exposure, its various dimensions, mental health (i.e., anxiety, depression, and PTSD), and burnout, as well as the presence of positive attitudes towards the job. OBJECTIVE: To understand how CSAM exposure, mental health and burnout interconnect and cluster within distinct networks of police investigators and forensic examiners. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Police investigators and forensic examiners from across the United States who were exposed to CSAM as part of their professions (N = 470). METHODS: Participants, recruited through connections with the National Criminal Justice Training Center, completed an anonymous online survey. RESULTS: The network analysis revealed differences in centrality between investigators and forensic examiners, particularly in their associations with exposure factors and mental health variables. Edges invariance tests showed differences in the strength of these associations, with some factors being more strongly linked to PTSD avoidance symptoms among investigators and others among forensic examiners. Stability analyses suggested potentially greater heterogeneity among investigators, while both groups displayed high stability in other centrality indices. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to our comprehension of the distinct experiences and challenges faced by CSAM investigators and forensic examiners, and specifically the nuanced disparities between CSAM investigators and forensic examiners in terms of their exposure to CSAM content and the associated mental health factors. These insights highlight the imperative need for tailored support mechanisms and interventions that can effectively address the unique challenges encountered by individuals working tirelessly in this critical field.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Humanos , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Niño , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Agotamiento Profesional/psicología , Agotamiento Profesional/epidemiología , Policia/psicología , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(2): 117-132, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38602805

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Recent attempts to model the relative performances of eyewitness lineup procedures necessarily include theoretical assumptions about the various costs/benefits, or utilities, of different identification outcomes. We collected data to incorporate empirically derived utilities into such modeling as well as data on various stakeholders' views of lineup procedures as tertiary objectives. HYPOTHESES: This research was exploratory; therefore, we did not have a priori hypotheses. METHOD: We surveyed judges' (n = 70), prosecutors' (n = 28), police officers' (n = 82), and laypersons' (n = 191) opinions about eyewitness identification procedures and the utilities of outcomes of eyewitness identification procedures. We incorporated the utility judgments into models comparing the desirability of various lineup reforms and compared policy preferences between our samples. RESULTS: All samples frequently mentioned estimator and system variables in open-ended evaluations of lineup procedures, but legal samples mentioned system variables more often than did laypersons. Reflector variables (e.g., confidence) were mentioned less often across the board, as was the scientific basis/standardization of identification policy (especially among laypersons). Utility judgments of various identification outcomes indicated that judges adopt values more closely aligned with normative legal ethics (i.e., the Blackstone ratio), whereas other stakeholders (especially laypersons) depart significantly from those standards. Utility models indicated general agreement among samples in lineup procedure preferences, which varied as a function of culprit-presence base rates. CONCLUSION: Although legal stakeholders vary in how they value eyewitness identification outcomes, their values imply relatively consistent policy preferences that sometimes depart from scientific recommendations. Nonetheless, all samples expressed support for using scientific research to inform legal policy regarding eyewitness evidence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Crimen , Reconocimiento en Psicología , Humanos , Juicio , Policia , Políticas , Recuerdo Mental
9.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 21(4): 573-577, 2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616585

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Military recruits and athletes have high occurrence of stress fractures, with very high incidence among military recruits. Symptomatic stress fractures can be disabling in some people. This study aims at identifying pattern and distribution of such fractures in Nepal Police trainee and assess the risk factors and demographics that may help to develop the local guidelines. METHODS: This study analysed 65 police trainees who presented to the orthopaedic Out Patient Department at Nepal Police and Province Police Hospital diagnosed as a case of stress fracture from 29 December, 2020 to 29 December, 2021. Ethical approval was obtained and different variables analysed were age, sex, Body Mass Index, location of fracture, duration of pain, method of treatment, time to heal the fracture and time to pain free mobilisation of patient. RESULTS: There were 65 trainees with 86 sites of fracture at different bones with 50.8% (33) of male population. The majority of fracture was located at tibia (58.1%) followed by pubic rami (33.7%) with potentially debilitating fracture neck of femur seen in 4.6% subjects. Mean duration of pain was 20.7±14.2 days with mean time for pain free mobilisation 42.2±17.7 days after presentation. 96.5% of those recovered with conservative treatment (activity restriction or cast). CONCLUSIONS: The location of stress fracture depends upon the type of training or activities. Modification of activities in early phase of training with early visit for medical care in case of trainees with increasing pain may decrease morbidities and complications requiring operative treatment.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas por Estrés , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Masa Corporal , Fracturas por Estrés/epidemiología , Nepal/epidemiología , Dolor , Policia , Femenino
10.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 32(1): 36, 2024 Apr 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664693

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing mountain activity and decreasing participant preparedness, as well as climate change, suggest needs to tailor mountain rescue. In Sweden, previous medical research of these services are lacking. The aim of the study is to describe Swedish mountain rescue missions as a basis for future studies, public education, resource allocation, and rescuer training. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all mission reports in the national Swedish Police Registry on Mountain Rescue 2018-2022 (n = 1543). Outcome measures were frequencies and characteristics of missions, casualties, fatalities, traumatic injuries, medical conditions, and incident mechanisms. RESULTS: Jämtland county had the highest proportion of missions (38%), followed by Norrbotten county (36%). 2% of missions involved ≥ 4 casualties, and 44% involved ≥ 4 mountain rescuers. Helicopter use was recorded in 59% of missions. Non-Swedish citizens were rescued in 12% of missions. 37% of casualties were females. 14% of casualties were ≥ 66 or ≤ 12 years of age. Of a total 39 fatalities, cardiac event (n = 14) was the most frequent cause of death, followed by trauma (n = 10) and drowning (n = 8). There was one avalanche fatality. 8 fatalities were related to snowmobiling, and of the total 1543 missions, 309 (20%) were addressing snowmobiling incidents. Of non-fatal casualties, 431 involved a medical condition, of which 90 (21%) suffered hypothermia and 73 (17%) cardiovascular illness. CONCLUSIONS: These baseline data suggest snowmobiling, cardiac events, drownings, multi-casualty incidents, and backcountry internal medicine merit future study and intervention.


Asunto(s)
Sistema de Registros , Trabajo de Rescate , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Suecia/epidemiología , Femenino , Masculino , Trabajo de Rescate/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Montañismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Montañismo/lesiones , Anciano , Niño , Policia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Heridas y Lesiones/epidemiología , Heridas y Lesiones/mortalidad , Adulto Joven
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(4)2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599664

RESUMEN

Not much is known about the perpetrators of male homicide in South Africa, which has rates seven times the global average. For the country's first ever male homicide study we describe the epidemiology of perpetrators, their relationship with victims and victim profiles of men killed by male versus female perpetrators. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of routine data collected through forensic and police investigations, calculating victim and perpetrator homicide rates by age, sex, race, external cause, employment status and setting, stratified by victim-perpetrator relationships. For perpetrators, we reported suspected drug and alcohol use, prior convictions, gang-involvement and homicide by multiple perpetrators. Perpetrators were acquaintances in 63% of 5594 cases in which a main perpetrator was identified. Sharp objects followed by guns were the main external causes of death. The highest rates were recorded in urban informal areas among unemployed men across all victim-perpetrator relationship types. Recreational settings including bars featured prominently. Homicides clustered around festive periods and weekends, both of which are associated with heavy episodic drinking. Perpetrator alcohol use was reported in 41% of homicides by family members and 50% by acquaintances. Other drug use was less common (9% overall). Of 379 men killed by female perpetrators, 60% were killed by intimate partners. Perpetrator alcohol use was reported in approximately half of female-on-male murders. Female firearm use was exclusively against intimate partners. No men were killed by male intimate partners. Violence prevention, which in South Africa has mainly focused on women and children, needs to be integrated into an inclusive approach. Profiling victims and perpetrators of male homicide is an important and necessary first step to challenge prevailing masculine social constructs that men are neither vulnerable to, nor the victims of, trauma and to identify groups at risk of victimisation that could benefit from specific interventions and policies.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Policia , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Violencia
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673350

RESUMEN

Our aim was to investigate the impact of shiftwork on changes in central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), a measure of arteriolar width, and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE), a measure of venular width, over five years. The participants were 117 officers (72.7% men) examined at the first (2011-2014) and second (2015-2019) follow-up examinations in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study. Shiftwork data were obtained from the City of Buffalo, NY payroll records. Retinal diameters were measured using a standardized protocol. ANCOVA was used to compare mean change in CRAE and CRVE between the two examinations across shiftwork categories. Among men only, those who worked ≥70% hours on day shifts had a larger decrease in mean CRAE (-7.13 µm ± 2.51) compared to those who worked <70% day (-0.08 ± 0.96; p = 0.011). Among patrol officers, those who worked ≥70% day had a larger decrease in CRAE compared to those who worked <70% day (p = 0.015). Also, officers who worked ≥70% day had an increase in mean CRVE (µm) (4.56 ± 2.56) compared to those who worked <70% (-2.32 ± 1.32; p = 0.027). Over the five-year period, we observed adverse changes in arteriolar and venular diameters among officers who worked ≥70% on day shifts. The results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample sizes.


Asunto(s)
Vasos Retinianos , Humanos , Masculino , Vasos Retinianos/anatomía & histología , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Horario de Trabajo por Turnos , Policia , New York
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673366

RESUMEN

Methamphetamine contamination of residential properties remains a serious public health concern for members of the public. External stakeholders including Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) and testing and remediation technicians are engaged on investigating whether contamination has occurred from manufacturing or smoking processes. More specifically, local council EHOs are responsible for managing clandestine drug laboratories when notified by police and also for responding to public enquiries. However, the full scope of these contaminated properties is not seen by any single stakeholder, making it very challenging to quantify these situations. To evaluate the prevalence of methamphetamine related enquiries from the general public to EHOs, this study surveyed and interviewed officers from around Australia. It was found that public enquiries were infrequent with only 6% of respondents having received enquiries in the last month, which indicates that people are seeking information from other sources. Interestingly, there were case study scenarios that also mentioned issues with awareness and the flow of information. Concerns regarding difficult cases, police notifications, and site visits were also highlighted. The results of this study provide a benchmark of how methamphetamine related cases are managed and highlight the need for trustworthy information that is available to EHOs, governments, industry members, and the public in a unified location.


Asunto(s)
Gobierno Local , Metanfetamina , Humanos , Australia , Salud Ambiental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Prevalencia , Policia
14.
Soc Sci Res ; 119: 102986, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609304

RESUMEN

Using the Consequences of COVID-19 (COCO) dataset (quota sample of the adult Italian population, surveyed seven times by email), we analysed the trend of trust in political (political parties, parliament and local administrations), super partes (president of the Republic, judiciary and police) and international (the European Union and the United Nations) institutions from June 2019 to October 2022. Three latent growth curve models showed that trust in political institutions increased between June 2019 and April 2020 and subsequently decreased below the pre-pandemic level. Trust in super partes institutions decreased slightly between June 2019 and April 2020, decreased from April 2020 to April 2022 and increased in the subsequent months. Trust in international institutions declined between June 2019 and April 2020 and then returned to pre-pandemic levels. Three piecewise decompositions showed different trends in trust for non-populist voters, populist voters and non-voters. Strengths, weaknesses and possible developments of the study are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Confianza , Votación , Adulto , Humanos , Policia
15.
Soc Sci Res ; 119: 102985, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609312

RESUMEN

Efforts to explore the macrolevel determinants of police-involved homicides have expanded in recent years due in part to increased scrutiny and media attention to such events, and increased data availability of these events through crowdsourced databases. However, little empirical research has examined the spatial determinants of such events. The present study extends the extant macrolevel research on police-involved homicides by employing an underutilized spatial econometric model, the spatial Durbin model (SDM), to assess the direct and indirect county effects of racial threat, economic threat, social disorganization, and community violence on police killings within and between US counties from 2013 through 2020. Results indicate a direct inverse relationship between racial threat and police-involved homicides, no support for economic threat, and a direct positive association with two measures of social disorganization. Additionally, we find firearm availability exhibits significant direct and indirect spatial dependence on focal county police-involved homicides, reflecting spatial spillover processes. In essence, as firearm availability in neighboring counties increases, police-involved homicides within a focal county increase. The implications of these findings for racial threat, economic threat, social disorganization, and community violence are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Policia , Humanos , Anomia (Social) , Violencia
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8191, 2024 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589373

RESUMEN

Street-based sex workers experience considerable homelessness, drug use and police enforcement, making them vulnerable to violence from clients and other perpetrators. We used a deterministic compartmental model of street-based sex workers in London to estimate whether displacement by police and unstable housing/homelessness increases client violence. The model was parameterized and calibrated using data from a cohort study of sex workers, to the baseline percentage homeless (64%), experiencing recent client violence (72%), or recent displacement (78%), and the odds ratios of experiencing violence if homeless (1.97, 95% confidence interval 0.88-4.43) or displaced (4.79, 1.99-12.11), or of experiencing displacement if homeless (3.60, 1.59-8.17). Ending homelessness and police displacement reduces violence by 67% (95% credible interval 53-81%). The effects are non-linear; halving the rate of policing or becoming homeless reduces violence by 5.7% (3.5-10.3%) or 6.7% (3.7-10.2%), respectively. Modelled interventions have small impact with violence reducing by: 5.1% (2.1-11.4%) if the rate of becoming housed increases from 1.4 to 3.2 per person-year (Housing First initiative); 3.9% (2.4-6.9%) if the rate of policing reduces by 39% (level if recent increases had not occurred); and 10.2% (5.9-19.6%) in combination. Violence reduces by 26.5% (22.6-28.2%) if half of housed sex workers transition to indoor sex work. If homelessness decreased and policing increased as occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the impact on violence is negligible, decreasing by 0.7% (8.7% decrease-4.1% increase). Increasing housing and reducing policing among street-based sex workers could substantially reduce violence, but large changes are needed.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Mala Vivienda , Trabajadores Sexuales , Humanos , Femenino , Policia , Estudios de Cohortes , Londres/epidemiología , Pandemias , Violencia
18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 142, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575888

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Law enforcement officers (LEOs) are exposed to significant stressors that can impact their mental health, increasing risk of posttraumatic stress disorder, burnout, at-risk alcohol use, depression, and suicidality. Compromised LEO health can subsequently lead to aggression and excessive use of force. Mindfulness training is a promising approach for high-stress populations and has been shown to be effective in increasing resilience and improving mental health issues common among LEOs. METHODS: This multi-site, randomized, single-blind clinical feasibility trial was intended to establish optimal protocols and procedures for a future full-scale, multi-site trial assessing effects of mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) versus an attention control (stress management education [SME]) and a no-intervention control, on physiological, attentional, and psychological indices of stress and mental health. The current study was designed to enhance efficiency of recruitment, engagement and retention; optimize assessment, intervention training and outcome measures; and ensure fidelity to intervention protocols. Responsiveness to change over time was examined to identify the most responsive potential proximate and longer-term assessments of targeted outcomes. RESULTS: We observed high feasibility of recruitment and retention, acceptability of MBRT, fidelity to assessment and intervention protocols, and responsiveness to change for a variety of putative physiological and self-report mechanism and outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this multi-site feasibility trial set the stage for a full-scale, multi-site trial testing the efficacy of MBRT on increasing LEO health and resilience, and on decreasing more distal outcomes of aggression and excessive use of force that would have significant downstream benefits for communities they serve. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03784846 . Registered on December 24th, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Atención Plena , Resiliencia Psicológica , Humanos , Atención Plena/métodos , Policia/psicología , Agresión/psicología , Estudios de Factibilidad , Método Simple Ciego
19.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 103: 102676, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522118

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There may be significant physical and psychological consequences and impacts for males who experience sexual assault as adults, however, published literature in this context is sparse, specifically for the investigative outcomes in the criminal legal process. METHOD: This clinical audit tracked 138 adult males who presented for forensic and medical sexual assault care from initial presentation to ACT Police investigation and court outcome from 2004 to 2022. RESULTS: There were 103/138 (74.6%) males who attended for medical and forensic care within 72 h of the reported assault. Pre-existing mental health conditions were self-reported in 59/138 (42.7%) males. Nearly half of males 67/138 (48.5%) had a medical evidence kit collected. Males presenting for medical care 44/138 (31.2%) went on to report to ACT Policing, 36/44 (81.2%) of cases did not proceed to court. The most common clearance type was inadequate evidence to proceed (17/44, 38.6%). In 8/44 (18.2%) of adult male cases who subsequently reported to ACT Police, the investigation resulted in entry to the judicial process with a suspect charged with a sexual offence. Five of those cases resulting in a conviction. CONCLUSIONS: Many adult male patients presented within timeframes that enabled the provision of time critical medical care and provided an opportunity for forensic medical evidence collection. Many adult males 59 (42.7%) self-reported pre-existing mental health conditions upon initial presentation. Attrition occurred throughout the patient journey with many males not reporting to police and thus not presenting in the legal process. This further emphasises the need for independent sexual violence patient advisors to support adult male victims through the medical and criminal justice process.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Delitos Sexuales , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Delitos Sexuales/legislación & jurisprudencia , Víctimas de Crimen/legislación & jurisprudencia , Trastornos Mentales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Medicina Legal , Auditoría Clínica , Adolescente , Policia
20.
Work ; 77(4): 1341-1357, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38552129

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While effective apprehensions of non-compliant suspects are central to public safety, the minimal force needed to transition a suspect from standing to the ground, vital for apprehension success, has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To examine the technical-tactical behaviors of general duty police officers during simulated apprehensions and quantify the minimum force required to destabilize non-compliant suspects. METHODS: Task simulations conducted with 91 officers were analyzed to identify common grappling movements, strikes, control tactics, and changes in body posture. A separate assessment of 55 male officers aimed to determine the minimum force required for destabilization in five body regions (wrist, forearm, shoulder, mid-chest, and mid-back). Data are presented as mean±standard deviation. RESULTS: On average, apprehensions took 7.3±3.2 seconds. While all officers used grappling movements (100%) and the majority employed control tactics (75%), strikes were seldom used (4%). Apprehensions typically began with a two-handed pull (97%; Contact Phase), 55% then attempted an arm bar takedown, followed by a two-handed cross-body pull (68%; Transition/Control Phase), and a two-handed push to the ground (19%; Ground Phase). All officers began in the upright posture, with most shifting to squat (75%), kneel (58%), or bent (45%) postures to complete the apprehension. The minimum force required to disrupt balance differed across body regions (wrist: 54±12 kg; forearm: 49±12 kg; shoulder: 42±10 kg; mid-chest: 44±11 kg; mid-back: 30±7 kg, all P < 0.05), except between the shoulder and chest (P = 0.19). CONCLUSION: These findings provide insights that can enhance the design and accuracy of future apprehension evaluations and inform the optimization of law enforcement physical employment standards.


Asunto(s)
Aplicación de la Ley , Policia , Humanos , Masculino , Muñeca , Mano
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