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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(8): 1847-1862, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905357

RESUMEN

A new type of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) hollow fiber membrane (HFM) with five bores was prepared. The effects of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), ß-cyclodextrine (ß-CD), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) and their combinations on the PVDF/PMMA five-bore HFMs were investigated. The performance and fouling characteristics of five-bore HFMs for dyeing wastewater treatment were evaluated. Results indicated that adding 5 wt.% PVP increased the porosity and water flux of the membrane but decreased the bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection rate. Adding 5 wt.% ß-CD significantly improved the tensile strength and rejection of the HFMs with no effect on the increase of water flux. The characteristic of the HFMs with different additive combinations proved that the mixture of 5 wt.% PVP and 1 wt.% ß-CD gave the best membrane performance, with a pure water flux of 427.9 L/ m2·h, a contact angle of 25°, and a rejection of BSA of 89.7%. The CODcr and UV254 removal rates of dyeing wastewater treatment were 61.10% and 50.41%, respectively. No breakage or leakage points were found after 120 days of operation, showing their reliable mechanical properties. We set the operating flux to 55 L/m2·h and cross-flow rate to 10%, which can effectively control membrane fouling.


Asunto(s)
Purificación del Agua , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Colorantes , Membranas Artificiales , Polimetil Metacrilato , Polivinilos
2.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 35(4): 471-476, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855832

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the feasibility and mechanical properties of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and allogeneic bone mixture to strengthen sheep vertebrae with osteoporotic compression fracture. Methods: A total of 75 lumbar vertebrae (L 1-L 5) of adult goats was harvested to prepare the osteoporotic vertebral body model by decalcification. The volume of vertebral body and the weight and bone density before and after decalcification were measured. And the failure strength, failure displacement, and stiffness were tested by using a mechanical tester. Then the vertebral compression fracture models were prepared and divided into 3 groups ( n=25). The vertebral bodies were injected with allogeneic bone in group A, PMMA bone cement in group B, and mixture of allogeneic bone and PMMA bone cement in a ratio of 1∶1 in group C. After CT observation of the implant distribution in the vertebral body, the failure strength, failure displacement, and stiffness of the vertebral body were measured again. Results: There was no significant difference in weight, bone density, and volume of vertebral bodies before decalcification between groups ( P>0.05). After decalcification, there was no significant difference in bone density, decreasing rate, and weight between groups ( P>0.05). There were significant differences in vertebral body weight and bone mineral density between pre- and post-decalcification in 3 groups ( P<0.05). CT showed that the implants in each group were evenly distributed in the vertebral body with no leakage. Before fracture, the differences in vertebral body failure strength, failure displacement, and stiffness between groups were not significant ( P>0.05). After augmentation, the failure displacement of group A was significantly greater than that of groups B and C, and the failure strength and stiffness were less than those of groups B and C, the failure displacement of group C was greater than that of group B, and the failure strength and stiffness were less than those of group B, the differences between groups were significant ( P<0.05). Except for the failure strength of group A ( P>0.05), the differences in the failure strength, failure displacement, and stiffness before fracture and after augmentation in the other groups were significant ( P<0.05). Conclusion: The mixture of allogeneic bone and PMMA bone cement in a ratio of 1∶1 can improve the strength of the vertebral body of sheep osteoporotic compression fractures and restore the initial stiffness of the vertebral body. It has good mechanical properties and can be used as one of the filling materials in percutaneous vertebroplasty.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas por Compresión , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Fracturas de la Columna Vertebral , Vertebroplastia , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Cementos para Huesos , Fracturas por Compresión/cirugía , Vértebras Lumbares/lesiones , Polimetil Metacrilato , Ovinos
3.
J Adhes Dent ; 23(2): 145-158, 2021 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825428

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of pretreatment and conditioning on shear bond strength (SBS), surface free energy (SFE) and surface roughness (SR) between polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and cold-cured polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PEEK substrates (Dentokeep PEEK Disc, nt-trading) were air abraded with Al2O3 particles of different grain sizes applied with varying pressure at 1) 0.2 MPa - 50 µm Al2O3; 2) 0.4 MPa - 50 µm Al2O3; 3) 0.2 MPa - 110 µm Al2O3; 4) 0.4 MPa - 110 µm Al2O3; or 5) without air abrasion (n = 172/group). Surface properties were quantified using SFE and SR (n = 10/group), and scanning electron microscope imaging (n = 2/group). Substrates were conditioned with a) Visio.link (VL, Bredent); b) Scotchbond Universal (SU, 3M Oral Care); c) Bonding Fluid (BF, Schütz Dental); or d) without conditioning (WC; n = 40/subgroup) and bonded to the polymer (Futura Jet, Schütz Dental). SBS and fracture types were determined before and after 10,000 thermal cycles (n = 20/subgroup). Univariate ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, and Weibull distribution were computed (p < 0.05). Ciba-Geigy tables and the chi-squared test were used to analyze fracture type distributions. RESULTS: An increase in particle size and pressure resulted in similar or increased SBS, Weibull characteristic strength, and Weibull moduli (p < 0.001 - 0.046). The lowest results were observed for the control group (without air abrasion), while pretreatment with 0.4 MPa - 110 µm Al2O3 presented the highest values (p < 0.001). In comparison with the other conditioning procedures, VL showed high (p < 0.001 - 0.03), and SU and WC low SBS (p < 0.001 - 0.006). Although it did not influence SFE, an increase in particle size and pressure led to an increased SR (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with 0.4 MPa - 110 µm Al2O3 can be recommended to increase bonding properties between PEEK and PMMA. Application of adhesives such as VL can enhance SBS further.


Asunto(s)
Recubrimiento Dental Adhesivo , Polimetil Metacrilato , Abrasión Dental por Aire , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Dentaduras , Cetonas , Ensayo de Materiales , Polietilenglicoles , Cementos de Resina , Resistencia al Corte , Propiedades de Superficie
4.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 36(2): 327-331, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909723

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To compare the temperature changes during the setting process of two provisional crown materials, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based acrylic resin (Ac) and bis-acryl composite resin (Co), at the first thread surface of one-piece implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two 3.3-mm-diameter one-piece implants were divided into two groups according to the provisional restoration material. Implants were mounted on a Plexiglas apparatus. A K-type thermocouple was fixed at the most coronal thread. Baseline (Bl Temp) and maximal (Max Temp) temperatures of both groups were recorded during the curing process. Total heat flux (THF) at the implant surface and thermal amplitude (Temp-Amp) were calculated. Differences between groups were compared using a t test for unpaired observations. RESULTS: Upon curing, a statistically significant increase in the Max Temp from the Bl Temp was detected in both groups, with a greater increase in the Ac compared with the Co group. The Temp-Amp and the THF were two times greater in the Ac group than the Co group. CONCLUSION: Significant heat is produced during the polymerization of PMMA-based resin and bis-acryl composite resin provisional crowns in one-piece implants. To decrease the risk of thermal challenge at the implant cervical aspect associated with restoration of immediately loaded implants, bis-acryl composite resin should be used.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Acrílicas , Implantes Dentales , Resinas Compuestas , Materiales Dentales , Ensayo de Materiales , Polimetil Metacrilato , Propiedades de Superficie
5.
Dent Mater ; 37(4): 701-710, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648744

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The elution of unpolymerized (co-)monomers and additives from methacrylic resin-based materials like polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) can cause adverse side effects, such as mutagenicity, teratogenicity, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and estrogenic activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the release and the cytotoxicity of residual (co-)monomers and additives from PMMA-based splint materials under consideration of real splint sizes. Three different materials used for additive (3D printing), subtractive (milling) and conventional (powder and liquid) manufacturing were examined. METHODS: The splint materials SHERAprint-ortho plus (additive), SHERAeco-disc PM20 (subtractive) and SHERAORTHOMER (conventional) were analysed. 16 (n = 4) sample discs of each material (6 mm diameter and 2 mm height) were polished on the circular and one cross-section area and then eluted in both distilled water and methanol. The discs were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h or 72 h and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for specifying and quantifying released compounds. XTT-based cell viability assays with human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were performed for Tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate (THFMA), 1,4-Butylene glycol dimethacrylate (BDDMA) and Tripropylenglycol diacrylate (TPGDA). In order to project the disc size to actual splint sizes in a worst-case scenario, lower and upper jaw occlusal splints were designed and volumes and surfaces were measured. RESULTS: For SHERAeco-disc PM20 and for SHERAORTHOMER no elution was determined in water. SHERAprint-ortho plus eluted the highest THFMA concentration of 7.47 µmol/l ±2,77 µmol/l after 72 h in water. Six (co-)monomers and five additives were detected in the methanol eluates of all three materials tested. The XTT-based cell viability assays resulted in a EC50 of 3006 ± 408 µmol/l for THFMA, 2569.5 ± 308 µmol/l for BDDMA and 596.7 ± 88 µmol/l for TPGDA. SIGNIFICANCE: With the solvent methanol, released components from the investigated splint materials exceeded cytotoxic concentrations in HGFs calculated for a worst-case scenario in splint size. In the water eluates only the methacrylate THFMA could be determined from SHERAprint-ortho plus in concentrations below cytotoxic levels in HGFs.


Asunto(s)
Resinas Compuestas , Ferulas Oclusales , Humanos , Ensayo de Materiales , Metacrilatos , Polimetil Metacrilato , Impresión Tridimensional
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1755, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741935

RESUMEN

All-electronic interrogation of biofluid flow velocity by electrical nanosensors incorporated in ultra-low-power or self-sustained systems offers the promise of enabling multifarious emerging research and applications. However, existing nano-based electrical flow sensing technologies remain lacking in precision and stability and are typically only applicable to simple aqueous solutions or liquid/gas dual-phase mixtures, making them unsuitable for monitoring low-flow (~micrometer/second) yet important characteristics of continuous biofluids (such as hemorheological behaviors in microcirculation). Here, we show that monolayer-graphene single microelectrodes harvesting charge from continuous aqueous flow provide an effective flow sensing strategy that delivers key performance metrics orders of magnitude higher than other electrical approaches. In particular, over six-months stability and sub-micrometer/second resolution in real-time quantification of whole-blood flows with multiscale amplitude-temporal characteristics are obtained in a microfluidic chip.


Asunto(s)
Grafito/química , Microelectrodos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentación , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Animales , Velocidad del Flujo Sanguíneo , Bovinos , Cobre/química , Dispositivos Laboratorio en un Chip , Fenómenos Físicos , Polimetil Metacrilato/química
7.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(5): 833.e1-833.e10, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685655

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Polymethyl methacrylate and bis-acrylic based resins are widely used for interim restorations. Their initial surface roughness is important because it determines their aesthetic properties and the potential for biofilm adhesion. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the surface roughness and morphology of 6 bis-acrylic and 2 polymethyl methacrylate resins widely used for interim dental restorations, both before and after polishing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens made of different bis-acrylic resins (Protemp 4, Luxatemp Star, Systemp, Telio, Structur Premium, Structur 3) or of polymethyl methacrylate (Unifast Trad, Unifast 3) were polished using a 2-step polishing system (Diatech). The average surface roughness before and after polishing (10 seconds at low speed in dry conditions) was measured by optical profilometry. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze surface morphology. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate the differences in roughness among specimens (α=.05), and the Pearson r correlation was computed to assess the relationship between fillers and average surface roughness. RESULTS: In the 8 groups evaluated, the roughness significantly increased (P<.001) for Protemp 4 (from 0.12 to 0.50 µm), Luxatemp Star (0.17 to 1.19 µm), Unifast 3 (0.40 to 1.00 µm), Systemp (0.46 to 1.51 µm), Structur 3 (0.85 to 1.06 µm), Structur Premium (1.00 to 1.74 µm), and Telio (1.13 to 1.21 µm), except for Unifast Trad (9.20 to 2.59 µm). Pairwise multiple comparisons identified Protemp 4 as having the smoothest surface before and after polishing, while Unifast Trad was the roughest in both. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the surface roughness of bis-acrylic resins was related to their surface morphology and average filler sizes. A positive relation between fillers and roughness was assessed (r=0.345, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: For the bis-acrylic interim resins, the surface roughness after polishing was correlated to the material used and its filler sizes. Nanofiller-based resins showed the smoothest surfaces. For the polymethyl methacrylate-based resins, the recently marketed Unifast 3 had the lowest overall roughness values.


Asunto(s)
Pulido Dental , Polimetil Metacrilato , Resinas Acrílicas , Resinas Compuestas , Estética Dental , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 146005, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647643

RESUMEN

Solvent-treated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was recently introduced as a passive sampler for determining bioavailable concentrations, i.e., freely dissolved concentrations. However, the much knowledge required to obtain accurate bioavailable concentrations using the thus treated PMMA, applied in a marine environment, is still lacking. In this study, uptake experiments with PMMA after solvent treatment were conducted to investigate its uptake capacity and the effects of water temperature and salinity on the PMMA-water partition coefficient (KPMMA-W) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Thus, PMMA passive samplers preloaded with performance reference compounds were exposed to seawater to first estimate the deployment time and then to confirm if the PMMA could give the residual concentrations of PAH in mussel. The less hydrophobic PAHs (log octanol-water partition coefficient < 5.5) had higher uptake capacity of PMMA-uptake was increased by a factor of up to 10. Whereas for these PAHs the KPMMA-W values and seawater temperature showed a parabolic relationship, the effect of salinity on KPMMA-W was not observed. The less hydrophobic PAH concentrations in seawater can be measured using the PMMA passive sampler over a period of about three weeks. For the PAHs detected in both PMMA and mussel, the PAH concentrations in mussel predicted from PMMA were found to be within one order of magnitude of the measured concentrations. This, therefore, suggests that solvent-treated PMMA could be used as a passive sampler to provide information on bioavailable concentrations for less hydrophobic PAHs.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Polimetil Metacrilato , Agua de Mar , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
9.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(3): 456-461, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641428

RESUMEN

AIMS: To clarify the effectiveness of the induced membrane technique (IMT) using beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) for reconstruction of segmental bone defects by evaluating clinical and radiological outcomes, and the effect of defect size and operated site on surgical outcomes. METHODS: A review of the medical records was conducted of consecutive 35 lower limbs (30 males and five females; median age 46 years (interquartile range (IQR) 40 to 61)) treated with IMT using ß-TCP between 2014 and 2018. Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS) was examined preoperatively and at final follow-up to clarify patient-centered outcomes. Bone healing was assessed radiologically, and time from the second stage to bone healing was also evaluated. Patients were divided into ≥ 50 mm and < 50 mm defect groups and into femoral reconstruction, tibial reconstruction, and ankle arthrodesis groups. RESULTS: There were ten and 25 defects in the femur and tibia, respectively. Median LEFS improved significantly from 8 (IQR 1.5 to 19.3) preoperatively to 63.5 (IQR 57 to 73.3) at final follow-up (p < 0.001). Bone healing was achieved in all limbs, and median time from the second stage to bone healing was six months (IQR 5 to 10). Median time to bone healing, preoperative LEFS, or postoperative LEFS did not differ significantly between the defect size groups or among the treatment groups. CONCLUSION: IMT using ß-TCP provided satisfactory clinical and radiological outcomes for segmental bone defects in the lower limbs; surgical outcomes were not influenced by bone defect size or operated part. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(3):456-461.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante Óseo/métodos , Fosfatos de Calcio/farmacología , Fémur/cirugía , Ilion/trasplante , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos/métodos , Tibia/cirugía , Adulto , Artrodesis , Desbridamiento , Femenino , Fémur/lesiones , Fémur/patología , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Polimetil Metacrilato , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tibia/lesiones , Tibia/patología , Cicatrización de Heridas/efectos de los fármacos
10.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 29: e20200448, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787729

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Denture adhesives need complete removal due to their frequent replacement. Our study investigates the removal of denture adhesives from denture base materials, using different methods. METHODOLOGY: PMMA and Polyamide denture base materials were used to fabricate 120 samples (15×15×1.5mm). One side of the samples was left as processed and the other polished with a usual procedure, hydrated for 24 h, dried, and weighted. They received 0.2 g of three adhesive creams on their unpolished surface (Corega, Olivafix, Fittydent), pressed on polysulfide material, stored under 37°C and 95% rel. humidity for 1 h and 60 of them, following their separation from polysulfide base, brushed under running water, whereas the rest inserted in a cleanser bath (Fittydent Super) for 5 min. The samples were dried and inserted in the oven (37°C) for additional 10 min and weighted again. Roughness tests of denture materials and light microscopy of adhesives creams were also used to evaluate the materials. Time lapse images of spayed with water adhesives on PMMA base were also taken to evaluate the volumetric changes of adhesives. Weight data before and after adhesive removal, indicating the amount of remaining adhesive, were statistically analyzed using Welch's ANOVA and Games-Howell multiple comparisons tests at α=0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: Roughness of Polyamide was higher than PMMA and Fittydent showed greater volumetric changes than the others. Significant differences (p<0.05), were found between PMMA and Polyamide bases, between Olivafix and Fittydent adhesives, and between brushing and cleansing methods but only for PMMA-Olivafix combination. CONCLUSIONS: Adhesives showed a stronger adherence to PMMA surface, and Fittydent was the most difficult to be removed. Removal methods were not effective for all adhesives or denture base materials. These indicate that removal methods, adhesive type and denture base material are all playing a significant role in the removal of adhesives from denture surfaces.


Asunto(s)
Bases para Dentadura , Nylons , Adhesivos , Ensayo de Materiales , Polimetil Metacrilato , Propiedades de Superficie
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 3032-3040, 2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600167

RESUMEN

Micro- and nanoplastics unavoidably enter into organisms and humans as a result of widespread exposures through drinking waters, foods, and even inhalation. However, owing to the limited availability of quantitative analytical methods, the effect of nanoplastics inside animal bodies is poorly understood. Herein, we report a sensitive and robust method to determine the chemical composition, mass concentration, and size distribution of nanoplastics in biological matrices. This breakthrough is based on a novel procedure including alkaline digestion and protein precipitation to extract nanoplastics from tissues of aquatic animals, followed by quantitative analysis with pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The optimized procedure exhibited good reproducibility and high sensitivity with the respective detection limits of 0.03 µg/g for polystyrene (PS) nanoplastics and 0.09 µg/g poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoplastics. This method also preserved the original morphology and size of nanoplastics. Furthermore, to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, 14 species of aquatic animals were collected, and PS nanoplastics in a concentration range of 0.093-0.785 µg/g were detected in three of these animals. Recovery rates of 73.0-89.1% were further obtained for PS and PMMA nanospheres when they were spiked into the tissues of Zebra snail and Corbicula fluminea at levels of 1.84-2.12 µg/g. Consequently, this method provides a powerful tool for tracking nanoplastics in animals.


Asunto(s)
Poliestirenos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Microplásticos , Polimetil Metacrilato , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
J Clin Neurosci ; 85: 132-142, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581784

RESUMEN

There exists a significant demand to develop patient-specific prosthesis in reconstruction of cranial vaults after decompressive craniectomy. we report here, the outcomes of an unicentric pilot study on acrylic cranial prosthesis fabricated using a 3D printed cranium model with its clinically relevant mechanical properties. METHODS: The semi-crystalline polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) implants, shaped to the cranial defects of 3D printed cranium model, were implanted in 10 patients (mean age, 40.8 ± 14.8 years). A binderjet 3D printer was used to create patient-specific mould and PMMA was casted to fabricate prosthesis which was analyzed for microstructure and properties. Patients were followed up for allergy, infection and cosmesis for a period of 6 months. RESULTS: As-cast PMMA flap exhibited hardness of 15.8 ± 0.24Hv, tensile strength of 30.7 ± 3.9 MPa and elastic modulus of 1.5 ± 0.1 GPa. 3D microstructure of the semi-crystalline acrylic implant revealed 2.5-15 µm spherical isolated pores. The mean area of the calvarial defect in craniectomy patients was 94.7 ± 17.4 cm2. We achieved a cranial index of symmetry (CIS -%) of 94.5 ± 3.9, while the average post-operative Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score recorded was 4.2 ± 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: 3D printing based patient-specific design and fabrication of acrylic cranioplasty implant is safe and achieves acceptable cosmetic and clinical outcomes in patients with decompressive craniectomy. Our study ensured clinically acceptable structural and mechanical properties of implanted PMMA, suggesting that a low cost 3D printer based PMMA flap is an affordable option for cranioplasty in resource constrained settings.


Asunto(s)
Diseño Asistido por Computadora , Craniectomía Descompresiva/efectos adversos , Impresión Tridimensional , Prótesis e Implantes , Diseño de Prótesis/métodos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Reconstructivos , Adulto , Materiales Biocompatibles/química , Humanos , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Polimetil Metacrilato , Cráneo/cirugía , Programas Informáticos , Estrés Mecánico , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
J Prosthet Dent ; 125(4): 706.e1-706.e6, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581867

RESUMEN

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The high recurrence rates of denture stomatitis may be associated with the resistance of biofilms to therapeutics. Therefore, methods that provide biomaterials with antifungal properties are an attractive solution to improving microbial control. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to modify conventional polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) through the incorporation of metal methacrylate monomers and to evaluate the physicomechanical and optical properties and antifungal activity of the modified materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Experimental denture base acrylic resins were fabricated through the addition of zirconium methacrylate (ZM), tin methacrylate (TM), and di-n-butyldimethacrylate-tin (DNBMT) to the liquid of a commercially available denture base PMMA resin. Unmodified PMMA resin was used as the control. The degree of conversion of the materials was tested through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (n=3). A digital spectrophotometer was used to assess the color change of the modified materials (n=8). Differences in Knoop hardness and roughness between experimental groups were also evaluated (n=8). A biofilm accumulation test with Candida albicans (ATCC 62342) (n=4) was performed for 5 days in Sabouraud broth culture supplemented with 10% sucrose. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference test (α=.05). RESULTS: The degree of conversion and color-change values of the experimental materials were statistically similar to those of the control (P=.593). The incorporation of DNBMT significantly increased the hardness of the modified material (P=.014). The ZM, TM, and DNBMT groups had higher antifungal activity against C. albicans (P=.001) and lower roughness than the control group (control 0.65 ±0.05 µm; ZM 0.34 ±0.09 µm, TM 0.34 ±0.11 µm, and DNBMT 0.41 ±0.08 µm). CONCLUSIONS: The metal-containing methacrylate monomers provided antifungal action to the modified materials without affecting the physicomechanical or optical properties of the denture base resin. ZM, TM, and DNBMT are potential reactive agents for the fabrication of PMMA denture base resins with antifungal properties.


Asunto(s)
Bases para Dentadura , Polimetil Metacrilato , Resinas Acrílicas , Antifúngicos , Candida albicans , Ensayo de Materiales , Metacrilatos , Propiedades de Superficie
14.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562067

RESUMEN

The adsorption behaviors of extended anionic surfactants linear sodium dodecyl(polyoxyisopropene)4 sulfate (L-C12PO4S), branched sodium dodecyl(polyoxyisopropene)4 sulfate (G-C12PO4S), and branched sodium hexadecyl(polyoxyisopropene)4 sulfate (G-C16PO4S) on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface have been studied. The effect of branched alkyl chain on the wettability of the PMMA surface has been explored. To obtain the adsorption parameters such as the adhesional tension and PMMA-solution interfacial tension, the surface tension and contact angles were measured. The experimental results demonstrate that the special properties of polyoxypropene (PO) groups improve the polar interactions and allow the extended surfactant molecules to gradually adsorb on the PMMA surface by polar heads. Therefore, the hydrophobic chains will point to water and the solid surface is modified to be hydrophobic. Besides, the adsorption amounts of the three extended anionic surfactants at the PMMA-liquid interface are all about 1/3 of those at the air-liquid interface before the critical micelle concentration (CMC). However, these extended surfactants will transform their original adsorption behavior after CMC. The surfactant molecules will interact with the PMMA surface with the hydrophilic heads towards water and are prone to form aggregations at the PMMA-liquid interface. Therefore, the PMMA surface will be more hydrophilic after CMC. In the three surfactants, the branched G-C16PO4S with two long alkyl chains exhibits the strongest hydrophobic modification capacity. The linear L-C12PO4S is more likely to densely adsorb at the PMMA-liquid interface than the branched surfactants, thus L-C12PO4S possesses the strongest hydrophilic modification ability and shows smaller contact angles on PMMA surface at high concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Tensoactivos/química , Humectabilidad , Adhesividad , Tensión Superficial
15.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572646

RESUMEN

The storage of charges in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) has drawn much attention for its damage to device performance as well as the loss to carriers. Thus, it is essential to address the issue and do further investigation. The traditional approach to storage analysis is mainly based on transient measurement since it is sensitive to transient instead of steady signal. In this paper, we proposed a new benchmark to investigate the single-layer OLEDs capable of stored charges with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is just based on electrical and optical characteristics. Since the stored charges contribute both to luminance and current of the devices with PMMA, the area between them can be taken as a benchmark and evaluated the storage of charges. In our experiment, the areas of 4 nm, 6 nm, 8 nm, and 10 nm PMMA devices are 0.348, 0.554, 0.808, and 0.894, respectively, indicating a higher capability of storage in thicker PMMA. It is exactly in line with the results taken from transient electroluminescence (EL) measurement. Thus, this new benchmark is practical and provides a more accessible approach to investigate the storage of charges in OLEDs.


Asunto(s)
Electricidad , Luz , Fenómenos Ópticos , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Semiconductores , Benchmarking , Diseño de Equipo
16.
Int J Prosthodont ; 34(1): 70-78, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570522

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a surface sealant agent on the color stability and surface roughness (Ra) of two denture base materials: polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and nylon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 96 disk-shaped specimens (10 × 2 mm) were fabricated from heat-cured PMMA and nylon denture base materials (n = 48/material). Each of the color stability and Ra tests were performed on half of the samples in each material group (n = 24), and these subgroups were then subdivided according to the surface treatment applied: 12 specimens were conventionally polished, serving as the control group, and 12 specimens received a sealant on the surface in addition to the surface polishing. Color stability was assessed through measuring the CIEL*a*b* color parameters before and after immersion in coffee solution. Ra was measured and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs were taken before and after thermocycling. Statistical analysis was done using 2-way analysis of variance (α = .05). RESULTS: The surface sealant agent significantly increased the color stability of both materials (P = .047). However, it had no significant effect on the Ra of materials before (P = .600) or after (P = .583) thermocycling. Nylon had a significantly rougher surface than PMMA both before and after thermocycling (P < .001). Similarly, SEM observations show a more irregular texture for nylon than for PMMA. CONCLUSION: Although the sealant agent had no significant effect on the Ra before or after thermocycling, it significantly decreased the color change of nylon and PMMA disks. Based on both statistical analyses and SEM observations, the Ra of PMMA was lower than nylon denture base material.


Asunto(s)
Nylons , Polimetil Metacrilato , Color , Bases para Dentadura , Ensayo de Materiales , Propiedades de Superficie
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 3278-3286, 2021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416300

RESUMEN

Skin is a vital biological defense system that protects the body from physical harm with its unique mechanical properties attributed to the hierarchical organization of the protein scaffold. Developing a synthetic skinlike material has aroused great interest; however, replication of the skin's mechanical response, including anisotropic softness and strain-stiffening, is difficult to achieve. Here, to mimic the mechanical behaviors of skin, a reprocessable bottlebrush copolymer elastomer was designed with renewable and rigid cellulose as backbones; meanwhile, poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PBA-b-PMMA) diblocks were designed as the grafted side chains. The so-made elastomers were subjected to a step-cyclic tensile deformation, by which the internal structures became oriented nanofibers and endowed stress-strain behaviors pretty much similar to those of the real skin. Overall, our research work currently undertaken would be of great importance in the development of a series of biomimetic skinlike polymer materials.


Asunto(s)
Acrilatos/química , Materiales Biomiméticos/química , Celulosa/química , Elastómeros/química , Nanofibras/química , Polímeros/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Biomimética , Humanos , Nanofibras/ultraestructura , Piel/química , Resistencia a la Tracción
18.
Chemistry ; 27(21): 6479-6488, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476058

RESUMEN

In recent years, luminescent materials doped with Ln3+ ions have attracted much attention for their application as optical thermometers based on both downshifting and upconversion processes. This study presents research done on the development of highly sensitive optical thermometers in the physiological temperature range based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films doped with two series of visible Ln3+ complexes (Ln3+ =Tb3+ , Eu3+ , and Sm3+ ) and SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) coated with these PMMA films. The best performing PMMA film doped with Tb3+ and Eu3+ complexes was the PMMA[TbEuL1 tppo]1 film (L1 =4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butadionate; tppo=triphenylphosphine oxide), which showed good temperature sensing of Sr =4.21 % K-1 at 313 K, whereas for the PMMA films doped with Tb3+ and Sm3+ complexes the best performing was the PMMA[TbSmL2 tppo]3 film (L2 =4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-butadionate), with Sr =3.64 % K-1 at 313 K. Additionally, SiO2 NPs coated with the best performing films from each of the series of PMMA films (Tb-Eu and Tb-Sm) and their temperature-sensing properties were studied in water, showing excellent performance in the physiological temperature range (PMMA[TbEuL1 tppo]1@SiO2 : Sr =3.84 % °C at 20 °C; PMMA[TbSmL2 tppo]3@SiO2 : Sr =3.27 % °C at 20 °C) and the toxicity of these nanoparticles on human cells was studied, showing that they were nontoxic.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Polimetil Metacrilato , Humanos , Dióxido de Silicio , Temperatura , Termómetros
19.
J Chromatogr A ; 1638: 461892, 2021 Feb 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477027

RESUMEN

With advances in the design and fabrication of nanofluidic devices during the last decade, there have been a few reports on nucleic acid analysis using nanoscale electrophoresis. The attractive nature of nanofluidics is the unique phenomena associated with this length scale that are not observed using microchip electrophoresis. Many of these effects are surface-related and include electrostatics, surface roughness, van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding, and the electric double layer. The majority of reports related to nanoscale electrophoresis have utilized glass-based devices, which are not suitable for broad dissemination into the separation community because of the sophisticated, time consuming, and high-cost fabrication methods required to produce the relevant devices. In this study, we report the use of thermoplastic nanochannels (110 nm x 110 nm, depth x width) for the free solution electrokinetic analysis of ribonucleotide monophosphates (rNMPs). Thermoplastic devices with micro- and nanofluidic networks were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) with the structures enclosed via thermal fusion bonding of a cover plate to the fluidic substrate. Unique to this report is that we fabricated devices in cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) that was thermally fusion bonded to a COC cover plate. Results using COC/COC devices were compared to poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, devices with a COC cover plate. Our results indicated that at pH = 7.9, the electrophoresis in free solution resulted in an average resolution of the rNMPs >4 (COC/COC device range = 1.94 - 8.88; PMMA/COC device range = 1.4 - 7.8) with some of the rNMPs showing field-dependent electrophoretic mobilities. Baseline separation of the rNMPs was not possible using PMMA- or COC-based microchip electrophoresis. We also found that COC/COC devices could be assembled and UV/O3 activated after device assembly with the dose of the UV/O3 affecting the magnitude of the electroosmotic flow, EOF. In addition, the bond strength between the substrate and cover plate of unmodified COC/COC devices was higher compared to PMMA/COC devices. The large differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the rNMPs afforded by nanoscale electrophoresis will enable a new single-molecule sequencing platform we envision, which uses molecular-dependent electrophoretic mobilities to identify the constituent rNMPs generated from an intact RNA molecule using a processive exonuclease. With optimized nanoscale electrophoresis, the rNMPs could be identified via mobility matching at an accuracy >99% in both COC/COC and PMMA/COC devices.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos/química , Ribonucleótidos/análisis , Electricidad , Electroósmosis , Electroforesis por Microchip , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nanotecnología , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Agua/química
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 341-349, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465359

RESUMEN

The protein corona on nano drug carriers is an important well-known biological issue that often induce biological incompatibility and screens the targeting molecules on the surfaces of carriers, therefore, the design of NPs with good protein corona-free property is highly desired and challenged. The natural polysaccharide has been demonstrated as one types of stealth materials after the functional group modification process, but the types and structures of their chains has never been considered. Here, we have designed five types of core-shell starch-coated poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles and we found the starch coated NPs with low amylose content (<15%) could exhibit the excellent protein corona-free property without any modification and the starch with high amylose content coated NPs can also exhibit protein corona-free property after etherifying the surface of NPs to positive surface charge. Therefore, the combined impact of both low amylose content and positive surface charges by etherification modification of the starch can provide the excellent protein corona-free property for starch coated polymer NPs, that is very promising for highly efficient nano drug carries and marine coatings.


Asunto(s)
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química , Almidón/química , Amilosa/análisis , Nanopartículas/ultraestructura , Corona de Proteínas/análisis , Corona de Proteínas/química , Soluciones , Electricidad Estática
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