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1.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9973
2.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Francés, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49171

RESUMEN

Enquanto a COVID-19 continua a registrar cerca de 4.000 mortes por semana nas Américas e os casos de varíola dos macacos aumentam, o vírus da pólio foi agora detectado entre as comunidades não vacinadas em Nova York. Diante disto, a Diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa Etienne, pediu aos países que reforcem urgentemente a vigilância e as campanhas de vacinação de rotina.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Américas , Vacunación , Poliomielitis/inmunología
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimedia | ID: multimedia-9970

RESUMEN

Encuentros de gestión para la Campaña de vacunacion de sarampión, rubéola, parotiditis y polio que se realiza a nivel nacional. Esta capacitación específica a nivel de la provincia de Buenos Aires está destinada a los referentes del Programa de control de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles de las regiones sanitarias, de los municipios y de los vacunatorios


Asunto(s)
Vacunación/métodos , Vacuna contra el Sarampión-Parotiditis-Rubéola/administración & dosificación , Poliomielitis/prevención & control
4.
Euro Surveill ; 27(37)2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111556

RESUMEN

We report an emergence and increase in poliovirus type 2 detection via routine wastewater surveillance in three non-overlapping regions in the Jerusalem region, Israel, between April and July 2022. Sequencing showed genetic linkage among isolates and accumulation of mutations over time, with two isolates defined as vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV). This demonstrates the emergence and potential circulation of type 2 VDPV in a high-income country with high vaccine coverage and underscores the importance of routine wastewater surveillance during the polio eradication.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Humanos , Poliovirus/genética , Vacuna Antipolio Oral , Aguas Residuales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico Basado en Aguas Residuales
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 12, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158926

RESUMEN

Introduction: South Sudan has made quite impressive progress in interrupting wild poliovirus and maintaining a polio-free status since the last case was reported in 2009. South Sudan introduced different complementary strategies to enhance acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Hence, the objective of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of the surveillance system using the WHO recommended surveillance standard and highlight the progress and challenges over the years. Methods: we conducted a retrospective, descriptive, quantitative study design and used the available secondary AFP surveillance database. Results: the overall non-polio AFP rate was 6.2/100,000 children under 15 years old in the study period. The stool adequacy was maintained well above the certification level of surveillance. The two main surveillance performance indicators were met at the national level throughout the study period. In contrast, only five out of ten states persistently attained and maintained the two main surveillance performance indicators throughout the study period, while in 2019 all states achieved except for Jonglei state. During the analysis period, no wild poliovirus was isolated except two circulating Vaccine Derived Poliovirus Type 2 (cVDPV2) cases in 2014 and one Immunodeficiency Vaccine Derived Poliovirus Type 2 (iVDPV2) case in 2015. However, on average, three cases were classified as polio compatible with each year of the study. Conclusion: South Sudan met the two key surveillance performance indicators and had a sensitive AFP surveillance system during the period studied. We recommend intensifying surveillance activities in the former conflict-affected states and counties to maintain polio-free status.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Adolescente , Enfermedades Virales del Sistema Nervioso Central , Niño , Humanos , Mielitis , Enfermedades Neuromusculares , Parálisis/epidemiología , Parálisis/etiología , Parálisis/prevención & control , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudán del Sur/epidemiología , alfa-Fetoproteínas
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 11, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158927

RESUMEN

Introduction: South Sudan reported the last indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) in 2001 in Unity State, while the country was part of Sudan. In addition, the country reported an imported case of WPV in 2004-2005 and 2008-2009. The WPV circulation in the state was interrupted in 2009 and the last case was reported in Ayod county. The country continues to be at risk of importation of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). In 2014 and 2020 the country experienced an outbreak of cVDPV2, in which Jonglei state was one of the affected states. Four out of 50 (8%) cVDPV2 cases in 2020 were reported from Jonglei State. The purpose of this study is to review surveillance performance indicators of Jonglei and compare them with the WHO surveillance performance standard and other country´s surveillance performances. Methods: retrospective secondary data analysis was conducted using the Jonglei state Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance case-based database from 2011 to 2020. The reason for selecting Jonglei is because it is one of the poor performing states and is chronically hit by flood and internal conflicts. Data analyses were carried out using the Microsoft Excel (2016) program, where descriptive analysis frequencies, tables, and graphs were generated. Results: the study revealed that 346 AFP cases were reported in the counties of Jonglei state from 2011 through 2020. Out of 11 counties, 11 (100%) of them have reported suspected AFP cases. Children under five years accounted for 275 (79%) of all cases. The male gender accounted for 175 (51%) of all cases. A total of 249 (72%) had received three or more doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). Non-Polio Acute Flaccid Paralysis (NPAFP) rate varies from 1.2 in 2014 to 4.4 cases per 100,000 children under 15 years in 2018. The stool adequacy ranges from 58% in 2020 to 100% in 2011. Conclusion: the performance of Jonglei´s AFP surveillance system did not meet the WHO recommended target for both major AFP surveillance indicators (non-polio AFP rate and stool adequacy) during the study period.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Enfermedades Virales del Sistema Nervioso Central , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Masculino , Mielitis , Enfermedades Neuromusculares , Parálisis/epidemiología , Parálisis/etiología , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudán del Sur/epidemiología , alfa-Fetoproteínas
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 14, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158937

RESUMEN

Introduction: the last wild polio virus in South Sudan was documented in 2009. Nonetheless, it was one of the last four countries in the WHO African region to be accepted as a polio-free country in June 2020. In line with this, to accelerate the polio-free documentation process, the country has piloted Auto Visual AFP Detection and Reporting (AVADAR) in three counties. This study examined the contribution of the AVADAR surveillance system to the traditional Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system to document lessons learnt and best practices. Methods: we performed a retrospective descriptive quantitative study design to analyze secondary AVADAR surveillance data collected from June 2018 to December 2019 and stored at the WHO AVADAR server. Results: the AVADAR community surveillance system has improved the two main AFP surveillance indicators in the piloted counties and made up 86% of the total number of true AFP cases detected in these counties. The completeness and timeliness of weekly zero reporting were 97% and 94%, respectively and maintained above the standard throughout the study, while the two main surveillance indicators in the project area were improved progressively except for the Gogrial West County. In contrast, main surveillance indicators declined in some of the none-AVADAR implementing counties. Conclusion: the AVADAR surveillance system can overcome the logistical and remoteness barriers that can hinder the early detection and reporting of cases due to insecurity, topographical, and communication barrier in rural and hard-to-reach areas to accomplish and sustain the two main surveillance indicators, along with the completeness and timeliness of weekly zero reporting. We recommend extending this application-based surveillance system to other areas with limited resources and similar challenges by incorporating other diseases of public health concern.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , alfa-Fetoproteínas , Enfermedades Virales del Sistema Nervioso Central , Humanos , Mielitis , Enfermedades Neuromusculares , Parálisis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/diagnóstico , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Retrospectivos , Sudán del Sur/epidemiología
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42(Suppl 1): 3, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158939

RESUMEN

Introduction: in 1988 the World Health Assembly set an ambitious target to eradicate Wild Polio Virus (WPV) by 2000, following the successful eradication of the smallpox virus in 1980. South Sudan and the entire African region were certified WPV free on August 25, 2020. South Sudan has maintained its WPV free status since 2010, and this paper reviewed the country's progress, outlined lessons learned, and describes the remaining challenges in polio eradication. Methods: secondary data analysis was conducted using the Ministry of Health and WHO polio surveillance datasets, routine immunisation coverage, polio campaign data, and surveys from 2010 to 2020. Relevant technical documents and reports on polio immunisation and surveillance were also reviewed. Data analysis was conducted using EPI Info 7 software. Results: administrative routine immunisation coverage for bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) 3rd dose declined from 77% in 2010 to 56% in 2020. In contrast, the administrative and post-campaign evaluation coverage recorded for the nationwide supplemental polio campaigns since 2011 was consistently above 85%; however, campaigns declined in number from four in 2011 to zero in 2020. Overall, 76% of notified cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) received three or more doses of the oral polio vaccine. The Annualized Non-AFP rate ranged between 4.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 under 15 years populations, and stool adequacy ranged from 83% to 94%. Conclusion: South Sudan's polio-free status documentation was accepted by the ARCC in 2020, thereby enabling the African Region to be certified WPV free on August 25, 2020. However, there are concerns as the country continues to report low routine immunisation coverage and a reduction in the number of polio campaigns conducted each year. It is recommended that the country conduct high-quality nationwide supplemental polio campaigns yearly to achieve and maintain the required herd immunity. It invests in its routine immunisation program while ensuring optimal AFP surveillance performance indicators.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Humanos , Programas de Inmunización , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vacuna Antipolio Oral , Vigilancia de la Población , Sudán del Sur/epidemiología
9.
Science ; 377(6612): 1247-1248, 2022 09 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108020

RESUMEN

As New York state declares an emergency, experts are far more worried about a resurgence in low-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Brotes de Enfermedades , Salud Global , Poliomielitis , Humanos , New York/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16074, 2022 Sep 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167892

RESUMEN

To monitor vulnerability of countries to poliovirus (PV) outbreaks, serosurveillance of anti-PV neutralization antibody is conducted by conventional PV neutralization test (cPNT), which uses live PV strains. We previously developed a pseudovirus PV neutralization test (pPNT) as an alternative to cPNT, which uses PV pseudovirus that expresses luciferase as a reporter in the infection without producing infectious PV. In the present study, we established a high-throughput pPNT (HTpPNT) for a large-scale serosurveillance. The HTpPNT system was evaluated with 600 human serum samples obtained from a broad range of age groups of healthy volunteers (ages of 0-89 years). HTpPNT showed high correlation with cPNT (R2 for anti-type 1, 2, and 3 PV neutralization antibody titres are 0.90, 0.84, and 0.90, respectively). By using HTpPNT, we analyzed relative neutralizing antibody titre of the sera against a type 1 PV wild-type strain (Mahoney strain) to that against the type 1 Sabin strain. As a result, a correlation between the age (≥ 60 years) and the relative neutralizing antibody titre was observed (n = 15-16, P = 0.0000023-0.041), while the types of PV vaccine (i.e., oral PV vaccine and Sabin strain-based IPV) had no effect. HTpPNT would serve as a useful alternative to cPNT in a large-scale serosurveillance.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Humanos , Luciferasas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas de Neutralización , Vacuna Antipolio Oral
11.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-09-29.
en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56489

RESUMEN

O objetivo desses procedimentos operacionais padrão (POPs) é oferecer orientação a qualquer país que detecte qualquer tipo de surto ou evento de poliovírus, para responder de maneira oportuna e efetiva, com o objetivo específico de interromper os surtos de poliomielite dentro de 120 dias (quatro meses). Este guia se destina a governos nacionais e tomadores de decisão de saúde pública que coordenam respostas a eventos e surtos de poliovírus e seus parceiros globais, regionais e nacionais. Essa versão dos POPs se baseia nas versões anteriores desenvolvidas desde 2015 e leva em consideração os principais desenvolvimentos, lições aprendidas e disponibilidade de novas ferramentas desde a publicação da última versão, em março de 2020. O desenvolvimento desses POPs depende de evidências científicas disponíveis e consenso de especialistas, mantendo-se fundamentado em realidades operacionais e no contexto de diminuição da imunidade global ao poliovírus tipo 2. Os aspectos fundamentais dos POPs resultam de ampla consulta com grupos consultivos de especialistas, incluindo o Grupo de Especialistas Consultivos Estratégicos (SAGE) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre imunização, com endosso pelos grupos técnicos e de gestão relevantes da GPEI. Esses POPs não incluem resposta ao WPV1 devido à transmissão local em um contexto endêmico, orientações operacionais em nível de campo nem ferramentas para planejamento de atividades de imunização suplementar (SIAs) de alta qualidade ou métodos detalhados para vigilância aprimorada.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliomielitis , Vacunas contra Poliovirus , Brotes de Enfermedades
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(36): 1148-1150, 2022 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074738

RESUMEN

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has proven to be highly effective in the global effort to eradicate poliomyelitis because of its ability to induce both humoral and intestinal immunity, ease of administration, and low cost (1). Sabin-strain OPV contains live attenuated virus and induces immunity by replicating in the intestinal tract, triggering an immune response that clears the vaccine virus. However, among undervaccinated communities and persons with immunodeficiency, OPV mutations that arise during prolonged replication can result in the emergence of genetically divergent, neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). In addition, OPV has resulted in rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) among vaccine recipients or their close contacts (1). Identification of circulating polioviruses relies on surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and environmental surveillance of wastewater (i.e., sewage). In 2022, type 3 VDPV (VDPV3) was detected in stool specimens from an infant with primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) through a pilot surveillance program to identify VDPVs in children with PIDs. Integrated AFP, environmental, and immunodeficiency-associated VDPV (iVDPV) surveillance is critical to detecting and containing all polioviruses and achieving the goal of global polio eradication.


Asunto(s)
Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia , Poliomielitis , Vacuna Antipolio Oral , Poliovirus , Enfermedades de Inmunodeficiencia Primaria , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia/complicaciones , Lactante , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliovirus/genética , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/efectos adversos , Enfermedades de Inmunodeficiencia Primaria/complicaciones , Vacunas Atenuadas
13.
Vaccine ; 40(40): 5835-5841, 2022 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064670

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To meet the demand for effective and affordable inactivated polio vaccines (IPVs), a reduced dose, aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3)-adjuvanted IPV vaccine was developed (IPV-Al, Picovax®) and evaluated in clinical trials. The present trial is an extension of two previous trials (a primary and a booster trial). The aim was to evaluate the persistence of seroprotective antibodies (poliovirus type-specific antibody titre ≥ 8) in 4-year-old children who previously received IPV-Al as primary and booster vaccine doses and to determine the potential booster response and safety profile of an additional dose of IPV-Al. METHODS: Children participating in the two previous trials were invited to receive one additional dose of IPV-Al at 4 years of age (2.5 years after the booster dose) and to have their blood samples collected to measure the pre- and post-vaccination antibody titres. Systemic adverse events (AEs) and local reactogenicity were recorded. RESULTS: At study entry, the seroprotection rates were 89.2%, 100% and 91.1% against poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The additional vaccination with IPV-Al boosted the level of poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 antibodies to above the seroprotection threshold for all but one subject, i.e., 99.4% for type 1 and 100% for types 2 and 3. The additional dose induced a robust booster response of a 26.3-, 13.9- and 30.9-fold increase in titre for poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The vaccine was well tolerated, with only mild and transient AEs reported. CONCLUSIONS: The present trial demonstrated that the primary vaccination with an aluminium-adjuvanted reduced dose IPV induced a persistent immune memory as evidenced by the robust anamnestic response when the subjects were re-exposed to the antigen 2.5 years after the last dose. Thus, the IPV-Al is an efficient and safe addition to increase the availability of inactivated polio vaccines globally. (ClinicalTrials.gov reg no. NCT04448132).


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos , Aluminio , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Preescolar , Humanos , Inmunización Secundaria/efectos adversos , Lactante , Poliomielitis/etiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vacuna Antipolio de Virus Inactivados
14.
J Wound Care ; 31(9): 792-798, 2022 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113540

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case report is to describe the results of complex decongestive therapy (CDT) in a patient with poliomyelitis and bilateral lymphoedema, and to emphasise the effect of CDT on wound healing. METHOD: A 48-year-old female patient was given CDT for bilateral grade 3 lymphoedema in the lower extremities and a deep wound on the right foot. She had been diagnosed with poliomyelitis sequela and mobilised with a wheelchair for 26 years. The lymphoedema on both legs and the wound on the right foot sole had been present for five years and eight months, respectively. Detailed wound care had been performed previously upon the green, malodorous infected wound, without healing. The patient received skin care education, manual lymphatic drainage, multilayer bandaging and exercises for 4 weeks in a total of 20 sessions. The improvement was assessed by limb volumes prior to and at the end of the treatments. RESULTS: The right and left lower limb volumes were decreased significantly at the end of treatments (3042cm³ (R) and 3165cm³ (L) before versus 2702cm3 (R) and 2401cm3 (L) afterward). The wound size decreased considerably and the green malodorous flow ceased. The patient continued self-massage and self-bandaging after hospital discharge. The control follow-up, one month later, revealed a completely healed wound with maintained volume. CONCLUSION: In conclusion CDT for a duration of 4 weeks in a female patient with poliomyelitis, bilateral lymphoedema and an infectious hard-to-heal wound, improved both the lymphoedema and wound healing.


Asunto(s)
Linfedema , Poliomielitis , Terapia por Ejercicio/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Pierna , Linfedema/etiología , Linfedema/terapia , Masaje/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Poliomielitis/complicaciones , Poliomielitis/terapia
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 64(3, may-jun): 239, 2022 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130356
18.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(5): 431-444, 2022 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047174

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization Western Pacific Region (WPR) has maintained a polio-free status for more than two decades. At the global level, there were only six confirmed polio cases due to wild type 1 poliovirus in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Malawi in 2021; therefore, the risk of wild poliovirus importation from endemic countries to the WPR is considerably lower than that in the past. However, the risk of polio outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) cannot be ignored even in the WPR. Since the late 2010s, cVDPV outbreaks in the WPR have increased in frequency and magnitude. Moreover, the emergence of concomitant polio outbreaks of type 1 and type 2 cVDPVs in the Philippines and Malaysia during 2019-2020 highlighted the potential risk of cVDPV outbreaks in high-risk areas and/or communities in the WPR. Previous cVDPV outbreaks in the WPR have been rapidly and effectively controlled. However, future polio outbreak risks associated with cVDPVs must be reconsidered, and polio immunization and surveillance strategies should be updated accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Vacuna Antipolio Oral , Poliovirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Salud Global , Humanos , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vacuna Antipolio Oral/efectos adversos , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1694, 2022 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071410

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Polio is disease caused by poliovirus which can in turn cause irreversible paralytic disease, presenting as Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP). A sensitive AFP surveillance system, in which all reported AFP cases are evaluated, first to determine if they are true AFP cases or not, is key for tracking polio eradication. True AFP cases are then later categorized as polio AFP or non-polio AFP (NPAFP) cases. Sensitivity is defined by meeting an annual NPAFP rate/100,000 population < 15 years of ≥ 4/100,000, and an annual stool adequacy (SA) rate of ≥ 80%. We describe Uganda's AFP surveillance performance between 2015-2020, based on the WHO-recommended indicators, including; NPAFP and stool adequacy rate. METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis of national AFP surveillance data, 2015-2020 obtained from ministry of health. We evaluated proportion of reported AFP cases that were true AFP, and changes in NPAFP and stool adequacy (SA) rate over the study period. We evaluated the trends in achieving the targeted NPAFP and SA rates from 2015-2020. We used QGIS to illustrate patterns in NPAFP and SA rates across districts and subregions. RESULTS: Among 3,605 AFP cases reported and investigated countrywide from 2015-2020, 3,475 (96%) were true AFP cases. All the true AFP cases were non-polio related. District reporting was near-complete (97-100% each year). Overall, the mean NPAFP rate declined from 3.1/100,000 in 2015 to 2.1/100,000 in 2020. Less than 40% of districts met the NPAFP target rate in all years. The proportion of districts achieving the NPAFP target rate of ≥ 4/100,000 significantly declined from 35% in 2015 to 20% in 2020. The mean annual SA rate nationally was 88% from 2015-2020. Only 66% of districts achieved the SA target rate of ≥ 80% in the study period. The proportion of districts with SA rate ≥ 80% significantly increased from 68 to 80% between 2015 and 2020. CONCLUSION: Most districts reported AFP cases. However, there was a decline in the NPAFP rate from 2015-2020 and few districts achieved the target rate. The suboptimal AFP surveillance system performance leaves the country at risk of missing ongoing poliovirus transmission. We recommend health worker training on active AFP searches, intensified supportive supervision, increase the number of environmental surveillance sentinel sites to boost AFP surveillance in the country, and periodic review meetings with districts to assess AFP surveillance performance.


Asunto(s)
Poliomielitis , Poliovirus , Enfermedades Virales del Sistema Nervioso Central , Humanos , Mielitis , Enfermedades Neuromusculares , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , Vigilancia de la Población , Uganda/epidemiología , alfa-Fetoproteínas
20.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146763

RESUMEN

Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of diseases involving various organs. Our aim was to give a historical overview of the genesis of clinical sample processing for EVs in the Slovak Republic (SR) during the 1958-2020 period, within the framework of the World Health Organization (WHO) polio program. Further, analyses were made of the data obtained from the archives of processed clinical sample surveillance using statistical methods. We used generalized additive models (GAM) with binomial distribution and logit link functions and an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) to analyze the data obtained during this 63-year period. Our results show trends in the composition of EV strains circulating in the population. Furthermore, statistically significant increasing trends of the non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were observed over the studied time, represented by echoviruses (E) and coxsackieviruses A and B (CVA and CVB), with a cyclical pattern of occurrence. The most prevalent serotype over this period was CVB5, which became significantly more prevalent after 2000. While PVs, CVB1, and CVB3 were present in the second half of the studied period, CVA10, CVA16, E3, E25, and E30 appeared more frequently.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Enterovirus , Enterovirus , Poliomielitis , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus Humano B , Infecciones por Enterovirus/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Filogenia , Poliomielitis/epidemiología , Eslovaquia/epidemiología
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