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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127798, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799166

RESUMEN

In this study, polysaccharides (BPSs) were obtained from fresh bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) by room temperature extraction techniques, including three-phase partitioning (TPP) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) performed in different solvents. The results showed that the extraction methods had significant influence on the extraction yield, chemical composition, weight-average molecular weight (Mw), monosaccharide composition, preliminary structural characterization and microstructure of the BPSs. The BPS-W sample obtained from the bitter gourd residue via UAE in distilled water had a higher uronic acid content (24.22%) and possessed stronger antioxidant capacities and α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activities than BPS-C extracted with UAE in citric acid, BPS-A extracted with UAE in 1.25 mol/L NaOH/0.05% NaBH4, and BPS-J extracted from bitter gourd juice by TPP. Moreover, BPS-A, which had the lowest Mws, showed the best bile acid-binding capacity among the four BPSs. This study had great potentials for the preparation of bioactive polysaccharides from fresh vegetables.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Momordica charantia/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Temperatura , Ácidos Urónicos/análisis , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , alfa-Glucosidasas/efectos de los fármacos
2.
Food Chem ; 339: 128081, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152874

RESUMEN

In the present study, three-phase partitioning (TPP) coupled with gradient ethanol precipitation (GEP) was developed for the first time to extract and isolate polysaccharides (GPSs) from raw garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs. Four kinds of fructose polymers, namely, GPS35, GPS50, GPS65, and GPS80, were obtained at the final ethanol precipitation concentrations of 35%, 50%, 65%, and 80% (v/v), respectively, and their physicochemical characteristics and in vitro biological activities were investigated. Results indicated that GPS80 had higher carbohydrate (86.68% ± 0.90%) and uronic acid (12.89% ± 0.09%) contents, lower weight-average molecular weight (8.93 × 103 Da), and looser surface morphology than the other three GPSs. Furthermore, among the four GPSs, GPS80 exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacities, inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glycosidase, and nitric oxide stimulatory activity on RAW264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Therefore, this study provides a simple and feasible technological strategy for producing bioactive polysaccharides from raw Allium vegetables.


Asunto(s)
Precipitación Química , Etanol/química , Ajo/química , Tallos de la Planta/química , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Fenómenos Químicos , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/química , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Peso Molecular , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , alfa-Glucosidasas/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 335: 127645, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738537

RESUMEN

The dried Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used for its pharmacological properties and bioactive ganoderic acids (GAs). Herein, extraction procedures combining ultra-sonication and heating were optimized using response surface methodology based on four variables (antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, total GAs content, and total polysaccharide content) and principal component analysis. The extraction of freeze-dried GL at temperatures between 64.2 and 70 °C for 1.2 h maximized the antioxidant activity and GA content, whereas the polysaccharide content and anti-diabetic activity were maximized by extraction between 66.8 and 70 °C for more than 2.8 h. Heat-dried GL extracted at 50 °C for 3 h provided the greatest anti-inflammatory activity against HaCaT cells by suppressing the response to inflammation related cytokines at mRNA levels. These results suggest that extraction conditions might be a limiting factor for target-oriented investigations, and optimized extraction methods may improve the potential effect and quality of harvested GL products.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Línea Celular , Fraccionamiento Químico/instrumentación , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacología
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 134: 111159, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370627

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to use Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss (Acanthaceae) polysaccharide (DCP) to act on the NF-κB inflammatory pathway and Fas/FasL ligand system, in order to find a new method to improve immune liver injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish an injury model in vivo (Kunming mice) and in vitro (LO2 cells). In this experiment, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and related biochemical indicators were used to observe the pathological changes of liver tissues, oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. Immunohistochemistry, ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect protein or mRNA expressions associated with inflammation response and apoptosis. The experimental results show that the model group has obvious liver cell damage and inflammatory infiltration. After DCP intervention, it could significantly reduce the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TBIL and MDA in serum, and increase the content of SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, DCP can reduce the expression level of NF-κB in the liver and reduce the release of downstream inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß, thereby reducing the inflammation. At the same time, DCP can significantly inhibit the expression of Fas/FasL ligand system and apoptosis related-proteins and mRNA, which in turn can reduce cell apoptosis. In conclusion, DCP can alleviate liver injury by inhibiting liver inflammation and apoptosis, which provides a new strategy for clinical treatment of immune liver injury.


Asunto(s)
Acanthaceae , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/prevención & control , Mediadores de Inflamación/metabolismo , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Acanthaceae/química , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Línea Celular , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/inmunología , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/patología , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Proteína Ligando Fas/genética , Proteína Ligando Fas/metabolismo , Lipopolisacáridos , Hígado/inmunología , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Ratones , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Transducción de Señal , Receptor fas/genética , Receptor fas/metabolismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113280, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822821

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Astragalus membranaceus and Codonopsis pilosula which are two Chinese medicinal herbs are often combinedly used as monarch drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescriptions to treat ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the exact mechanisms and effective constituents of the two herbs remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Polysaccharides are the main active ingredients of the two medicinal herbs and some specific polysaccharides extracted from the two medicinal herbs have been proven effective in relieving colitis. Hence, we speculated that polysaccharides of the two medicinal herbs may be the material basis for compatibility in TCM prescriptions to treat UC. In the research, total polysaccharides of A. membranaceus and C. pilosula extractum, named AERP and CERP respectively, were administrated to 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mice by dosing alone and in combination to test this hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA, 100 mg/kg/d) was selected as the positive drug. The basic indexes of colitis mice including body weight, stool bleeding, stool consistency and colon lengths were recorded. In addition, tissue inflammatory factors, mucosa-associated proteins, fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota were also analyzed. RESULTS: The co-administration of AERP and CERP at specific doses could improve the clinical symptoms, reestablish the immune balance, and alleviate colonic mucosal injury in colitis mice. The unique efficacy of co-administration relied on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and up-regulation of isovaleric acid and butyrate. In addition, the structure of intestinal flora was recovered in the co-administration group. CONCLUSION: Our research proved the efficacy after co-administration of total polysaccharides from A. membranaceus and C. pilosula on colitis mice which provided a theoretical basis for their compatibility in TCM prescriptions to treat UC.


Asunto(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Codonopsis , Colitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Colitis/metabolismo , Colitis/patología , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1632: 461610, 2020 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080533

RESUMEN

Due to the heterogeneous and isomeric nature of glycans, the development of an advanced separation of distinct glycan isomers is essential for glycan research and application. In this study, we utilized porous graphite carbon (PGC) chromatography for the separation of isomeric oligosaccharides without reduction or chemical derivatization at 190 °C in a custom-built heating oven. Furthermore, the fine structures of glycan isomers could be identified by using ultrahigh temperature PGC liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHT-PGC-LCMS). A nonreduced hydrolyzed dextran was applied to verify the performance of UHT-PGC. When the temperature of the PGC column was increased from 25 to 190 °C, the liquid chromatography separation power of the nonreduced dextran ladder significantly increased. The advantage of the UHT-PGC column was its high peak capacity with gradient elution in 10 min at 190 °C, 6700 psi, and a 250 µL/min flow rate for native glycan analysis. Four synthetic Lewis antigen isomers were used to elucidate the separation effectiveness in UHT-PGC. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based sequencing to generate specific diagnostic ions from the four synthetic Lewis antigens was used to predict isomeric glycans based on the relative intensity ratio (RIR) of diagnostic ions. The intensities of the diagnostic ions of synthetic isomers were used to identify each isomer of the fucosylated glycan. The results clearly showed that terminal Lewis A and X residues were in the 3- and 6-arms of N-glycan, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Fucosa/química , Fucosa/aislamiento & purificación , Grafito/química , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Temperatura , Dextranos/química , Glicosilación , Hidrólisis , Iones , Isomerismo , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Porosidad , Factores de Tiempo
7.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899754

RESUMEN

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Lectinas/farmacología , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Polifenoles/farmacología , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Productos Biológicos/química , Productos Biológicos/aislamiento & purificación , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/efectos de los fármacos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Pandemias , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Virus del SRAS/efectos de los fármacos , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Vacunas Virales/biosíntesis , Vacunas Virales/farmacología
8.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1491-1509, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924531

RESUMEN

Astragalus membranaceus is the most popular traditional Chinese medicine for managing vital energy deficiency. Its injectable polysaccharide PG2 has been used for relieving cancer-related fatigue, and PG2 has immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we explored the effects of PG2 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and CL1-2 cells and investigated its anticancer activity, and the results were validated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Although PG2 did not inhibit the growth of these cells, it dose-dependently suppressed their migration and invasion, accompanied by reduced vimentin and AXL and induced epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) expression. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanism, PG2 treatment reduced the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine that promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggressiveness of cancer cells. Consistent with the previous finding that MIF regulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), treatment with PG2 reduced MMP-13 and activated AMPK in A549 and CL1-2 cells in this study. In SCID mice injected with A549 cells through the tail vein, intraperitoneal injection with PG2 reduced lung and abdominal metastases in parallel with decreased immunohistochemical staining of AXL, vimentin, MMP-13, and MIF in the tumor. Collectively, data revealed a potential application of PG2 in integrative cancer treatment through the suppression of MIF in cancer cells and their aggressiveness.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/patología , Astragalus propinquus/química , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Oxidorreductasas Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animales , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ratones SCID , Invasividad Neoplásica , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1629: 461464, 2020 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841772

RESUMEN

Red wine is a complex matrix containing macromolecules such as condensed tannins and polysaccharides. Wine macromolecular components and their interactions have been reported to impact taste properties such as astringency but the colloidal systems formed in wine are not well known. A key prerequisite to characterize these systems is the ability to work under analytical conditions as close as possible to the colloid environment, preserving the sample structure and limiting the denaturation of macromolecular complexes. A method of Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV detection, multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and differential refractometer index (dRI) (AF4-UV-MALS-dRI) has been developed to analyse macromolecules, including tannins and polysaccharides, and macromolecular complexes, in red wine. This method separates objects according to their hydrodynamic radius and does not require calibration to determine molecular weight (Mw). AF4 can provide native separation of wine colloidal matter while working with simulated wine as mobile phase. The channel was equipped with a 350-µm spacer and the membrane made in regenerated cellulose had a cut-off of 5kDa. Different parameters of crossflow rate were investigated using a generic red wine to optimize separation conditions. Then, purified fractions of polysaccharides and tannins were analysed using the selected AF4 parameters. The comparison of the peaks obtained for these fractions and for the wine sample allowed us to determine the retention time associated with these macromolecules. The AF4 fractogram of wine was divided into four fractions. The first three were assigned to higher Mw tannins coeluted with lower Mw polysaccharides such as rhamnogalacturonan II (F1), to intermediate Mw polysaccharides (F2), and to higher Mw mannoproteins (F3) whereas the last fraction (F4) was not identified. Furthermore, our results have shown that AF4-UV-MALS-dRI could be an efficient technique to separate large size tannins as well as polysaccharides and macromolecular complexes.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento de Campo-Flujo/métodos , Sustancias Macromoleculares/aislamiento & purificación , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Vino/análisis , Hidrodinámica , Peso Molecular , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Taninos/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Tiempo
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461194, 2020 Aug 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709309

RESUMEN

Quantitative analysis of glycans released from glycoproteins using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) requires fluorescent tag labeling to enhance sensitivity and selectivity. However, the methods required to remove large amounts of excess labeling reagents from the reaction mixture are time-consuming. Furthermore, these methods, including solvent extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE), often impair quantitative analysis. Here, we developed an online sample cleanup procedure for HPLC analysis of 2-aminopyridine (AP)-labeled glycans using a six-port/two-way valve and two small columns: one packed with a strong cation exchange resin (SCX) and the other comprising ODS silica gel. AP-labeled glycans delivered from an injection port were separated from excess AP by passing through an SCX column (4.6 mm i.d., 1 cm long) regulated to 40°C. The AP-labeled glycans were trapped on an ODS column (4.6 mm i.d., 1 cm long) to further separate them from inorganic contaminants. By changing the valve position after 2 min to connect the ODS column to an analysis column, AP-labeled glycans trapped in the ODS column were eluted with an acetonitrile-containing eluent followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation on an amide column or reversed-phase mode separation on a C30 column. This method was successfully used to analyze N-linked glycans released from several glycoprotein samples.


Asunto(s)
Aminopiridinas/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Polisacáridos/química , Cromatografía por Intercambio Iónico , Cromatografía de Fase Inversa , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Péptido-N4-(N-acetil-beta-glucosaminil) Asparagina Amidasa/metabolismo , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Extracción en Fase Sólida
11.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2943-2951, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702186

RESUMEN

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease, which was commonly found in westerners whereas is increasingly prevalent in Asia because of the changing eating habits. In previous research, we found that a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from Auricularia auricular-judae (Bull.)-a kind of edible mushroom (Aap)-is composed of ß-1,3 glycosidic bonds, which is regarded as therapeutic or protective substance in enteritis. We therefore aimed to find the preventing effect of Aap on IBD. Here, we reported that pre-administration of Aap not only ameliorated weight loss, colon damage, and mucosal inflammation in colitis mice, but also prevented the damage of intestinal barrier by reducing the D-lactic acid and diamine oxidase level in plasma. Through high-throughput sequencing, we found that Aap changed gut microbiota composition. Furthermore, the preventing effect was transmissible via horizontal feces transfer from Aap-treated mice to normal mice. Our results indicated that oral administration of Aap is a promising protective substance of IBD. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Our study proved that Auricularia auricula polysaccharide had substantial preventing effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice. This research might lay the theoretical foundation and technical support for the development of related functional foods. People could also enhance their gut immunity by eating Auricularia auricular in their daily life. Auricularia auricular as a highly nutritious agricultural product showed the broad significance in nutrition and food function.


Asunto(s)
Basidiomycota/química , Colitis Ulcerosa/microbiología , Colitis Ulcerosa/prevención & control , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Colitis Ulcerosa/inducido químicamente , Sulfato de Dextran/efectos adversos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Heces/microbiología , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232972, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512581

RESUMEN

Various dietary fibers are considered to prevent obesity by modulating the gut microbiota. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide (CSP) is a soluble dietary fiber known to have protective effects against obesity and related diseases, but whether these effects induce any side effects remains unknown. The function and safety of CSP were tested in high-fat diet (HFD)-feding C57BL/6J mice. The results revealed that even though CSP supplementation could prevent an increase in body weight, it aggravated liver fibrosis and steatosis as evidenced by increased inflammation, lipid metabolism markers, insulin resistance (IR) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HFD-induced obesity. 16S rDNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota composition, and the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria phylum, including the Olsenella genus, was significantly higher in CSP-treated mice than in HFD-fed mice. CSP supplementation may increase the proportion of Actinobacteria, which can degrade CSP. The high level of Actinobacteria aggravated the disorder of the intestinal flora and contributed to the progression from obesity to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and related diseases.


Asunto(s)
Cordyceps , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Fibras de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/patología , Animales , Peso Corporal , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Inflamación/etiología , Inflamación/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Lípidos/sangre , Hígado/metabolismo , Hígado/patología , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/patología , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación
13.
Food Chem ; 324: 126857, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344342

RESUMEN

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an important signal in the peripheral and neural systems, which contributes to the maintenance of glucose and energy homeostasis. In this study, 1H NMR validated polyphenols and polysaccharides extracted from sprouted quinoa yoghurt were used as isolates and conjugates to upregulate the stimulation of GLP-1 release in NCI-H716 cells. In addition, we explored their effect on proglucagon and prohormone convertase 3 mRNA expressions, HNF-3γ and CCK-2R gene protein expression, as well as cytosolic calcium release. Variations in concentration showed a dose-dependent GLP-1 stimulation, and were significantly optimized by germination. Proglucagon mRNA expression in NCI-H716 cells was upregulated, and was relatively highest with QYPSP1 treatments in a 2.68 fold. The results suggested that the conjugates had greater potential to stimulate GLP-1 release than their isolates. Sprouted quinoa yoghurt could therefore be a potential functional food useful to regulate glucose and energy homeostasis.


Asunto(s)
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/química , Péptido 1 Similar al Glucagón/metabolismo , Polifenoles/química , Polisacáridos/química , Yogur/análisis , Calcio/metabolismo , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Chenopodium quinoa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Dipeptidil-Peptidasa IV/farmacología , Germinación , Humanos , Polifenoles/análisis , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/análisis , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Proglucagón/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proglucagón/genética , Proglucagón/metabolismo , Proproteína Convertasa 1/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proproteína Convertasa 1/genética , Proproteína Convertasa 1/metabolismo
14.
Mar Drugs ; 18(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331442

RESUMEN

The enzymatic depolymerization of fucoidans from brown algae allowed the production of their standardized derivatives with different biological activities. This work aimed to compare the antiviral activities of native (FeF) and modified with enzyme (FeHMP) fucoidans from F. evanescens. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the FeF and FeHMP against herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), enterovirus (ECHO-1), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in Vero and human MT-4 cell lines were examined by methylthiazolyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays, respectively. The efficacy of fucoidans in vivo was evaluated in the outbred mice model of vaginitis caused by HSV-2. We have shown that both FeF and FeHMP significantly inhibited virus-induced CPE in vitro and were more effective against HSV. FeF exhibited antiviral activity against HSV-2 with a selective index (SI) > 40, and FeHMP with SI ˃ 20, when they were added before virus infection or at the early stages of the HSV-2 lifecycle. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that after intraperitoneal administration (10 mg/kg), both FeF and FeHMP protected mice from lethal intravaginal HSV-2 infection to approximately the same degree (44-56%). Thus, FeF and FeHMP have comparable potency against several DNA and RNA viruses, allowing us to consider the studied fucoidans as promising broad-spectrum antivirals.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Fucus/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Virus/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Chlorocebus aethiops , Virus ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Ratones , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Virus ARN/efectos de los fármacos , Vaginitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis/virología , Células Vero
15.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 687: 108369, 2020 07 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335047

RESUMEN

A neutral tea polysaccharide (TPSN) was isolated from green tea. Gas chromatography analysis showed that TPSN was composed of d-glucose, l-arabinose and d-galactose residues at a molar ratio of 90.0: 9.1: 0.9. The weight-averaged molecular weight of TPSN was determined as about 2.0 × 105 g mol-1 using static light scattering analysis. The result of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy indicated that TPSN and water-soluble starch had similar structures. TPSN exhibited inhibitory activity towards α-amylase through the noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, but the tertiary structure of α-amylase related to enzymatic activity, analyzed using circular dichroism spectroscopy, was not affected by TPSN. Meanwhile, TPSN exhibited hydrolysis properties catalyzed by α-amylase. Molecular docking analysis revealed that the various behaviors of TPSN to α-amylase could be attributed to that the different chain segments of TPSN combined with different amino acid residues of α-amylase.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores Enzimáticos/química , Polisacáridos/química , Té/química , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Camellia sinensis/química , Pruebas de Enzimas , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Hidrólisis , Cinética , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Peso Molecular , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Unión Proteica , Porcinos , alfa-Amilasas/metabolismo
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1620: 461001, 2020 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151415

RESUMEN

Mass spectrum (MS) is one of the most commonly used tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycans. However, due to the complexity of biological samples and the low ionization efficiency of glycans, these need to be purified and derivatized prior to MS analysis. Existing purification strategies require a combination of multiple methods and are cumbersome to operate. Here, we propose a new method for the purification of glycoprotein N/O-glycans and their derivatives using a hand-packed absorbent cotton hydrophilic interaction chromatography column (HILIC). The method's reliability and applicability were verified by purifying N/O-glycans and the derivatives of standard glycoproteins, such as chicken albumin and porcine stomach mucin. Stable isotope labelling was used to compare the glycans' recovery following different purification methods. Absorbent cotton HILIC was also successfully applied for the analysis of human serum and fetal bovine serum glycoprotein N-glycans. Finally, testing revealed high binding capacity (9 mg/g-1 maltohexaose/absorbent cotton) and good recovery (average recovery was 91.7%) of glycans. Compared with traditional procedures, the proposed purification method offers considerable advantages, such as simplicity, high efficiency, economy, universality, and broad applicability for the pretreatment of glycans and their derivatives in biological samples prior to MS analysis.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía/métodos , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Pollos , Fibra de Algodón , Glicoproteínas/química , Humanos , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Marcaje Isotópico , Espectrometría de Masas , Mucinas/química , Polisacáridos/sangre , Polisacáridos/química , Porcinos
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115904, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122473

RESUMEN

In vitro digestive conditions were simulated to investigate the digestibility of polysaccharides prepared from squash (SPS). A small amount of free glucose monosaccharide was released after salivary and intestinal digestion due to the breakdown of α-(1 → 4)-glucose linkages and may form SPS or a starch impurity. At the same time, there was no obvious change in molecular weight distribution and reducing sugar content throughout this digestion period, demonstrating that the main structure of SPS was relatively stable under the simulated digestive conditions. Thus, most SPS can be transported intact to the large intestine. In addition, SPS alleviated type 2 diabetes (T2D) in rats. Moreover, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the colon significantly increased after treatment with SPS. The present research provides insight into the non-digestibility of SPS, and suggests its utility to alleviate T2D by promoting the production of SCFA in the colon.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/biosíntesis , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Animales , Colon/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/inducido químicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/inducido químicamente , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Intestinos/química , Masculino , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Estómago/química , Estreptozocina/administración & dosificación
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115929, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122475

RESUMEN

A previously undescribed polysaccharide, GMP70-1, was isolated from the rinds of Garcinia mangostana Lin. Physicochemical characterization analysis showed that GMP70-1 (absolute molecular weight: 2.01 × 104 g/mol) is a multi-branched acidic heteropolysaccharide with a compact coil chain conformation in sodium chloride solution. The repeated unit of GMP70-1 was mainly composed of (1 → 5)-linked α-L-Araf, (1 → 3, 5)-linked α-L-Araf, (1 → 2, 4)-linked α-L-Rhap, (1 → 4)-linked ß-D-Galp, terminating with t-α-L-Araf, t-α-D-GalpA, and t-ß-D-Galp. To explore the medicinal potential responsible for the bioactivity of G. mangostana, an immunomodulatory assay was performed. The in vitro cell test showed that GMP70-1 possessed a prominent immunoregulatory activity by enhancing the phagocytic uptake of neutral red and promoting the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß of macrophages. Furthermore, an in vivo zebrafish evaluation revealed that the production of ROS and NO was significantly increased after treated with GMP70-1.


Asunto(s)
Garcinia mangostana/química , Polisacáridos/inmunología , Animales , Conformación de Carbohidratos , Inmunomodulación , Macrófagos/inmunología , Ratones , Modelos Inmunológicos , Óxido Nítrico/inmunología , Tamaño de la Partícula , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Células RAW 264.7 , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/inmunología , Propiedades de Superficie , Pez Cebra
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115969, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122503

RESUMEN

A water-soluble neutral polysaccharide (SDQCP-1) was isolated from fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris cultivated on hull-less barley. SDQCP-1 was composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in the mole ratio of 13.3:1.0:9.7, with an average molecular weight of 19.3 kDa. Based on results from methylation analysis, GC-MS and NMR, SDQCP-1 was elucidated to be a glucogalactomannan with a backbone composed of (1→2)-α-D-Manp (48.4 %) and (1 → 4)-ß-D-Glcp (1.2 %) residues. Its side chains were branched at O-6 position of (1→2)-α-D-Manp mainly by (1 → 2)-ß-D-Galf or (1 → 6)-α-D-Manp residues which were terminated mainly with α-D-Galf, α-D-Galp residues. Besides exhibiting a good antioxidant capacity with an ORACFL value of 24.7 mmol Trolox/g and a TEAC value of 202.4 µmol Trolox/g, SDQCP-1 also could stimulate macrophages to release NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10, and mainly induced M1 polarization of macrophages. The findings indicated that SDQCP-1, from C. militaris cultivated on hull-less barley, could be used as potential natural antioxidant and immunomodulator in functional foods or medicine.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Cordyceps/química , Hordeum/química , Factores Inmunológicos/farmacología , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Benzotiazoles/antagonistas & inhibidores , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Citocinas/biosíntesis , Factores Inmunológicos/química , Factores Inmunológicos/aislamiento & purificación , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Ratones , Óxido Nítrico/análisis , Óxido Nítrico/biosíntesis , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácidos Sulfónicos/antagonistas & inhibidores
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115978, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122509

RESUMEN

The polysaccharide PGO containing 76 % of uronic acids, was obtained from peels and membranes of Punica granatum fruits by extraction to the aqueous solution of (NH4)2C2O4. The chemical structure of PGO was characterized by enzymatic and partial acid hydrolyses, Smith degradation and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. It has been found that PGO consisted mainly of highly methyl-esterified and lowly acetylated pectin. Backbone of the macromolecule was represented by 1,4-α-D-GalpA, 1,4-α-D-GalpA(OMe), 1,4-α-D-GalpA(OAc). The branched region PGO contained minor segments of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I). RG-I side chains were comprised of highly branched 1,5-α-l-arabinan and segments of arabinogalactan type I. In addition to pectins, PGO contained the glucuronoxylans and xyloglucans, indicating a close interaction of these polysaccharides with each other in the cell wall. It was concluded that P. granatum fruit could be a promising source of pectic polysaccharides.


Asunto(s)
Frutas/química , Pectinas/química , Polisacáridos/química , Granada (Fruta)/química , Conformación de Carbohidratos , Pectinas/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación
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