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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111825, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412284

RESUMEN

To explore the effect of florfenicol (FFC) combined with Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPs) on immune function of Broilers. One hundred and twenty-one-day-old chicks were chosen and divided into 6 groups. The group A received standard basal diet only, the group B received a basal diet with FFC (0.15 g/L diet), and the group C, D, E received a basal diet with FFC (0.15 g/L diet) and SMPs (1.25 g/L, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L diet),the group F received a basal diet with SMPs (5 g/L diet). FFC can significantly inhibit the growth performance of broilers, but has no significant damage to the immune function of broilers. The combination of FFC and SMPs can improve the growth performance of broilers, increase the number of leukocyte subtypes in blood (P < 0.05), increase the number of Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) antibodies in blood, the number of immunoglobulins, and the content of cytokines (P < 0.05). In addition, it significantly improve the lymphocyte conversion rate of broiler peripheral blood (P < 0.05). So that, synergistic use of FFC and SMPs can enhance immune responses in Broilers.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pollos/inmunología , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Pollos/sangre , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Citocinas/sangre , Dieta , Suplementos Dietéticos , Humanos , Inmunidad/efectos de los fármacos , Inmunoglobulinas/sangre , Gripe Humana/inmunología , Leucocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle/inmunología , Tianfenicol/farmacología
2.
Food Chem ; 337: 127798, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799166

RESUMEN

In this study, polysaccharides (BPSs) were obtained from fresh bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) by room temperature extraction techniques, including three-phase partitioning (TPP) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) performed in different solvents. The results showed that the extraction methods had significant influence on the extraction yield, chemical composition, weight-average molecular weight (Mw), monosaccharide composition, preliminary structural characterization and microstructure of the BPSs. The BPS-W sample obtained from the bitter gourd residue via UAE in distilled water had a higher uronic acid content (24.22%) and possessed stronger antioxidant capacities and α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activities than BPS-C extracted with UAE in citric acid, BPS-A extracted with UAE in 1.25 mol/L NaOH/0.05% NaBH4, and BPS-J extracted from bitter gourd juice by TPP. Moreover, BPS-A, which had the lowest Mws, showed the best bile acid-binding capacity among the four BPSs. This study had great potentials for the preparation of bioactive polysaccharides from fresh vegetables.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Momordica charantia/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Temperatura , Ácidos Urónicos/análisis , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , alfa-Glucosidasas/efectos de los fármacos
3.
Food Chem ; 335: 127645, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738537

RESUMEN

The dried Ganoderma lucidum (GL) has been widely used for its pharmacological properties and bioactive ganoderic acids (GAs). Herein, extraction procedures combining ultra-sonication and heating were optimized using response surface methodology based on four variables (antioxidant activity, anti-diabetic activity, total GAs content, and total polysaccharide content) and principal component analysis. The extraction of freeze-dried GL at temperatures between 64.2 and 70 °C for 1.2 h maximized the antioxidant activity and GA content, whereas the polysaccharide content and anti-diabetic activity were maximized by extraction between 66.8 and 70 °C for more than 2.8 h. Heat-dried GL extracted at 50 °C for 3 h provided the greatest anti-inflammatory activity against HaCaT cells by suppressing the response to inflammation related cytokines at mRNA levels. These results suggest that extraction conditions might be a limiting factor for target-oriented investigations, and optimized extraction methods may improve the potential effect and quality of harvested GL products.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/química , Antiinflamatorios/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Hipoglucemiantes/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Reishi/química , Triterpenos/aislamiento & purificación , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Línea Celular , Fraccionamiento Químico/instrumentación , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/química , Hipoglucemiantes/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacología
4.
Food Chem ; 339: 128081, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152874

RESUMEN

In the present study, three-phase partitioning (TPP) coupled with gradient ethanol precipitation (GEP) was developed for the first time to extract and isolate polysaccharides (GPSs) from raw garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs. Four kinds of fructose polymers, namely, GPS35, GPS50, GPS65, and GPS80, were obtained at the final ethanol precipitation concentrations of 35%, 50%, 65%, and 80% (v/v), respectively, and their physicochemical characteristics and in vitro biological activities were investigated. Results indicated that GPS80 had higher carbohydrate (86.68% ± 0.90%) and uronic acid (12.89% ± 0.09%) contents, lower weight-average molecular weight (8.93 × 103 Da), and looser surface morphology than the other three GPSs. Furthermore, among the four GPSs, GPS80 exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacities, inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glycosidase, and nitric oxide stimulatory activity on RAW264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Therefore, this study provides a simple and feasible technological strategy for producing bioactive polysaccharides from raw Allium vegetables.


Asunto(s)
Precipitación Química , Etanol/química , Ajo/química , Tallos de la Planta/química , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Fenómenos Químicos , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/química , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/aislamiento & purificación , Inhibidores de Glicósido Hidrolasas/farmacología , Peso Molecular , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , alfa-Amilasas/antagonistas & inhibidores , alfa-Glucosidasas/metabolismo
5.
Mar Drugs ; 19(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374149

RESUMEN

Compromised lung function is a feature of both infection driven and non-infective pathologies. Viral infections-including the current pandemic strain SARS-CoV-2-that affect lung function can cause both acute and long-term chronic damage. SARS-CoV-2 infection suppresses innate immunity and promotes an inflammatory response. Targeting these aspects of SARS-CoV-2 is important as the pandemic affects greater proportions of the population. In clinical and animal studies, fucoidans have been shown to increase innate immunity and decrease inflammation. In addition, dietary fucoidan has been shown to attenuate pulmonary damage in a model of acute viral infection. Direct inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro has been described, but is not universal. This short review summarizes the current research on fucoidan with regard to viral lung infections and lung damage.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Pulmón/efectos de los fármacos , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Humanos , Pulmón/fisiología , Enfermedades Pulmonares/tratamiento farmacológico , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Virosis/tratamiento farmacológico
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(18): 4332-4340, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164360

RESUMEN

Poria cocos is a both medicinal and edible Chinese herb variety, with the effects of diuretic, spleen-enhancing and tranquilizing. P. cocos polysaccharide(PCP) is one of the most important active substances of P. cocos. Pharmacological research shows that PCP has a variety of pharmacological activities such as regulating immunity, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, antitumor, and liver protection, with a huge development and utilization value. By consulting the relevant literature, we systematically summarized the chemical structures and the research progress on pharmacological activities of PCP and its derivatives in recent years to explore the chemical compositions and activities of PCP thoroughly. In addition, the current problems were discussed in this article to provide reference for further exploration of the structure-activity relationship of PCP and its further development and utilization.


Asunto(s)
Poria , Wolfiporia , Antiinflamatorios , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Oxidación-Reducción , Polisacáridos/farmacología
7.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(10): 903-910, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148385

RESUMEN

Objective To investigate the immunotherapeutic effect and mechanism of dendritic cell (DC) vaccine assisted by Tiaohengfang polysaccharides (ThPP) in S180 tumor-bearing mice. Methods Mouse bone marrow-derived cells were cultured in vitro and mature DCs were obtained with the assistance of cytokines and ThPP. The expression of CD80 and CD86 of DCs induced by ThPP was examined, and S180 tumor cells were used as antigens to stimulate dendritic cells to become dendritic cell tumor vaccine. Tumor-bearing models were established in mice by S180 tumor cells inoculated into the armpit of the left forelimb, and the mice were randomly divided into four groups according to body mass, namely tumor-bearing blank group, positive control group (cyclophosphamide), dendritic cell vaccine group adjuvanted by ThPP and TNF-α. The tumor-bearing mice were treated on the 5th and 10th days after inoculation of tumor cells. The tumor-bearing mice were killed on the 12th day and the tumor inhibition was observed by the tumor mass detection. At the same time, peritoneal macrophages were isolated and cultured, and the expression of CD11b and IL-12 were measured by immunohistochemistry. The levels of serum IL-12 and TNF-α in the mice were detected by ELISA. The survival time of the other four groups of tumor-bearing mice was observed after treatment with the same method. Results The expression of CD80 and CD86 in the TNF-α group and ThPP group were higher than those in the blank control group, and the ThPP group was more significant. The tumor inhibition rate and survival extension period of ThPP, TNF-α and positive groups were significantly higher than those of the model blank group. The levels of serum IL-12 and TNF-α in the ThPP group were higher than those in the positive cyclophosphamide group and model black group. There was no significant difference between the ThPP group and TNF-α group. The expression of CD11b in the macrophages of ThPP group was lower than that in the model blank group and positive group, while the expression of IL-12 in the macrophages of ThPP group was higher than that in the model blank group and positive group, without significant difference compared with TNF-α group. Conclusion ThPP-adjuvanted DC tumor vaccine can inhibit tumor growth and prolong survival time of S180 tumor-bearing mice, which is related to promoting the maturation of DCs and increasing the secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra el Cáncer/inmunología , Células Dendríticas/inmunología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Neoplasias Experimentales/terapia , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Animales , Interleucina-12/sangre , Ratones , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/sangre
8.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899754

RESUMEN

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to an unprecedented pandemic, which demands urgent development of antiviral drugs and antibodies; as well as prophylactic approaches, namely vaccines. Algae biotechnology has much to offer in this scenario given the diversity of such organisms, which are a valuable source of antiviral and anti-inflammatory compounds that can also be used to produce vaccines and antibodies. Antivirals with possible activity against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized, based on previously reported activity against Coronaviruses or other enveloped or respiratory viruses. Moreover, the potential of algae-derived anti-inflammatory compounds to treat severe cases of COVID-19 is contemplated. The scenario of producing biopharmaceuticals in recombinant algae is presented and the cases of algae-made vaccines targeting viral diseases is highlighted as valuable references for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Successful cases in the production of functional antibodies are described. Perspectives on how specific algae species and genetic engineering techniques can be applied for the production of anti-viral compounds antibodies and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are provided.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Lectinas/farmacología , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Polifenoles/farmacología , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Productos Biológicos/química , Productos Biológicos/aislamiento & purificación , Núcleo Celular/química , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/química , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ingeniería Genética/métodos , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/aislamiento & purificación , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/efectos de los fármacos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Pandemias , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Virus del SRAS/efectos de los fármacos , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Vacunas Virales/biosíntesis , Vacunas Virales/farmacología
9.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1491-1509, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924531

RESUMEN

Astragalus membranaceus is the most popular traditional Chinese medicine for managing vital energy deficiency. Its injectable polysaccharide PG2 has been used for relieving cancer-related fatigue, and PG2 has immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we explored the effects of PG2 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and CL1-2 cells and investigated its anticancer activity, and the results were validated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Although PG2 did not inhibit the growth of these cells, it dose-dependently suppressed their migration and invasion, accompanied by reduced vimentin and AXL and induced epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) expression. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanism, PG2 treatment reduced the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine that promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggressiveness of cancer cells. Consistent with the previous finding that MIF regulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), treatment with PG2 reduced MMP-13 and activated AMPK in A549 and CL1-2 cells in this study. In SCID mice injected with A549 cells through the tail vein, intraperitoneal injection with PG2 reduced lung and abdominal metastases in parallel with decreased immunohistochemical staining of AXL, vimentin, MMP-13, and MIF in the tumor. Collectively, data revealed a potential application of PG2 in integrative cancer treatment through the suppression of MIF in cancer cells and their aggressiveness.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/patología , Astragalus propinquus/química , Movimiento Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Oxidorreductasas Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patología , Factores Inhibidores de la Migración de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animales , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Transición Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Inyecciones Intraperitoneales , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Ratones SCID , Invasividad Neoplásica , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico
10.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7415-7420, 2020 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966484

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world at an unprecedented rate. In the present study, 4 marine sulfated polysaccharides were screened for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2, including sea cucumber sulfated polysaccharide (SCSP), fucoidan from brown algae, iota-carrageenan from red algae, and chondroitin sulfate C from sharks (CS). Of them, SCSP, fucoidan, and carrageenan showed significant antiviral activities at concentrations of 3.90-500 µg mL-1. SCSP exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity with IC50 of 9.10 µg mL-1. Furthermore, a test using pseudotype virus with S glycoprotein confirmed that SCSP could bind to the S glycoprotein to prevent SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry. The three antiviral polysaccharides could be employed to treat and prevent COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Phaeophyta/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Rhodophyta/química , Pepinos de Mar/química , Animales , Antivirales/química , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Polisacáridos/química , Tiburones , Sulfatos/química , Internalización del Virus/efectos de los fármacos
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829859

RESUMEN

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Fibrosis Pulmonar/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Bleomicina/toxicidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiología , Hongos/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogénea D0/fisiología , Humanos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Medicina China Tradicional , Ratones , Neutrófilos/efectos de los fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinales/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Fibrosis Pulmonar/inducido químicamente , Fibrosis Pulmonar/etiología , Fibrosis Pulmonar/prevención & control , ARN Largo no Codificante/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ratas , Algas Marinas/química , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiología , Proteína smad3/fisiología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inhibidores
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2822-2831, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794226

RESUMEN

The anti-inflammatory effects of two newly identified Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides (WPEP, NPEP) were determined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in this study. Characterization analysis revealed that molecular weights of WPEP and NPEP were 167 and 274 kDa, and were mainly composed of glucose with ß-type glycosidic linkages. WPEP and NPEP could significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses by regulating the production of NO, Protaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-6 (IL-6). This was through the blocking of the activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulation of protein kinases 1/2, and stress-activated protein kinase/jun aminoterminal kinase. Moreover, WPEP and NPEP inhibited NF-κB signaling by reducing nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of p65. Overall, our results, for the first time identified two P. eryngii polysaccharides and demonstrated the related anti-inflammatory effects, which indicated the favorable potential of P. eryngii polysaccharide as specific functional foods. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study prepared and characterized newly identified Pleurotus eryngii water-soluble polysaccharide fractions and elucidated the nutritional benefits, mainly the immune response related to anti-inflammatory activities by utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Collectively, results of this study suggested that the P. eryngii polysaccharide fractions could be considered as potential candidates for exploration in the development of new immunomodulatory agent or functional supplementary foods.


Asunto(s)
Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Pleurotus/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/química , Dinoprostona/inmunología , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos/inmunología , Ratones , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/inmunología , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polisacáridos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/inmunología
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237357, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780763

RESUMEN

Fermented feeds contain abundant organic acids, amino acids, and small peptides, which improve the nutritional status as well as the morphology and microbiota composition of the intestine. Ginseng polysaccharides exhibit several biological activities and contribute to improving intestinal development. Here, Xuefeng black-bone chickens were fed a basal diet fermented by Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium, with or without ginseng polysaccharides. The 100% microbially fermented feed (Fe) and 100% microbially fermented feed and ginseng polysaccharide (FP) groups showed significantly increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and decreased crypt depth in the jejunum. In the 100% complete feed and ginseng polysaccharide (Po) group, the villus height to crypt depth ratio was significantly increased, crypt depth was reduced, and villus height remained unaffected. Next, we studied the intestinal microbial composition of 32 Xuefeng black-bone chickens. A total of 10 phyla and 442 genera were identified, among which Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. At the genus level, Sutterella and Asteroleplasma abundance increased and decreased, respectively, in the FP and Po groups. Sutterella abundance was positively correlated to villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio, and negatively correlated to crypt depth, and Asteroleplasma abundance was positively correlated to crypt depth and negatively correlated to villus height to crypt depth ratio. At the species level, the FP group showed significantly increased Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum and decreased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance, and the Po group showed significantly increased Mycoplasma_gallinarum and Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance. Moreover, bacterial abundance was closely related to the jejunum histomorphology. Asteroleplasma_anaerobium abundance was positively correlated with crypt depth and negatively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio. Mycoplasma_gallinarum abundance was positively correlated to villus height, and Bacteroides_vulgatus and Eubacterium_tortuosum abundance was positively correlated with villus height to crypt depth ratio and negatively correlated with crypt depth. Therefore, fermented feeds with ginseng polysaccharides may be used as effective alternatives to antibiotics for improving intestinal morphology and microbial composition.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos , Fermentación , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Panax/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Animales , Biodiversidad , Intestinos/citología , Intestinos/microbiología
14.
Molecules ; 25(15)2020 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731428

RESUMEN

In 2020, the world is being ravaged by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which causes a severe respiratory disease, Covid-19. Hundreds of thousands of people have succumbed to the disease. Efforts at curing the disease are aimed at finding a vaccine and/or developing antiviral drugs. Despite these efforts, the WHO warned that the virus might never be eradicated. Countries around the world have instated non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing and wearing of masks in public to curb the spreading of the disease. Antiviral polysaccharides provide the ideal opportunity to combat the pathogen via pharmacotherapeutic applications. However, a layer-by-layer nanocoating approach is also envisioned to coat surfaces to which humans are exposed that could harbor pathogenic coronaviruses. By coating masks, clothing, and work surfaces in wet markets among others, these antiviral polysaccharides can ensure passive prevention of the spreading of the virus. It poses a so-called "eradicate-in-place" measure against the virus. Antiviral polysaccharides also provide a green chemistry pathway to virus eradication since these molecules are primarily of biological origin and can be modified by minimal synthetic approaches. They are biocompatible as well as biodegradable. This surface passivation approach could provide a powerful measure against the spreading of coronaviruses.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Materiales Biocompatibles Revestidos/farmacología , Materiales Biocompatibles Revestidos/uso terapéutico , Tecnología Química Verde , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Nanotecnología , Polisacáridos/farmacología
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235515, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The skin provides a predominant barrier against chemical, physical and microbial incursion. The intemperate exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation can cause excessive cellular oxidative stress, leading to skin damage, proteins damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is sufficient evidences supporting the proposal that mitochondria is highly implicated in skin photo-damage. METHODS: In the present study, a polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus was further purified to be an α-glucan, which was further investigated its beneficial influence on UVA-induced photo-damage in HaCaT cells. RESULTS: Our results showed that the purified Astragalus membranaceus polysaccharide (AP) can protect HaCaT cells from UVA-induced photo-damage through reducing UVA-induced intracellular ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential, thereby altering ATP content. It was found that the UVA induced damage in HaCaT cells could be effectively restored by co-treatment with AP. CONCLUSIONS: AP exhibited promising potential for advanced application as multifunctional skin care products and drugs.


Asunto(s)
Astragalus propinquus/química , Queratinocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Queratinocitos/efectos de la radiación , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Protectores contra Radiación/farmacología , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos , Adenosina Trifosfato/metabolismo , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Queratinocitos/citología , Queratinocitos/metabolismo , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Polisacáridos/química , Protectores contra Radiación/química , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(15)2020 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718020

RESUMEN

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is being caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease continues to present significant challenges to the health care systems around the world. This is primarily because of the lack of vaccines to protect against the infection and the lack of highly effective therapeutics to prevent and/or treat the illness. Nevertheless, researchers have swiftly responded to the pandemic by advancing old and new potential therapeutics into clinical trials. In this review, we summarize potential anti-COVID-19 therapeutics that block the early stage of the viral life cycle. The review presents the structures, mechanisms, and reported results of clinical trials of potential therapeutics that have been listed in clinicaltrials.gov. Given the fact that some of these therapeutics are multi-acting molecules, other relevant mechanisms will also be described. The reviewed therapeutics include small molecules and macromolecules of sulfated polysaccharides, polypeptides, and monoclonal antibodies. The potential therapeutics target viral and/or host proteins or processes that facilitate the early stage of the viral infection. Frequent targets are the viral spike protein, the host angiotensin converting enzyme 2, the host transmembrane protease serine 2, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis process. Overall, the review aims at presenting update-to-date details, so as to enhance awareness of potential therapeutics, and thus, to catalyze their appropriate use in combating the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/química , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/farmacología , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Pandemias , Péptidos/química , Péptidos/farmacología , Péptidos/uso terapéutico , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/farmacología , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequeñas/uso terapéutico , Acoplamiento Viral/efectos de los fármacos , Internalización del Virus/efectos de los fármacos
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 164: 331-343, 2020 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679328

RESUMEN

Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it has spread rapidly worldwide and poses a great threat to public health. This is the third serious coronavirus outbreak in <20 years, following SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. So far, there are almost no specific clinically effective drugs and vaccines available for COVID-19. Polysaccharides with good safety, immune regulation and antiviral activity have broad application prospects in anti-virus, especially in anti-coronavirus applications. Here, we reviewed the antiviral mechanisms of some polysaccharides, such as glycosaminoglycans, marine polysaccharides, traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides, and their application progress in anti-coronavirus. In particular, the application prospects of polysaccharide-based vaccine adjuvants, nanomaterials and drug delivery systems in the fight against novel coronavirus were also analyzed and summarized. Additionally, we speculate the possible mechanisms of polysaccharides anti-SARS-CoV-2, and propose the strategy of loading S or N protein from coronavirus onto polysaccharide capped gold nanoparticles vaccine for COVID-19 treatment. This review may provide a new approach for the development of COVID-19 therapeutic agents and vaccines.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Coronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Vacunas Virales/farmacología , Animales , Antivirales/química , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Polisacáridos/química , Polisacáridos/uso terapéutico , Vacunas Virales/química , Vacunas Virales/inmunología
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127257, 2020 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535321

RESUMEN

Huangshui (HS), the by-product of Chinese Baijiu, has attracted considerable attention due to its nutrient and microbial composition; however, none of the studies has explored the polysaccharides in HS yet. Here, from HS, we isolated a novel polysaccharide, HSP-3, with an average molecular weight of 26.40 kDa. The structure was elucidated based on monosaccharide composition and methylation analysis, NMR, FT-IR, and AFM analysis. It is mainly composed of mannose (46.6%), galactose (17.3%), arabinose (11.2%), glucose (10.5%), xylose (8.2%), fucose (5.2%), and rhamnose (1.0%). The backbone of HSP-3 was made up of â†’ 2)-ß-d-Manp-(1 â†’ 2,6)-ß-d-Manp-(1 â†’ 6)-ß-d-Galp-(1 â†’ 3,6)-ß-d-Galp-(1 â†’ 4)-α-l-Rhap-(1 â†’ 3,4)-α-l-Rhap-(1 â†’ . Moreover, stimulation of the production of ROS, NO, TNF-α and IL-6, upregulation of the mRNA and protein expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in THP-1 cells, and enhanced the pinocytic and phagocytic capacities of THP-1 cells exhibited significant immunomodulatory properties of HSP-3. Altogether, this study suggests that HSP-3 could be used as an active component in functional foods.


Asunto(s)
Inmunosupresores/farmacología , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biosíntesis , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Ríos/química , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/química , Peso Molecular , Polisacáridos/química , Células THP-1
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450013

RESUMEN

Because viruses still represent a significant threat to human and animal health worldwide, the development of effective weapons against viral infections remains a top priority for the biopharmaceutical industry. This article reviews the dietary and pharmaceutical applications of polysaccharides (PS), first of all chitosan, in the prevention and treatment of viral diseases, focusing more particularly on solid or gel micro/nanoparticulate systems. The intrinsic antiviral activity of PS and their immunostimulatory effects, implemented in animal and human diets, are first surveyed. Then the review discusses the potential of PS-based particles as carriers of antiviral drugs and vaccines, with emphasis on the adjuvant potency of PS in solid vaccine formulations. The gap between the abundance of academic studies in this area and the lack of actual antiviral formulations dispensed to human patients is underlined, notwithstanding a number of branded products on the market.


Asunto(s)
Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos/métodos , Polisacáridos/administración & dosificación , Polisacáridos/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Virosis/prevención & control , Adyuvantes Inmunológicos/farmacología , Animales , Antivirales/administración & dosificación , Humanos , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Virosis/inmunología , Virosis/terapia
20.
Mar Drugs ; 18(4)2020 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331442

RESUMEN

The enzymatic depolymerization of fucoidans from brown algae allowed the production of their standardized derivatives with different biological activities. This work aimed to compare the antiviral activities of native (FeF) and modified with enzyme (FeHMP) fucoidans from F. evanescens. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the FeF and FeHMP against herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), enterovirus (ECHO-1), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in Vero and human MT-4 cell lines were examined by methylthiazolyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays, respectively. The efficacy of fucoidans in vivo was evaluated in the outbred mice model of vaginitis caused by HSV-2. We have shown that both FeF and FeHMP significantly inhibited virus-induced CPE in vitro and were more effective against HSV. FeF exhibited antiviral activity against HSV-2 with a selective index (SI) > 40, and FeHMP with SI ˃ 20, when they were added before virus infection or at the early stages of the HSV-2 lifecycle. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that after intraperitoneal administration (10 mg/kg), both FeF and FeHMP protected mice from lethal intravaginal HSV-2 infection to approximately the same degree (44-56%). Thus, FeF and FeHMP have comparable potency against several DNA and RNA viruses, allowing us to consider the studied fucoidans as promising broad-spectrum antivirals.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Fucus/química , Polisacáridos/farmacología , Virus/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Antivirales/aislamiento & purificación , Chlorocebus aethiops , Virus ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Ratones , Polisacáridos/aislamiento & purificación , Virus ARN/efectos de los fármacos , Vaginitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Vaginitis/virología , Células Vero
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