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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652771

RESUMEN

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the number of freeze-thaw cycles (0, 1, 3, 5, and 7) on porcine longissimus protein and lipid oxidation, as well as changes in heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their precursors. We analyzed the relationship among HAAs, AGEs, oxidation, and precursors and found the following results after seven freeze-thaw cycles. The HAAs, Norharman and Harman, were 20.33% and 16.67% higher, respectively. The AGEs, Nε-carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML), were 11.81% and 14.02% higher, respectively. Glucose, creatine, and creatinine were reduced by 33.92%, 5.93%, and 1.12%, respectively after seven freeze-thaw cycles. Norharman was significantly correlated with thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; r2 = 0.910) and glucose (r2 = -0.914). Harman was significantly correlated to TBARS (r2 = 0.951), carbonyl (r2 = 0.990), and glucose (r2 = -0.920). CEL was correlated to TBARS (r2 = 0.992) and carbonyl (r2 = 0.933). These changes suggest that oxidation and the Maillard reaction during freeze-thaw cycles promote HAA and AGE production in raw pork.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminas/metabolismo , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Aminas/química , Animales , Pollos , Culinaria , Congelación/efectos adversos , Compuestos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Reacción de Maillard , Carne/análisis , Oxidación-Reducción , Carne de Cerdo/análisis , Porcinos , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/química , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109110, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657496

RESUMEN

Salmonella genus has foodborne pathogen species commonly involved in many outbreaks related to the consumption of chicken meat. Many studies have aimed to model bacterial inactivation as a function of the temperature. Due to the large heterogeneity of the results, a unified description of Salmonella spp. inactivation behavior is hard to establish. In the current study, by evaluating the root mean square errors, mean absolute deviation, and Akaike and Bayesian information criteria, the double Weibull model was considered the most accurate primary model to fit 61 datasets of Salmonella inactivation in chicken meat. Results can be interpreted as if the bacterial population is divided into two subpopulations consisting of one more resistant (2.3% of the total population) and one more sensitive to thermal stress (97.7% of the total population). The thermal sensitivity of the bacteria depends on the fat content of the chicken meat. From an adapted version of the Bigelow secondary model including both temperature and fat content, 90% of the Salmonella population can be inactivated after heating at 60 °C of chicken breast, thigh muscles, wings, and skin during approximately 2.5, 5.0, 9.5, and 57.4 min, respectively. The resulting model was applied to four different non-isothermal temperature profiles regarding Salmonella growth in chicken meat. Model performance for the non-isothermal profiles was evaluated by the acceptable prediction zone concept. Results showed that >80% of the predictions fell in the acceptable prediction zone when the temperature changes smoothly at temperature rates lower than 20 °C/min. Results obtained can be used in risk assessment models regarding contamination with Salmonella spp. in chicken parts with different fat contents.


Asunto(s)
Pollos/microbiología , Calor , Carne/microbiología , Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella/prevención & control , Salmonella/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Microbiología de Alimentos , Salmonella/clasificación
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109116, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676332

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens originating from animals consumed as food, especially raw chicken meat (RCM). As far as we know, this might be the first report that explores the efficacy of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs), such as zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) against multidrug resistant (MDR) and/or pandrug resistant (PDR) S. aureus strains with a strong biofilm-producing ability isolated from RCM and giblets. The overall prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci was 21%, with a contamination level range between 102 and 104 CFU/g. The incidence of virulence genes See (21/36), pvl (16/36), clfA (15/36), sec (12/36), tst (12/36), and sea (11/36) among S. aureus strains were relatively higher those of seb, sed, fnbA, and fnbB. For antimicrobial resistance gene distribution, most strains harbored the blaZ gene (25/36), aacA-aphD gene (24/36), mecA gene (22/36), vanA gene (20/36), and apmA gene (20/36) confirmed the prevalence of MDR among S. aureus of RCM products. However, cfr (11/36), spc (9/36), and aadE (7/36) showed a relatively lower existence. The data of antibiogram resistance profiles was noticeably heterogeneous (25 patterns) with 32 MDR and four PDR S. aureus strains. All tested strains had a very high MAR index value (>0.2) except the P11 pattern (GEN, MXF, PMB), which showed a MAR index of 0.19. Among the strong biofilm-producing ability (BPA), 14 (70%) strains were isolated from wet markets, while only six strong BPA strains were isolated from supermarkets. The mean values of BPA ranged from 2.613 ± 0.04 to 11.013 ± 0.05. Clearly, ZnO2-NPs show significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus strains compared with those produced by the action of ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs. The results of anti-inflammatory activity suggest ZnO2-NPs as a lead compound for designing an alternative antimicrobial agent against drug-resistant and strong biofilm-producing S. aureus isolates from retail RCM and giblets.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Titanio/farmacología , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología , Animales , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Carne/microbiología , Nanopartículas del Metal , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Virulencia/genética
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109109, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677191

RESUMEN

The objective of the present study was to characterize Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolated from chicken meat determining their clonal relationships with S. Infantis isolated from children with diarrhea. Fifteen meat-recovered S. Infantis were analyzed. Susceptibility levels to 14 antibacterial agents, the presence of ESBL and that of inducible plasmid-mediated AmpC (i-pAmpC) were determined by phenotypical methods. The presence of ESBL and pAmpC was confirmed by PCR, and detected ESBL-encoding genes were sequenced and their transferability tested by conjugation. The presence of gyrA mutations as well as Class 1 integrons was determined by PCR. Clonal relationships were established by REP-PCR and RAPD. In addition, 25 clinical isolates of S. Infantis were included in clonality studies. All meat-recovered S. Infantis were MDR, showing resistance to ampicillin, nitrofurans and quinolones, while none was resistant to azithromycin, ceftazidime or imipenem. ESBL (blaCTX-M-65) and i-pAmpC (blaDHA) were detected in 2 and 5 isolates respectively (in one case concomitantly), with blaCTX-M-65 being transferable through conjugation. In addition, 1 isolate presented a blaSHV gene. All isolates presented D87Y at GyrA, nalidixic acid active efflux pump and a Class 1 integron of ~1000 bp (aadA1). Clonal analysis showed that all isolates were related. Further they were identical to MDR blaCTX-M-65-producing S. Infantis isolates causing children diarrhea in Lima. The dissemination of MDR blaCTX-M-65-producing S. Infantis between marketed meat and children highlights a public health problem which needs be controlled at livestock level.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Carne/microbiología , Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella/transmisión , Salmonelosis Animal/transmisión , Salmonella enterica/genética , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Proteínas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Pollos/microbiología , Niño , Humanos , Integrones/genética , Plásmidos/genética , Técnica del ADN Polimorfo Amplificado Aleatorio , Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella/microbiología , Salmonelosis Animal/microbiología , Salmonella enterica/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella enterica/aislamiento & purificación , Serogrupo , beta-Lactamasas/metabolismo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124992, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744736

RESUMEN

Although the high nitrogen content of chicken manure (CM) poses major challenges for methane production through anaerobic digestion, on the bright side, it has a great potential for production of value-added intermediate products, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs). However, in order to enhance VFAs yield, methane formation should be substantially suppressed. In the current research, individual and multiple effects of initial pH, heat-shock pretreatment, chemical methanogens inhibitor and the inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR) on optimization VFAs fermentation from CM were evaluated via batch assays. In this regard, the highest net VFAs yield, 0.53 g-VFA/g-VS, was achieved at conditions with heat-shocked inoculum and CM at ISR 1:6 and pH uncontrolled. Acetate dominated the VFAs mixture, accounting for up to 75% of total. Increased inoculum content enhanced the bioconversion efficiency to 78% at ISR 1:3. The study results suggest that alkalinity is a key promoter of VFAs production from CM.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Estiércol , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Reactores Biológicos , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Fermentación , Metano
6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMEN

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Asunto(s)
Amprolio , Coccidiosis , Animales , Pollos , Coccidiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Coccidiosis/veterinaria , Columbidae , Pakistán , Sulfametazina
7.
Animal ; 15(1): 100024, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750548

RESUMEN

Feed production is the main contributor to several environmental impacts of livestock. To decrease environmental impacts of feed, those of feedstuffs should be considered during formulation. In particular, multiobjective feed formulation (MOF) can help reduce several environmental impacts simultaneously while keeping any increase in feed price moderate. The objective of this study was to assess environmental benefits of MOF at the farm gate for fattening pigs and broilers. For pigs, three feeding strategies were tested: classic 2-phase (2P), 2-phase with lower net energy content (2P-), and multiphase (MP). For broilers, two strategies were tested: classic 3-phase (3P) and 3-phase with higher digestible amino acid contents and lower metabolisable energy content (3P+). Diets were formulated using both least-cost formulation (LCF) and MOF, yielding six pig scenarios and four broiler scenarios. Environmental impacts at the farm gate were estimated using a modelling approach based on life cycle assessment. Indicators for six impact categories were then calculated: climate change (CC), cumulative non-renewable energy demand (CEDNR), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EU), land occupation (LO), and phosphorus demand (PD). As expected, MOF had lower farm-gate impacts than LCF (as much as -13%), but the degree of decrease varied by feeding strategy and impact. For pigs, MOF was equally effective in all strategies at reducing PD (-6 to -9%) and AC (-2%). In contrast, MOF was more effective in 2P and 2P- at decreasing CC (-5% to -7%), LO (-9% to -13%) and EU (-6% to -8%) than in MP (CC: -2%; LO: -4%; EU: -3%). The benefit of MOF was found greater in 2P (-7%) than in other pig strategies for CEDNR (-3 to +0%). For broilers, MOF was equally effective in both strategies tested at decreasing PD (-12%), AC (-2%), and EU (-4%). For CC and CEDNR, MOF was more effective in 3P (CC: -9%; CEDNR: -11%) than 3P+ (-6% for both impacts), but not for LO (+3% in 3P vs -1% in 3P+). These differences were due mainly to differences in animal performance (especially feed conversion ratio) among the strategies tested. Finally, in all scenarios, gross margin at the farm gate decreased with MOF comparatively to LCF (pigs: -3% to -11%); broilers: -7% to -11%). These results demonstrate the importance of comprehensive economic and environmental optimisation of feeding strategies by simultaneously considering feed impacts, animal performance, and manure management. To do so, further research is therefore required to develop new modelling tools.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Ambiente , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Dieta , Granjas , Ganado , Porcinos
8.
Animal ; 15(2): 100081, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712205

RESUMEN

Recent studies have shown that chromium (Cr) could alleviate the negative effects of heat stress on livestock and poultry, but there is little information available to laying ducks. This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary addition of chromium propionate on laying performance, egg quality, serum biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of laying ducks under hot (average 32 °C) and humid (average 75% relative humidity) summer conditions. A total of 900 66-week-old weight- and laying-matched Shanma laying ducks were randomly divided into five treatments, each with 6 replicates of 30 individually caged birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 200, 400, 600, or 800 µg/kg Cr as chromium propionate. All laying ducks were given feed and water ad libitum for 5 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with chromium propionate significantly increased the laying rate and yolk colour score (P < 0.05). Treatment with 400 µg/kg Cr as chromium propionate significantly decreased the feed/egg ratio by 5.4% (P < 0.05). Increased supplemental Cr from 0 to 800 µg/kg resulted in an increase in albumen height and the Haugh unit linearly (P < 0.05). Increased supplemental Cr decreased serum cortisol (P < 0.001, linear; P = 0.008, quadratic), heat shock protein-70 (P < 0.001, linear; P = 0.007, quadratic) and glucose (P = 0.007, linear), whereas it increased serum insulin (P = 0.011, Linear), total protein (P = 0.006, linear; P = 0.048, quadratic) and albumin (P = 0.035, linear; P = 0.088, quadratic). Dietary Cr levels increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the total antioxidant capacity linearly and quadratically (P < 0.05). A linear and quadratic (P < 0.05) decrease of the malondialdehyde concentrations in response to dietary Cr level was observed. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of Cr as chromium propionate, particularly at 800 µg/kg could beneficially affect the laying rate, egg quality and antioxidant function, as well as modulate the blood biochemical parameters of laying ducks under heat stress conditions.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes , Patos , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Pollos , Dieta/veterinaria , Suplementos Dietéticos , Respuesta al Choque Térmico , Propionatos
9.
Animal ; 15(2): 100106, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712219

RESUMEN

High environmental temperatures are a foremost concern affecting poultry production; thus, understanding and controlling such conditions are vital to successful production and welfare of poultry. In view of this, a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement involving two local strains (Kirin chicken (KC) and Three-yellow chicken (TYC)) and two temperature groups (normal/control = 30 ±â€¯2 °C and acute heat stress (AHS) = 35 ±â€¯1 °C for 8-h with 70% humidity) was used to assess the main regulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP70) gene, cytokine genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10), muscle development gene (IGF-1) and tissue histopathological changes. At 56 days old, the temperatures of the comb (CT), feet (FT), eyelid (ET) and rectal (RT) from each group were taken thrice at 0, 2, 4 and 8-h during AHS, and 1 and 3-h recovery period after AHS. At 80 days old, the slaughter weight was also analyzed. The CT and ET of the AHS groups increased during the 8-h trial, while the RT of both strains decreased significantly at 4 h but increased at 8 h in the TYC group. All temperature recordings dropped in the AHS groups of both strains during the recovery period. The results revealed that the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the liver was higher in the heat-stressed group of both strains compared to the control. The expression of HSP70 was shown in the AHS-KC group to be significantly high compared to the control (P < 0.05). Moreover, the IGF1 gene in the liver, breast muscle and leg muscle was downregulated in the AHS-TYC group compared to the control (P < 0.05), although that in the AHS-KC was downregulated in the breast muscle. The mRNA expression of spleen IL-1ß significantly decreased in the AHS-TYC group (P < 0.01), whereas that of the AHS-KC had no significant difference (P > 0.05). The mRNA expression of spleen IL-6 and IL-10 was increased in the AHS-KC group but did not exhibit obvious changes in the AHS-TYC. Correspondingly, the histopathological examinations revealed tissue injury in the AHS groups of both strains, with the TYC strain experiencing more severe changes. The final live and carcass weights showed a significant enhancement in the treatments (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) and treatment×strain interaction (P < 0.05) with breast muscle rate significantly reducing among the treatments (P < 0.01) at 80 days. In conclusion, the differential response to AHS after physiological, molecular and immune response portrays KC to have better thermal tolerance than the TYC.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor , Animales , Pollos/genética , Proteínas HSP70 de Choque Térmico/genética , Trastornos de Estrés por Calor/veterinaria , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Respuesta al Choque Térmico/genética , Calor , Estrés Fisiológico
10.
Yi Chuan ; 43(3): 280-288, 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724212

RESUMEN

To improve the transfection efficiency of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs), the present study evaluated the plasmid dosage and cell number on the efficiencies of three transfection reagents (Lipofectamine 2000, 3000 and LTX & Plus Reagent). PGCs was isolated from embryonic gonads of Huiyang bearded chicken. After 60 days of culture in vitro, the cells were transfected by using Lipofectamine transfection reagents with piggyBac vectors coding for the green fluorescence protein (GFP). PGCs were passaged in culture and fluorescent cells were screened and selected by flow cytometry at three days after transfection. At three weeks post transfection, about 2000 cells were injected into the stage 16 Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) embryos and incubated until stage 30 HH. The results showed that Lipofectamine 3000 was the best for transfection of PGCs. The highest transfection efficiency of PGCs could be achieved with a combination of 3 µg plasmid, 4 µL Lipofectamine 3000 transfection reagent and 0.5×10 4PGCs cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed a 23.4% efficiency of stable transfection of PGCs using Lipofectamine 3000 with piggyBac vector, which was improved 2 times or more over current commonly used methods. After reinjecting PGCs into recipient chicken embryos, GFP-positive cells were observed in the gonads of the recipient chicken embryo by fluorescence microscopy. The study comprehensively evaluated the factors of transfection reagents, plasmid dosage and cell number to optimize the transfection of PGCs, thereby providing a foundation for the efficient preparation of transgenic and gene-edited chickens.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Células Germinativas , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Embrión de Pollo , Pollos/genética , Gónadas , Transfección
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1198-1216, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724947

RESUMEN

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was synthesized from biowaste hen eggshells by wet precipitation method in which calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid were used as precursors. The effectiveness of uranium(VI) adsorption onto HAp was investigated by batch adsorption experiments from aqueous solutions. The obtained HAp powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, point of zero charge and Scanning electron microscope. The factors and levels used during the experiments were pH (2-5), adsorbent mass (0.01-0.05 g), and initial U(VI) concentration (100-310 mg L-1). A Box-Behnken design combined with analysis of variance was used to interpret the main effect influencing the adsorption. The results showed that pH was the most significant parameter affecting U(VI). The kinetic data correlates well with the pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms fitted the Langmuir-1 type model with the qmax = 175.22 mg g-1 at 25 °C. The calculated value of the mean free energy indicates the chemisorption process. Under optimal conditions, the uranium effluent derived from the precipitation of ammonium uranyl carbonate removal performance of 98% was achieved. This study proved that HAp prepared from eggshell was an ecofriendly and low-cost adsorbent and was very effective for the adsorption of U(VI) from aqueous solutions.


Asunto(s)
Uranio , Adsorción , Animales , Pollos , Durapatita , Cáscara de Huevo/química , Femenino , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
12.
Animal ; 15(2): 100083, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712206

RESUMEN

The conventional commercial hatcheries used today do not allow the newly hatched chicks to consume feed or water. Combined with natural variation in hatching time, this can lead to early hatched chicks being feed-deprived for up to 72 h before being unloaded at the rearing site. This study investigated the effects of hatching time on time to first feed intake and development of organs, digestive enzymes and productivity in terms of growth and feed conversion ratio in chicks hatched on-farm. Chicks were divided into three hatching groups (early, mid-term and late), and assessed over a full production cycle of 34 days. The results revealed that chicks remain inactive for a considerable amount of time before engaging in eating-related activities. Eating activity of 5% (i.e. when 5% of birds in each hatching group were eating or standing close to the feeder) was recorded at an average biological age (BA) of 25.4 h and a proportion of 50% birds with full crop was reached at an average BA of 30.6 h. Considering that the hatching window was 35 h in this study, the average chick probably did not benefit from access to feed and water immediately post-hatch in this case. At hatch, mid-term hatchlings had a heavier small intestine (30.1 g/kg bw) than both early (26.4 g/kg bw) and late (26.0 g/kg bw) hatchlings. Relative length of the small intestine was shorter in late hatchlings (735 cm/kg bw) than in mid-term (849 cm/kg bw) and early (831 cm/kg bw) hatchlings. However, the relative weight of the bursa fabricii was greater in mid-term (1.30 g/kg bw) than in early hatchlings (1.01 g/kg bw). At hatch, late hatchlings were heavier than early and mid-term hatchlings (P < 0.05), but by 3 days of age early hatchlings were heavier than mid-term and late hatchlings (P < 0.01). The only effect persisting throughout the study was a difference in the relative weight of the small intestine, where late hatchlings had heavier intestines than early hatchlings (P < 0.05). Thus, while there were differences between hatching groups, this study showed that the hatchlings seemed capable of compensating for these as they grew.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Animales , Peso Corporal , Granjas
13.
Georgian Med News ; (310): 124-133, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658421

RESUMEN

Analysis of liver matrix studies makes it obvious that knowledge about the connective tissue skeleton of the liver is not systematized, the terminology is contradictory, and the question of the construction of some components sometimes causes controversy. We set a goal to study the features of the construction of the connective tissue matrix of the liver of various mammals and birds in order to identify and systematize general and specific patterns of this structure. The liver of mammals with a gallbladder (pigs, sheep) and without a gallbladder (rats) and birds (domestic chickens with a gallbladder) was studied by the methods of anatomical preparation, histology, histochemistry, histotopography, immunohistochemistry, scanning electron microscopy of corrosion replicas and fluorescence microscopy. In the liver of mammals and birds, connective tissue membranes of various thicknesses and compositions around the portal tracts and hepatic veins are revealed. These membranes are connected in various ways with each other, the liver capsule and the intralobular network of connective tissue and form an extracellular matrix, which strengthens the structure of the liver tissue and helps the organ maintain its integrity in various pathological conditions.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Mamíferos , Animales , Matriz Extracelular , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Sistema Porta , Ratas , Ovinos , Porcinos
14.
Waste Manag ; 125: 67-76, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684666

RESUMEN

Bioponics integrates the biological treatment of nutrient-rich waste streams with hydroponics. However, there are several challenges of bioponics, especially nutrient availability and qualities, which affect plant yield. In this study, chicken manure based-nutrient film technique bioponics was examined at manure loadings of 200, 300, and 400 g dry wt. per bioponic system (total of 18 plants). Bioponics effectively released nitrogen and phosphorus (total ammonia nitrogen of 5.8-8.0 mgN/L, nitrate of 7.0-11.2 mgN/L, and phosphate of 48.7-74.2 mgP/L) for efficient growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa; total yield of 1208-2030 g wet wt. per 18 plants). Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies were 35.1-41.8% and 6.8-8.0%, respectively, and were comparable to aquaponics. Next-generation sequencing was used to examine the microbial communities in digested chicken manure and plant roots in bioponics. Results showed that several microbial genera were associated with organic degradation (e.g., Nocardiopsis spp., Cellvibrio spp.), nitrification (Nitrospira spp.), phosphorus solubilization, and plant growth promotion (e.g., WD2101_soil_group, and Bacillus spp.). Nocardiopsis spp., Romboutsia spp. and Saccharomonospora spp. were found at high abundances and a high degree of co-occurrences among the microbiota, suggesting that the microbial organic decomposition to nitrogen and phosphorus release could be the key factors to achieve better nutrient recovery in bioponics.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Microbiota , Animales , Pollos , Nitrógeno/análisis , Fósforo
15.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 104, 2021 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718986

RESUMEN

Pain is a phenomenon present in the majority of the population, affecting, among others, the elderly, overweight people, and especially recently operated patients, analgesia being necessary. In the specific case of relief of postoperative pain, different kinds of anesthetics are being used, among them bupivacaine, a widely used drug which promotes long-lasting analgesic effects. However, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity are related to its repetitive use. To overcome these shortcomings, Novabupi® (a racemic mixture) was developed and is marketed as an injectable solution. This formulation contains an enantiomeric excess of the levogyre isomer, which has reduced toxicity effects. Seeking to rationalize its use by extending the duration of effect and reducing the number of applications, the objectives of this work were to develop and evaluate liposomes containing Novabupi (LBPV), followed by incorporation into thermogel. Liposomes were prepared using the lipid hydration method, followed by size reduction using sonication, and the developed formulations were characterized by hydrodynamic diameter, polydispersity index (PDI), surface zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The selected optimal liposomal formulation was successfully incorporated into a thermogel without loss of thermoresponsive properties, being suitable for administration as a subcutaneous injection. In the ex vivo permeation studies with fresh rodent skin, the thermogel with liposomes loaded with 0.5% LBPV (T-gel formulation 3) showed higher permeation rates compared to the starting formulation, thermogel with 0.5% LBPV (T-Gel 1), which will probably translate into better therapeutic benefits for treatment of postoperative analgesia, especially with regard to the number of doses applied.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia/métodos , Levobupivacaína/administración & dosificación , Levobupivacaína/farmacocinética , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Dolor/metabolismo , Animales , Bovinos , Pollos , Membrana Corioalantoides/efectos de los fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoides/metabolismo , Geles , Humanos , Liposomas , Masculino , Ratones , Células 3T3 NIH , Técnicas de Cultivo de Órganos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/metabolismo , Absorción Cutánea/efectos de los fármacos , Absorción Cutánea/fisiología
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 123, 2021 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723219

RESUMEN

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of human deaths. The efficient replication and population spread of SARS-CoV-2 indicates an effective evasion of human innate immune responses, although the viral proteins responsible for this immune evasion are not clear. In this study, we identified SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, accessory proteins, and the main viral protease as potent inhibitors of host innate immune responses of distinct pathways. In particular, the main viral protease was a potent inhibitor of both the RLR and cGAS-STING pathways. Viral accessory protein ORF3a had the unique ability to inhibit STING, but not the RLR response. On the other hand, structural protein N was a unique RLR inhibitor. ORF3a bound STING in a unique fashion and blocked the nuclear accumulation of p65 to inhibit nuclear factor-κB signaling. 3CL of SARS-CoV-2 inhibited K63-ubiquitin modification of STING to disrupt the assembly of the STING functional complex and downstream signaling. Diverse vertebrate STINGs, including those from humans, mice, and chickens, could be inhibited by ORF3a and 3CL of SARS-CoV-2. The existence of more effective innate immune suppressors in pathogenic coronaviruses may allow them to replicate more efficiently in vivo. Since evasion of host innate immune responses is essential for the survival of all viruses, our study provides insights into the design of therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Innata , Proteínas de la Membrana/inmunología , Nucleotidiltransferasas/inmunología , ARN Viral/inmunología , Transducción de Señal/inmunología , Proteínas Virales/inmunología , Células A549 , Animales , Pollos , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Humanos , Ligasas/inmunología , Ratones
17.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(4): 310-317, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764837

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a novel technique involving a vessel and tissue-sealing device (VTSD) for ovariectomy in chickens to evaluate the potential application of the procedure to other avian species. ANIMALS: 20 domestic laying hens (Gallus domesticus), of which 10 were immature (< 4 months old) and 10 were adults (> 18 months old). PROCEDURES: Ovariectomy was performed with a VTSD through a left lateral celiotomy. Birds were allowed to recover for 14 days after the procedure and then were euthanized for necropsy. A board-certified veterinary pathologist performed complete necropsies, with particular attention to identifying any remaining ovarian tissue. RESULTS: All birds survived the procedure. For the mature and juvenile birds, the mean ± SD durations of anesthesia (interval from intubation to extubation) were 67.2 ± 7.6 minutes and 50.5 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively, and mean durations of surgery were 45.3 ± 8.5 minutes and 31.6 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively. Three birds had severe hemorrhage during ovariectomy. At necropsy, ovarian tissue was present grossly in 2 mature birds and histologically in 6 additional birds (2 mature and 4 juvenile birds), indicating incomplete excision in 8 (40%) birds. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that the evaluated VTSD can be used to successfully perform ovariectomies in both juvenile and mature chickens, although the procedure was associated with major hemorrhage and incomplete excision of ovarian tissue in some cases. Use of this VTSD for ovariectomy in birds of other species, particularly birds with reproductive tract disease, should be investigated.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Veterinarios , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Laparotomía/veterinaria , Ovariectomía/veterinaria
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 109-131, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770405

RESUMEN

Both poultry meat and eggs provide high-quality animal protein [containing sufficient amounts and proper ratios of amino acids (AAs)] for human consumption and, therefore, play an important role in the growth, development, and health of all individuals. Because there are growing concerns about the suboptimal efficiencies of poultry production and its impact on environmental sustainability, much attention has been paid to the formulation of low-protein diets and precision nutrition through the addition of low-cost crystalline AAs or alternative sources of animal-protein feedstuffs. This necessitates a better understanding of AA nutrition and metabolism in chickens. Although historic nutrition research has focused on nutritionally essential amino acids (EAAs) that are not synthesized or are inadequately synthesized in the body, increasing evidence shows that the traditionally classified nutritionally nonessential amino acids (NEAAs), such as glutamine and glutamate, have physiological and regulatory roles other than protein synthesis in chicken growth and egg production. In addition, like other avian species, chickens do not synthesize adequately glycine or proline (the most abundant AAs in the body but present in plant-source feedstuffs at low content) relative to their nutritional and physiological needs. Therefore, these two AAs must be sufficient in poultry diets. Animal proteins (including ruminant meat & bone meal and hydrolyzed feather meal) are abundant sources of both glycine and proline in chicken nutrition. Clearly, chickens (including broilers and laying hens) have dietary requirements for all proteinogenic AAs to achieve their maximum productivity and maintain optimum health particularly under adverse conditions such as heat stress and disease. This is a paradigm shift in poultry nutrition from the 70-year-old "ideal protein" concept that concerned only about EAAs to the focus of functional AAs that include both EAAs and NEAAs.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Pollos , Anciano , Animales , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Necesidades Nutricionales , Estado Nutricional
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112091, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706141

RESUMEN

The occurrence of cadmium (Cd) in feed is a major problem in animal health and production. Studies have confirmed that Cd depresses egg production of laying hens, which is closely related to follicular atresia. This study aimed to assess the toxic impacts of Cd on the ovarian tissue, and to examine the mechanism of Cd-induced granulosa cell proliferation and apoptosis. Results from the nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxide (GSH-Px), total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining indicated that excess Cd induced oxidative stress, granulosa cell apoptosis and follicular atresia in the layer ovary. Low-dose Cd exposure (1 µM) induced the granulosa cell proliferation, upregulated the mRNA levels of RSK1 and RHEB, activated FoxO3a, AKT, ERK1/2, mTOR and p70S6K1 phosphorylation, and promoted cell cycle progression from phase G1 to S. However, high-dose Cd exposure (15 µM) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell apoptosis, upregulated the mRNA levels of the inflammatory factors, ASK1, JNK, p38 and TAK1, downregulated the expressions of RSK1 and RHEB genes, and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, mTOR and p70S6K1 proteins, and the cell cycle progression. Rapamycin pre-treatment completely blocked the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K1 proteins, and the cell cycle progression induced by 1 µM Cd, and accelerated 15 µM Cd-induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The microRNA sequencing result showed that 15 µM Cd induced differential expression of microRNA genes, which may regulate AKT, ERK1/2 and mTOR signaling and cell cycle progression by regulating the activity of G proteins and cell cycle-related proteins. Conclusively, these results indicated that Cd can cause the ovarian damage and follicular atresia, and regulate cell cycle, cell proliferation or apoptosis of granulosa cells through MAPK, AKT/FoxO3a and mTOR pathways in laying hens.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio/toxicidad , Células de la Granulosa/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Apoptosis , Ciclo Celular , Puntos de Control del Ciclo Celular , División Celular , Proliferación Celular , Pollos/metabolismo , Femenino , Atresia Folicular , Células de la Granulosa/metabolismo , Etiquetado Corte-Fin in Situ , Estrés Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo
20.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(3): 323-330, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784442

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The activity of autogenic proteolytic enzymes is regulated in vivo by autogenic inhibitors. They play important roles in maintaining a balance in many processes in the human body. In pathological conditions, enzymes are overexpressed and the balance is disturbed. Such uncontrolled changes may lead to the development of local or systemic cancer. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of specific inhibitors, i.e., chicken egg white cystatin (CEWC) and proteinase inhibitor (E-64) on autogenic cysteine peptidases (CPs) in the sera of patients reporting for subsequent stages of treatment after being diagnosed with breast cancer. Cysteine peptidases play a vital role in the basic processes that are associated with cancer progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected serum samples from 108 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer (stages IIA-IIIA) who had received no previous treatment. The blood samples were centrifuged, and the resulting serum was placed in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C. The biochemical tests were performed at the laboratory of the Department of Physical Chemistry and Microbiology. RESULTS: For CEWC, we found an inhibitory effect in 37 out of 108 samples; for E-64, 14 out of 22 samples displayed an inhibitory effect. In the remaining blood samples, these inhibitors caused an increase in fluorescence. In a parallel test, we added pure cathepsin B to 9 serum samples, and then used CEWC to inhibit the activity of autogenic CPs. Chicken egg white cystatin completely inhibited the cathepsin B that was added to the serum without changing its effect on the autogenic CPs. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that there may be a potential difference between the commercially available cathepsin B and its autogenic analogues found in the serum of cancer patients. The increase in fluorescence induced in the reaction between the inhibitors and autogenic CPs is still unexplained. There was no relationship between the observed inhibition/activation of CPs and any of the available indicators of the health of the patients examined.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Cistatinas , Animales , Neoplasias de la Mama/tratamiento farmacológico , Pollos , Cisteína , Clara de Huevo , Humanos
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