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1.
J Water Health ; 18(1): 19-29, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129183

RESUMEN

Fecal contamination is one of the factors causing deterioration of Laguna Lake. Although total coliform levels are constantly monitored, no protocol is in place to identify their origin. This can be addressed using the library-dependent microbial source tracking (MST) method, repetitive element sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) fingerprinting. Serving as a prerequisite in developing the host-origin library, we assessed the discriminatory power of three fingerprinting primers, namely BOX-A1R, (GTG)5, and REP1R-1/2-1. Fingerprint profiles were obtained from 290 thermotolerant Escherichia coli isolated from sewage waters and fecal samples of cows, chickens, and pigs from regions surrounding the lake. Band patterns were converted into binary profiles and were classified using the discriminant analysis of principal components. Results show that: (1) REP1R-1/2-1 has a low genotyping success rate and information content; (2) increasing the library size led to more precise estimates of library accuracy; and (3) combining fingerprint profiles from BOX-A1R and (GTG)5 revealed the best discrimination (average rate of correct classification (ARCC) = 0.82 ± 0.06) in a two-way categorical split; while (4) no significant difference was found between the combined profiles (0.74 ± 0.15) and using solely BOX-A1R (0.76 ± 0.09) in a four-way split. Testing the library by identifying known isolates from a separate dataset has shown that a two-way classification performed better (ARCC = 0.66) than a four-way split (ARCC = 0.29). The library can be developed further by adding more representative isolates per host source. Nevertheless, our results have shown that combining profiles from BOX-A1R and (GTG)5 is recommended in developing the MST library for Laguna Lake.


Asunto(s)
Dermatoglifia del ADN , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Lagos/microbiología , Contaminantes del Agua/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Pollos , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Filipinas , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Porcinos
2.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(2): 259-266, 2020 Feb 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147998

RESUMEN

GTPase immune-associated protein 5 (Gimap5), a key factor in maintaining T cell homeostasis, plays important roles in immune and inflammatory processes. However, its function and characteristics in poultry have not been reported. In this study, AA⁺ and Sanhuang broilers were used as models. The full-length coding sequence of the Gimap5 gene was cloned by RT-PCR and analyzed using bioinformatic methods. Tissue expression and distribution characteristics of the Gimap5 gene and its functional characteristics in inflammatory response were analyzed by RT-qPCR, respectively. The full-length coding sequences of the Gimap5 gene from AA⁺ and Sanhuang broilers were 771 bp, encoding 256 amino acids, and presented low conservative among different species. The AIG-1 domain of N-terminal and alpha-helix structure of C-terminal transmembrane sequence of might play important roles in the Gimap5 protein function and cell localization, respectively. The Gimap5 gene was widely distributed and expressed in various tissues and the pattern of its expression change was basically similar between AA⁺ and Sanhuang broilers. However, there were some differences in expression activity between the two breeds or various tissues of the same breed. In inflammatory response, the expression activities of the Gimap5 gene were down-regulated in blood and liver (P<0.05), but up-regulated in the bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01). It is speculated that Gimap5 is a multifunctional gene involved in the development of the body and inflammatory response, and has potential application value for diagnostic marker of inflammatory response.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Animales , Cruzamiento , GTP Fosfohidrolasas , Homeostasis
3.
Waste Manag ; 105: 520-530, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145685

RESUMEN

Characterizing the waste generated from different agro-industrial segments enables the strategic management of residues, with the goal of maximizing recovery within the premises of a circular economy. This research aimed to determine the coefficient of waste generated in broiler chick hatcheries as well as to characterize the waste, taking into account the points of culling and the ages of the laying hens. Furthermore, the waste was used in composting with sheep manure (SM) at increasing inclusion rates (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, and 50:50). On average, 0.16 kg (DM) of hatchery waste is generated per kg of broiler chicks born. At the hatchery, at least 79% of the total disposal occurs at the hatcher stage. This value is impacted by chicken age (P < 0.05), with birds of a late laying age generating waste with higher contents of carbon (C), volatile solids (VS), ether extract (EE), and nitrogen (N). Culling during egg reception and the manual transfer process account for only 1.8% of the total waste generated on average and thus contribute little to the composition of the overall residues. However, the mechanical transfer process may represent up to 19.0% of the total waste generated by hens of an intermediate laying age. According to the average of all the composting stages, the maximum reduction in solids and C from the hatchery waste was reached when the waste accounted for 50% of the windrow composition. Such conditions resulted in organic fertilizer with the highest N content (2.8%), equivalent to 40.0% more than that in the treatment with no added hatchery waste. The compost resulting from 50% hatchery waste inclusion also had the highest humic acid to fulvic acid (HA:FA) ratio and the highest calcium content due to the higher proportion of eggshells. These findings lead to the recommendation for the inclusion of hatchery waste in composting with SM at a 50% rate by mass.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Compostaje , Animales , Femenino , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Ovinos , Suelo
4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 586-596, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174269

RESUMEN

Since 2015, the prevalence of severe hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome, which is caused by the novel genotype fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), has increased in China and led to considerable economic losses. The replication cycle of FAdV-4, especially the emerging highly pathogenic novel genotype FAdV-4, remains largely unknown. The adenovirus fibre interacts with the cellular receptor as the initial step in adenovirus (AdV) infection. In our previous studies, the complete genome sequence showed that the fibre patterns of FAdV-4 were distinct from all other AdVs. Here, protein-blockage and antibody-neutralization assays were performed to confirm that the novel FAdV-4 short fibre was critical for binding to susceptible leghorn male hepatocellular (LMH) cells. Subsequently, fibre 1 was used as bait to investigate the receptor on LMH cells via mass spectrometry. The chicken coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protein was confirmed as the novel FAdV-4 receptor in competition assays. We further identified the D2 domain of CAR (D2-CAR) as the active domain responsible for binding to the short fibre of the novel FAdV-4. Taken together, these findings demonstrate for the first time that the chicken CAR homolog is a cellular receptor for the novel FAdV-4, which facilitates viral entry by interacting with the viral short fibre through the D2 domain. Collectively, these findings provide an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of the emerging novel genotype FAdV-4 invasion and pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Adenoviridae/inmunología , Receptores Virales/inmunología , Adenoviridae/genética , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Línea Celular , Pollos , Expresión Génica , Humanos , Receptores Virales/genética , Solubilidad , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/inmunología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178606

RESUMEN

As part of its role in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS), the WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza in Melbourne received a total of 3993 human influenza-positive samples during 2018. Viruses were analysed for their antigenic, genetic and antiviral susceptibility properties. Selected viruses were propagated in qualified cells or hens' eggs for use as potential seasonal influenza vaccine virus candidates. In 2018, influenza A(H1)pdm09 viruses predominated over influenza A(H3) and B viruses, accounting for a total of 53% of all viruses analysed. The majority of A(H1)pdm09, A(H3) and influenza B viruses analysed at the Centre were found to be antigenically similar to the respective WHO-recommended vaccine strains for the Southern Hemisphere in 2018. However, phylogenetic analysis indicated that a significant proportion of circulating A(H3) viruses had undergone genetic drift relative to the WHO-recommended vaccine strain for 2018. Of 2864 samples tested for susceptibility to the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, three A(H1)pdm09 viruses showed highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir, while one B/Victoria virus showed highly reduced inhibition by both oseltamivir and zanamivir.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Virus de la Influenza A , Virus de la Influenza B , Vacunas contra la Influenza/inmunología , Gripe Humana/prevención & control , Animales , Antígenos Virales , Australia/epidemiología , Pollos , Farmacorresistencia Viral , Humanos , Virus de la Influenza A/efectos de los fármacos , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza B/efectos de los fármacos , Virus de la Influenza B/genética , Vacunas contra la Influenza/uso terapéutico , Oseltamivir , Filogenia , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zanamivir
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 178, 2020 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062705

RESUMEN

The present study was aimed at evaluating fluorine contamination of the eggs of free-ranging laying hens in Northern Poland, in the Central Pomerania region, in relation to the distance from the emission sources. Fluorine levels in the soil, feed, and the shells, and contents of the eggs were assayed with the potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode from ORION Ion Meter. The sampled eggs were subjected to pressure microwave digestion with the use of a Milestone MLS-1200 microwave. All the samples were digested in 5 ml of supra-pure grade concentrated HNO3 from Merck. The mean level of fluorine in the studied soils ranged from 3.79 mg kg-1 of DM in typical river alluvial soil to 126.19 mg kg-1 of DM in lessive soil. The study revealed an average fluorine content in the feeds administered to the hens on the farms in zone 1 (17.29 mg kg-1 of DM), it being 3.5 times higher than the corresponding content in zone 2 (4.92 mg kg-1 of DM). A statistically significantly higher mean fluorine level was identified in the eggshells of hens on zone 1 farms, located closer to the pollution emission sources (17.52 mg kg-1 of DM), the value being more than 3-fold higher than that in zone 2 (5.47 mg kg-1 of DM). The present study revealed an almost twice as high fluorine mean content in the hen eggs collected on farms in zone 1 (1.488 mg kg-1 of DM) compared with the hen egg contents in the experimental zone 2 (0.640 mg kg-1 of DM), the difference being statistically significant.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Pollos , Huevos , Fluoruros , Compuestos de Flúor , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Femenino , Fluoruros/análisis , Polonia , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062365

RESUMEN

Antigen-binding (Fab) and crystallizable (Fc) fragments are the active components of yolk immunoglobulin (IgY), which have been widely used in the pharmaceutical field. However, the common purification methods for the Fab and Fc fragments use combinations of multi-columns are complex and time-consuming. The objective of this study was to improve the separation efficiency of the Fab and Fc fragments from the hydrolyzed IgY and increase the purity of the isolated Fab and Fc fragments. Natural IgY was hydrolyzed using papain for 6 hr and then treated with 45% saturated ammonium sulfate to remove small molecular-weight-peptides. The fraction containing Fab and Fc fragments was loaded on a DEAE-Sepharose ion exchange column and the Fab fraction was washed out first with 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6). Then, the Fc fraction bound to the DEAE Sepharose was eluted with 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6) containing 0.21 M NaCl. The purity of the two fragments was 88.7% and 90.1%, respectively. The results of Western blotting and MS analyses indicated that this method purified Fab and Fc fractions with high purity. This method is easy and simple compared with other methods, and the active fragments separated can be easily used.


Asunto(s)
Fragmentos Fab de Inmunoglobulinas/análisis , Fragmentos Fab de Inmunoglobulinas/aislamiento & purificación , Fragmentos Fc de Inmunoglobulinas/análisis , Fragmentos Fc de Inmunoglobulinas/aislamiento & purificación , Inmunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Amonio/química , Animales , Western Blotting , Pollos , Cromatografía por Intercambio Iónico , Fragmentos Fab de Inmunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fab de Inmunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Fragmentos Fc de Inmunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fc de Inmunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulinas/química , Papaína/metabolismo
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122883, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006923

RESUMEN

The metabolic function and organic degradation behavior of bacterial and fungal communities were detected in 60 days composting of chicken manure and pumice by using Biolog tools, PICRUSt and FUNGuild. Fungal diversity increased from 57 OTUs in fresh chicken manure to 109 OTUs in high temperature stage, while bacterial diversity decreased from 86 OTUs to 44 OTUs after composting treatment. The carbohydrates degradation ability of bacterial community was enhanced in the high temperature stage. Fungal community had relatively higher degradation rates of carboxylic acids and amino acids in the maturation stage. Saprotroph was the main trophic mode of fungal community during the incubation process. The fungal animal pathogen decreased from 12.5% to 1.2% after composting treatment. Bacterial community composition and substrates degradation rate were mainly influenced by redox potential, pH and moisture, while temperature was the main environmental factor influencing on organic degradation of fungal community.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Micobioma , Animales , Bacterias , Pollos , Estiércol , Suelo
10.
Waste Manag ; 105: 110-118, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044549

RESUMEN

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a threat to human and animal health. In recent years, the presence of extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia (E.) coli in chicken manure, which is used as organic fertilizer, is a concern. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio and moisture content (MC) on the survival of ESBL-producing E. coli during laboratory-scale composting of chicken manure. Nine different compost mixtures were enriched with an ESBL-producing E. coli strain to an initial concentration of 7 log10 CFU/g, and the number of E. coli, temperature, and chemical conditions during composting were determined. The fastest decrease in E. coli occurred for all mixtures with a C/N ratio of 10:1. Additionally, dry mixtures with an MC of 20% and a C/N ratio of either 10:1 or 40:1 exhibited faster reductions in E. coli than the moist mixtures did, despite having lower maximum temperatures within the bioreactors. The decimal reduction times ranged from 0.27 days in a mixture with a C/N ratio of 10:1 and 40% MC to 4.82 days in a mixture with a C/N ratio of 40:1 and 40% MC. Both the C/N ratio and MC had a significant effect on the number of ESBL-producing E. coli and on temperature development; the C/N ratio additionally affected the pH value and content of ammoniacal nitrogen during chicken manure composting. The results of this study demonstrate a considerable range of mechanisms involved in the inactivation of E. coli during chicken manure composting.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Carbono , Pollos , Escherichia coli , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Suelo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1948-1957, 2020 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009394

RESUMEN

As one of six dietary nutrients, lipid derived from different food matrices has been extensively studied and has an appropriate application in food, medicine, and cosmetic industry. Egg is a richly nutritive food, of which proteins and lipids possess excellent functional characteristics and biological activities. In recent years, egg yolk lipid has been successively separated and investigated, such as egg yolk oil, phospholipids, and fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, cardiovascular protection, and memory improvement, involving the regulation of cell function and physiological homeostatic balance. In this paper, the biological activities and underlying benefit of egg yolk lipids and fat-soluble components have been highlighted and summarized. Meanwhile, the quantitative data of egg yolk lipids needed to achieve any of the described biological effects and recommended concentrations relevant for dietary intake are reviewed. Finally, current challenges and crucial issues of high-efficiency utilization of egg yolk lipids are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Yema de Huevo/química , Lípidos/farmacología , Animales , Pollos , Humanos , Lípidos/química
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122940, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044649

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate algal growth, lipid production, and nutrient removal in chicken farm flushing wastewater (CFFW). The excessive ammonia nitrogen (EAN) content in the CFFW wastewater represented a major factor limiting the algal growth. A strategy of mixing CFFW with municipal wastewater (MW) that contained less ammonia nitrogen was adopted. The results showed that the mixed wastewaters reduced ammonia nitrogen content, balanced nutrient profile, and promoted biomass production. The residual nutrients in mixed wastewaters were significantly reduced due to the algal absorption. Furthermore, alga grown on mixed wastewaters accumulated a higher level of total lipids and monounsaturated fatty acids that can be used for biodiesel production. The key issue of low biomass yield of algal grown on CFFW due to the inhibition of EAN was efficiently resolved by mitigating limiting factor to algal growth basing on mixing strategy, and accordingly the nutrients in the wastewater were significantly removed.


Asunto(s)
Chlorella , Microalgas , Amoníaco , Animales , Biocombustibles , Biomasa , Pollos , Granjas , Lípidos , Nitrógeno , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Aguas Residuales
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 303: 122927, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050125

RESUMEN

The aim of this study is to detect the action properties of functional materials (FM) in transforming waste into resource products with high humus content. FM (MnO2 and reducing sugar) were added in different periods of chicken manure composting. During composting, concentration of humic acids (HA) as aromatic fraction of humus, was increased by FM. The promotive effects of adding FM in later period was the most obvious. While adding FM in the beginning period could accelerate organic matter degradation, but it did not promote HA formation. Meanwhile, the microbial diversity was higher in groups by adding FM in the beginning and thermophilic periods. Therefore, it was speculated that FM might improve HA formation by promoting the abiotic polymerization of precursors. Eventually, structural equation model showed that FM was beneficial to abiotic pathway of HA formation. But the formation efficiency was reduced by interfering with biotic pathway.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Pollos , Compuestos de Manganeso , Estiércol , Óxidos , Suelo
14.
Anim Cogn ; 23(2): 367-387, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894431

RESUMEN

Birds have been widely used to study spatial orientation. However, since different birds rely on different types of visual information to find goal locations (such as spatial information from free-standing objects or local cues, i.e. characteristics of a goal location like color and shape), it is important to investigate this aspect in each model species. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether domestic chicks, a ground-living bird and a widely used model for the comparative study of spatial orientation, are able to reorient in relation to free-standing objects and if they preferentially follow local or spatial cues. Furthermore, we also investigated whether monocular eye occlusion influences the ability of chicks to use spatial or local cues. Chicks were trained and tested in a large circular arena with free-standing objects providing relational spatial information, to find food in one of the feeders. We found that dark-incubated male chicks were able to reorient in relation to distinct, free-standing landmarks (Experiment 1), but when local and spatial cues were put in conflict, chicks significantly preferred local cues over spatial cues (Experiment 3). Moreover, while the use of one eye system only was not sufficient to orient by spatial cues (Experiment 2), the preference for local over spatial cues was independent of monocular occlusion (Experiment 4). The results are discussed in relation to our general knowledge of spatial information processing in domestic chicks.


Asunto(s)
Señales (Psicología) , Orientación Espacial , Animales , Pollos , Cognición , Alimentos , Masculino , Orientación , Percepción Espacial
15.
Gene ; 730: 144318, 2020 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917231

RESUMEN

Although the chicken embryo has been a classical model for developmental studies, the lack of straightforward technologies for chicken transgenesis limited the usefulness of this animal model. Here, we assessed electroporation and lipofection approaches for in ovo transfection of Sleeping Beauty transposon system in stage X-XII chicken embryos. Electroporation of chicken embryos could transfect the trophectodermal cells. Then, a mixture of transposon lipoplexes and high concentrated carboxymethylcellulose (HCC) solution was injected into the subgerminal cavity of day 0 embryos. The lipoplex-HCC mixture substantially increased the number of trophectodermal cells expressing the reporter. Importantly, the fluorescent reporter was detected in cells inside of the embryos as well as circulation cells in the bloodstream during days 3-4 of incubation. This study provided evidence for direct in ovo transfection of early chicken embryos, though the long-term outcome of this approach warrants further studies.


Asunto(s)
Electroporación/métodos , Transfección/métodos , Transposasas/genética , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Carboximetilcelulosa de Sodio , Embrión de Pollo , Pollos/genética , Elementos Transponibles de ADN/genética , Embrión de Mamíferos/embriología , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica/genética , Técnicas de Transferencia de Gen
16.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190721, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964255

RESUMEN

Inhibiting impulsive, less flexible behaviours is of utmost importance for individual adaptation in an ever-changing environment. However, problem-solving tasks may be greatly impacted by individual differences in behaviour, since animals with distinct behavioural types perceive and interact with their environment differently, resulting in variable responses to the same stimuli. Here, we tested whether and how differences in ranging behaviour of free-range chickens affect motor self-regulation performance during a cylinder task. For this task, subjects must refrain from trying to reach a food reward through the walls of a transparent cylinder and detour to its open sides, as a sign of inhibition. Free-range chickens exhibited an overall low performance in the motor self-regulation task (31.33 ± 13.55% of correct responses), however, high rangers showed significantly poorer performance than the low rangers (23.75 ± 9.16% versus 40 ± 12.90%, respectively). These results give further support to the impacts of individual behavioural differences on cognitive performances. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge of a relationship between exploratory tendencies and motor self-regulation for an avian species.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Recompensa , Animales
17.
Global Health ; 16(1): 8, 2020 01 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937338

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, high quantities of products containing antimicrobial are used as prophylactic and curative treatments in small-scale chicken flocks. A large number of these contain antimicrobial active ingredients (AAIs) considered of 'critical importance' for human medicine according to the World Health Organization (WHO). However, little is known about the retail prices of these products and variables associated with the expense on antimicrobials at farm level. Therefore, the aims of the study were: (1) to investigate the retail price of antimicrobials with regards to WHO importance criteria; and (2) to quantify the antimicrobial expense incurred in raising chicken flocks. We investigated 102 randomly-selected small-scale farms raising meat chickens (100-2000 per flock cycle) in two districts in Dong Thap (Mekong Delta) over 203 flock production cycles raised in these farms. Farmers were asked to record the retail prices and amounts of antimicrobial used. RESULTS: A total of 214 different antimicrobial-containing products were identified. These contained 37 different AAIs belonging to 13 classes. Over half (60.3%) products contained 1 highest priority, critically important AAI, and 38.8% 1 high priority, critically important AAI. The average (farm-adjusted) retail price of a daily dose administered to a 1 kg bird across products was 0.40 cents of 1 US$ (₵) (SE ± 0.05). The most expensive products were those that included at least one high priority, critically important AAI, as well as those purchased in one of the two study districts. Farmers spent on average of ₵3.91 (SE ± 0.01) on antimicrobials per bird over the production cycle. The expense on antimicrobials in weeks with disease and low mortality was greater than on weeks with disease and high mortality, suggesting that antimicrobial use had a beneficial impact on disease outcomes (χ2 = 3.8; p = 0.052). Farmers generally used more expensive antimicrobials on older flocks. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION: The retail prices of antimicrobial products used in chicken production in Mekong Delta small-scale chicken farms are very low, and not related to their relevance for human medicine. Farmers, however, demonstrated a degree of sensitivity to prices of antimicrobial products. Therefore, revising pricing policies of antimicrobial products remains a potential option to curb the use of antimicrobials of critical importance in animal production.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/economía , Pollos , Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Granjas , Animales , Antiinfecciosos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vietnam
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 301: 122730, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954966

RESUMEN

The effects of inoculating with microorganisms on chicken manure compost with maize straw were investigated in a self-built aerated static box (0.6 m3) by assessing the influences of temperature, moisture, pH, C/N ratio, transformation of nitrogen, humification levels and composting maturity. Results showed that inoculation with microorganisms prolonged the thermophilic stage in composting compared to control groups, increasing the temperature, pH and germination index as the composting period progressed. This suggests that inoculation with microorganisms were helpful in facilitating the process of composting, as it significantly reduced NH4+ content during the cooling stage. Additionally, NO3- increased after the first pile turning on day 10, continuing until the end of thermophilic stage. Improvements across transformation of nitrogen, humification levels and composting maturity were also seen in inoculation piles. Conclusively, we suggested inoculating using cocktails of microorganisms to increase efficiency and promote maturity in chicken manure composting.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Pollos , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Suelo , Temperatura Ambiental , Zea mays
19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(3): 635-645, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897557

RESUMEN

Matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) are an indispensable part of method validation and have played an important role in ensuring reliable analytical results. To retain similarity to real samples, a new matrix CRM for the mass fraction of ciprofloxacin in whole liquid egg was developed by use of incurred materials with a target value corresponding to residue levels in real sample. The source materials were collected from laying hens following oral administration of ciprofloxacin. An optimized homogenization method and a strict bottling process were applied to bulk whole egg materials to prepare the CRM candidate. The mass fraction of ciprofloxacin in whole liquid egg was certified by a collaborative characterization program with eight accredited participating laboratories. Liquid chromatography coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry was studied as a reliable reference method for value assignment and was used by all participating laboratories. The certified value and expanded uncertainty (k = 2, at a confidence level of 95%) was 39.7 ± 5.2 µg/kg for ciprofloxacin in whole liquid egg. Homogeneity, long-term stability at -70 °C for 12 months, and short-term stability at -18 °C, 4 °C, and room temperature were assessed for 9 days. Additionally, uncertainties arising from inhomogeneity, instability, and characterization were analyzed in detail and fully estimated. This CRM would be a useful tool for validation of analytical methods and proficiency testing in ciprofloxacin residue analysis of egg. Graphical Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/análisis , Ciprofloxacino/análisis , Residuos de Medicamentos/análisis , Huevos/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Animales , Pollos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/normas , Análisis de los Alimentos/normas , Límite de Detección , Estándares de Referencia , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/normas
20.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 36(2): 24, 2020 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965331

RESUMEN

The study evaluated the antibacterial activity of chlorogenic acid (CA) against Salmonella Enteritidis S1, a foodborne pathogen in chilled fresh chicken. Its minimum inhibitory concentration for S. Enteritidis S1 was 2 mM. 1 MIC CA treatment reduced the viable count of S. Enteritidis S1 by 3 log cfu/g in chilled fresh chicken. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that CA induced the cell envelope damage of S. Enteritidis S1. Following this, 1-N-Phenylnaphthylamine assay and LPS content analysis indicated that CA induced the permeability of outer membrane (OM). Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination further demonstrated that CA acted on the inner membrane (IM). To support this, the release of intracellular protein and ATP after CA treatment was also observed. CA also suppressed the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, two main metabolic enzymes in TCA cycle and electron transport chain. Thus, damage of intracelluar and outer membranes as well as disruption of cell metabolism resulted in cell death eventually. The finding suggested that CA has the potential to be developed as a preservative to control S. Enteritidis associated foodborne diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Ácido Clorogénico/farmacología , Salmonella enteritidis/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Proteínas Bacterianas/antagonistas & inhibidores , Membrana Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Pollos/microbiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , Regulación Bacteriana de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Malato Deshidrogenasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Viabilidad Microbiana/efectos de los fármacos , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Salmonella enteritidis/enzimología , Salmonella enteritidis/crecimiento & desarrollo , Succinato Deshidrogenasa/antagonistas & inhibidores
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