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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(3): 288-92, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798312

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of acupuncture combined with Heixiaoyao powder for children with cerebral palsy (liver-qi stagnation, spleen-kidney deficiency syndrome) and its effect on serum immune indexes and nerve growth related protein. METHODS: A total of 180 children with cerebral palsy were randomly divided into a combined group (60 cases, 2 cases dropped off), an acupuncture group (60 cases, 4 cases dropped off) and a Chinese medication group (60 cases, 5 cases dropped off). On the basis of conventional treatment, the children in the combined group were treated with acupuncture [Baihui (GV 20), Sishencong (EX-HN 1), Shenting (GV 24), Benshen (GB 13), 30 min each time, twice a day] and Heixiaoyao powder; the children in the acupuncture group were treated with acupuncture, and the children in the Chinese medication group were treated with Heixiaoyao powder, the treatment was same with the combined group. All the children were treated for 6 consecutive days and rest for 1 day, totaling for 8 weeks. The Gesell developmental schedules (GDS) and TCM symptom scores were recorded before treatment, after treatment and at 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit; the serum immune indexes (IgA, IgG and IgM) and nerve growth related protein [myelin basic protein (MBP), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), neuronspecific enolase (NSE)] were detected before and after treatment. The clinical efficacy of each group was evaluated. RESULTS: The total effective rate was 91.4% (53/58) in the combined group, which was higher than 80.4% (45/56) in the acupuncture group and 78.2% (43/55) in the Chinese medication group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, the GDS scores in the three groups were increased and the TCM symptom scores were reduced after treatment and at 3-month, 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit (P<0.05). The GDS score in the combined group was higher than that in the acupuncture group and the Chinese medication group, and the TCM symptom score was lower than that in the acupuncture group and Chinese medication group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM in the combined group were increased (P<0.05), and the serum levels of MBP, HMGBl and NSE were decreased (P<0.05), and the improvements were superior to those in the acupuncture group and the Chinese medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture combined with Heixiaoyao powder could effectively improve the development quotient in children with cerebral palsy (liver-qi stagnation, spleen-kidney deficiency syndrome), regulate the serum immune indexes and nerve growth related protein levels.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Parálisis Cerebral , Puntos de Acupuntura , Parálisis Cerebral/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Humanos , Polvos , Resultado del Tratamiento
2.
Food Chem ; 351: 129361, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662905

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the chemical changes in five types of whole-milk powders (WMP) with different heating loads during storage. The WMP was preheated using low-heat [low-temperature long-time (LTLT), high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST)] and high-heat process [ultra-pasteurization (ESL), ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatments, and in-bottle sterilization (BS)]. Furosine increased by 2.5-3.0 times in high-heat WMP and 5.7-8.4 times in low-heat WMP during storage. 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF) content in high-heat WMP was on average 1.4- to 2.4-fold higher than in low-heat WMP during storage. The increases in the amount of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) in high-heat WMP were more than that in low-heat WMP (CML, 3.4-4.9 vs 3.1-3.4 times; CEL, 3.4-4.2 vs 2.7-3.0 times). Pyrraline in high-heat WMP increased by 1.8- to 2.1-fold. 2-Furaldehyde, CML, and CEL increased slowly with 12 months of storage and then accelerated. Storage time significantly contributed to more furosine, HMF, CML, and CEL contents in high-heat WMP.


Asunto(s)
Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Calor , Reacción de Maillard , Leche/química , Animales , Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada/química , Pasteurización , Polvos
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 1977-1992, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727810

RESUMEN

Background: Phytostanols are naturally occurring compounds that reduce blood cholesterol levels significantly. However, their aqueous insolubility poses formulation challenges. Aim: To formulate and characterize solid lipid nanoparticle carriers for phytostanol esters to enhance the bioavailability of phytostanols. Methods: Phytostanol ester solid lipid nanoparticles were formulated by the microemulsion method. They were characterized for particle size distribution, polydispersity index, shape, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, stability, chemical structure, and thermal properties. The uptake of the formulation by cell lines, HepG2 and HT-29, and its effect on cell viability were evaluated. Results: The formulation of solid lipid nanoparticles was successfully optimised by varying the type of lipids and their concentration relative to that of surfactants in the present study. The optimised formulation had an average diameter of (171 ± 9) nm, a negative surface charge of (-23.0 ± 0.8) mV and was generally spherical in shape. We report high levels of drug entrapment at (89 ± 5)% in amorphous form, drug loading of (9.1 ± 0.5)%, nanoparticle yield of (67 ± 4)% and drug excipient compatibility. The biological safety and uptake of the formulations were demonstrated on hepatic and intestinal cell lines. Conclusion: Phytostanol ester solid lipid nanoparticles were successfully formulated and characterized. The formulation has the potential to provide an innovative drug delivery system for phytostanols which reduce cholesterol and have a potentially ideal safety profile. This can contribute to better management of one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.


Asunto(s)
Composición de Medicamentos , Ésteres/química , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamiento farmacológico , Lípidos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Fitosteroles/uso terapéutico , Muerte Celular , Emulsiones/química , Endocitosis , Citometría de Flujo , Células HT29 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Polvos , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Electricidad Estática , Temperatura
4.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 102, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712901

RESUMEN

Sceletium tortuosum is one of the most promising medicinal plant species for treating anxiety and depression. Traditionally, aerial parts are chewed (masticatory herbal medicine) providing fast relief and rendering the masticatory route for delivery, ideal. This study intended formulating novel medicated chewing gum containing S. tortuosum to alleviate depression and anxiety. S. tortuosum extract was formulated into directly compressed medicated chewing gum (MCG) containing different Health-in-Gum® (HIG) bases through process optimization with the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Physical properties of MCGs were characterized, and specialized drug release studies performed. According to the manufacturer, only HIG-03 was specifically developed for direct compression; however, the SeDeM System was successfully applied to all HIG-bases investigated. HIG-01 and HIG-04 are also considered useful in direct compression as no considerable differences in these MCG formulations' physical properties were recognized. Inclusion of a lubricant, however, is deemed essential, and MCG comprising HIG-01, most suited for direct compression. Dissolution experiments found only two alkaloids used as markers, mesembrine and mesembrenone, were released in quantifiable concentrations regardless formulation constituents. Novel directly compressed MCG-containing S. tortuosum extract was successfully formulated by which the biologically active phytochemicals of S. tortuosum can be scientifically delivered through the traditionally applied mastication method.


Asunto(s)
Aizoaceae/química , Ansiolíticos/administración & dosificación , Antidepresivos/administración & dosificación , Goma de Mascar , Ansiolíticos/uso terapéutico , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Composición de Medicamentos , Liberación de Fármacos , Excipientes , Sistemas Especialistas , Lubricantes , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Polvos
5.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 98, 2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709195

RESUMEN

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) emphasizes drug product development by Quality by Design (QbD). Critical material attributes (CMAs) are a QbD element that has an impact on pharmaceutical operations and product quality. Pharmaceutical drugs often crystallize as needle-shaped (a CMA) particles and affect the process due to poor flowability, low bulk density, and high compressibility, and eventually the product performance. In this study, the product obtained from crystallization was needle-shaped Ciprofloxacin HCl (CIPRO), formed lumps during drying, and compacted during processing through feeders. To delump small amounts of materials and break the needles, multiple available devices (mortar-pestle, Krups grinder) and custom-made grinder were assessed before formulation. The processed CIPRO powder was then used to make tablets in the miniature tablet manufacturing unit developed by the team at MIT. The critical quality attributes (CQA) of the tablets, set by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), were then assessed for the drug powder processed with each of these devices. Powder properties comparable to commercial CIPRO were obtained when the custom MIT-designed grinder was used, leading to tablets that meet the USP criteria, with comparable dissolution profiles of those for marketed CIPRO tablets. This study demonstrates how needle-shaped crystals have an impact on pharmaceutical operations, even if it is on a miniature scale, and how proper shape and subsequent flow properties can be obtained by processing the particles through the MIT team-designed grinder.


Asunto(s)
Química Farmacéutica/métodos , Ciprofloxacino/síntesis química , Tamaño de la Partícula , Tecnología Farmacéutica/métodos , Cristalización/métodos , Desecación , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Polvos , Comprimidos
6.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672127

RESUMEN

Cricket powder, described in the literature as a source of nutrients, can be a valuable ingredient to supplement deficiencies in various food products. Work continues on the implementation of cricket powder in products that are widely consumed. The aim of this study was to obtain gluten-free bread with a superior nutritional profile by means of insect powder addition. Gluten-free breads enriched with 2%, 6%, and 10% of cricket (Acheta domesticus) powder were formulated and extensively characterized. The nutritional value, as well as antioxidant and ß-glucuronidase activities, were assessed after simulated in vitro digestion. Addition of cricket powder significantly increased the nutritional value, both in terms of the protein content (exceeding two-, four-, and seven-fold the reference bread (RB), respectively) and above all mineral compounds. The most significant changes were observed for Cu, P, and Zn. A significant increase in the content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in the enriched bread was also demonstrated; moreover, both values additionally increased after the digestion process. The total polyphenolic compounds content increased about five-fold from RB to bread with 10% CP (BCP10), and respectively about three-fold after digestion. Similarly, the total antioxidant capacity before digestion increased about four-fold, and after digestion about six-fold. The use of CP also reduced the undesirable activity of ß-glucuronidase by 65.9% (RB vs. BCP10) in the small intestine, down to 78.9% in the large intestine. The influence of bread on the intestinal microflora was also evaluated, and no inhibitory effect on the growth of microflora was demonstrated, both beneficial (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) and pathogenic (Enterococcus and Escherichia coli). Our results underscore the benefits of using cricket powder to increase the nutritional value and biological activity of gluten-free food products.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/análisis , Pan/análisis , Dieta Sin Gluten , Análisis de los Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Polvos/análisis , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Polvos/metabolismo
7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672675

RESUMEN

(1) Background: Portable NIR spectrometers gain more and more ground in the field of Process Analytical Technology due to the easy on-site flexibility and interfacing versatility. These advantages that originate from the instrument miniaturization, also come with a downside with respect to performance compared to benchtop devices. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of MicroNIR in a pharmaceutical powder blend application, having three active ingredients and 5 excipients. (2) Methods: Spectral data was recorded in reflectance mode using static and dynamic acquisition, on calibration set samples developed using an experimental design. (3) Results: The developed method accurately predicted the content uniformity of these complex mixtures, moreover it was validated in the entire calibration range using ±10% acceptance limits. With respect to at-line prediction, the method presented lower performance compared to a previously studied benchtop spectrometer. Regarding the in-line monitoring of the blending process, it was shown that the spectral variability-induced by dynamic acquisition could be efficiently managed using spectral pre-processing. (4) Conclusions: The in-line process monitoring resulted in accurate concentration profiles, highlighting differences in the mixing behaviour of the investigated ingredients. For the low dose component homogeneity was not reached due to an inefficient dispersive mixing.


Asunto(s)
Química Farmacéutica , Composición de Medicamentos , Tecnología Farmacéutica , Calibración , Polvos , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
8.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669650

RESUMEN

Apples are an important source of biologically active compounds. Consequently, we decided to model hard gelatin capsules with lyophilized apple powder by using different excipients and to evaluate the release kinetics of phenolic compounds. The apple slices of "Ligol" cultivar were immediately frozen in a freezer (at -35°C) with air circulation and were lyophilized with a sublimator at the pressure of 0.01 mbar (condenser temperature, -85°C). Lyophilized apple powder was used as an active substance filled into hard gelatin capsules. We conducted capsule disintegration and dissolution tests to evaluate the quality of apple lyophilizate-containing capsules of different encapsulating content. Individual phenolic compounds can be arranged in the following descending order according to the amount released from the capsules of different compositions: chlorogenic acid > rutin > avicularin > hyperoside > phloridzin > quercitrin > (-)-epicatechin > isoquercitrin. Chlorogenic acid was the compound that was released in the highest amounts from capsules of different encapsulating content: its released amounts ranged from 68.4 to 640.3 µg/mL. According to the obtained data, when hypromellose content ranged from 29% to 41% of the capsule mass, the capsules disintegrated within less than 30 min, and such amounts of hypromellose did not prolong the release of phenolic compounds. Based on the results of the dissolution test, the capsules can be classified as fast-dissolving preparations, as more than 85% of the active substances were released within 30 min.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/análisis , Cápsulas/química , Liofilización , Malus/química , Etanol/química , Gelatina/química , Glicósidos/química , Fenoles/análisis , Fenoles/química , Polvos
9.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672078

RESUMEN

The development of controlled drug delivery systems based on bio-renewable materials is an emerging strategy. In this work, a controlled drug delivery system based on mesoporous oxidized cellulose beads (OCBs) was successfully developed by a facile and green method. The introduction of the carboxyl groups mediated by the TEMPO(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyradical)/NaClO/NaClO2 system presents the pH-responsive ability to cellulose beads, which can retain the drug in beads at pH = 1.2 and release at pH = 7.0. The release rate can be controlled by simply adjusting the degree of oxidation to achieve drug release at different locations and periods. A higher degree of oxidation corresponds to a faster release rate, which is attributed to a higher degree of re-swelling and higher hydrophilicity of OCBs. The zero-order release kinetics of the model drugs from the OCBs suggested a constant drug release rate, which is conducive to maintaining blood drug concentration, reducing side effects and administration frequency. At the same time, the effects of different model drugs and different drug-loading solvents on the release behavior and the physical state of the drugs loaded in the beads were studied. In summary, the pH-responsive oxidized cellulose beads with good biocompatibility, low cost, and adjustable release rate have shown great potential in the field of controlled drug release.


Asunto(s)
Celulosa Oxidada/química , Óxidos N-Cíclicos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberación de Medicamentos , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría , Liberación de Fármacos , Fenofibrato/farmacología , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Indometacina/farmacología , Cinética , Polvos , Difracción de Rayos X
10.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1005-1016, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724932

RESUMEN

Powered Activated Carbon - Membrane Bioreactors (PAC-MBRs) have been used with good results for slightly polluted water treatment. Our batch experiments showed that the transmembrane pressure of a PAC-MBR was 25% less than that of a MBR in one period of test, which indicated that PAC did help control the fouling in MBRs. Based on this observation, several mechanisms of membrane fouling of MBRs and PAC-MBRs were investigated to have some insight into how PAC brought a positive impact. The total resistances decreased by 60% and different resistances were redistributed after adding PAC. The dominant one changed from filtration resistance to cake resistance. These smaller cake resistances resulted from the PAC because, showing in the scanning electron microscopy pictures, it made the cake layer looser and rougher than that on a normal membrane. Meanwhile, the analysis of the membrane eluent showed that the addition of PAC changed the microbial species and its metabolites on the membrane and effectively reduced the adsorption of hydrophilic organic molecules on the membrane surface. Additionally, PAC prevented polypeptide compounds from being trapped inside the pores of membranes, so the cake on the PAC-MBR contaminated membrane surface was easier to scrape off. In the test of cleaning methods, alkaline cleaning removed the most organics from contaminated membranes to restore membrane performance.


Asunto(s)
Carbón Orgánico , Membranas Artificiales , Reactores Biológicos , Filtración , Polvos
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1183-1197, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724946

RESUMEN

In this study, the polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified waste bamboo powder (WBP-Na-PEI) was successfully prepared and applied to adsorbing Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution. The obtained materials were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infrared, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that WBP-Na-PEI(1.8 K-5) was synthesized successfully and PEI uniformly covered the WBP-Na-PEI(1.8 K-5) surface. In the process of adsorption, four kinds of influencing factors were discussed, and the adsorption mechanisms such as kinetics, isotherm, thermodynamics were explored. The maximum adsorption capacity of WBP-Na-PEI(1.8 K-5) was 992.94 mg·g-1 at 298 ± 1 K, and the removal efficiency was over 98%. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models were studied, the results showed that the adsorption process conformed to the pseudo-second-order model, and the rate of this process was controlled by many steps. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of the adsorption kinetics reached 85% within 10 minutes. The results of the isotherm model and thermodynamics showed that the adsorption process was consistent with the Langmuir model and was mainly a spontaneous chemical endothermic process of monolayer. And the removal efficiency of the adsorbent reached 93% at the concentration of 400 mg/L, which can be expected to have a broad prospect in the treatment of CR industrial wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Polietileneimina , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Álcalis , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Polvos , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Termodinámica , Aguas Residuales
12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 97, 2021 Mar 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694033

RESUMEN

Granule size distribution (GSD) is one of the critical quality attributes in the roller compaction (RC) process. Determination of GSD for newly developed pharmaceutical compounds with unknown ribbon breakage behaviors at the RC milling step requires a quantitative insight into process parameters and ribbon attributes. Despite its pivotal role in mapping the process operating conditions to achieve desired granule size, limited work has been presented in literature with a focus on RC-milling modeling. In this study, a multi-variate mathematical model is presented to simulate the full size-distribution of granulated ribbons as a function of ribbon mechanical properties. Experimental data with a lab-scale oscillating milling apparatus were generated using ribbons made of various powder compositions. Model parameters were determined by fitting it to experimental data sets. Parameters obtained from the first step were correlated to ribbon Young's modulus. The model was validated by predicting GSD of data that were excluded in model development step. Predictive capabilities of the developed model were further explored by simulating GSD profiles of a granulated pharmaceutical excipient obtained at three different conditions of a real-scale Gerteis RC system. While maintaining the milling operating conditions similar to the lab-scale apparatus (i.e., screen size and spacing, and low rotor speed), the proposed modeling approach successfully predicted the GSD of roller compacted MCC powder as the model compound. This model can be alternatively utilized in conjunction with an RC model in order to facilitate the process understanding to obtain granule attributes as part of Quality-by-Design paradigm.


Asunto(s)
Módulo de Elasticidad , Excipientes/síntesis química , Modelos Teóricos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Tecnología Farmacéutica/métodos , Composición de Medicamentos/instrumentación , Excipientes/farmacocinética , Análisis Multivariante , Polvos , Comprimidos , Resistencia a la Tracción
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 22(3): 105, 2021 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718988

RESUMEN

Medicine regulators require the melting points for crystalline drugs, as they are a test for chemical and physical quality. Many drugs, especially salt-forms, suffer concomitant degradation during melting; thus, it would be useful to know if the endotherm associated with melt degradation may be used for characterising the crystallinity of a powder blend. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether melt-degradation transitions can detect amorphous content in a blend of crystalline and amorphous salbutamol sulphate. Salbutamol sulphate was rendered amorphous by freeze and spray-drying and blended with crystalline drug, forming standards with a range of amorphous content. Crystalline salbutamol sulphate was observed to have a melt-degradation onset of 198.2±0.2°C, while anhydrous amorphous salbutamol sulphate prepared by either method showed similar glass transition temperatures of 119.4±0.7°C combined. Without the energy barrier provided by the ordered crystal lattice, the degradation endotherm for amorphous salbutamol sulphate occurred 50°C below the melting point, with an onset of 143.6±0.2°C. The enthalpies for this degradation transition showed no significant difference between freeze- and spray-dried samples (p>0.05). Distinct from convention, partial integration of the crystalline melt-degradation endotherm was applied to the region 193-221°C which had no contribution from the degradation of amorphous salbutamol sulphate. The linear correlation of these partial areas with amorphous content, R2=0.994, yielded limits of detection and quantification of 0.13% and 0.44% respectively, independent of drying technique. Melt-degradation transitions may be re-purposed for the measurement of amorphous content in powder blends, and they have potential for evaluating disorder more generally.


Asunto(s)
Albuterol/síntesis química , Albuterol/farmacocinética , Química Farmacéutica/métodos , Broncodilatadores/síntesis química , Broncodilatadores/farmacocinética , Rastreo Diferencial de Calorimetría/métodos , Cristalización/métodos , Composición de Medicamentos/métodos , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Polvos , Temperatura de Transición
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 792-800, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645083

RESUMEN

By preparing 10 batches of substance benchmarks freeze-drying powder( lyophilized powder),the methodology of the characteristic spectrum and the content of index component for substance benchmarks of Qingwei San was established. The characteristic peaks and the similarity range of the characteristic spectrum,the contents and the transfer rate range of isoferulic acid,palmatine and paeonol,and the paste-forming rate range were determined to define key quality attributes of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San. In the10 batches of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San,the similarity of characteristic spectrum was higher than 0. 90. In further comparison of the characteristic peak information,a total of 16 characteristic peaks were identified,including 5 characteristic peaks from Cimicifugae Rhizoma,5 characteristic peaks from Coptidis Rhizoma,2 characteristic peaks from Angelicae Sinensis Radix and 4 characteristic peaks from Moutan Cortex. The content of isoferulic acid was 0. 10%-0. 18%,with the average transfer rate of 49. 82%±4. 02%. The content of palmatine was 0. 17%-0. 31%,with the average transfer rate of 15. 84% ±2. 39%. The content of paeonol was 0. 41%-0. 75%,with the average transfer rate of 23. 41%±3. 23%. The paste-forming rate of the 10 batches of substance benchmarks were controlled at 27%-33%,with the transfer rate between the theoretical paste-forming rate and the actual paste-forming rate was 86. 59%±3. 39%. In this study,the quality value transfer of substance benchmarks of Qingwei San was analyzed by the combination of characteristic spectrum,the content of index component and the paste-forming rate. A scientific and stable evaluation method was preliminarily established,so as to provide the basis for subsequent development and quality control of relevant preparations of Qingwei San.


Asunto(s)
Benchmarking , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Polvos , Control de Calidad , Rizoma
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(4): 877-884, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645092

RESUMEN

Based on the network pharmacology and molecular docking method to explore the molecular mechanism of Shengjiang Powder in treating chronic tonsillitis in children. This research first based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology(TCMSP) and the Bioinformatics Analysis Tools for Molecular Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine(BATMAN-TCM), the effective active ingredients of the drugs contained in Shengjiang Powder were screened out by the pharmacokinetic(ADME) parameters, the targets were predicted, and then chronic tonsillitis disease in children targets were obtained by GeneCards database. Afterwards, the target protein names were standardized by the Uniprot database. The drug targets were matched with the disease targets to obtain the potential therapeutic targets of Shengjiang Powder. Cytoscape 3.8.0 software was used to screen out and construct the network diagram of "drug-components-core targets-disease". DAVID database and R language were used to conduct the enrichment analysis of core action targets. Finally, AutoDock software was used to conduct molecular docking between drug components with a high network medium value and core action targets. According to the findings, after standardized treatment, a total of 79 active ingredients of Shengjiang Powder were obtained; it was predicted to get 1 261 potential targets, 268 potential targets for treatment of chronic tonsillitis in children, and 29 core targets; and 81 entries of GO enrichment were determined(P<0.05), including 63 biological processes, 7 cell components, 11 molecular function items, 24 KEGG pathway enrichment items(P<0.05), mainly including cell cycle, inflammatory factors, viral infection, immune regulation and other signaling pathways. The results of molecular docking showed that main active components in Shengjiang Powder had a stable binding activity with the core targets. This study revealed the mechanism of Shengjiang Powder in the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in children, mainly by resisting virus, inhibiting inflammation, regulating immunity and other means to play a synergistic effect, so as to provide a theoretical basis for rational clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Tonsilitis , Niño , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Polvos , Tonsilitis/tratamiento farmacológico
16.
J Oral Sci ; 63(2): 157-162, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597337

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine novel techniques using prototype endodontic obturators to obturate a resin-based sealer. METHODS: Powder-liquid ratios of MetaSEAL Soft were changed to obtain suitable root canal sealing, and the physical properties for various powder-liquid ratios were analyzed according to ISO-6876. Tensile bond strength was also examined. Prototype endodontic obturators with a combination of thread numbers and pitch angles were analyzed for sealing ability after MetaSEAL Soft was obturated in simulated root canals. RESULTS: Powder-liquid ratios of 1.0:1, 1.1:1, 1.2:1, and 1.3:1 showed suitable physical properties; however, flow for 1.4:1 was below a standard value. Tensile bond strength increased gradually when the powder-liquid ratio changed from 1.0:1 to 1.3:1, and 1.3:1 and 1.4:1 showed the highest and lowest bond strengths, respectively. Sealing ability increased when pitch angles of the obturators were 5°, 8°, and 11°; 11° showed the best results. Similarly, sealing ability increased when the thread number was 12, 17, and 22 pitches; 22 showed the best results. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the prototype endodontic obturator can be useful for obturating MetaSEAL Soft, and a powder-liquid ratio of 1.3:1 MetaSEAL Soft may be the most suitable for achieving excellent sealing.


Asunto(s)
Materiales de Obturación del Conducto Radicular , Resinas Epoxi , Polvos , Obturación del Conducto Radicular , Resistencia a la Tracción
17.
Food Chem ; 351: 129287, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640765

RESUMEN

Broadband acoustic resonance dissolution spectroscopy (BARDS) is a novel method that can be used for the analysis of food-based powders, which are mainly characterized by their composition and particle morphology. This study aimed to evaluate BARDS for the compositional analysis of food powders. The changes in the BARDS spectra due to the changes in composition and particle morphology of fifteen salt mixtures (constituting of NaCl, KCl, and MgCl2) in five particle size ranges were comprehensively studied. Moreover, different regression methods were utilized to estimate each mixture component content. The results revealed that the average time-frequency spectra of each mixture in a certain particle size class were highly distinct and allowed discrimination from others. The unique spectra of each salt mixture originated from the specific dissolution rate and degassing effect of each constitutive compound. Finally, the accurate prediction of each mixture component content confirmed the consistency and efficiency of the method.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Polvos/química , Sales (Química)/análisis , Acústica , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Tamaño de la Partícula , Análisis de Componente Principal , Solubilidad , Espectrofotometría
18.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573292

RESUMEN

Carbon fiber dispersion has a substantial influence on the properties of amorphous calcium silicate hydrate-based contact-hardening composites. In this study, a mixture of carbon fiber and calcium silicate hydrate powder was compressed into solid composites at 40 MPa for one minute. The mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of the solid materials were measured, and the dispersion of carbon fibers was quantitatively evaluated by digital image processing technology. The Taipalu model was used to build the correlation between the electrical resistivity of the composites and the carbon fiber dispersion. The results of the electrical resistivity showed that the down threshold of carbon fiber content in the contact-hardening composites was 1.0 wt.% and the electrical resistivity was 30,000 Ω·cm. As the fiber content increased to 2.0 wt.%, the electrical resistivity dropped to 2550 Ω·cm, which was attributed to the increase in fiber dispersion uniformity in the solid composites, and the value of the fiber distribution coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.743. A subsequent decrease in the uniformity of the fiber dispersion was observed at a high fiber content. In addition, the carbon fiber content showed a slight influence on the fiber orientation in the contact-hardening composites.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Calcio/química , Fibra de Carbono/química , Ensayo de Materiales , Polvos/química , Silicatos/química , Electricidad , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador/métodos , Propiedades de Superficie
19.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116776, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640816

RESUMEN

Exploring effective uses of waste concrete powder (WCP), produced from recycling of construction & demolition waste is beneficial to the environment and sustainable development. In this study, WCP was first treated thermally to enhance the ability to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solutions. The experimental results revealed that the thermal treatment could enhance adsorption capacity due to modification of calcium bonding and pore structure of WCP. Preparation parameters such as temperature, particle size, and water-cement ratio were investigated to obtain the optimal operational conditions. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to explore influence factors of pH (1.00-6.00), ionic strength (0.05-2 mol/L), dosage (2-50 g/L), and temperature (25-45 °C). The pseudo-second-order kinetics model could adequately describe the adsorption process, and the Langmuir model was capable to predict the isotherm data well in the low concentration region (C0 < 500 mg/L). The maximum uptake capacity for Pb (II) calculated by Langmuir model at 25, 35 and 45 °C were 46.02, 38.58 and 30.01 mg/g respectively, and the removal rate of Pb (II) was 92.96% at a dosage of 50 g/L (C0 = 1000 mg/L). Precipitation, ion exchange, and surface complexation were identified to be the main mechanisms of Pb (II) adsorption through microscopic investigation by SEM-EDX, XRD, FTIR, XPS, and BET inspections. The study confirms that the WCP after thermal modification, can be selected as a promising adsorbent for the high performance and eco-friendliness.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Plomo , Polvos , Termodinámica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Waste Manag ; 123: 60-68, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561771

RESUMEN

Non-metallic components (NMC) in waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are made of the thermosetting epoxy resin and glass fiber, which has been a research concern in the waste recycling area. The recycling of thermosetting epoxy resin is a serious challenge due to their permanent cross-linked structure. An efficient approach to chemical recycling of epoxy resin for resource reutilization was developed in this research. ZnCl2/CH3COOH aqueous solution was selected as catalysts system to decompose epoxy resin under a mild reaction condition. The influence of reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, time, liquid-solid ratio and ZnCl2 amount on the decomposition efficiency of epoxy resin and reaction mechanism were investigated. The physical and chemical properties of NMC, reaction solvent and decomposed products were analyzed using scanning electron microscope(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that up to 81.85% of epoxy resin could be dissolved by using a temperature of 190 °C during 8 h with a mixture of acetic acid (15 wt%): ZnCl2 (5 g) 20 mL/g. Incompletely coordinated zinc ions enables the cleavage of CN, CBr and CO bonds in the thermosetting brominated epoxy resin, which was mainly converted to phenol, 2-Bromophenol and 2, 4-Dibromophenol with high resource value. And the functional groups of ethyl acetate and acetic acid maintained chemical structure before and after reaction. This research provided a practical approach to the dissolution and reutilization of NMC in WPCBs.


Asunto(s)
Cloruros , Residuos Electrónicos , Polvos , Reciclaje , Solubilidad , Solventes , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier
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