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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(2): 359-367, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233631

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To establish a stable ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) model and determine the preservation effect of the EVLP technique on donor lungs in vitro. METHODS: EVLP was performed on nonacceptable human donor and porcine lungs, and during perfusion, the oxygenation index was assessed and blood gas analysis was performed. RESULTS: After 4 h of EVLP of nonacceptable human donor and porcine lungs, lung function parameters remained stable, and lung energy metabolism was improved to a certain extent. CONCLUSIONS: EVLP can suitably maintain donor lungs in vitro for transplantation and is an effective method for ex vivo preservation of donor lungs.


Asunto(s)
Trasplante de Pulmón/métodos , Perfusión/métodos , Obtención de Tejidos y Órganos/métodos , Animales , Humanos , Soluciones Preservantes de Órganos , Preservación Biológica , Porcinos , Recolección de Tejidos y Órganos/métodos
3.
J Environ Manage ; 266: 110581, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310121

RESUMEN

Green tea residues (GTRs) are byproducts of tea production and processing, and this type of agricultural waste retains nutritious components. This study investigated the co-composting of GTRs with swine manure, as well as the effects of GTRs on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the bacterial community during co-composting. The temperature and C/N ratio indicate compost was mature after processing. The addition of GTRs effectively promoted the reduction in the abundances of most targeted ARGs (tet and sul genes), mobile genetic element (MGE; intI1), and metal resistance genes (MRGs; pcoA and tcrB). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that GTRs can reduce the abundance of MRGs and ARGs by reducing the bioavailability of heavy metals. Network analysis shows that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the main hosts of ARGs and ARGs, MGEs, and MRGs shared the same potential host bacteria. Adding GTRs during composting may reduce ARGs transmission through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). GTRs affected the bacterial community, thereby influencing the variations in the ARG profiles and reducing the potential risk associated with the compost product.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Antibacterianos , Bacterias , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Genes Bacterianos , Estiércol , Porcinos ,
4.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126464, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229367

RESUMEN

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that occur frequently in cereals and animal forages throughout the world, posing a serious threat to humans and animals. Although some studies showed the immunotoxicity of mycotoxins, little research focused on the two-way effects of mycotoxins on immune response in vitro and vivo. Here, we explored the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most widely distributed mycotoxins, on immune function of piglets and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and found it exhibited bidirectional immune effects due to different exposure doses. Our results revealed that low doses of DON increased the expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in piglets and PAMs, promoted the chemotaxis and phagocytosis of PAMs and transformed macrophages to M1 phenotype (P < 0.05). Conversely, high doses of DON increased the expressions of TGF-ß and IL-10 in piglets and PAMs, inhibited the chemotaxis and phagocytosis of PAMs and induced macrophages M2-type polarization (P < 0.05). Mechanistically, DON exposure significantly activated the TLR4/NFκB pathway at low doses and induced mitophagy-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction at high doses in vitro and vivo. TLR4 interference and mitophagy activator, CCCP, were used to further confirm their roles. Therefore, we concluded that DON exposure at low doses caused immunostimulation via activating TLR4/NFκB, whereas it was immunoinhibitory at high doses through blocking mitophagy. Our study suggested that both high and low doses mycotoxins contamination might be harmful, and further back up the necessity to take a vigilant attitude to minimize humans and animals intake of mycotoxins in the environment.


Asunto(s)
Macrófagos Alveolares/efectos de los fármacos , Micotoxinas/toxicidad , Tricotecenos/toxicidad , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Fagocitosis , Porcinos , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Destete
5.
Phytochemistry ; 174: 112364, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247075

RESUMEN

Ten undescribed dihydrochalcone C-glycosides, carambolasides R1‒R3, S1, S2, T1‒T3, 3-hydroxycarambolaside T1, and 3-hydroxycarambolaside P were isolated along with carambolasides I and P from the leaves of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Among them, carambolasides P, T1, T2, and I with contents of 22.78, 14.39, 4.93, and 1.87 mg g-1 dry wt., respectively, were shown to be abundant in the leaves by HPLC analysis. All the compounds showed more potent ABTS radical cation scavenging activity than l-ascorbic acid. 3-Hydroxycarambolaside T1 and 3-hydroxycarambolaside P also demonstrated moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. Further, carambolaside R3, 3-hydroxycarambolaside T1, and 3-hydroxycarambolaside P exhibited weak in vitro porcine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.


Asunto(s)
Averrhoa , Animales , Antioxidantes , Chalconas , Frutas , Glicósidos , Extractos Vegetales , Hojas de la Planta , Porcinos
6.
Oecologia ; 192(4): 999-1012, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242324

RESUMEN

From current theories on life-history evolution, fast early-life growth to reach early reproduction in heavily hunted populations should be favored despite the possible occurrence of mortality costs later on. However, fast growth may also be associated with better individual quality and thereby lower mortality, obscuring a clear trade-off between early-life growth and survival. Moreover, fast early-life growth can be associated with sex-specific mortality costs related to resource acquisition and allocation throughout an individual's lifetime. In this study, we explore how individual growth early in life affects age-specific mortality of both sexes in a heavily hunted population. Using longitudinal data from an intensively hunted population of wild boar (Sus scrofa), and capture-mark-recapture-recovery models, we first estimated age-specific overall mortality and expressed it as a function of early-life growth rate. Overall mortality models showed that faster-growing males experienced lower mortality at all ages. Female overall mortality was not strongly related to early-life growth rate. We then split overall mortality into its two components (i.e., non-hunting mortality vs. hunting mortality) to explore the relationship between growth early in life and mortality from each cause. Faster-growing males experienced lower non-hunting mortality as subadults and lower hunting mortality marginal on age. Females of all age classes did not display a strong association between their early-life growth rate and either mortality type. Our study does not provide evidence for a clear trade-off between early-life growth and mortality.


Asunto(s)
Reproducción , Sus scrofa , Animales , Femenino , Masculino , Porcinos
7.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 122-127, 2020 Apr 01.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314882

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of porcine acellular cartilaginous matrix (pACM) on the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs). METHODS: pACM was prepared from porcine articular cartilage through decellularization treatment. hADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissues and cultured with different pACM concentrations. No pACM was used as the control group. The effect of pACM on hADSCs proliferation was detected by CCK-8 method. Moreover, the effect of pACM on hADSCs chondrogenic differentiation was analyzed through fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. RESULTS: hADSCs proliferation rate in 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg·mL⁻¹ pACM groups was not significantly different from that in the control group, whereas that in 4.0 and 8.0 mg·mL⁻¹ pACM group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of pACM chondrogenic genes, including SOX-9, collagen type Ⅱ alpha 1 chain (COL2A1), and aggrecan (ACAN) and cell adhesion-related gene LAMININ in 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg·mL⁻¹ pACM group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), but that of a stemness-related gene Notch-1 was lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). No statistical difference was found in the expression of a lipogenesis-related gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAr-γ) (P>0.05). The expression levels of chondrogenic proteins (SOX-9, COL2A1, and ACAN) were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate pACM con-centrations do not affect hADSCs proliferation but can induce hADSCs chondrogenic differentiation.


Asunto(s)
Adipocitos , Células Madre , Tejido Adiposo , Animales , Diferenciación Celular , Proliferación Celular , Células Cultivadas , Condrogénesis , Humanos , Células del Estroma , Porcinos
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 307: 123231, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224425

RESUMEN

Two agricultural wastes, Chinese medicinal herbal residue and spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrate, were developed to remove ammonium and phosphate from swine wastewater. These adsorbents were mesoporous materials with abundant smooth layered pores, and rough protuberances and grooves, respectively. Their adsorption capacities were 1131.65 and 1631.79 mg N g-1, and 63.41 and 62.58 mg P g-1 at pH 8.0, dosage of 0.2 g L-1 and contact time of 360 min. And kinetics data of ammonium and phosphate fitted best with the intra-particle diffusion and pseudo-second-order models, respectively. Based on the point of zero charge, FTIR and XPS analyses, ammonium was removed mainly by electrostatic attraction, ion exchange and surface precipitation, while phosphate was by ligand exchange, surface complexation and precipitation. Therefore, the two agricultural wastes have great potential to synchronously remove ammonium and phosphate from swine wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Amonio , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adsorción , Animales , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Fosfatos , Porcinos , Aguas Residuales
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 307: 123236, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234593

RESUMEN

This study aimed to reveal the role of Black Tourmaline (TM) in the humification enhancement and the mechanism of nitrogen transformation during pig manure composting. Results showed that adding TM promoted the maturity and improved the humification degree by 20.13-33.77%. And TM was beneficial for the transformation from NH4+-N to amino organic nitrogen to fix more nitrogen in compost mass. Then NH3 and N2O volatilization were decreased by 22.88-34.76% and 69.79-87.47% by comparison with the control, and the minimum value in nitrogen loss (26.78%) was observed in the 10% TM blended treatment. Furthermore, through RDA analysis, the protease an upmost contributor to nitrogen transformation. Meanwhile, total organic carbon was dominant factor affected enzymatic activities. Therefore, 10% TM was suggested to reduce nitrogen loss and increase humification in this research. Deeply related research in gene and specific addition amounts of TM will be investigated later.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Silicatos , Suelo , Porcinos
10.
Wiad Lek ; 73(2): 306-311, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248165

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to identify in an experiment the effect of an extract of cryopreserved fragments of piglets on the morphological state of a cold skin wound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Hairless six-month-old male rats were used in the study. They were divided into III groups: group I included 10 rats that had not been manipulated; group II was represented by 10 rats with cold wounds on the lateral surface of the thigh; group III was represented by 10 rats that were with a cold wound, followed by the injection of an extract of cryopreserved skin fragments of piglets into the abdominal cavity at a dose of 50 µg per 100 g of animal body weight (peptide concentration 100 µg/ml) once a day for 5 days from the time of wound modeling. Animals in groups I-III were withdrawn from the experiment on the 7th, 14th and 21st days. The material for themorphological study was the fragments of intact skin with underlying soft tissues from the thigh area in group I and the fragments of skin with underlying soft tissues from the thigh area directly from the zone of cryoexposure in groups II and III. Histological, histochemical and morphometric methods were used. Microspecimens were studied using an Olympus BX-41 microscope (Japan). Statistical processing was performed using the Statistica 6.0 and Microsoft Excel 2003 software package. Nonparametric methods were used to compare numerical values (Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test). The significance of differences between the average values of the indicators was taken at the level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Results: The extract of cryopreserved skin fragments of piglets has an effective wound healing effect compared to the healing processes in a cold wound, which was not subjected to any therapeutic effects. It was manifested in the improved process of cleansing the wound from necrotic tissues that entered the zone of primary necrosis, as evidenced by 1,2 times decrease of the zone of primary necrosis on the 7th, 14th and 21st days; a decrease of the zone of secondary necrosis on the 7th, 14th and 21st days, respectively, - 1.2, 1.3, 1.2 times; growth and maturation of granulation tissue activation, as evidenced by an increase in the thickness of a granulation tissue layer on 7, 14, 21 days, respectively, - 1.9, 1.8, 1.2 times; activation of proliferative processes in the epithelial layer located in the marginal sections of the wound defect or covering the regenerate surface, as evidenced by more pronounced acanthotic growths in the underlying tissue and an increase in the thickness of the epithelial layer on the 7th, 14th and 21st days, respectively, - 2.1, 2.0, 2.2 times. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: The extract of cryopreserved skin fragments of piglets has an effective wound healing effect and can be recommended for further research in order to study the possibility of its use in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Piel , Cicatrización de Heridas , Animales , Masculino , Extractos Vegetales , Ratas , Porcinos
11.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(1): 35-40, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés, Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250076

RESUMEN

Abstract: Objective To analyze the differences among electrical damage, burns and abrasions in pig skin using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR-MSP) combined with machine learning algorithm, to construct three kinds of skin injury determination models and select characteristic markers of electric injuries, in order to provide a new method for skin electric mark identification. Methods Models of electrical damage, burns and abrasions in pig skin were established. Morphological changes of different injuries were examined using traditional HE staining. The FTIR-MSP was used to detect the epidermal cell spectrum. Principal component method and partial least squares method were used to analyze the injury classification. Linear discriminant and support vector machine were used to construct the classification model, and factor loading was used to select the characteristic markers. Results Compared with the control group, the epidermal cells of the electrical damage group, burn group and abrasion group showed polarization, which was more obvious in the electrical damage group and burn group. Different types of damage was distinguished by principal component and partial least squares method. Linear discriminant and support vector machine models could effectively diagnose different damages. The absorption peaks at 2 923 cm-1, 2 854 cm-1, 1 623 cm-1, and 1 535 cm-1 showed significant differences in different injury groups. The peak intensity of electrical injury's 2 923 cm-1 absorption peak was the highest. Conclusion FTIR-MSP combined with machine learning algorithm provides a new technique to diagnose skin electrical damage and identification electrocution.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Aprendizaje Automático , Animales , Análisis de Fourier , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Porcinos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110386, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250834

RESUMEN

The multivariate analysis to optimize the parameters of wastewater is essential to reduce costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of multivariate and conventional analysis in biological system composed by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), submerged aerated biological filters (SABF) and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) reactors in the organic stabilization of swine wastewater (SW). Four loads were used in the system with alteration by COD concentration of untreated SW, and the data were evaluated by principal components (PCA). The average efficiency of COD and BOD removal increased from 45% in phase I to 67% in phase IV in the UASB, SABF and HSSF-CW reactors. The principal component analysis promoted the reduction of 13 original variables to 5, 8 and 5 principal components in the UASB, SABF and HSSF-CW reactors, respectively, optimizing the dynamics of interpretation of the data that influenced the most the stability of the wastewater system across the four phases. There was a strong negative effect of oxygen concentrations in the SABF reactor in relation to organic variables, optimizing the biological mechanisms of the HSSF-CW and, therefore, enabling better decision making and cost reduction with analysis at treatment plants.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Aguas Residuales , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Reactores Biológicos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Porcinos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Humedales
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(2): 367-382, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333669

RESUMEN

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular method for process monitoring. However, most processes are time-varying, thus older samples are not representative of the current process status. This led to the introduction of adaptive-PCA based monitoring, such as moving window PCA (MWPCA). In this study, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) responses to digester failures were evaluated to develop a spectral data processing tool. Tests were performed with a spectroscopic probe (350-2,500 nm), using a 35 L mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactor. Co-digestion experiments were performed with pig slurry mixed with several co-substrates. Different stresses were induced by abruptly increasing the organic load rate, changing the feedstock or stopping the stirring. Physicochemical parameters as well as NIRS spectra were acquired for lipid, organic and protein overloads experiments. MWPCA was then applied to the collected spectra for a multivariate statistical process control. MWPCA outputs, Hotelling T2 and residuals Q statistics showed that most of the induced dysfunctions can be detected with variations in these statistics according to a defined criterion based on spectroscopic principles and the process. MWPCA appears to be a multivariate statistical method that could help in decision support in industrial biogas plants.


Asunto(s)
Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Análisis de Componente Principal , Porcinos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110512, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250920

RESUMEN

This article shows environmental life cycle comparisons of four scenarios of manure management systems (MMS) for the intensive pig farming systems in terms of materials, transport, energy, and emissions. The MMS scenarios are categorized by different combinations of outside storage, anaerobic mono-/co-digester, and algae-based wastewater treatment (AWWT), where the conventional MMS scenario merely uses the outside storage (Scenario 1) or adopts an integrated anaerobic mono-digester and the outside storage (Scenario 2). The nonconventional MMS scenario uses an integrated anaerobic mono-digester and AWWT process (Scenario 3), notably the harvested algae biomass is used to fully substitute a few ingredients of swine diets. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it is validated that Scenario 3 reduces the total environmental impact by 35.5%-40% as compared to Scenarios 1 and 2 and increases the nutrient recovery of nitrogen ratio from 58% (Scenario 1) to 81%. Scenario 4 uses an integrated anaerobic co-digester and AWWT process, where the harvested algae biomass is partially recycled to substitute the partial ingredients of swine diets and the remaining part is fed into the anaerobic co-digester for improving the biogas yield, to increase the algae biomass yield by 49% and also enhance the cogeneration of heat and power by 26.6% and 7%, respectively, as compared to Scenario 3.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Aguas Residuales , Agricultura , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Granjas , Porcinos
15.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(2): 74-79, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115481

RESUMEN

Recently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been recognized as the third gasotransmitter besides nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, and it has been reported that H2S exhibits various physiological functions such as neuromodulation and vasorelaxation. In the lower urinary tract (bladder and prostate), it is reported that donors of H2S induce contraction of the rat detrusor and relaxation of the pig bladder neck. These reports suggest a possibility that H2S may have site-specific effects on the bladder. However, the detailed functions of H2S in each part of the bladder are still unclear. In addition, there is no report showing physiological roles of H2S in the prostate. In this article, we will review the distribution of enzymes related to H2S biosynthesis and physiological roles of H2S in the lower urinary tract based on reports from our and other groups. We will also introduce a possibility that H2S can be a new therapeutic target against lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) based on our data from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), which develop hypertension-mediated LUTS.


Asunto(s)
Sulfuro de Hidrógeno/metabolismo , Próstata/fisiología , Vejiga Urinaria/fisiología , Animales , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas SHR , Porcinos
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132754

RESUMEN

The cestode Taenia solium is responsible for a considerable cross-sectoral health and economic burden due to human neurocysticercosis and porcine cysticercosis. The 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) roadmap for neglected tropical diseases called for the development of a validated strategy for control of T. solium; however, such a strategy is not yet available. In 2019, WHO launched a global consultation aimed at refining the post-2020 targets for control of T. solium for a new roadmap for neglected tropical diseases. In response, two groups working on taeniasis and cysticercosis mathematical models (cystiSim and EPICYST models), together with a range of other stakeholders organized a workshop to provide technical input to the WHO consultation and develop a research plan to support efforts to achieve the post-2020 targets. The workshop led to the formation of a collaboration, CystiTeam, which aims to tackle the population biology, transmission dynamics, epidemiology and control of T. solium through mathematical modelling approaches. In this paper, we outline developments in T. solium control and in particular the use of modelling to help achieve post-2020 targets for control of T. solium. We discuss the steps involved in improving confidence in the predictive capacities of existing mathematical and computational models on T. solium transmission, including model comparison, refinement, calibration and validation. Expanding the CystiTeam partnership to other research groups and stakeholders, particularly those operating in different geographical and endemic areas, will enhance the prospects of improving the applicability of T. solium transmission models to inform taeniasis and cysticercosis control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Cisticercosis/veterinaria , Neurocisticercosis/prevención & control , Taenia solium , Teniasis/prevención & control , Animales , Cisticercosis/prevención & control , Cisticercosis/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neurocisticercosis/transmisión , Porcinos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Zoonosis/prevención & control
17.
Science ; 367(6482)2020 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139519

RESUMEN

The brain, with its diverse physiology and intricate cellular organization, is the most complex organ of the mammalian body. To expand our basic understanding of the neurobiology of the brain and its diseases, we performed a comprehensive molecular dissection of 10 major brain regions and multiple subregions using a variety of transcriptomics methods and antibody-based mapping. This analysis was carried out in the human, pig, and mouse brain to allow the identification of regional expression profiles, as well as to study similarities and differences in expression levels between the three species. The resulting data have been made available in an open-access Brain Atlas resource, part of the Human Protein Atlas, to allow exploration and comparison of the expression of individual protein-coding genes in various parts of the mammalian brain.


Asunto(s)
Atlas como Asunto , Encéfalo/fisiología , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , Transcriptoma , Animales , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Especificidad de Órganos/genética , Especificidad de la Especie , Porcinos
18.
Waste Manag ; 105: 339-346, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114405

RESUMEN

The ecological disposal of gibberellin fermentation residues (GFRs) is urgently needed. This study explored a new method of direct GFR utilization with swine manure at different substitution proportions (0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%) using two-step composting mediated by housefly maggot bioconversion. Regarding maggot bioconversion, substitution of GFRs accelerated the temperature increase and water content decrease, slowed the pH increase, and enhanced the maggot conversion rate. Among the proportions, 20% GFR substitution had the highest maggot conversion rate of 15.15%. During the composting stage, GFR substitution promoted the initial temperature increase and the water content decrease and maintained a relatively low pH. However, only 20% substitution promoted the maturity of compost. The degradation rates of the gibberellin residue were all higher than 97% in the treatments with GFRs after two-step composting. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that GFR substitution had significant effects on the microbial community structure during the whole process. However, the change in the microbial community was similar to that of conventional composting. Therefore, this innovative approach is feasible for GFR resource utilization, and substitution below 20% for swine manure is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Moscas Domésticas , Animales , Fermentación , Giberelinas , Larva , Estiércol , Suelo , Porcinos
19.
Waste Manag ; 105: 511-519, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143146

RESUMEN

In order to improve characteristics of biochar, especially enhance immobilization of heavy metals in biochar, swine manure was pyrolyzed at low pyrolysis temperature (300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C) with different amounts of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) added (0.5% and 2%, W/W). Results showed that NaOH addition during pyrolysis increased the pH, EC, ash content, yield rate, aromaticity and hydrophily, but did not increase surface area and porosity of resultant biochars. The addition of NaOH promoted the transformation of the mobile fraction of Cu, Zn and Cd into the oxidizable fraction. With respect to Cr and Pb, the oxidizable and residual fractions were increased slightly by the presence of NaOH. Meanwhile, adding NaOH could reduce the leachability and ecological risks of heavy metals in biochars. Our study suggested that NaOH-assisted pyrolysis of swine manure was an effective disposal approach for the immobilization of heavy metals.


Asunto(s)
Estiércol , Metales Pesados , Animales , Carbón Orgánico , Hidróxido de Sodio , Porcinos
20.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 95, 2020 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Concomitant vasoactive drugs are often required to maintain adequate perfusion pressure in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiogenic shock (CS) receiving hemodynamic support with an axial flow pump (Impella CP). OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of equipotent dosages of epinephrine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine on cardiac work and end-organ perfusion in a porcine model of profound ischemic CS supported with an Impella CP. METHODS: CS was induced in 10 pigs by stepwise intracoronary injection of polyvinyl microspheres. Hemodynamic support with Impella CP was initiated followed by blinded crossover to vasoactive treatment with norepinephrine (0.10 µg/kg/min), epinephrine (0.10 µg/kg/min), or dopamine (10 µg/kg/min) for 30 min each. At the end of the study, phenylephrine (10 µg/kg/min) was administered for 20 min. The primary outcome was cardiac workload, a product of pressure-volume area (PVA) and heart rate (HR), measured using the conductance catheter technique. End-organ perfusion was assessed by measuring venous oxygen saturation from the pulmonary artery (SvO2), jugular bulb, and renal vein. Treatment effects were evaluated using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: All catecholamines significantly increased LV stroke work and cardiac work, dopamine to the greatest extend by 341.8 × 103 (mmHg × mL)/min [95% CI (174.1, 509.5), p < 0.0001], and SvO2 significantly improved during all catecholamines. Phenylephrine, a vasoconstrictor, caused a significant increase in cardiac work by 437.8 × 103 (mmHg × mL)/min [95% CI (297.9, 577.6), p < 0.0001] due to increase in potential energy (p = 0.001), but no significant change in LV stroke work. Also, phenylephrine tended to decrease SvO2 (p = 0.063) and increased arterial lactate levels (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Catecholamines increased end-organ perfusion at the expense of increased cardiac work, most by dopamine. However, phenylephrine increased cardiac work with no increase in end-organ perfusion.


Asunto(s)
Gasto Cardíaco/efectos de los fármacos , Corazón Auxiliar , Hemodinámica/efectos de los fármacos , Choque Cardiogénico/terapia , Animales , Catecolaminas/uso terapéutico , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Dopamina , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio/complicaciones , Infarto del Miocardio/terapia , Norepinefrina , Fenilefrina , Choque Cardiogénico/fisiopatología , Porcinos
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